Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari
School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk.
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.
Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…
The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…
Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others
The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…
Castaño, Paula M; Martínez, Raquel Andrés
Sexually active adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Teen pregnancies can be prevented by consistent use of birth control, such as oral contraceptives. However, many teens forget their daily doses and eventually stop using oral contraceptives altogether. Teen pregnancies are more likely to be medically complicated and can adversely impact the teen, her child, and their community. Cell-phone use is becoming widespread, and teen cell-phone users frequently use text messaging. We describe a study in which we use cell-phone text-messaging technology in a novel way: we provide daily oral contraceptive dosing reminders and educational messages and evaluate oral contraceptive continuation at 6 months. We will use the information we obtain to develop specific, practice-based interventions to improve reproductive health programs and policies.
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor
Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.
Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.
Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…
Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K
Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies.
Crutzen, Rik; De Nooijer, Jascha
Mental health problems are highly prevalent among adolescents, but a majority of adolescents is reluctant to seek help at mental health services because of shame and lack of anonymity. Intervening via chat (i.e. offering online support) could be a solution to remove these barriers and to reach adolescents. The dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) served as a guiding principle for discussing the potential of offering online support via chat. It appeared that the use of chat may be an appropriate way to reach adolescents and may have a positive impact on outcome measures related to mental health. Additional efforts are needed to stimulate adoption at the individual level (target group, intermediaries) and the organizational level. Future research needs to focus on the dissemination of chat-based interventions, differences between online peer support and online professional support, and the content of conversations via chat about mental health problems.
Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253
Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana
Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…
Elias, M. J.; Kress, J. S.; Gager, P. J.; Hancock, M. E.
In this article the implications of a biopsychosocial model of adolescent health promotion for the delivery of relevant services in the schools are examined. Adolescent health status is reviewed and is found, despite existing efforts for health promotion and risk reduction, to be in need of substantial improvement. For this to happen, having an early and sustained positive impact on the health trajectory of children is essential; further school-based and school-linked curricular efforts for health promotion are a necessary feature of a successful strategy for adolescent health promotion. In fact, this approach brings to life the social contract between pediatricians and the public to apply the biopsychosocial model at both clinical and societal levels. Curricula serve as the glue that binds diverse health-related concerns and findings emerging from health research into a coordinated, thorough, and detailed strategy and set of actions for school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts. School-linked health programs are consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, from which the school is best viewed as a health-promoting environment, centered in concepts and practices outlined in and conveyed through the curriculum and associated instructional practices and delivery systems. Many benefits can result from pediatricians and other medical professionals taking a renewed, prominent role in comprehensive school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts, beginning in the early grades, when the trajectory of adolescent health is strongly set into motion. PMID:8069279
Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya
Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.
Carrington, Suzanne; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael; McPherson, Lyn; Selva, Gitta
The focus of this paper is on an Australian research project that evaluated the effectiveness of a resource called the "Ask Health Diary," which is used in the school curriculum to promote self-determination for better health and wellbeing for adolescents who have an intellectual disability. Education and health researchers used…
Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Chang, Chee-Jen
This study used cross-validation and discriminant analysis to evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale between the overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey method was used and 660 adolescents participated in this study. Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that the AHP is a valid and reliable scale to discriminate between the health-promoting behaviors of overweight and nonoverweight adolescents. For the total scale, cluster analyses revealed two distinct patterns, which we designated the healthy and unhealthy groups. Discriminate analysis supported this clustering as having good discriminant validity, as nonoverweight adolescents tended to be classified as healthy, while the overweight tended to be in the unhealthy group. In general, overweight adolescents practiced health-related behaviors at a significantly lower frequency than the nonoverweight. These included exercise behavior, stress management, life appreciation, health responsibility, and social support. These findings can be used to further develop and refine knowledge of adolescent overweight and related strategies for intervention.
Gurgel, Maria Glêdes Ibiapina; Alves, Maria Dalva Santos; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rego, Rita Maria Viana
Working with the development of skills in sexual and reproductive health of adolescents from the perspective of health promotion for the prevention of the precocious pregnancy is a challenge to the nurse. To attend the group on psychosocial and biological transformation, we must consider their particular demands and growth for the protagonists: nurse and adolescent. The study aims to analyze the practice of the nurse in the prevention of the precocious pregnancy in view of skills development. This is a descriptive and exploratory research, with a qualitative approach, developed in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, using the technique of the focal group, whose analysis was performed by means of discursive practices and maps of association of ideas. The results revealed that the promotion of adolescent health is worked out in the nursing consultation and adolescents groups, being this a creative, appropriate interactive space for the development of skills regarding sexuality and the prevention of precocious pregnancy.
Cushon, Jennifer; Waldner, Cheryl; Scott, Christina; Neudorf, Cordell
Background: We assessed associations between key demographic risk factors and the outcome of depressed mood in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to inform the planning and implementation of mental health promotion programming in schools. Methods: In the 2008/2009 school year, 3,958 students from grades 5 through 8 from 76 elementary schools completed…
In Cambodia, Care (Deutschland), through the Cambodia Health Education Development (CHED) and the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia, is working towards the promotion of reproductive health (RH) practices among working adolescents and young adults. The project seeks to reach a minimum target group of 10,000 out-of-school, single, working adolescents and young adults aged 12-29 years, and at least 50 trained RH providers and educators in selected project sites. It also aims to provide specialist RH services to at least 200 single adolescents and young adults per month and per newly operational RH facility in project areas; and to build the capacity of at least two partner nongovernmental organizations in adolescent RH services. As its two-part strategy, the project is sharing information, education, and communication (IEC) expertise and using CHED as an informal IEC clearing house. The main activities of the project are outlined.
Eastman, Karen L; Corona, Rosalie; Schuster, Mark A
Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs.
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence.
Dietrich, Janan J.; Coetzee, Jenny; Otwombe, Kennedy; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Mdanda, Sanele; Nkala, Busisiwe; Makongoza, Matamela; Tshabalala, Celokhuhle; Soon, Christine N.; Kaida, Angela; Hogg, Robert; Gray, Glenda E.; Miller, Cari L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure prevalence and predictors of mobile phone access and use among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: The current study was an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey among adolescents 14-19 years living in a hyper-endemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)…
Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna
Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…
Patel, Vikram; Flisher, Alan J; Nikapota, Anula; Malhotra, Savita
Children and adolescents in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) constitute 35-50% of the population. Although the population in many such countries is predominantly rural, rapid urbanisation and social change is under way, with an increase in urban poverty and unemployment, which are risk factors for poor child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). There is a vast gap between CAMH needs (as measured through burden of disease estimates) and the availability of CAMH resources. The role of CAMH promotion and prevention can thus not be overestimated. However, the evidence base for affordable and effective interventions for promotion and prevention in LAMIC is limited. In this review, we briefly review the public health importance of CAM disorders in LAMIC and the specific issues related to risk and protective factors for these disorders. We describe a number of potential strategies for CAMH promotion which focus on building capacity in children and adolescents, in parents and families, in the school and health systems, and in the wider community, including structural interventions. Building capacity in CAMH must also focus on the detection and treatment of disorders for which the evidence base is somewhat stronger, and on wider public health strategies for prevention and promotion. In particular, capacity needs to be built across the health system, with particular foci on low-cost, universally available and accessible resources, and on empowerment of families and children. We also consider the role of formal teaching and training programmes, and the role for specialists in CAMH promotion.
Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…
Henson, Michele; Sabo, Samantha; Trujillo, Aurora; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette
Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the positive social and health outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents. We conducted a review of the literature to identify the protective factors associated with positive health outcomes among AIAN adolescents. We consulted Elsevier Science Direct, ERIC EBSCOhost, PubMed, and the Web of Science databases. A total of 3421 articles were encountered. Excluded publications were those that did not focus on AIAN adolescents (n = 3341), did not identify protective factors (n = 56), were not original research studies (n = 8), or were not written in the English language. We identified nine categories of protective factors positively associated with health and social outcomes, including: current and/or future aspirations, personal wellness, positive self-image, self-efficacy, non-familial connectedness, family connectedness, positive opportunities, positive social norms, and cultural connectedness. Such factors positively influenced adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and substance use; delinquent and violent behavior; emotional health including depression, suicide attempt; resilience; and academic success. Protective factors spanned multiple domains of the socio-ecological model. Strengths-based health promotion efforts that leverage local, innate protective factors and work with AIANs to create environments rich in protective factors are key to improving the health and wellbeing of AIAN adolescents.
Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn
Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings.
Harpin, Scott; Ezeanochie, Nnamdi; Bull, Sheana
The past 20 years of mobile technology has shifted the ways in which young people communicate and network with one another. Mobile phone use is prevalent among adolescents and therefore is an ideal form of communication for tailored health care. This is especially so given the dramatic uptake in use of mobile technologies in this age group. Technology developments have also altered how physicians and public health interventionists communicate with adolescents for prevention messages. Rapidly changing technology has made the study of how best to communicate with youth a challenge because research can scarcely keep up with advances in the technology. However, best practices from behavior change and communication theories remain a foundation for future intervention directions and how we might best meet the health promotion needs of adolescents.
Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.
Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…
Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.
This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…
Larsson, Margaretha; Björk, Maria; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson
In Sweden, school nurses are part of the School Health Service with the main objective of health promotion to support students' health and attainment of educational goals. The aim in this phenomenological study was to illuminate the experiences of school nurses in promoting the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Seventeen school nurses…
Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808
Perry, Cheryl L.; And Others
Describes objectives of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health multisite intervention study which develops behavioral school health education plans. It targets third through fifth graders, stressing cardiovascular health behaviors (e.g., eating habits, physical activity, and smoking). Curricula, school environmental change, and…
Black, Maureen M.; Hager, Erin; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Arteaga, S. Sonia; DiClemente, Carlo; Gittelsohn, Joel; Levy, Lauren; Magder, Laurence; Papas, Mia; Shebl, Fatma; Snitker, Soren; Treuth, Margarita S.; Wang, Yan
Objective To evaluate a 12-session home and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention program (Challenge!) on changes in BMI, body composition, physical activity (PA), and diet. Methods 235 African-American adolescents (11–16 yrs, 38% overweight/obese) were recruited from low-income urban communities. Baseline measures included weight, height, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance), physical activity (PA) (accelerometry), and diet (food frequency). PA was measured by time in play-equivalent physical activity (PEPA≥1800 activity counts/min). Participants were randomized into a home- and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention controlled trial, anchored in social cognitive theory and involving motivational interviewing techniques, and delivered by college-enrolled, African-American mentors. Control adolescents did not receive the intervention or a mentor. Post-intervention (10 mos) and delayed follow-up (24 mos) evaluations were conducted. Longitudinal analyses using random mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations (GEE) examined direct and moderated effects of time, gender, and baseline BMI category on changes at both follow-ups. Results Retention was 76% (178/235) over 2 years; overweight/obese status declined 5.3% among intervention adolescents and increased 11.3% among control adolescents (χ2=5.8, p=0.02, GEE). Among males, but not females, fat free mass was significantly higher among intervention members at both follow-up evaluations. PA effects were moderated by baseline BMI category; among adolescents ≥ 85th percentile, control adolescents averaged 25.5 min less daily activity than intervention adolescents (p=0.018) at the 10-mo, but not the 24-mo follow-up. Intervention adolescents declined significantly more in snack and dessert consumption than control adolescents (p=0.045). Conclusion A 12-session, home-and community-based intervention, based on social cognitive
Escribano, S; Espada, J P; Morales, A; Orgilés, M
The objective of this study is to determinate the factors that mediate in the self-reported consistent condom use over the 24-months post-intervention period in adolescents who received COMPAS, a sexual health promotion intervention targeted to Spanish adolescents. Twelve high schools located in Spain were randomized to an intervention or a control group with baseline, immediate-post, 12 and 24-month post-intervention assessments. Self-reported consistent condom use by 24 months post-intervention was the primary outcome. Based on the theory of planned behavior, we identified which theory-based variables mediated the intervention's effect on consistent condom use. Serial multiple mediation analysis indicated that attitudes toward condom use, when there are obstacles to use it, and self-efficacy mediated the COMPAS's effect in increasing consistent condom use. This is the first study that identifies the theoretical constructs that mediate the efficacy of a school-based intervention to promote sexual health in adolescents from Spain.
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Heydelberg, Jurriën; van 't Klooster, Els; van Baar, Cathelijn; Raat, Hein
This study evaluates the appreciation, application and effects of an intervention (Your Health), in which adolescents received a consultation with the school nurse. A cluster randomized controlled trial with an intervention and control group (care-as-usual) was conducted among first-grade senior vocational students. Adolescents (n = 418) completed…
Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor
Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents. PMID:22740843
Millstein, Susan G.
The future of school-linked adolescent health centers cannot be determined without further evaluation. The recent development of school-linked health centers stems from concerns about the special health needs of adolescents. Currently there are 125 school-based and school-linked centers in operation. Characteristics include the following: (1) most…
Department of Defense DIRECTIVEAD-A269 638 , , AD-A29 638March 11, 1986 IIIIii!IN 111111111,11 Ii1111,111111[NUMBER 1010.10 SUBJECT: Health Promotion ...34 March 13, 1985 INC A. URPOSE SThis Directive establishes a health promotion policy within the Department of Defense to improve and maintain military...civilian employees. C. DEFINITIONS 1. Health Promotion . Any combination of health education and related organizational, social, economic or health care
Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.
This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…
Yang, Fang; Tan, Kit-Aun; Cheng, Wendy J Y
Using a social ecological perspective, we examined the effects of connectedness in multiple domains on health-promoting and health-compromising behaviors among Asian American (AA), Pacific Islander (PI), and Caucasian/White American (WA) adolescents in California. After adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, the following consistent results emerged across the three ethnic groups: (a) community connectedness increased the odds of physical activity; (b) internal, family, and school connectedness decreased, whereas friend connectedness increased, the odds of substance use; and (c) internal and family connectedness decreased the odds of violent behavior. We also found specific ethnic variations pertaining to the effects of connectedness. Friend connectedness increased the odds of violent behavior for AAs and WAs, but not for PIs. Meanwhile, community connectedness increased the odds of substance use and violent behavior for AAs and PIs, but decreased the odds of these behaviors for WAs. Findings for healthy dietary behavior were inconsistent across ethnic groups and connectedness domains. Our overall findings suggest that the effects of connectedness were more salient for health-compromising behaviors than for health-promoting behaviors. Health prevention and intervention efforts in adolescents could target the role of their connectedness to their multiple social domains.
Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee
Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users.
Joffe, A; Radius, S M
Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.
How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259
Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Fiandra, Teresa Di; Rampazzo, Lorenzo; Contu, Paolo; Preti, Antonio
Introduction: Mental disorders are the largest cause of the burden of disease in the world. Most of the burden affecting adult life has its onset during childhood and adolescence. The European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing calls for immediate action and investments in the mental health of children and adolescents. Schools may be the ideal location for promoting health and delivering healthcare services, since schools are a location where young people usually spend their daytime and socialize, schools are easily accessible to families, can provide non-stigmatizing health actions, and form links with the community. Aims and Goals of this Special Issue: This issue is developed within the framework of the Joint Action on Mental Health promoted by the European Commission. This special issue presents a set of systematic reviews on the evidence of the international literature on school interventions for the promotion of the mental health and wellbeing of children and adolescents. It is focused on five topical main areas: promoting general health and wellbeing; programs targeting specific mental disorders and conditions and integration of adolescents with mental health problems; Bullying; Sport; Alcohol and Drugs. An additional paper on the results of the largest epidemiological study conducted in some European countries on the prevalence and relative risk factors of mental disorders in school-age completes the issue. Conclusion: These reviews are a first contribution to address future European research and interventions, in particular about the multiple ways through which European policies could support the schooling and wellbeing of children and adolescents. PMID:25834625
McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, among others, are significant health concerns for Canadian aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Inuit) adolescents. This is further compounded by ineffective prevention and promotion strategies that were designed to lessen the incidence of STIs in this population. Structure and content of health service programs are crucial considerations in STI prevention because even well-constructed and carefully implemented programs may have very little impact on aboriginal youth if these programs are not culturally sensitive and specific to individual adolescent's needs. Furthermore, because components of sexual and reproductive health are inextricably linked to empowerment and equality between the sexes, holistic health nurses need to develop strategies that increase self-esteem, self-advocacy, and healthy choices among aboriginal adolescents.
Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L
Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable.
Karmali-Rawji, Shameela; Kassim-Lakha, Shaheen; Taylor, Karmel
Perceived lack or loss of control, stress, a rapidly again population and rising costs of health care necessitate effective health promotion and disease prevention in the elderly. In a collaborative health promotion effort, the private sector, public sector, and community partners have joined to increase the South Asian elders' sense of control over the decisions and circumstances that affect their everyday lives. The project was designed to help elders come to terms with the fragmentation of their extended families, cultural alienation, decreased autonomy, need for information, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Imagesp622-a
McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.
Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077
Murray, B Lee
This case report is the story of my son's alleged abuse, told from my perspective. At the time, Jordan, a boy with Down syndrome, was 14 years old when his disclosure of sexual abuse by a school employee occurred. As part of the healing process, I use autoethnography to tell the story. I also describe and discuss a school-based program, which I developed and deliver, to provide sexual health promotion and sexual abuse prevention to adolescents with developmental disabilities.
Hong, Jingfang; Fongkaew, Warunee; Senaratana, Wilawan; Tonmukayakul, Ouyporn
The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based program for Chinese early adolescents in order to promote their sexual and reproductive health and to prevent HIV infection. The program was designed based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and a needs assessment among the stakeholders. A technical collaborative action research approach was applied. The study's participants were 102 early adolescents in a public middle school in mainland China, with the involvement of other key stakeholders, including 15 teachers and 12 parents. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in the scores of sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills after the program's implementation. Meanwhile, qualitative data from the early adolescents' reflection indicated that the content was useful and comprehensive, the trainers were friendly and knowledgeable, and participatory learning with an "edutainment" style was especially impressive. Additionally, the early adolescents expressed that they could apply the knowledge and skills in their daily life, which would benefit themselves and their family and peers. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model could be explored in a non-Western context and the program was shown to be acceptable for use in a Chinese middle school setting.
Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.
Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya
Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…
The notion that adolescent daughters can provide their mothers with health information that could actually impact the mothers’ behavior is a novel area of health promotion research. The goal of this study is to explore the reasons why adolescent daughters would give their mothers cervical cancer information, and why mothers would have the intent to listen to advice to obtain a Pap smear. We randomly selected and interviewed 157 mother and daughter dyads in Cape Town, South Africa. Almost one-fourth of mothers (22%) indicated never having had a Pap smear, while 92% of their daughters said their mother has never talked to them about cervical cancer or a Pap smear. Willingness of daughters to ask their mothers to obtain a Pap smear was high (80%). Motivations included the important health benefit and the sense of responsibility to share life saving information. Most mothers said they would definitely obtain a Pap smear when advised by their daughter (74%), while 25% said they would have to think about it and 1% said they would not listen. Mothers’ main motivations included the direct health benefit and a strong sense of duty and responsibility to listen to her daughter. This study provides important information about the reasons why an upward (child to parent) health intervention may be feasible. The values of duty and responsibility, especially as it manifests within the family, hold promise for informing health promotion interventions directed at multiple generations. PMID:21421580
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P
The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an 'abstinence-only' sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents' Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual
Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff
In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.
Brannon, Erin E.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Wilson, Dawn K.
Objective To evaluate and quantify the evidence for health promotion interventions in children and adolescents. Method 96 independent samples of smoking, physical activity, and diet studies were included. Outcomes included both objective and self-reports of health behavior, as well as proxy measures such as fitness. Results The aggregated effect was significant (g = .20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08–0.32, n = 96). A significant effect of intervention was observed at approximately 1-year follow-up (g = .07, 95% CI = 0.02–0.14, n = 20). The greatest risk of bias was failure to blind outcome assessment, which occurred in 21% of studies. Most studies lacked sufficient detail to determine the quality of their randomization sequence (58%). Additional concerns about risk of bias for individual studies were minimal. Overall, the quality of this finding was moderate using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. Conclusion Health promotion interventions are effective for modifying health behavior; however, effect sizes are small. PMID:24934246
van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…
Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi
This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n=67) and their mothers (n=67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers.
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi
This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n = 67) and their mothers (n = 67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers. PMID:24447886
Crameri, Aureliano; Eich-Stierli, Brigitte; Telesko, Rainer; von Wyl, Agnes
Background Adolescence with its many transitions is a vulnerable period for the development of mental illnesses. Establishing effective mental health promotion programs for this age group is a challenge crucial to societal health. Programs must account for the specific developmental tasks that adolescents face. Considering peer influence and fostering adolescent autonomy strivings is essential. Participation in a program should be compelling to young people, and their affinity to new technologies offers unprecedented opportunities in this respect. Objective The Companion App was developed as a Web-based app giving adolescents access to a peer mentoring system and interactive, health-relevant content to foster a positive peer culture among adolescents and thereby strengthen social support and reduce stress. Methods In a control group study design, a group of employed (n=546) and unemployed (n=73) adolescents had access to the Companion App during a 10-month period. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze changes in chronic stress levels and perception of social support. Monthly feedback on the app and qualitative interviews at the end of the study allowed for an in-depth exploration of the adolescents’ perception of the intervention. Results Adolescents in the intervention group did not use the Companion App consistently. The intervention had no significant effect on chronic stress levels or the perception of social support. Adolescents reported endorsing the concept of the app and the implementation of a peer mentoring system in particular. However, technical difficulties and insufficiently obvious benefits of using the app impeded more frequent usage. Conclusions The Companion Project implemented a theory-driven and innovative approach to mental health promotion in adolescence, taking into account the specifics of this developmental phase. Particularities of
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents.
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…
Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G
The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the
Crooks, Claire V; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Burm, Sarah; Lapointe, Alicia; Chiodo, Debbie
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit (FNMI) youth are disproportionately affected by a range of negative health outcomes including poor emotional and psychosocial well-being. At the same time, there is increasing awareness of culturally-specific protective factors for these youth, such as cultural connectedness and identity. This article reports the findings of a mixed-methods, exploratory longitudinal study on the effects of a culturally-relevant school-based mentoring program for FNMI youth that focuses on promoting mental well-being and the development of cultural identity. Participants included a cohort of FNMI adolescents whom we tracked across the transition from elementary to secondary school. We utilized data from annual surveys (n = 105) and a subset of youth whom we interviewed (n = 28). Quantitative analyses compared youth who participated in 1 or 2 years of mentoring programs with those who did not participate. At Wave 3, the 2-year mentoring group demonstrated better mental health and improved cultural identity, accounting for Wave 1 functioning. These results were maintained when sex and school climate were accounted for in the models. Sex did not emerge as a significant moderator; however, post hoc analyses with simple slopes indicated that the mentoring program benefited girls more than boys for both outcomes. Interview data were coded and themed through a multi-phase process, and revealed that the mentoring program helped participants develop their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and enhanced their cultural and healthy relationships knowledge base. Collectively, the quantitative and qualitative components of this study identify multiple years of culturally-relevant mentoring as a promising approach for promoting well-being among FNMI youth.
Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; O’Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Bellamy, Scarlett; Jones, Shasta; Landis, J. Richard; Heeren, G. Anita; Tyler, Joanne; Makiwane, Monde B.
Rates of chronic diseases are high among Black South Africans. Few studies have tested cognitive-behavioral health-promotion interventions to reduce chronic diseases in South Africa. We tested the efficacy of such an intervention among adolescents in a cluster-randomized controlled trial. We randomly selected 9 of 17 matched-pairs of schools and randomized one school in each pair to the cognitive-behavioral health-promotion intervention designed to encourage health-related behaviors and the other to a HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that served as the control. Interventions were based on social cognitive theory, the theory of planned behavior, and qualitative data from the target population. Data collectors, blind to participants’ intervention, administered confidential assessments at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes were fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Participants were 1,057 grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years), with 96.7% retained at 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations revealed that averaged over the follow-ups, a greater percentage of health-promotion intervention participants than HIV/STD control participants met 5-a-Day fruit and vegetable and physical activity guidelines. The intervention also increased health-promotion knowledge, attitude, and intention, but did not decrease substance use or substance-use attitude and intention. The findings suggest that theory-based, contextually appropriate interventions may increase health behaviors among young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21318928
Telzer, Eva H.
The prevailing view in the field of adolescent brain development is that heightened activity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system serves as a liability, orienting adolescents towards risky behaviors, increasing their sensitivity to social evaluation and loss, and resulting in compromised well-being. Several findings inconsistent with this deficit view challenge the perspective that adolescent reward sensitivity largely serves as a liability and highlights the potential adaptive function that heightened striatal reactivity can serve. The goal of this review is to refine our understanding of dopaminergic reward sensitivity in adolescence. I review several studies showing that ventral striatum activation serves an adaptive function for adolescents’ health and well being relating to declines in both risk taking and depression and increases in cognitive persistence and achievement. PMID:26708774
Espada, Jose P; Escribano, Silvia; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia
The aim is to evaluate the effects of the Competencias para adolescentes con una sexualidad saludable (COMPAS) program and compare them with an evidence-based program (¡Cuídate!) and a control group (CG). Eighteen public high schools were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions. Initially, 1,563 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 16 years of age participated, and 24 months after their implementation, 635 of them completed a survey. Self-report measures collected data on sexual behavior, knowledge, attitudes, intention, sexual risk perception, and perceived norm. Compared to the CG, COMPAS increased the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and improved the attitudes toward people living with human immunodeficiency virus at the 2-year follow-up. Neither intervention had a long-term impact on behavioral variables. Results suggest that COMPAS has a comparable impact to the other intervention on the variables predicting consistent condom use. Reinforcing the messages and skills that have the greatest impact on condom use and adding booster sessions following program completion as strategies to maintain long-term effects are necessary.
Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.
Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…
Aguiar, Fernando Henrique Rezende; Conceição, Maria Inês Gandolfo
This qualitative study investigates underprivileged students' perceptions of their future, their health, and the relevance of a career counseling process. Interviews regarding career guidance were conducted during a workshop with nine eleventh-grade students from a public high school in Brazil's capital. The data were analyzed according to…
Meyer, Mary Kay; Marshak, John; Conklin, Martha T.
This study identifies the nature of nutrition environment in middle grades schools from the principals' and superintendents' point of view and determines which elements of a school's nutrition environment these school administrators considered most relevant to students' health and well-being. Most school administrators did not think the…
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others
This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…
Brown, E F; Hendee, W R
During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.
Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo
The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.
Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge
Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350
Toumbourou, John W.; Gregg, M. Elizabeth
Reviews research relevant to family-based adolescent health promotion, focusing on efforts to prevent problems and encourage healthy development. Discusses family processes that appear central to healthy adolescent functioning, including attachment, reducing disharmony, and encouraging responsibility. Describes selected family interventions,…
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier
This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…
The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…
Phillips, Kathleen; Dietz, Julie; Borzi, Mark; Harrison, Gaye
I Sing the Body Electric (BODY ELECTRIC) is a fine arts and health promotion program that supports communication of healthy lifestyle choices among youth. BODY ELECTRIC connects youth in 27 high schools with health and education communities in the largest rural geographic education region in a Midwestern state. The three-phase prevention plan…
... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...
Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Connell, Arin M.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Myers, Michael W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kavanagh, Kathryn; Caruthers, Allison S.
This study examined the impact of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and linked intervention services on reducing health-risk behaviors and promoting social adaptation among middle school youth. A total of 593 students and their families were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention or middle school services as usual. Forty-two percent of…
Carey, Dennis E; Golden, Neville H
Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT. Standard radiologic studies, especially vertebral radiography, may also be helpful in children and adolescents at high risk for osteoporosis. It is critical to the development of healthy bones that adolescents have proper nutrition with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and that they participate in regular physical activity (especially weight-bearing exercise). In the recent past, the dual goals of proper nutrition and exercise were not being achieved by many, if not most, adolescents. Those caring for adolescents should strive to educate teens and their families on the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D as well as advocate for supportive environments in schools and communities that foster the development of healthy habits with regard to diet and exercise. In order to help identify the population at risk for osteoporosis, a bone health screen with assessment of calcium intake and determination of family history of adult osteoporosis (hip fracture, kyphosis) should be a routine part of adolescent health care. Universal screening of healthy adolescents with serum 25OHD levels is not recommended. Adolescents with conditions associated with reduced bone mass should undergo bone densitometry or other studies as a baseline, and BMD should be monitored at intervals no more frequently than yearly. Although controversy remains regarding the optimum dose of vitamin D for treatment of osteoporosis, all would
Messerli, Maria; Heinz, Bolliger-Salzmann
Du seisch wo düre (DSWD means, "It is your decision" in Bernese German). This proven, scientifically sound and regularly evaluated component of health promotion and prevention has, for over 20 years, been appreciated by adolescents, aged 14-16 years. This resource-oriented programme at school ("Sekundarstufe I" in Switzerland) helps students answer current questions about vital issues and develop their own problem-solving strategies. The programme enhances life skills, independence and self-esteem in participating adolescents, and strengthens social cohesion within circles of peers. Improved social competence also improves the classroom interaction and the climate of the school. Specially-trained external facilitators assist participants. Faciliators can use proven instruments and methods to moderate the discussions. DSWD also contributes to secondary prevention (for example, preventing addiction and violence). Since 2009, the concept has been extended to target vulnerable adolescents, and programme evaluations have demonstrated good results. zWäg!, a new programme based on the same concept as DSWD, addresses the needs of young adults in work preparatory schools and in work settings. For reasons of space, this article discusses only DSWD.
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.
Friedman, H L
The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.
Recent findings suggest that perfectionism is highly prevalent among children and adolescents, and perfectionism can be quite destructive in terms of its links with anxiety, depression, and suicide. In this article, we provide an overview of recent research illustrating the costs and consequences of perfectionism among children and adolescents. We…
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun
This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.
Background Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the HIV pandemic to a greater extent than young people elsewhere and effective HIV-preventive intervention programmes are urgently needed. The present article presents the rationale behind an EU-funded research project (PREPARE) examining effects of community-based (school delivered) interventions conducted in four sites in sub-Saharan Africa. One intervention focuses on changing beliefs and cognitions related to sexual practices (Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa). Another promotes improved parent-offspring communication on sexuality (Kampala, Uganda). Two further interventions are more comprehensive aiming to promote healthy sexual practices. One of these (Western Cape, South Africa) also aims to reduce intimate partner violence while the other (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) utilises school-based peer education. Methods/design A modified Intervention Mapping approach is used to develop all programmes. Cluster randomised controlled trials of programmes delivered to school students aged 12–14 will be conducted in each study site. Schools will be randomly allocated (after matching or stratification) to intervention and delayed intervention arms. Baseline surveys at each site are followed by interventions and then by one (Kampala and Limpopo) or two (Western Cape and Dar es Salaam) post-intervention data collections. Questionnaires include questions common for all sites and are partly based on a set of social cognition models previously applied to the study of HIV-preventive behaviours. Data from all sites will be merged in order to compare prevalence and associations across sites on core variables. Power is set to .80 or higher and significance level to .05 or lower in order to detect intervention effects. Intraclass correlations will be estimated from previous surveys carried out at each site. Discussion We expect PREPARE interventions to have an impact on hypothesized determinants of risky sexual behaviour
Costa, Sandra; Santos, Cristina; Soares, Filomena; Ferreira, Manuel; Moreira, Fatima
Most autistic people present some difficulties in developing social behavior, living in their own world. The intent of this study is to improve the social life of adolescents with both autism and mental impairment, with a main focus on promoting their social interaction and communication. An experiment designed to call for the adolescents' attention and enforce their collaboration is described; in it a LEGO MindStorm robot behaves as a mediator/promotor of this interaction. Further, sensory motor coordination and accuracy skills of the adolescents are also slightly explored. Four scenarios were envisaged. Results are described showing the outcomes of the experiment.
Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B
Love has consequences for health and well-being. Engaging in joyful activities such as love may activate areas in the brain responsible for emotion, attention, motivation and memory (i.e., limbic structures), and it may further serve to control the autonomic nervous system, i.e., stress reduction. This specific CNS activity pattern appears to exert protective effects, even on the brain itself. Moreover, anxiolytic effects of pleasurable experiences may occur by promotion of an inhibitory tone in specific areas of the brain. Thus, love and pleasure clearly are capable of stimulating health, well-being and (re)productivity: This wonderful biological instrument makes procreation and maintenance of organisms and their species a deeply rewarding and pleasurable experience, thus ensuring survival, health, and perpetuation.
The emotional, social, intellectual, and physical needs of young people from 10 to 15 years old are being increasingly recognized in the schools, but the activities of these students after school are just beginning to be considered in terms of their effects on adolescents' academic and personal growth. Early in 1985, the University of North…
In adventure therapy (AT), health professionals and adolescents with cancer come together to explore the wilderness of nature. One goal of this therapy is to encourage the adolescents to enhance their self-concept as part of an overall physical, cognitive, emotional or spiritual, social and psychological, or developmental rehabilitation that promotes health. The adolescents with cancer who participate in AT also learn about themselves through self-evaluation, self-exploration, self-reevaluation, self-acceptance, and self-realization. Mental health promotion (MHP) is considered a perspective and a strategy to promote health. An AT experience could be an example of an MHP initiative in which nurses can take a leadership role in participating, and further investigating, the health effects of AT on adolescents with cancer.
Camenga, Deepa R.; Hieftje, Kimberly D.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Duncan, Lindsay R.
Few studies have explored the application of message framing to promote health behaviors in adolescents. In this exploratory study, we examined young adolescents' selection of gain- versus loss-framed images and messages when designing an HIV-prevention intervention to promote delayed sexual initiation. Twenty-six adolescents (aged 10-14 years)…
Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose
Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159
Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R; Kornienko, Olga
Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions. We first develop theoretical predictions for how health may influence the structure of adolescent networks. We then test these predictions using longitudinal analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We find important relationships between the health status of adolescents and the characteristics of the social network positions within which they are embedded. Overall we find that adolescents in poor health form smaller local networks and occupy less central global positions than their healthy peers. These results also have implications for social network research, expanding the scope of factors responsible for the network positions individuals occupy.
Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama
The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…
Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A
Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. PMID:27103845
Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A
Youth and young adults (19-24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans.
López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J
The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice.
Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D
eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.
Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant
McQueen, David V
Though not necessarily using the same terminology historically, people concerned with the public's health have long been addressing the social context of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the actions of promoting health. This commentary places the current interest in NCDs within that history and discusses the challenges that continue to face institutions in dealing with NCDs. It makes a particular plea for the role of health promotion as the area of public health that takes actions to address the global burden of NCDs. Without a health promotion focus, we will just continue to describe the NCD burden rather than reduce it.
Hirschhorn, Joel S
Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.
The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is investigating factors which affect the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Benin, Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and the Philippines. The research is funded through the US Agency for International Development's Office of Nutrition. 22.5% of women in Nepal marry before they reach age 14 years, with most marrying before age 18. The research in the country has found pregnancy to be a burden among these young women which threatens their nutritional and health status as well as that of their offspring. Unequal distribution of food in the household and heavy workloads increase the level of risk faced by adolescent females. Postponing pregnancy in adolescents, however, delays the onset of increased nutritional needs in girls who are already likely to be undernourished. Delayed pregnancy also gives girls more time to complete their physical growth and avoids the risk of medical emergencies in childbirth, such as hemorrhage which, if survived, can lead to anemia which is aggravated by nutritional deficiencies. The ICRW has therefore proposed four strategies for postponing first births among female adolescents: encouraging later marriage, providing family planning and reproductive health services specially for adolescents, providing family life education about options for the future, and increasing educational opportunities for girls.
Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.
This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…
Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate
Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…
Exceptional Parent, 2011
This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…
Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.
Carter, Stacy M
Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.
The recognition that health is intimately related to economic status, education, physical living conditions, culture, history, issues of gender and human rights, the level of peace and safety, and the life people live, is not entirely new. The health sector has been making its way towards this position for a very long time. The literature describes recognition of the connection between living conditions and health status from the early 19th century. To ensure that people live in societies that create health, there is a need to first recognize the following: that there are multiple and diverse forces within society which create or undermine health; and that most of the factors which are essential for a healthy community reside outside the formal health sector. Action to create healthy societies with healthy people then must tap multiple power sources and involve broad collaboration and alliances. The health promotion strategies of the Caribbean Health Promotion Charter and the Ottawa Charter are outlined. Some of these strategies include the establishment of public policies on health, creation of supportive environments, empowerment of communities through community action, promotion of personal health skills, reorientation of health services, and the need to create alliances. The health promotion is an approach, which respects people's rights to healthy living and is based on the recognition that health is the result of an interconnection between all aspects of life. The strategy can best be achieved through full participation of the various sectors, interest groups and communities in a society.
Wu, Tsu-Yin; Pender, Nola; Yang, Ke-Ping
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the determinants of physical activity among adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States. Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) served as the theoretical framework for both studies (Pender, 1996). The major determinants of health behavior in the HPM are perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, activity-related affect, interpersonal influences, situational influences, commitment to a plan of action, and immediate competing demands. In Taiwan, 969 middle school students (55% males; 45% females) from Taipei provided data for the study. In the United States, the sample was collected from 286 late elementary and middle school students (48% males; 52% females). Results showed the gender differences in activity levels were apparent in the youths from both countries. In both Taiwanese and American youths, boys were more active than girls. Cross-cultural differences in the importance of barriers to physical activity emerged. Among Taiwanese adolescents, barriers did not emerge as a significant direct predictor of physical activity as they did among US adolescents. Perceived efficacy directly predicted physical activity among Taiwanese youths while it indirectly predicted physical activity and appeared to be mediated by beliefs regarding exercise benefits and barriers among American youths. In addition, the paths of effect for interpersonal influences were different when Taiwanese and US youths were compared. The findings from this paper have important and culturally-relevant information that can inform future physical activity intervention studies with diverse adolescents.
Austin, David R.
Describes the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model of therapeutic recreation, highlighting its underlying concepts: the humanistic perspective, high-level wellness, the stabilization and actualization tendencies, and health. Describes components of the model (prescribed activities, recreation, and leisure), discusses utilization of the model…
Uses Chaim Perelman's theories of argumentation to examine a recent Institute of Medicine report, "Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research" (2000). Notes that it focuses on social, economic, behavioral, and political health as a means of assuring population health--and thereby expands the…
Green, Lawrence W.; And Others
In this article, human ecology is defined; its historical and intellectual roots are traced through various disciplines to its applications in public health and health promotion today; its strengths and limitations are described; some potential contributions to systems theory are suggested; and some emerging ecological models of health promotion…
Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Background Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. Purpose The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012–2013. Setting/participants A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. Intervention COPE was a cognitive–behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Results Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Alcohol use was 11.17% in the COPE group and 21.46% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25.05, adjusted M= −0.34, 95% CI= −0.56, −0.11). The proportion of those
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module is designed to help the classroom teacher introduce health-promoting…
Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.
Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…
Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes.
South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.
Solloway, Michele R., Ed.; Budetti, Peter P., Ed.
This report presents findings of a George Washington University Center for Health Policy Research (CHPR) multi-year project to conduct analytical studies on the financing, delivery, and cost effectiveness of child health supervision services. Against a backdrop of decline in private sector coverage for children, a growing number of children living…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…
MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine
This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…
Povlsen, Lene; Borup, Ina
In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as 'Empowerment for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion', 'Salutogenesis--from theory to practice' and 'Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 with bi-annual meetings at NHV.
Health promotion often presents a tension between "bottom up" and "top down" programming. "Bottom-up" is associated with community empowerment and begins on issues of concern to particular groups or individuals and regards an increase in overall control as an important element of the health outcome. "Top-down" is associated with disease prevention efforts and begins by seeking to involve beneficiaries on issues defined by health agencies. It regards improvements in health behaviours or bio-medical indicators as the important outcome and community empowerment is viewed simply as a means to the end of health behaviour change. The tension between these two approaches is not unresolvable, and this article presents a framework, the "parallel-track", intended to assist health promotion practitioners to systematically accommodate community empowerment goals within "top-down" health programming.
Hodges, Bonni C
The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.
Pérez-López, Faustino R; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo; López-Baena, María T
Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the supplementation of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is advised in children and adolescents–though correcting vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency may require 1000 IU/day or more. High-dose calcifediol depots are an alternative for
Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C
Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.
Sclafane, Jamie Heather
Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14-to 17-year-old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context, a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them, and future implications for…
Sclafane, Jamie Heather
Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14 to 17 year old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context; a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them; and future implications for its use.
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Bartholomew, Karla S
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among children is associated with a wide variety of adverse health risks, including: asthma, otitis media, respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and function, decreased exercise tolerance, cognitive impairments, behavior problems, and sudden infant death syndrome. Unfortunately, over 40% of children aged 3-11 years-15.1 million children-are currently exposed to SHS, with nearly 70% of black children in this age group being exposed. Over the past three decades, great strides have been made in establishing smokefree environments for adults, ultimately reducing their SHS exposure. Regulations have been passed at the organizational, local, and state levels that increasingly ban smoking in the workplace and public places. Children's SHS exposure patterns, however, differ from adults' exposures, with greater time spent in the home and other potentially unregulated venues (school, child care, and car). This means that children have been afforded relatively less protection from SHS by these smokefree regulations. It is imperative, therefore, to seek alternative options for promoting smokefree environments for children throughout the United States. This article explores policy options that promote smokefree environments for children and adolescents: comprehensive smokefree/tobacco-free policies covering indoor/outdoor public places, housing, private vehicles, and child care, as well as Clinical Guidelines regarding patient/family interviews on smoking, SHS, cessation, and voluntary smokefree efforts. The policy section highlights the role of child and adolescent health practitioners in promoting these policies with the hope of fostering engagement of these key stakeholders in the policy process. Note, there are a wide range of important policy and regulatory strategies aimed at reducing tobacco initiation and use among children, adolescents, and young adults; while essential in tobacco prevention and control efforts, a discussion of
Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H; Zijlstra, Fred R H
Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more central in the network, the stronger the influence. As stakeholders, health promoters may use communicative, compromise, deinstitutionalization, or coercive methods through an ally or a coalition. A hypothetical case study, involving adolescent use of harmful legal products, illustrates the process of applying stakeholder theory to strategic decision making.
Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka
Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757
Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.
The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…
Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne
Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…
Irwin, Charles E., Jr., Ed.; And Others
Health care reform represents a major step toward achieving the goal of improved preventive and primary care services for all Americans, including children and adolescents. Adolescence is a unique developmental age district from both childhood and adulthood with special vulnerabilities, health concerns, and barriers to accessing health care. It is…
Johnson, Sara B; Blum, Robert W; Giedd, Jay N
Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being.
Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.
Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416
An increasing number of primary prevention programs aimed at promoting physical exercise in children and adolescents are being piloted. As resources are limited, it is important to ascertain the costs and benefits of such programs. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the currently available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents and to assess their quality. A systematic review was conducted searching in well established literature databases considering all studies before February 2015. Citation tracking in Google Scholar and a manual search of the reference lists of included studies were used to consolidate this. The fundamental methodological elements of the included economic evaluations were extracted, and the quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality Appraisal Questionnaire (PQAQ). In total, 14 studies were included. Considering the performance of the economic evaluation, the studies showed wide variation. Most of the studies used a societal perspective for their analyses and discounted costs and effects. The findings ranged from US$11.59 for a person to become more active (cheapest intervention) up to US$669,138 for a disability adjusted life year (DALY) saved (most expensive intervention), with everything in between. Overall, the results of three studies are below a value of US$3061, with one of them even below US$200.00, for the achieved effects. For the other programs, the context-specific assessment of cost-effectiveness is problematic as there are different thresholds for cost-effectiveness in different countries or no clearly defined thresholds at all. There are multiple methodological difficulties involved in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, which results in little consistency between different evaluations. The quality of the evaluations ranged from poor to excellent while a large majority
Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel
This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.
Hutchinson, Janice; Langlykke, Kristin
This bulletin is intended to raise awareness of the magnitude and gravity of adolescent maltreatment and to provide information on public health program and policy interventions. A review of adolescent victimization, with a focus on vulnerable youth, provides background for the development of public health measures to promote prevention and ensure…
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J
Peer education is popular both with governments and with young people. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a government-led peer education program on the self-reported sexual health behavior and related psychosocial outcomes of adolescent students in public high schools in the Western Cape of South Africa. Grade 10 students (n = 3934), at 30 public high schools (15 intervention, 15 comparison) were recruited to the study. In the intervention schools, peer educators were recruited and trained to provide information and support to their fellow students. Sexual health behaviors and related psychosocial outcomes of students were measured at baseline and at follow up 18 months later. Comparisons were made between those in the intervention and comparison group schools. We were unable to detect a significant difference in the age of sexual debut, use of condoms at last sex, goal orientation, decision-making or future orientation for students in the intervention group as compared to students in the comparison group. The findings suggest that the peer education program was not effective in reducing the age of sexual debut or condom use. Issues around the implementation of the program suggested that this was sub-optimal. Governments who advocate widespread use of peer education as an approach need to recognise barriers to implementation and ensure ongoing monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness.
Moeti, M R
The underlying factors of poverty, migration, marginalization, lack of information and skills, disempowerment, and poor access to services which affect HIV/STD risk are also closely related to those which affect sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health problems include unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, pregnancy-related illness and death, and STDs including HIV/AIDS. This interrelationship between factors is leading increasingly to the integration of HIV/STD education and prevention within the broader framework of sexual and reproductive health promotion. Such intervention allows the possible reinforcement of the impact of interventions upon important underlying factors and behaviors linked to individual, family, and community vulnerability to HIV/STDs as well as other reproductive health problems. Integration will also optimize the use of increasingly scarce resources and increase the likelihood of responses, interventions, and programs being sustainable. Sexual and reproductive health, placing HIV/STD prevention into context, and focus upon men are discussed.
Kay, L E
As sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll have given way to STDs, HIV, and AIDS, adolescent sex has become an increasingly high-risk behavior. Dr Kay strongly believes that primary care physicians can have a prominent role in educating teens and their parents about the consequences of premature sexual activity and in promoting healthy living. In this article, he presents the case against adolescent sexual intercourse and outlines a concrete approach to dealing with adolescent patients at risk and their families.
Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini
The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based.
Elders, M J
The state of US children's health and recommendations for improvement are reported. The 1st table identifies youth as risk, i.e., at the current rate, 1 in 10 women will give birth by the time they turn 18. Among black children, white children 1-4 years, and blacks 15-24 years, death rates actually increased from 1985 to 1987. Injuries, particularly due to violence, have replaced communicable diseases as the primary cause of death among adolescents. Since 1976, immunization has deteriorated. There is a refusal to recognize sexually active adolescents, in spite of 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted disease. The 6 strategies discussed intervention begin with providing high quality preschool education programs for all children. The 2nd urges educational programs from kindergarten through 12th grade that help children make healthy choices, improve their self-esteem, and accept as much responsibility for their own lives as possible. Parenting education, as the 3rd strategy, promotes the education and support of parents, especially for young and poor parents. The 4th strategy involves male responsibility and instruction on obligations in pregnancy and parenthood, including a requirement of financial commitment from fathers and identification of the father by Social Security number on an infant's birth certificate. The 5th strategy is the provision for school-based health services, including family life counseling and contraceptive services for adolescents. The 6th strategy is to provide free college tuition and books at a state supported school for students with at least a B average, good citizenship record, and a family income of $20,000. It is cheaper to offer children opportunity than to pay the costs of the consequences of poverty.
George, Melissa W; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Heather L; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D
The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program.
George, Melissa W.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Wilson, Dawn K.; McDaniel, Heather L.; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D.
The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program. PMID:24297005
Lampert, T; Richter, M; Klocke, A
Today, children and young people represent the age group that is most frequently threatened by poverty in Germany. Poverty during childhood means a bad start to life and often has long-term effects on an adolescent's social and health development. Health problems are more frequent among preschool-age children from socially disadvantaged families. They are also more often affected by accidents and dental problems. In adolescence, links can be established between the social situation and psychosocial well-being, pain incidence and health behaviour. However, poverty does not inevitably go hand-in-hand with health problems. A stable and supporting social environment -- particularly in families, peer groups and schools -- promotes the development of a positive self-image and social skills, thus empowering the child to deal with demanding living conditions. Measures of social and health policy aimed at lessening the effects of poverty on health must start here.
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.
Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed
The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.
In Sweden, society's attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health clinics. Screening for genital chlamydial infection is performed at these clinics, thus providing a "one stop shop" service. Condoms and oral contraception are available at low cost, emergency contraception is sold over the counter. Teenage childbearing is uncommon. However, sexual and reproductive health problems are on the increase among young people. During the 1990s, a period of economic stagnation in Sweden, schools have suffered budget cut backs. Sex education is taught less. Social segregation, school non-attendance, smoking, and drug use have increased. Teenage abortion rates have gone up, from 17/1000 in 1995 to 22.5/1000 in 2001. Genital chlamydial infections have increased from 14,000 cases in 1994 to 22,263 cases in 2001, 60% occurring among young people, and with the steepest increase among teenagers. Thus, a question of major concern is whether and how adolescent sexual behaviour has shifted towards more risky practices during the late 1990s.
Massey, Marilyn S.
This Digest examines how Comprehensive School Health Programs (CSHPs) may promote stress management in children and adolescents. CSHPs contain four key elements. The first element, community participation and focus, can be achieved through school health newsletters, health fairs, local newspaper, radio, and television promotions, and guest…
Moreno, Megan A; Kolb, Jennifer
Social networking sites are popular among and consistently used by adolescents. These sites present benefits as well as risks to adolescent health. Recently, pediatric providers have also considered the benefits and risks of using social networking sites in their own practices.
Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace
The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury.
Cinelli, Renata Leah; O'Dea, Jennifer A.
This study examines the relationship between body image and obesity, among 4367 indigenous and Anglo-European adolescents in Australia in 2006. It shows that indigenous adolescents, male and female, were more likely than their non-indigenous counterparts to desire and pursue weight gain. Indigenous males showed the greatest tendencies to gain…
Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P
This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.
Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen
Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404
Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen
Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.
Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.
This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…
The health promotion discourse is comprised of assumptions about health and health care that are compatible with primary health care. An examination of the health promotion discourse illustrates how assumptions of health can help to inform primary health care. Despite health promotion being a good fit for primary health care, this analysis demonstrates that the scope in which it is being implemented in primary health care settings is limited. The health promotion discourse appears largely compatible with primary health care-in theory and in the health care practices that follow. The aim of this article is to contribute to the advancement of theoretical understanding of the health promotion discourse, and the relevance of health promotion to primary health care.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou
Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…
Abernathy, Thomas J.; Webster, Greg; Vermeulen, Marian
Examines data on 1,759 adolescents to assess the effect of low socioeconomic status on their health. Results confirm the relationship between income and health. Explains how the pathway to poor health care operates through the social environment, lifestyle differences, access to care, and self-esteem problems. Findings do suggest that physical…
Schleich, Ley, Ed.
This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth…
Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.
As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more-responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898
Because health promotion is a relatively new concept in Europe, a study was undertaken to gather information on informal and organized health promoting behavior and programs in Europe. The study attempts, through a review of literature, interviews, and surveys, to clarify the meaning of health promotion in both theory and practice and to identify…
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.
Green, Morris, Ed.
The goal of the Bright Futures project is to respond to the emerging preventive and health promotion needs of infants, children, and adolescents. Bright Futures is sponsored by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the United States Public Health Service and the Medicaid Bureau of the Health Care Financing Administration. Over 100 professionals,…
Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard.
Busch, Vincent; de Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; de Harder, Alinda; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus
Background: In approaches to health promotion in adolescents, unhealthy behaviors are no longer regarded as independent processes, but as interrelated. This article presents a systematic literature review of school-based interventions targeting multiple adolescent behaviors simultaneously. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed…
Hung, Tommy Tsz Man; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Dawson, Angela; Lee, Regina Lai Tong
Health-promoting schools have been regarded as an important initiative in promoting child and adolescent health in school settings using the whole-school approach. Quantitative research has proved its effectiveness in various school-based programmes. However, few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate the strategies used by health promoters to implement such initiatives. In this study, the researchers conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the qualitative literature to identify important enablers assisting the implementation of health-promoting schools from the perspectives of health promoters. Five enablers have been identified from the review: (a) Following a framework/guideline to implement health-promoting schools; (b) Obtaining committed support and contributions from the school staff, school board management, government authorities, health agencies and other stakeholders; (c) Adopting a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to implementing HPS; (d) Establishing professional networks and relationships; and (e) Continuing training and education in school health promotion. This highlights the importance of developing school health policies that meet local health needs, and socio-cultural characteristics that can foster mutual understanding between the health and education sectors so as to foster health promotion in children and adolescents. PMID:25264789
Hung, Tommy Tsz Man; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Dawson, Angela; Lee, Regina Lai Tong
Health-promoting schools have been regarded as an important initiative in promoting child and adolescent health in school settings using the whole-school approach. Quantitative research has proved its effectiveness in various school-based programmes. However, few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate the strategies used by health promoters to implement such initiatives. In this study, the researchers conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the qualitative literature to identify important enablers assisting the implementation of health-promoting schools from the perspectives of health promoters. Five enablers have been identified from the review: (a) Following a framework/guideline to implement health-promoting schools; (b) Obtaining committed support and contributions from the school staff, school board management, government authorities, health agencies and other stakeholders; (c) Adopting a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to implementing HPS; (d) Establishing professional networks and relationships; and (e) Continuing training and education in school health promotion. This highlights the importance of developing school health policies that meet local health needs, and socio-cultural characteristics that can foster mutual understanding between the health and education sectors so as to foster health promotion in children and adolescents.
O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.
Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.
Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…
Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.
Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof
Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.
Addressing complex adolescent health problems such as youth violence and teen pregnancy requires innovative strategies to promote protective social environments, increase healthier behaviors, and reduce the impact of health risk behaviors into adulthood. Multilevel, interdisciplinary, and translational approaches are needed to address these challenges in adolescent health. In May 2012, a group of adolescent health researchers participated in a 1-day research symposium titled "From Genes to Community: Exploring Translational Science in Adolescent Health Research," sponsored by the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) of the University of Pittsburgh and the Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The research symposium offered opportunities for adolescent health researchers to share examples of translational research as well as to identify potential collaborations to promote translational research. This and subsequent issues of Clinical and Translational Science will include papers from this symposium. The studies and reviews presented range from how basic biobehavioral sciences such as functional neuroimaging and decision science can be made relevant for intervention development as well as improving strategies for community-partnered knowledge transfer of cutting-edge research findings to promote adolescent health and well-being.
Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique
Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)
Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy
Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J
This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.
Golden, Neville H; Abrams, Steven A
The pediatrician plays a major role in helping optimize bone health in children and adolescents. This clinical report reviews normal bone acquisition in infants, children, and adolescents and discusses factors affecting bone health in this age group. Previous recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D are updated, and clinical guidance is provided regarding weight-bearing activities and recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake and supplementation. Routine calcium supplementation is not recommended for healthy children and adolescents, but increased dietary intake to meet daily requirements is encouraged. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the higher recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D advised by the Institute of Medicine and supports testing for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with conditions associated with increased bone fragility. Universal screening for vitamin D deficiency is not routinely recommended in healthy children or in children with dark skin or obesity because there is insufficient evidence of the cost-benefit of such a practice in reducing fracture risk. The preferred test to assess bone health is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but caution is advised when interpreting results in children and adolescents who may not yet have achieved peak bone mass. For analyses, z scores should be used instead of T scores, and corrections should be made for size. Office-based strategies for the pediatrician to optimize bone health are provided. This clinical report has been endorsed by American Bone Health.
Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga
The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.
Luna, Izaildo Tavares; Moreira, Rosa Aparecida Nogueira; da Silva, Kelanne Lima; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida
This integrative review summarizes nursing researches that contribute to study juvenile obesity with a focus on health promotion. 20 articles were identified in a bibliographical survey that followed the criteria: date, language, and the descriptors: nursing, adolescent, obesity and health promotion. The Pediatric Nursing Journal published seven of these papers (35%). Indexed papers were published in the last ten years in Portuguese and English. Results showed the construction of scientific knowledge in nursing that developed health promotion strategies in cases of juvenile obesity, thus contributing to the development of the profession. Showing the cumulative risk that juvenile obesity presents of turning subjects into obese adults is a precious resource to plan nursing actions for this population, and for these actions to achieve effective results.
In Brazil, until 1990, the authorities could legally arrest a child found alone in the streets, and put them in prison-like institutions. Their crime? To be poor, usually black and living on the streets. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of the Rights of Children and Adolescents (SOS Crianca) was set up a few years ago with the aim of changing this legislation. Together with other nongovernment organizations, SOS Crianca drew up new legislation, lobbied politicians and policymakers, and publicized the issue at a new Child and Adolescent Statute, based on the International Declaration of Children's Rights, was made law. Lawyers volunteered their services to SOS Crianca, making sure that young people had access to legal support, so that the new law could be put into practiced. AIDS has added to the difficulties of young people living on the streets. In 1988, using a strategy similar to the one above, SOS Crianca started to work with key organizations and the children themselves, to draw up an HIV prevention strategy for street children. As well as being threatened with violence and police arrest, these children lack a basic human right--access to health care. Public health services in Brazil do not reach the 40% of the population who live in absolute poverty, which includes young people on the streets. Preventing AIDS is seen by SOS Crianca to be just a part of promoting better health and providing overall healthcare. Educational activities will not work if children do not have access to treatment, or to basic needs like food and shelter. SOS Crianca does not employ doctors because it is not the role of nongovernment organizations to take over the state's responsibility to provide basic health care. But how can the public clinics, staffed with underpaid professionals and lacking basic equipment meet the needs of street children? Meetings were organized with different health professionals, involving those most sensitive to the problem in setting up a referral
Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don
The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community.
Jackson, Suzanne F; Riley, Barbara L
The evolution of health promotion in Canada between 1986 and 2006 is characterized by three major eras: Health Promotion in the Limelight, 1986-1992, Health Promotion Behind the Scenes, 1993-2003, and Health Promotion Restaged, 2003-2006. These eras are illustrated using the Canadian Heart Health Initiative as an example. The first era, backed by strong federal government leadership and support, was a progressive time of developing concepts, collaborations and infrastructure for health promotion across the country. Despite significant progress, by the end of this era, health promotion was neither sufficiently developed nor funded to make it a cornerstone of the health system. In addition, the emphasis was heavily biased towards changing individual behaviour. In the second era, health promotion continued to develop in pockets across the country and debates within the field intensified. However, these events went largely unnoticed and massive overall cuts at federal and provincial levels of government made acute care a much higher priority than health promotion. The third era, mostly shaped by fears linked to public health threats, saw a restaging of health promotion through efforts to strengthen public health infrastructure. Nevertheless, at the end of this era, the necessary intersectoral partnerships (such as in health, housing, education, food, income) remained scarce, and little progress was made to decrease health inequalities. The Canadian Heart Health Initiative was implemented over the same time period as the three eras. Its legacy includes collegial relationships across various levels of government and with non-government organizations, a culture that values pan-Canadian initiatives, and support for integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. It remains to be seen how quickly it will be possible to advance the vision of health promotion conceived during the Limelight Era in Canada.
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.
Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen
Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…
Mariño, R J
The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section
Ringsberg, Karin C
The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015.
Daniel, Brigid; Wassell, Sally
Noting that the protective factors that support positive development despite adversity are becoming better understood, this workbook discusses the importance of encouraging resilience and promoting prosocial behavior in adolescents living in challenging circumstances and shows how to evaluate resilience through the use of checklists and background…
Bayarsaikhan, Dorjsuren; Nakamura, Keiko
Health promotion is receiving more attention in Mongolia. A survey is undertaken to examine health promotion in terms of health-related information, education, counseling, screening, preventive and medical checkups. Almost all (97.5%) of the subjects feel that access to reliable and systematically organized health-related information is important. About 60% of the subjects expressed that the amount of currently available information is inadequate. There are several factors that limit the implementation of public health programs. These include inadequate focus on promoting health at individual level, lack of funds, and limited incentives to promote health. This article examined social health insurance as an option to address these issues. Three hypothetical benefits package options expanded to health promotion were developed and simulated by a computerized tool. The simulations show that all 3 options are financially sustainable at the existing level of contribution if Mongolia will gain near universal health insurance coverage and improve revenue collection practices.
Emmanuel, Patricia J; Martinez, Jaime
Pediatricians can play a key role in preventing and controlling HIV infection by promoting risk-reduction counseling and offering routine HIV testing to adolescent and young adult patients. Most sexually active youth do not feel that they are at risk of contracting HIV and have never been tested. Obtaining a sexual history and creating an atmosphere that promotes nonjudgmental risk counseling is a key component of the adolescent visit. In light of increasing numbers of people with HIV/AIDS and missed opportunities for HIV testing, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends universal and routine HIV testing for all patients seen in health care settings who are 13 to 64 years of age. There are advances in diagnostics and treatment that help support this recommendation. This policy statement reviews the epidemiologic data and recommends that routine screening be offered to all adolescents at least once by 16 to 18 years of age in health care settings when the prevalence of HIV in the patient population is more than 0.1%. In areas of lower community HIV prevalence, routine HIV testing is encouraged for all sexually active adolescents and those with other risk factors for HIV. This statement addresses many of the real and perceived barriers that pediatricians face in promoting routine HIV testing for their patients.
Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel
Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008.
Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...
Robertson, A; Minkler, M
In the last decade, a revolution has been occurring in the field of health promotion. Guided to a large extent by position papers disseminated by the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Health Promotion Office, and furthered by the Ottawa Charter, the Epp Report in Canada, the Healthy Cities project, as well as by other efforts, this new health promotion movement has introduced new ideas, new language, and new concepts about what constitutes health and how health promotion efforts should be configured to achieve health. Punctuated by the terms like empowerment and community participation, this movement has generated a whole new discourse about the theory and practice of health promotion. This paper explores the multiple meanings that surround these terms, and the implications for practice, by addressing questions like: What does health mean in this new context? What is empowerment? What does participation look like? Has the tyranny of the professional been replaced by the tyranny of the community? Has anything changed about the practice of health promotion other than the language? Finally, it is argued that an acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of these concepts may facilitate their translation from rhetoric into health promotion practice.
Gans, Janet E.; And Others
Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…
Schmidt, Aurora Camacho de
Nearly 20 percent of all migrant farmworkers are adolescents, and as many as half of these may be unaccompanied by their families. These youth clearly have special health and educational needs that require commitment from social institutions and agencies. In June 1991, a conference held in Delray Beach, Florida by the National Coalition of…
Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita
More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.
Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle
Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…
Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1985
Three articles suggest that the roots of health promotion in business and industry extend back into the early twentieth century: (1) "Health Programs of Business Concerns" (Schirmer); (2) "Teach Health, Not Disease" (Bauer); and (3) "A Leader in Health Education: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company" (Means). (CB)
Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254
Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.
The [World Health Organisation, 2000. Nurse and Midwives for Health: A WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen] European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education calls for the explicit inclusion and application of health promotion in all nursing curricula. Prior to this strategy, and subsequently, studies have explored the nature and extent of health promotion in nursing education. This article extensively reviews this body of literature. Overall, the literature, both included in this review and its supporting discussion, presents a picture suggesting that the call for effective inclusion of health promotion has in many cases gone unheeded. The literature also identifies that the educational delivery of broader elements of health promotion is muted in comparison to the 'traditional' constructs of health education. Considerations for wider reform, born out of the literature, are presented.
Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen
Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.
Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron
This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.
The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…
Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Celata, Corrado; Vecchio, Luca
Objectives: The study explores the relationships among teachers' health representations, their ideas about health promotion, their working conditions and their involvement in health-promotion activities at school. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 107 teachers in 86 schools in Milan (Italy). The questionnaire was structured in four…
Gavidia Catalán, V
The following article shows the evolution of the schools contribution to the Health Education of children and young people. Moving on from the traditional concept of health, today, Health Education has a general and global meaning, which encompasses all of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health. These aspects define the characteristics of the "Healthy School". The need to broach the "transversal subject" offers schools the possibility of developing "transversality" in the Health Education. Finally, the concept of promoting health defines, together with the other subjects, that which we understand by "the heath promotion schools", which attempts to progress the full integration of schools in the society in which they are located.
Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth
This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti
This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.
My purpose in this study was to explore the concepts of health and the health promotion process among Korean women who migrated to North America for their children's education. Interviews and surveys were analyzed using a grounded theory analysis and descriptive statistics. Women in this study established their health concept and health promotion process in accordance to their socially constructed mother role. The women established unique meanings of health and developed an altruistic motivation to be healthy that allowed them to actively pursue health promotion despite their traditional care provider roles.
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…
Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves
Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845
Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa
Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health information, while analyzing its role in promoting empowerment and health behavior (cigarette/water-pipe smoking, nutritional/dieting habits, physical/sedentary activity, safety/injury behaviors and sexual behavior). The school-based study included a representative sample of 1316 Israeli adolescents, grades 7, 9 and 11, using qualitative and quantitative instruments to develop the new measure. The results showed that the MHL measure is highly scalable (0.80) includes four sequenced categories: identification/recognition, critical evaluation of health content in media, perceived influence on adolescents and intended action/reaction. Multivariate analysis showed that MHL was significantly higher among girls (β = 1.25, P < 0.001), adolescents whose mothers had higher education (β = 0.16, P = 0.04), who report more adult/interpersonal sources of health information (β = 0.23, P < 0.01) and was positively associated with health empowerment (β = 0.36, P < 0.0005) and health behavior (β = 0.03, P = 0.05). The findings suggest that as a determinant of adolescent health behavior, MHL identifies groups at risk and may provide a basis for health promotion among youth.
Nixon, Charisse L
Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed.
Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS
Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role psychosocial factors play in promoting the health and academic success of adolescents. A total of 770 adolescent boys and girls in Senior High Schools were randomly selected to complete a self-report questionnaire. School reported latest terminal examination grades were used as the measure of academic success. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the posteriori model with four of the hypothesised paths fully supported and two partially supported. Perceived social support was negatively related to stress and predictive of health and wellbeing but not academic success. Stress was predictive of health but not academic success. Finally, health and wellbeing was able to predict academic success. These findings have policy implications regarding efforts aimed at promoting the health and wellbeing as well as the academic success of adolescents in Ghana.
Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.
Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717
Reed, Hope C
The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society.
Ungar, Michael; Teram, Eli
Interviewed 41 high risk adolescents to examine the link between the process of empowerment and mental health. Respondents demonstrated how aspects of power that enhance the construction of health-promoting identities form a base for personal and social resilience in youth. Participants in the study articulated the interdependence between their…
Carter, Melissa; McGee, Rob; Taylor, Barry; Williams, Sheila
Aim: To examine the associations between connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement, and selected health compromising and health promoting behaviours in a sample of New Zealand adolescents. Methods: A web-based survey was designed and administered to a random sample of 652 Year 11 students aged 16 years from all Dunedin (NZ) high…
Lieberman, Debra A.
This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…
Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…
Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis
The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…
Simkin, Linda; And Others
This profile of child and adolescent health, which was designed for policymakers and program planners, contains over 40 indicators grouped into 10 categories: (1) population characteristics; (2) socioeconomic status; (3) program participation; (4) health care access; (5) pregnancies, births and infant health; (6) adolescent health; (7) morbidity;…
Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles
The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health.
Beamish, Nicola; Cannan, Philippa; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Matthews, Allison; Spiranovic, Caroline; Briggs, Kate; Kirkby, Kenneth; Mobsby, Caroline; Daniels, Brett
This article presents results of an evaluation of an online Youth Ambassador (YA) program designed to promote internet resources for mental health in an adolescent population. Results suggest that an online YA program delivered in school is useful in improving mental health awareness for workshop participants. (Contains 1 table.)
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.
This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…
Kulbok, P A; Baldwin, J H; Cox, C L; Duffy, R
Attention must be redirected toward health promotion as nursing evaluates the goal of health for all. Confusion regarding health promotion behavior is illustrated by terms with diverse meanings and uses. In a process of critical analysis, five multidisciplinary experts in health promotion responded to a survey targeting the distinction of health promotion, health promotion behavior, health protection behavior, disease prevention behavior, preventive health behavior, health behavior, and healthy lifestyle. Descriptors of health promotion were derived from a multidimensional conception of well-being. Disagreement existed concerning health protection and health behavior. Nursing interventions are linked to reflective discourse regarding health promotion behavior.
Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli
OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640
Woodrow, M; Wheat, R P
In order to encourage citizens to take a more active role in their health care management, a 464-bed community hospital presented a series of 12 health forums during a two-year period. A multidisciplinary panel of speakers was gathered to discuss specific health-related topics. The following article details the selection of forum topics, the general structure of the forums, use of publicity, audiovisual support, cost, and implications for planning further series.
In order to improve the health, fitness and education standards of the nation, Myanmar has initiated efforts for human resources development and promotion of the national health standard. Among these are the opening of new hospitals and clinics and upgrading of other health facilities, including health centers. The national health policies that were implemented focused on the areas of community health, disease control, environmental health, health systems development, and organization and management. These policies include the provision of health care services throughout the country and enabling cooperatives and private entrepreneurs to actively participate in health care activities, and extending health care services together with international organizations. Through these initiatives efforts are being taken to uplift national health services to international standards.
There is a dearth of knowledge about the health outcomes of resilience during adolescence, making the study of health-related outcomes of resilience important. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based just-identified model and to test the direct and indirect effects of resilience on hope, well-being, and health-promoting lifestyle in middle adolescents. The study used a correlational design. The final sample consisted of 311 middle adolescents, aged 15 to 17, who were recruited from a public high school. Participants responded to instrument packets in classroom settings. The structural equation model was tested with the LISREL 8.80 software program. All seven hypotheses were supported at a statistically significant level (p < .001). The results supported the theoretical propositions and the previous empirical findings that were used to create the theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience. Alternate models of outcomes of resilience need to be tested on adolescents.
Designed for policy makers and health education professionals, this paper presents a rationale and strategies for adapting health education to meet the needs of developing nations. Emphasis is placed on the need for health promotion rather than prescriptive health education. Section A, the first of two main sections, discusses perceptions of…
Health literacy research and scholarship has largely overlooked the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID), though growing concern about the health inequalities they face has increasingly given rise to health promotion interventions for this group. However, these interventions reference a rather limited vision of health literacy…
Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…
Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…
Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas
In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada’s health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574
Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention.
Smith, Peggy B; Buzi, Ruth S
The purpose of this study was to assess reproductive health professionals' familiarity with and use of various electronic technologies to support health promotion. The study also examined the relationship between demographic characteristics and attitudes and beliefs of the effectiveness of new technologies and perceived barriers for usage. A total of 165 reproductive health professionals at two conferences related to reproductive health in the United States completed the study survey. Personal and organizational factors affected the adoption of electronic technologies for health promotion. This included lack of knowledge, skills, and confidence as well as privacy concerns. The results of the study also suggested that being from an older generation was associated with having lower levels of knowledge, skills, and confidence in using new media. These findings highlight the importance of creating learning opportunities on the use of new technology for health promotion as well as addressing specific perceived barriers among reproductive health professionals in order to promote the adoption of these technologies.
Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra
This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…
Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S
Limited health literacy has been linked to worse health outcomes for a range of medical conditions. In addition, limited health literacy is more prevalent among specific racial and ethnic minorities. Although these findings have been widely acknowledged, little systematic research has been conducted to elucidate the role of health literacy in the creation of health disparities or to evaluate the possibility that interventions relating to health literacy may help eliminate health disparities. This paper presents recommendations for a research agenda that is focused on advancing the science for how health literacy research can promote the effort to eliminate health disparities.
Smoczyk, C M
Health promotion internships are an essential link between the university classroom and the corporate or public service environment. A well structured internship experience will provide the future health promotion professional with an opportunity to transfer learned theory into practical application within a controlled and supervised environment. The success of the internship experience is contingent upon the mutual effort of the student, academic institution, and sponsoring organization working together to develop a model that will reflect the goals and objectives of each group with primary long-term benefit accruing to the future health promotion professional. The purpose of this article is to explore the components of a successful health promotion internship model developed from the perspective of a sponsoring organization.
Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657
Minnis, Alexandra M.; vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Luecke, Ellen; Dow, William; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Padian, Nancy S.
Purpose We designed and evaluated for feasibility an intervention - Yo Puedo - that addresses social network influences and socioeconomic opportunities in a neighborhood with substantial gang exposure and early childbearing. Methods Yo Puedo combined conditional cash transfers for completion of educational and reproductive health wellness goals with life skills sessions, and targeted youth 16 to 21 years old and same-aged members of their social network. We conducted a 2-arm study with social networks randomized to the intervention or a standard services control arm. We evaluated intervention uptake, adherence and safety; and assessed evidence of effects on behavioral outcomes associated with unintended pregnancy and STI risk. Results Seventy-two social networks comprised of 162 youth enrolled, with 92% retention over six months. Seventy-two percent of youth randomized to the intervention participated in intervention activities: 53% received at least one CCT payment; and 66% came to at least one life skills session. We found no evidence that cash payments financed illicit or high-risk behavior. At six months, intervention participants, compared to controls, had a lower odds of hanging out on the street frequently (OR = 0.54, p = 0.10) and a lower odds of reporting their close friends had been incarcerated (OR = 0.6, p=0.12). They reported less regular alcohol use (OR = 0.54, p=0.04) and a lower odds of having sex (OR = 0.50, p = 0.04). Conclusions The feasibility evaluation of Yo Puedo demonstrated its promise; a larger evaluation of effects on pregnancy and sustained behavioral changes is warranted. PMID:24518532
Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar
We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.
Rothman, Sheila M; Rothman, David J
The new vaccine against 4 types of human papillomavirus (HPV), Gardasil, like other immunizations appears to be a cost-effective intervention with the potential to enhance both adolescent health and the quality of their adult lives. However, the messages and the methods by which the vaccine was marketed present important challenges to physician practice and medical professionalism. By making the vaccine's target disease cervical cancer, the sexual transmission of HPV was minimized, the threat of cervical cancer to adolescents was maximized, and the subpopulations most at risk practically ignored. The vaccine manufacturer also provided educational grants to professional medical associations (PMAs) concerned with adolescent and women's health and oncology. The funding encouraged many PMAs to create educational programs and product-specific speakers' bureaus to promote vaccine use. However, much of the material did not address the full complexity of the issues surrounding the vaccine and did not provide balanced recommendations on risks and benefits. As important and appropriate as it is for PMAs to advocate for vaccination as a public good, their recommendations must be consistent with appropriate and cost-effective use.
Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth
A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Blythe, Margaret J; Del Beccaro, Mark A
Privacy and security of health information is a basic expectation of patients. Despite the existence of federal and state laws safeguarding the privacy of health information, health information systems currently lack the capability to allow for protection of this information for minors. This policy statement reviews the challenges to privacy for adolescents posed by commercial health information technology systems and recommends basic principles for ideal electronic health record systems. This policy statement has been endorsed by the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
Vernon, Mary E.; Bryan, Gloria; Hunt, Pete; Allensworth, Diane; Bradley, Beverly
Discusses school health services, adolescent immunization, current school immunization practices, and support for school-based immunization programs. Children and adolescents can receive preventive health services, including immunizations and monitoring of immunization levels. Expanding school health services could improve the immunization levels…
Fayyad, John; Cordahi-Tabet, C; Yeretzian, J; Salamoun, M; Najm, C; Karam, E G
Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires measuring war exposure, family violence, availability of leisure activities, school-related problems, interpersonal and peer problems, socialization, daily routine problems, displacement, availability of parental supervision and contact and medical needs as well as coping skills related to religious coping, denial, self-control, avoidance and problem solving. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child-Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES). Resilient adolescents were defined as those who experienced war trauma, but did not manifest any symptoms on the SDQ or CRIES. Resilience was related to being male, using problem-solving techniques, having leisure activities, and having parents who spent time with their adolescents and who supported them with school work. Interventions designed for war-traumatized youth must build individual coping skills of children and adolescents, yet at the same time target parents and teachers in an integrated manner.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.
Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe
Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future.
Germeni, Evi; Lionis, Christos; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Davou, Bettina; Belechri, Maria; Petridou, Eleni
The school environment has been often identified as a prosperous venue for public health improvement. This study is a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of a school-based helmet promotion program on knowledge, attitudes and practices of eligible adolescent drivers. Four public, four private and four vocational high schools…
Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita
Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…
Girard, Gustavo A
Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored.
Emans, S J; Brown, R T; Davis, A; Felice, M; Hein, K
This article is a revision of a 1983 position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine with inclusion of the newest medical advances in research on adolescent sexuality; i.e., contraceptive compliance, promotion of behavior change, relationships of ethnicity and pregnancy, and male reproductive health. The issues for the 1990's will be sexually transmitted diseases' morbidity and mortality. Topics identified are sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy, care of the pregnant teen, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, the male adolescent, sexual abuse in adolescents, gay and lesbian youth, interventions, reproductive health care of adolescents with disabilities and chronic illnesses, and training of primary care physicians. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has focused attention on the reproductive behavior of males. Sexual activity varies by racial/ethnic group. Interventions to delay sexual initiation needs to be examined, although condom use has increased among 17-19 year olds from 21% to 58% in metropolitan areas. However condom use is lowest among the group of men at highest risk of STDs: those who had ever used drugs, those who had ever had sex with a prostitute, and those that had 5 or more partners/year. Male beliefs about contraception have been infrequently examined. There are misconceptions about heterosexual transmission of HIV. Better screening is needed for STD detection. Fathers are more involved in prenatal care and postnatal intervention programs. 7% of children have been subjected to nonvoluntary sexual intercourse between the ages of 18-21. ; i.e., 12.7% of white women, 9% of black women, 1.9% of white males, and 6.1% of black males. Risk factors for white women were living apart form parents at 16 years, poverty, physical and emotional limitations, parental alcohol and smoking and drug use. Sexual assault was associated with hitchhiking and alcohol and drug use in 1 study cited. Physicians need to be sensitive to this issue and probe for
Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan
The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.
Frenn, M; Malin, S
The article addresses the realities of health promotion practice in a managed care environment, synthesizing the most important findings from the midrange theories currently guiding wellness-oriented research. Factors that have been shown to predict engagement in a number of health behaviors are identified and are formulated into a guide for clinical assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation for clients across the life span.
Numerous gender differences in health-related behaviour are relevant in the planning of health promotion and prevention. More men than women consume amounts of alcohol that are a risk to their health. Tobacco consumption has fallen slightly among men but has risen among women. Women eat more healthy food. Man behave risky in leisure time and traffic, thus their mortality rates due to accidents are much higher, especially in young age groups. The epidemiological data lead to the conclusion that gender sensitive health promotion and prevention is necessary. Gender mainstreaming is declared as the main strategy to enhance gender equity in health. The paper focuses on the public health action cycle and demonstrates that at each step gender mainstreaming improves the quality of intervention. To implement gender mainstreaming in health promotion and prevention, a process of sensitization has to be initialized. An instrument is presented that supports this process at the foundation "Health Promotion Switzerland". A short description of some examples of gender adequate interventions is given at the end of the paper.
Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix
Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…
Sutherland, Mary; And Others
This article describes a health promotion demonstration project which addressed the health problem of hypertension, as related to variables of excercise, weight, blood pressure measurement and reduction, medication compliance, and nutritional practices. Participants (N=18) were senior citizens who were associated with a small, rural, predominantly…
Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…
Parkerson, George R., Jr.; And Others
The Duke University School of Medicine conducts a health testing and promotion program to increase its students' awareness of their own health. The long-term goal is to prevent them from becoming impaired, as physicians, by emotional problems or addiction to alcohol or other drugs. (Author/MSE)
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait.
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior, and well-being. Belief in one's efficacy to exercise control is a common pathway through which psychosocial influences affect health functioning. This core belief affects each of the basic processes of personal change--whether people even consider changing their health habits, whether they mobilize the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they do so, their ability to recover from setbacks and relapses, and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. Human health is a social matter, not just an individual one. A comprehensive approach to health promotion also requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread effects on human health.
da Silva, Claudia Osorio; Ramminger, Tatiana
Studies on the relation between health and work tend to highlight the negative and pathological aspects, as if work produces only sickness and alienation. On the contrary, our proposal is to stress how work can also produce health. Based on Canguillem's concept of health, and from the contributions of the so-called "work clinics", we intend to analyze the purpose of work as a promoter of health. Canguilhem affirms that health is not adaptive, as such it does not involve adapting well to the world, but to the creation of tenets of life. For their part, the work clinics provide tools to approximate us to the know-how-to-do produced by workers in their daily work, namely not only how workers adapt to work, but how they create and recreate it permanently Thus, we can think work as a promoter of health where there is room for collective and personal creation, as well as recognition of workers in their activity.
Whitelaw, S; Baxendale, A; Bryce, C; MacHardy, L; Young, I; Witney, E
Over the past 10 years, 'settings' based health promotion has become a central feature of efforts to promote health that recognize the significance of context. Emerging in part from a perception of an over-reliance on individualistic methods, the approach was built on a profound belief in its value and deployed a range of novel theoretical resources, mainly from organizational sociology and psychology. This initial enthusiasm has been maintained within policy directives, in the published literature and, from our own experience, amongst health promotion practitioners. At the same time, with the maturing of the approach, has come a healthy element of critical review. Drawing upon the literature and based upon our experiences within the Health Education Board for Scotland, this paper seeks to bring together a range of perspectives, casting a critical yet constructive eye on current settings theory and practice. The paper first reviews the nature of settings based work, highlighting the varied bases and expectations that underpin it. Similarly, the many factors that influence the ability of health promoters to deliver such activities are considered. In relation to the construction and delivery of such activity, the paper suggests that there needs to be an explicit and detailed assessment of the nature of the setting, the skills of the health promoter and the associated expectations.
The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.
McDade, Thomas W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K
Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.-perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college-are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health.
Eickholt, Clarissa; Hamacher, W; Lenartz, N
Health competence is a key concept in occupational health and safety and workplace health promotion for maintaining and enhancing health resources. The effects of governmental or occupational measures to protect or improve health fall short of what is required with regard to the challenges of a changing workplace, e.g., due to the delimitation of work. To secure employability it is becoming more and more important to encourage the personal responsibility of employees. To offer new conclusions on how employers and employees can promote health competence, a survey is required of the research within the fields of health competence and competence development, and of the status quo in enterprises. In this context, a Delphi Study provides an important contribution, with a focus on small and medium-sized enterprises. The development of an extensive understanding of health competence is essential in a work-related context. Beyond knowledge-based health literacy, an action-oriented concept of competence implies the ability and willingness to act in a reasonable and creative manner in complex situations. The development of health competence requires learning embedded in working processes, which challenges competent behaviour. Enabling informal learning is a promising innovative approach and therefore coordinated operational activities are necessary. Ultimately, this is a matter of suitable organisational measures being implemented to meet the health competence needs of an enterprise. Even though the each individual employee bears his or her own health competence, the development potential lies largely within the prevailing working conditions.
Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Sharajabad, Fariba Alizadeh; Sanaati, Favziye
This study aimed to determine the relationship between religious practice and health-related quality of life in adolescent girls in Tabriz, Iran, 2014-2015. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 520 female students who were selected using the random sampling method. Religious practice and health-related quality of life questionnaires were used for data collection. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between health-related quality of life and received religious support, religiosity, father's and mother's education, father's occupation, family economic status, and the number of children. It is necessary to find ways to further promote religious practices in adolescents and ultimately their quality of life.
da Nóbrega, Juliana Fernandes; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; da Silva, Fernanda Pravato; Carraro, Cláudia Anita Gomes; Alves, Cristiane
This is a theoretical reflection, based on Michel Maffesoli's Comprehensive Sociology, which is concerned with the health care of adolescents in contemporary everyday life, and particularly with the phenomenon of urban tribes. These are understood as groups of people who have emotional ties, building a bond of sociality towards a common goal. This study focuses on the importance to take into account the lifestyle of adolescents and aims to raise awareness among health professionals about such issues, seeking for strategies tuned with reality and care needs in order to promote health, devising ways to improve caring, rethinking health policies for adolescents in contemporary society.
Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H J
Peer contexts play an important role in the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. Behavioral health involves the observable academic and social behaviors that relate to and influence youths' subsequent health and development. Setting-level research on peer networks and social norms indicates these aspects of peer contexts vary by peer group, classroom, and school and dynamically relate to individual students' academic and social behaviors. Yet, although peer contexts are both influential and potentially malleable, little research examines the effects of school and classroom interventions on the development and maintenance of positive and productive peer contexts in schools. The current article identifies school structures and classroom processes theorized to directly or indirectly shift peer networks and social norms-and thereby increase the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. We discuss the need for more rigorous and relevant research to better understand the role of schools and classrooms in strengthening these peer contexts and promoting behavioral health in early adolescence.
Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS
Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further
McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna
Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…
This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.
Nixon, Charisse L
Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157
Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.
Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…
Shah, Smita; Kearey, Phoebe; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Grootjans, John; Armour, Carol
Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate a new interprofessional learning module that focused on asthma health promotion called Taking Action Together for Asthma. Design Faculty members in medicine, nursing, and pharmacy courses recruited 10 students each to participate in a 3-day interprofessional learning module. Students received extensive materials including a workbook to document their expectations and experience; completed a 1-day interprofessional workshop; received training in the Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) program; and went into high schools and taught the Triple A program to students in interprofessional teams. Assessment Before and after participating in the module, students completed a questionnaire consisting of 3 previously validated instruments: the Asthma Knowledge for Health Professionals Scale, Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale, and Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Seventeen students completed both the pre- and post-module scales and significant changes were seen only in means scores for the Attitude Toward Healthcare Teams (81.0 ± 4.7 to 85.2 ± 5.9) and the Teamwork and Collaboration subscale of the RIPLS (41.4 ± 2.7 to 43.2 ± 2.7). Conclusion Health promotion activities offer a viable mechanism for fostering interprofessional learning among health professions students. PMID:21519420
In, Sangwoo; So, Wi-Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived physical health status of Korean adolescents, adults, and elderly adults and their frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. In 2012, 1,144 adolescents (under 18 years old), 6,474 adults (19-64 years old), and 1,382 elderly adults (over 65 years old) participated in the Korean Survey on Citizens' Sports Participation Project (N = 9,000). The association between self-reported health status and exercise was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sex and age. The study found that the health status of adolescents showed little or no association with the frequency, intensity, time, or duration of exercise. However, the health status of adults and elderly Koreans was associated with the frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. The physical condition and health status of adolescents was better than that of adults and the elderly, many of whom had declining health. Our findings show the need for exercise-promotion programs customized for particular age groups. The limitations and strengths of the study are discussed, as well as the implications for future research and managerial applications for promoting exercise in each age group.
In, Sangwoo; So, Wi-Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived physical health status of Korean adolescents, adults, and elderly adults and their frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. In 2012, 1,144 adolescents (under 18 years old), 6,474 adults (19–64 years old), and 1,382 elderly adults (over 65 years old) participated in the Korean Survey on Citizens’ Sports Participation Project (N = 9,000). The association between self-reported health status and exercise was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sex and age. The study found that the health status of adolescents showed little or no association with the frequency, intensity, time, or duration of exercise. However, the health status of adults and elderly Koreans was associated with the frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise. The physical condition and health status of adolescents was better than that of adults and the elderly, many of whom had declining health. Our findings show the need for exercise-promotion programs customized for particular age groups. The limitations and strengths of the study are discussed, as well as the implications for future research and managerial applications for promoting exercise in each age group. PMID:25964829
Gross, Sandra M; Cinelli, Bethann
Although research indicates that school meal programs contribute to improved academic performance and healthier eating behaviors for students who participate, fewer than 60% of students choose the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. School meal programs have a difficult time competing with foods that are marketed to young people through sophisticated advertising campaigns. Youth's preferences for fast foods, soft drinks, and salty snacks; mixed messages sent by school personnel; school food preparation and serving space limitations; inadequate meal periods; and lack of education standards for school foodservice directors challenge school meal programs as well. A coordinated school health program offers a framework for meeting these challenges and provides children and adolescents with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthful eating. This article identifies challenges facing school foodservice directors in delivering healthful meals and acquaints dietetics professionals with the coordinated school health program to be used as a tool for addressing unhealthful weight gain and promoting healthful eating.
Austin, S B; Rich, M
Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.
Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong
Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value <0.01). Conclusions Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010
Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha
The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…
Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander
Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)
Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.
Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…
Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.
A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi
This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…
Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…
Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.
Objective This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness. Methods A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression). Results The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (β =.12, p =.03). Conclusions Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566
Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L
Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.
Thunfors, Peter; Collins, Bradley N.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.
This study sought to determine individual factors that may influence adolescents' interests in various health behaviors and, by extension, their potential interest in programs that promote healthy lifestyles and reduce obesity. The sample consisted of 737 rural Pennsylvania (United States) middle and high school students not involved in either…
Ybarra, Michele L; Emenyonu, Nneka; Nansera, Denis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R
To maximize scarce intervention dollars, pediatricians and other adolescent health professionals must position health promotion efforts in mediums that most effectively reach youth. This may be especially true in resource-limited settings where access to primary health care and medications is limited. To improve the efficiency and impact of disease prevention and health promotion efforts in resource-limited settings, we examine sources of health information cited by adolescents in Mbarara Uganda. Participants in the Uganda Media and You survey were students aged 12-18 (n = 500) randomly identified in five secondary schools in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. Ninety-three percent of eligible and invited youth completed the cross-sectional, pencil-and-paper survey. Four in five adolescents (81%) indicated they turned to parents, teachers, and other adults while around half read a book/went to the library (56%) or turned to siblings and friends (50%) for information about health and disease. More than one in three (38%) indicated that they used the computer and Internet to search for health information. Older versus younger respondents tended to rely upon siblings and friends for all types of health questions. On the other hand, younger versus older youth were significantly more likely to turn to parents, teachers, and other adults for their questions about sexual health. Adults may be an important component of effective disease prevention and health promotion campaigns. Multiple delivery methods may be especially effective for reaching older adolescents. Technology also may be an important health promotion tool in resource-limited settings.
Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse
Background Mexico is a developing country with one of the highest youth obesity rates worldwide; >34% of children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years of age are overweight or obese. Objectives The current review seeks to compile, describe, and analyze dietary conditions, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and cultural factors that create and exacerbate an obesogenic environment among Mexican youth. Design A narrative review was performed using PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases, as well as grey literature data from the Mexican government, academics, and statistical reports from nongovernmental organizations, included in electronic formats. Results The recent socioeconomic and nutritional transition has resulted in reduced healthy meal options at public schools, high rates of sedentary lifestyles among adolescents, lack of open spaces and playgrounds, socioeconomic deprivation, false or misunderstood sociocultural traditional beliefs, misconceptions about health, a high percentage of overweight or obese adults, and low rates of maternal breastfeeding. Some of the factors identified are exacerbating the obesity problem in this population. Current evidence also shows that more policies and health programs are needed for prevention of childhood and adolescent obesity. Mexico presents alarming obesity levels, which need to be curtailed and urgently reversed. Conclusions The present narrative review presents an overview of dietary, physical activity, societal and cultural preconceptions that are potentially modifiable obesity-promoting factors in Mexican youth. Measures to control these factors need to be implemented in all similar developing countries by governments, policy makers, stakeholders, and health care professionals to tackle obesity in children and young people. PMID:26787421
... three Hispanic adolescents ages 12 to 17 lacked health insurance; in 2011, that figure was fewer than one ... as white or black youth not to have health insurance, and were also less likely to have a “ ...
Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305
Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits.
Wong, Joy; Salili, Farideh; Ho, S. Y.; Mak, K. H.; Lai, M. K.; Lam, T. H.
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health…
Hatcher, Juliet L.; Scarpa, Juliet
Although adolescence is characterized by general good health, this developmental stage is a key time for promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing health-compromising behaviors and injuries. This paper presents a selective review of research into factors predicting health and safety behavior patterns and injury occurrence, focusing on…
Flom, Barbara; Johnson, Carol; Hubbard, Jodi; Reidt, David
As children and adolescents spend less time outdoors, research increasingly demonstrates that natural environments play an important role in healthy development. School counselors work to optimize student learning and psychosocial development, while serving as frontline professionals promoting mental health among youth. This literature review…
Fielding, J E; Breslow, L
A survey of California employers with more than 100 employees at one or more sites was undertaken to determine: 1) the nature and extent of health promotion activities; 2) plans for continuation and/or expansion of these activities; 3) plans for initiation of new activities; and 4) the relationship between reported health promotion activities and other characteristics of employers. Of 511 employers with whom interviews were attempted, 49 possible respondents could not be reached and 38 respondents refused to be interviewed, leaving 424 or 83 per cent. Almost one-half of the sites where interviews were conducted had fewer than 200 employees. A total of 332 (78.3 per cent) of employers offered one or more health promotion activities. The most frequent activities provided were accident prevention (64.9 per cent) and CPR (52.8 per cent) with other frequent programs including alcohol/drug abuse (18.6 per cent), mental health counseling (18.4 per cent), stress management (13.0 per cent), fitness (11.6 per cent), hypertension screening (10.1 per cent), and smoking cessation (8.3 per cent). Employers with at least one activity averaged 2.8 activities. The likelihood of having health promotion activities increased with company size. Establishment of new programs appeared to accelerate rapidly in recent years. PMID:6837818
Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.
The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581
Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.
To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and…
Atwood, J D; Donnelly, J W
Presented is a multi-systemic theoretical model of adolescent pregnancy that incorporates the school-peer-family-community systems and defines a role for health educators. It is noted that teenagers receive conflicting messages from the adolescent socialization community--all the institutions, individuals, and mass media that influence and shape development. To cope with these multiple, inconsistent messages, many adolescents respond with inconsistent behavior given the impossibility of pleasing all sources of influence. Health educators must coordinate the school-peer-family-community systems to achieve more congruence and less competition surrounding inputs into the daily life of young people. The potential to disseminate sex education is greatest in the school context, where information can be provided on a systematic, regular basis to reinforce learning. Since peers are a major reference group during adolescence, per counseling can be used effectively to discuss factors that lead to unwanted pregnancy and help clarify values. Sex education programs are strengthened by the involvement of parents, and interventions aimed at promoting parent-child communication around sexual issues have been demonstrated to delay the onset of sexual activity. The availability of an adolescent health clinic, either in the school or close by, has been shown to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Overall, the most effective adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are those that are comprehensive in substance and duration.
Sousa, Josueida de Carvalho; Mallmann, Danielli Gavibo; Galindo Neto, Nelson Miguel; de Freitas, Natália Oliveira; de Vasconcelos, Eliane Maria Ribeiro; de Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante
The aim of this study was to analyze national and international scientific literature on nursing care for lesbian women. An integrative approach was adopted to review studies from MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and SCOPUS databases and SciELO and Cochrane libraries using the keywords: female homosexuality, nursing care, health promotion and women's health. Studies published between 1990 and 2013 in English, Portuguese or Spanish were considered for analysis. After analyzing data, four international studies were selected, being that three were from the United States and one was from Canada. This study revealed a scarcity of Brazilian and international studies and the importance of increasing scientific literature on this topic. Descriptors: Homosexuality, female. Nursing care. Health promotion. Women's health.
Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran
The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895
Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K
In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents--using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents--not just for those who are already healthy.
Mishra, Meenoo; Lupi, Monica Valdes; Miller, Wm Jahmal; Nolfo, Tamu
Behavioral health disparities are not usually considered part of the same system of health disparities. However, the California Department of Public Health focused its health equity strategies on reducing behavioral health disparities through its California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity. This statewide plan was developed through a community-wide stakeholder engagement and outreach process. In addition, the California Reducing Disparities Project is a prevention and early intervention effort to reduce mental health disparities in underserved populations. This strategic plan represents the voice of several racial/ethnic communities, such as African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and questioning communities in California, through 5 strategic planning workgroups. The workgroups were composed of a broad range of stakeholders, including community leaders, mental health care providers, consumer and family members, individuals with lived experience, and academia. This case example highlights the various efforts of California's Office of Health Equity in eliminating behavioral health disparities and promoting mental health equity, as well as discusses the unique statutory and regulatory role of the Office of Health Equity's deputy director.
The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.
Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.
In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…
Radis, Molly E; Updegrove, Stephen C; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result, nurses' time is poorly utilized and students may suffer adverse outcomes including delayed school entry. In response to this pressing public health issue, a school medical advisor and director of school nurses in a local health department successfully negotiated access for school nurses to three health record systems: a state immunization tracking system, an electronic lead surveillance program, and an electronic health record system. This negotiation process is presented within a framework of the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation and provides a strategy for other school nurses seeking access to student health information.
Simkin, Linda; And Others
Developed as part of the Child and Adolescent Health Profile Project, this annotated bibliography is intended as a reference for professionals interested in key dimensions of children's health. Citations are grouped into the following four categories: (1) background information on child health issues, (2) child health indicators and health status…
The shift in health care towards primary health services and health promotion requires nursing education to ensure students learn to practice in partnership with communities. In primary health care settings opportunities for students to learn the participatory communication skills required for collaborative practice have been found to be constrained by a range of factors. An innovative approach increasingly being reported is for nurse educators and students to work with groups in the community, for example with teenage mothers. In mental health this approach is common, with consumers willingly working with nurse educators and students to complement the experience students gain working alongside health care professionals. This paper describes a partnership between a New Zealand nursing programme and a community trust whereby nursing students together with youth enrolled at a local high school promoted health. The nursing students reported that the experience encouraged them to view their practice from the perspective of the young people with whom they were working, and to see their efforts in the school setting as part of the wider community's health. It is argued that this strategy successfully contributed to the students' acquisition of the collaborative skills required to develop nursing partnerships within communities.
Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy
Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…
Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Morgan, Antony
This article compares the self reported health of a sample of 9854 Spanish and Portuguese adolescents aged 11-15 years using an integrated measure of health, which takes account of positive and negative factors that affect overall feelings of health and wellbeing. This improved measure supports the emergence of health agendas that aim to make wellbeing improvements in populations through a combination of both the promotion of positive protective factors and the need to deal with those risk factors that inhibit individuals, communities and populations to attain good health.
This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a 'cookbook' on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts.
This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607
Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…
Sarmiento, Juan Pablo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…
Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan
Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…
Mohammadi, Nastaran Keshavarz; Rowling, Louise; Nutbeam, Don
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore educational perspectives towards the concept of health promoting schools and its potential benefits for schools in more depth. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the results of a qualitative study based on interviews with school staff including principals, and teachers with…
Discusses how mentoring in health promotion differs from other key support roles, noting what the underlying rationale is behind mentoring, how a mentoring program should be designed, what the historical and theoretical roots of mentoring are, and what strategies mentors can use to be more effective. A research agenda for the mentoring approach is…
Rosenstein, Alan H.
As industry, individuals, and insurance providers realize the benefits of disease prevention, the demand for information and services will grow. Health promotion activities should be tapered to individual needs and resource requirements of the institution planning the program. Programs should include screening procedures to identify underlying…
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…
Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.
This study examined the effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of predominately African American urban adolescents (N = 750). Cumulative risk and promotive factor indices represented individual characteristics, and peer, parental, and familial influences. Using…
Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin; Chiou, Shu-Ti
Since 1990, the WHO Health Promoting Hospital (HPH) movement has tried to facilitate and support hospitals to assume a core responsibility in health promotion. The Taiwan HPH Network was established in December 2006, and became the largest HPH network in the world in 2013. Compared to Europe where the HPH has been more established, the pace of HPH development has been much more rapid. This rapid development provides an inspiring example for research and health promotion practice. Systematic data and empirical information have been collected about HPH in Taiwan, allowing for research to be published about the achievements of the HPH movement. This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on current progress of the HPH project according to the four main perspectives of the WHO-HPH movement: promoting the health of patients, promoting the health of staff, changing the organization to a health-promoting setting, and promoting the health of the community in the catchment area of the hospital. The assessment can serve as a stepping stone in understanding current HPH development in Taiwan and as a reference for future research.
Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.
The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves.
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734
English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B
Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.
Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.
This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…
McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D
The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the
Cotton, Sian; Zebracki, Kathy; Rosenthal, Susan L; Tsevat, Joel; Drotar, Dennis
Religion/spirituality is important to adolescents, is usually considered a protective factor against a host of negative health outcomes, and is often included in adolescent health outcomes research. Previous reviews of the relationship among spirituality, religion, and adolescent health have been limited by scope, focusing primarily on distal aspects of religion/spirituality (e.g., attendance at religious services). We reviewed the literature examining proximal domains of religion/spirituality (e.g., spiritual coping) in adolescent health outcomes research. Constructs such as spiritual coping and religious decision-making were the ones most often studied and were generally positively associated with health outcomes. Measurement of proximal domains, associations of proximal domains with health outcomes, methodological issues and recommendations for future research were covered in this review.
Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.
Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485
Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L
The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.
Ambrose, P J
The paper assesses the empirical evidence concerning the interface between living conditions and health status provided by a number of case studies of urban regeneration in London, and Brighton and Hove. These studies were carried out in the theoretical framework provided by the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment programme that has been seeking since 1993 to identify and measure additional 'exported' costs to services such as health, education and policing which derive from poor living conditions. A chronological study of the 'health gain' associated with the Central Stepney Single Regeneration Budget improvement to two run-down estates indicates that a seven-fold health improvement in the rate of 'illness days' experienced has taken place over a four-year period (1996-2000). This 7:1 differential was identical to that found in the synoptic comparison of illness days, and some health and policing costs, between the Stepney area and an area of improved housing in Paddington carried out in 1996. The paper presents an exploratory attempt to list and categorise in various ways the exported costs associated with poor living conditions and offers some preliminary assessment of their measurability. Finally, a number of health promoting strategies that should be borne in mind when carrying out urban renewal programmes are discussed. It is argued that the provision of satisfactory housing is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to promote good health. Attention must also be paid to community development, especially of 'organic' activities, the quality of services especially in relation to benefits, access to healthy food, crime reduction and, critically, the promotion of jobs and the reduction of poverty.
Cardoza, Vicky J.; Documét, Patricia I.; Fryer, Craig S.; Gold, Melanie A.; Butler, James
Study Objective To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. Design A systematic literature review. Setting Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Participants Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11–21 years. Interventions Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Main Outcome Measures Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Results Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Conclusions Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). PMID:22206687
American School Health Association, Kent, OH.
The National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS), initiated in 1985, is conducted to examine the health-related knowledge, practices, and attitudes of the nation's youth in the following health areas: AIDS; Nutrition; Consumer Health; Sexually Transmitted Disease; Drug and Alcohol Use; Suicide; Injury Prevention; and Violence. Findings…
Canobbio, M M
The number of children with congenital heart disease surviving beyond adolescence is rapidly increasing. Consequently, pediatric health providers not only have to address medical issues associated with the cardiac condition but must begin to develop programs that assist adolescents and their families in dealing with special health care needs for the young patient to successfully move into the adult world. Transitional health-related issues facing the adolescent with congenital heart disease including medical follow-up, insurability, employability, sexuality, and reproduction are described. Discussion about advising and counseling both patient and parents is included.
The contemporary legal and policy environment has increased the challenges associated with providing health care services to the adolescent population. The issue of reproductive health care services is particularly intense because of the controversial nature of services for contraception and abortion. As the debates continue, one must remember the background against which they are occurring. The current legal framework, developed over nearly 40 years, enables adolescents who are minors to give their own consent for care in numerous circumstances and provides them with a significant level of confidentiality protection, particularly for reproductive health services. Laws have been enacted to expand adolescents' financial access to health care, through targeted publicly funded service programs and expanded health insurance coverage. This background provides the foundation for addressing the current challenges and for protecting and expanding adolescents' access to care.
Petersen, Anne C.; And Others
This study examined the relation between family variables and the mental health outcomes of adolescents. Family members' feelings about one another were assessed when the children were in grades 6 and 8. Family members' closeness to one another was assessed when children were in grades 8 and 12, and in a 4-year follow-up study. Adolescents' mental…
Cites statistics on such adolescent problems as pregnancy, drugs, and obesity as evidence of the serious neglect and alienation of this age group in an era of family instability and declining social roles for youth. Urges educators to give concerted attention to the physical, mental, and health needs of adolescents. (SJL)
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary
Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…
Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.
This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…
Johnson, Jennifer; And Others
Presents results of a study analyzing the health records of 181 adolescent Indochinese refugees in San Diego, CA. Focuses on the medical problems known to be prevalent among adult Indochinese refugees: tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasites, and hepatitis B antigenemia. Reports that Indochinese adolescents may have a high rate of mental…
Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA), such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. Principal Findings. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Significance. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility. PMID:26380374
Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…
Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J
The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.
The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.
Whitelaw, S; McKeown, K; Williams, J
This paper suggests that there is a tendency for health promotion to be located within models that consider health to be a product of a range of forces, with practice itself assumed to comprise a similarly wide range of activities. This paper develops a critique of this tendency that is essentially accommodating, all embracing and 'neutral'. It is argued that this leads to the masking of tensions between the conflicting values contained within the different elements of the models. We suggest that for health promoters, this is neither conceptually appropriate nor practically sensible. These notions are developed in five main stages. We start by defining some of the key concepts in the piece, e.g. the nature of a 'model' and examples of 'global' models. We then examine some of the general reasons why global models are favoured, with respect to the emergence of the UK's strategy for health, The Health of the Nation. The third stage of the discussion identifies and considers, within the British context, professional and governmental factors perceived to have driven this choice. The fourth aspect of the paper will introduce a critique of the use of global modelling. The paper concludes by critically questioning this evolving relationship, and suggests that it will be essentially conservative and unproductive. We end by reviewing the implications for practice and suggesting a useful way forward.
Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B
Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.
Bradford, Judith Young; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.
School health clinics are one way to meet the objectives in "Healthy People 2010" for adolescent health. To determine the relationship between adolescent health status and use of the school health clinics in four Mississippi high schools, the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was used. The CHIP-AE identifies…
Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.
Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning
Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra; Norris, Shane A
Background When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo ('hope') aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. Objective This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Design Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Results Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity) were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. Conclusions The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place.
Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra; Norris, Shane A.
Background When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’) aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. Objective This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Design Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Results Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity) were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. Conclusions The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place. PMID:26983724
Knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders; attitudes that promote help-seeking; knowledge of risk factors and causes, treatments and self-help, and professional help available are all elements of mental health literacy. The complexities of practice with suicidal adolescents and young people suffering from mental health concerns require…
Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.
Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…
Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.
Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322
Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360
Bosmans, Marleen; Gonzalez, Fernando; Brems, Eva; Temmerman, Marleen
In Colombia, national policies and laws on the protection of vulnerable populations pay specific attention to the sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of internally displaced adolescents. This paper describes how a United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)-supported programme (September 2000-August 2004) on the sexual and reproductive health of internally displaced adolescents contributed to restoring their dignity as a precursor to promoting their sexual and reproductive health rights. Different forms of the arts were used as basic techniques to discover their body and to provide sexual and reproductive health information and education. The arts were found to play a key role in restoring their dignity. Although dignity appeared to be a determinant of greater awareness of rights, it did not lead to increased empowerment with regard to rights. The availability of and access to sexual and reproductive health services remains a problem and displaced populations continue to have little or no power to hold their authorities accountable.
Agazio, Janice Griffin; Buckley, Kathleen M
In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome indicated that self-efficacy and interpersonal influences were the most influential in determining health promotion. This research illuminates some of the challenges working women face in meeting health promotion activities and how best to support their ability to participate in healthy behaviors.
The World Health Organization 9th Global Conference on Health Promotion presented us with the Shanghai Declaration for promoting health in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the same time, the participants of the conference symposium, 'How can youth become future leaders in delivering on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development?' produced the 'Message from Youth Delegates on Health Promotion and Sustainable Development' as its complement. This 'Message from Youth Delegates' outlined pledges of young leaders in health promotion and proposed the necessary steps to ensure the future of health promotion includes more meaningful participation by young people. In order to fulfil the newest promises of the Shanghai Declaration and the past promises of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, we must think to close the divides between generations of health promoters and move forward on actions designed to develop the best possible future leaders for the field of global health. (Global Health Promotion, 2017; 24(1): 62-65).
Mclntyre, L; Belzer, E G; Manchester, L; Blanchard, W; Officer, S; Simpson, A C
The Dartmouth Health Promotion Study was a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study with a qualitative research arm, designed to learn whether coordinating school health instruction, health services, and a healthful environment enhanced the program's effect on the heart health and mental health of children. The research strategy-the Coordinated Approach-was applied to approximately 300 children in each of two cohorts in grades four to six attending nine trial schools; a further 600 children attended 10 comparison schools in Dartmouth and nine distal comparison schools. Although the qualitative analysis demonstrated that positive feelings were engendered in most areas of the study, when either the classroom or the individual was used as the unit of analysis, the Coordinated Approach did not have a more favorable effect on the heart or mental health of children than did the standard school health program. Thus, the effect of an existing school health program was not directly enhanced through coordinating its components.
Croxson, L J; Purdell-Lewis, D
Community and individual involvement are essential needs in preventive programmes for periodontal health. Campaigns should be directed towards a better individual understanding of the importance of healthy gum tissues if a functional healthy dentition is to be retained over a lifetime. Effective awareness campaigns require not only participation and education of the general public, but also all levels of health care professionals. Awareness programmes need to be carefully planned and their messages clear, non-conflicting and regularly reinforced. The complete programme should be based on, and include, specific aims, goals, strategies, monitoring and evaluation. Oral health and hygiene promotion campaigns need careful coordination between the relevant agencies or institutions involved in their implementation, such as government agencies, professional associations, industry, aid groups and education organisations.
Litt, I F
The opportunities and stresses faced by today's adolescent women have the potential to affect their health, either directly or through interaction with biologic and psychosocial events. Recently achieved entry into the world of endurance and competitive sports; smoking, drug, and alcohol use; the toxic shock syndrome; and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome threaten the health of young women today. Physicians who care for adolescent women in the 1980s and in the future will require special skills to do so successfully. Images PMID:3074565
Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…
This article concerns a 3-year materials development project that was implemented by the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association and the Bureau of Non-Physical Family Resilience. The project was developed in response to the need for improving adolescent reproductive health in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and West Java, where adolescent problems have been increasing during the last decade. The project's long-term goal is centered on raising the commitment of families to instill in their children a better understanding of adolescent reproductive health concepts and desirable family values. For its short-term objectives, the project seeks to develop a basic information, education and communication (IEC)/counseling strategy and policy in support of a family-centered approach to adolescent reproductive health; promote better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescents among the policy-makers; and improving the IEC/counseling skills of personnel at the community level. The project used five strategies to achieve its goals; namely, 1) preparation of a media development and production plan; 2) conducting a needs assessment; 3) production of three types of materials; 4) implementation of three key activities; and 5) periodic monitoring of activities.
Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke
This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.
Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.
Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher
Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375
Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.
Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and
Nelson, Gary D.
Although the development of rational decision making skills among school age populations has been identified as a goal of school health education programs, few measurement tools or methods exist to assess such skills. In order to develop an instrument for assessing adolescent health decision-making skills, a preliminary health decision making…
Rost, Kathryn; And Others
A recruitment effort aimed at utility company employees enrolled 64 percent (679) in a health promotion program. Results demonstrate that sociodemographic predictors of recruitment are almost a mirror image of employee participation in worksite health promotion programs. (JOW)
The need to promote behaviour change at the cultural level: one factor explaining the limited impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health intervention in rural Tanzania. A process evaluation
Background Few of the many behavioral sexual health interventions in Africa have been rigorously evaluated. Where biological outcomes have been measured, improvements have rarely been found. One of the most rigorous trials was of the multi-component MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health programme, which showed improvements in knowledge and reported attitudes and behaviour, but none in biological outcomes. This paper attempts to explain these outcomes by reviewing the process evaluation findings, particularly in terms of contextual factors. Methods A large-scale, primarily qualitative process evaluation based mainly on participant observation identified the principal contextual barriers and facilitators of behavioural change. Results The contextual barriers involved four interrelated socio-structural factors: culture (i.e. shared practices and systems of belief), economic circumstances, social status, and gender. At an individual level they appeared to operate through the constructs of the theories underlying MEMA kwa Vijana - Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action – but the intervention was unable to substantially modify these individual-level constructs, apart from knowledge. Conclusion The process evaluation suggests that one important reason for this failure is that the intervention did not operate sufficiently at a structural level, particularly in regard to culture. Recently most structural interventions have focused on gender or/and economics. Complementing these with a cultural approach could address the belief systems that justify and perpetuate gender and economic inequalities, as well as other barriers to behaviour change. PMID:22978613
Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate
Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408
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Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone
Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058
Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Utz, Bettina; Bardají, Azucena; De Brouwere, Vincent
Objective To identify the determinants and measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Methods In order to measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections, Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) data sets were analysed (BDHS; 1993–1994, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004, 2007, 2011). The BDHS 2011 data sets were analysed to identify the determinants of health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections. A total of 2813 adolescent girls (aged 10–19 years) were included for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Health facility-based deliveries have continuously increased among adolescents in Bangladesh over the past two decades from 3% in 1993–1994 to 24.5% in 2011. Rates of population-based and facility-based caesarean sections have increased linearly among all age groups of women including adolescents. Although the country's overall (population-based) caesarean section rate among adolescents was within acceptable range (11.6%), a rate of nearly 50% health facility level caesarean sections among adolescent girls is alarming. Among adolescent girls, use of antenatal care (ANC) appeared to be the most important predictor of health facility-based delivery (OR: 4.04; 95% CI 2.73 to 5.99), whereas the wealth index appeared as the most important predictor of caesarean sections (OR: 5.7; 95% CI 2.74 to 12.1). Conclusions Maternal health-related interventions should be more targeted towards adolescent girls in order to encourage them to access ANC and promote health facility-based delivery. Rising trends of caesarean sections require further investigation on indication and provider–client-related determinants of these interventions among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. PMID:27633641
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Santoro, Elena; Stagni Brenca, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Di Blasio, Paola
Our aim was to explore health workers' perceptions of providing sexuality and contraception care for female adolescents within family health centers. We interviewed 26 volunteer health workers and analyzed the interviews using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes: (a) "adolescents and sexuality," with the subthemes "initiation rite," "me like the others," and "just for fun"; (b) "adolescents and contraception," with the subthemes "omnipotent adolescents," "aware adolescents," and "women's responsibility"; and
Todd, Alwyn S; Street, Steven J; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P
The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years.
Todd, Alwyn S.; Street, Steven J.; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M.; Hills, Andrew P.
The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years. PMID:25690003
Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco
Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed.
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina Renee; Bartholomae, Suzanne
Background: Intervention models to promote healthy adolescent development highlight the importance of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP); however, scant resources identifying DAP in relation to the relevant research are available. With the increased professionalization of youth work and the expanding research on adolescent development,…
Scales, Peter C.
Designed to promote the creation of programs and policies that meet the needs of young adolescents, this report considers trends and forces affecting children between the ages of 10 and 15 and offers recommendations for drawing out adolescents' positive possibilities. Section 1 acknowledges trends that point to an increasing number of at-risk…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…
Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.
This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618
Santa Maria, Diane; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia
: Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine's goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue.
Chilton, Roy; Pearson, Mark; Anderson, Rob
Purpose: Schools are an important setting for a wide variety of activities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to map the different types of health promotion programmes and activities in schools, to estimate the amount of published evaluations of health promotion within UK schools, and to identify any provisional "candidate…
Blair, J E
1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.
La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.
Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245
Makuch, A; Reschke, K
Oral health behaviour is a result of a life-long learning process, this process can best be achieved by an interdisciplinary collaboration among dentists and professionals in other areas, e.g. psychologists, teachers and kindergarten teachers. The basis of our research is a childhood dental health promotion programme which consists of a tool of games for children in the age of 3-5 years. After development by an interdisciplinary research group, the effectiveness of this teaching and behaviour modification technique should be proved. This study describes a controlled field study, in which two forms of game play activities were compared to a control groups. The results showed that the use of games and shows aimed at a child's developmental level can be more efficacious than the presentation of didactic information alone.
Ziglio, Erio; Simpson, Sarah; Tsouros, Agis
One of the five action domains in the Ottawa Charter was Reorienting Health Services. In this paper, we reflect on why progress in this domain has been somewhat lethargic, particularly compared with some of the other action domains, and why now it is important to renew our commitment to this domain. Reorienting health services has been largely overlooked and opportunities missed, although good exceptions do exist. The occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Ottawa Charter represents an important opportunity for health promotion to: (i) renew its active voice in current policy debate and action and (ii) enhance achievements made to date by improving our efforts to advocate, enable and mediate for the reorientation of health services and systems. We outline six steps to reactivate and invest more in this action domain so as to be in a better position to promote health equitably and sustainably in today's fast changing world. Though our experience is mainly based in the European context, we hope that our reflections will be of some value to countries outside of this region.
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed.
Mchome, Zaina; Richards, Esther; Nnko, Soori; Dusabe, John; Mapella, Elizabeth; Obasi, Angela
Unwelcoming behaviours and judgemental attitudes have long been recognised as a barrier to young people's access to reproductive health services. Over the last decade youth friendly reproductive health services have been promoted and implemented world-wide. However, long term evidence of the impact of these programmes is lacking. We report the results of a large mystery client evaluation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Tanzania, a country that has had a long established youth friendly policy. Forty-eight visits made to thirty-three health facilities were conducted by twelve young people (six in each region) trained to perform three different scripted scenarios (i.e., condom request, information on sexually transmitted infections and family planning). The study revealed barriers in relation to poor signage and reception for services. In addition health workers demonstrated paternalistic attitudes as well as lack of knowledge about adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. In some cases, health workers discouraged young people from using services such as condoms and family planning methods. Lack of confidentiality and privacy were also noted to be common challenges for the young people involved. Intervention strategies that focus on changing health workers' mind-set in relation to adolescent sexual and reproductive health are crucial for ensuring quality provision of sexual and reproductive health services to young people. The study identified the importance of reception or signs at the health units, as this can facilitate young people's efforts in seeking sexual and reproductive health services. Likewise, improvement of health workers knowledge of existing policy and practice on sexual and reproductive health services and youth friendly services is much needed.
School-based nutrition programs can play an important role in promoting lifelong healthy eating. Healthy eating patterns in childhood and adolescence improve childhood health and prevent health problems. School health programs can help children attain full educational potential and good health by providing them with the skills, social support, and…
Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia
Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.
Aiming to investigate adolescents' perceptions of oral health, with a focus on gender differences, quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Skaraborg County, Sweden. Adolescents (13-18 years; n = 17,280) answered a school questionnaire, epidemiological indices on oral health were collected, and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most adolescents perceived their oral health as good, girls more often than boys. The oral behavior of girls was also more often healthy (floss usage: girls 31%, boys 21%), and they were consistently less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth than boys. Girls considered their own consumption of candy to be too high more often than boys. Acknowledging the importance of sound teeth was strongly associated with self-perceived oral health: boys, odds ratio (OR) 8.58 [confidence interval (CI) 7.12-10.34]; girls, OR 5.56 [CI 4.23-7.30]. Adolescents living with a single mother (13-15-yr-olds OR 1.37 [CI 1.20-1.57], 16-18-yr-olds OR 1.51 [CI 1.28-1.77]), or with neither parent, more often reported bleeding gums than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Weak correlations between epidemiological indices and self-perceived oral health were found at the school level. In the interviews, adolescents perceived the possibilities to influence their own oral health as limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support, social impact, and external factors such as time and economy. Support from the mother--more than from the father--was emphasized. This thesis showed that positive oral health attitudes and parental support are of great importance if oral health is to be perceived as good. There were gender differences in all issues related to self-perceived oral health.
Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli
Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations
Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is commonly underdiagnosed, has a high occurrence in the world population. Health education concerning sleep disorders and OSAS should be implemented. Objectives The objective was to identify studies related to preventive actions on sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education,” and “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes.” Initially, 1,055 papers, from 1968 to 2013, were located, with the majority from the Scopus database. The inclusion criteria were applied, and four articles published between 2006 and 2012 were included in the present study. Conclusions The studies on preventive actions in sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS, involved the general population and professionals and students in the health field and led to increased knowledge on sleep disorders and more appropriate practices. PMID:25992174
Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret
The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.
Goetzel, Ron Z; Shechter, David; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Stapleton, David C; Lapin, Pauline J; McGinnis, J Michael; Gordon, Catherine R; Breslow, Lester
The impact of an aging population on escalating US healthcare costs is influenced largely by the prevalence of chronic disease in this population. Consequently, preventing or postponing disease onset among the elderly has become a crucial public health issue. Fortunately, much of the total burden of disease is attributable to conditions that are preventable. In this paper, we address whether well-designed health promotion programs can prevent illness, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life. Furthermore, we assess evidence that these programs have the potential to reduce healthcare utilization and related expenditures for the Medicare program. We hypothesize that seniors who reduce their modifiable health risks can forestall disability, reduce healthcare utilization, and save Medicare money. We end with a discussion of a new Senior Risk Reduction Demonstration, which will be initiated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2007, to test whether risk reduction programs developed in the private sector can achieve health improvements among seniors and a positive return on investment for the Medicare program. PMID:18044084
Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet
Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…
Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng
Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.
Jara Rascón, José; Alonso Sandoica, Esmeralda
In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information.
Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk
Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978
Robinson, Kerry L; Driedger, Michelle S; Elliott, Susan J; Eyles, John
The health promotion best practices literature is imbued with hope for knowledge mobilization, enhanced practice, and improved population health. Given constrained medical care systems, health promotion is key to reducing the significant burden of chronic disease. However, we have seen little evidence of change. This article investigates facilitators of, and barriers to, three stages of health promotion practice in public health organizations, interagency coalitions, and volunteer committees. The article focuses not on what works but why it does or does not, drawing on five case studies within the Canadian Heart Health Initiative. Results indicate that the presence or absence of appropriately committed and/or skilled people, funds and/or resources, and priority and/or interest are the most common factors affecting all stages of health promotion practice. The article extends the literature on internal and external factors affecting health promotion and highlights strategic influences to consider in support of effective health promotion practice.
Rychetnik, Lucie; Dietetics, PGradDip; Lloyd, Beverley; Kerridge, Ian H.; Baur, Louise; Bauman, Adrian; Hooker, Claire; Zask, Avigdor
We propose a new approach to guide health promotion practice. Health promotion should draw on 2 related systems of reasoning: an evidential system and an ethical system. Further, there are concepts, values, and procedures inherent in both health promotion evidence and ethics, and these should be made explicit. We illustrate our approach with the exemplar of intervention in weight, and use a specific mass-media campaign to show the real-world dangers of intervening with insufficient attention to ethics and evidence. Both researchers and health promotion practitioners should work to build the capacities required for evidential and ethical deliberation in the health promotion profession. PMID:21233436
Background An online health-promoting community (OHPC) has the potential to promote health and advance new means of dialogue between public health representatives and the general public. The aim of this study was to examine what aspects of an OHPC that are critical for satisfying the needs of the user community and public health goals and service capabilities. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used for data collection and analysis, and participatory design principles to develop a case study OHPC for adolescents. Qualitative data from adolescents on health appraisals and perspectives on health information were collected in a Swedish health service region and classified into categories of user health information exchange needs. A composite design rationale for the OHPC was completed by linking the identified user needs, user-derived requirements, and technical and organizational systems solutions. Conflicts between end-user requirements and organizational goals and resources were identified. Results The most prominent health information needs were associated to food, exercise, and well-being. The assessment of the design rationale document and prototype in light of the regional public health goals and service capabilities showed that compromises were needed to resolve conflicts involving the management of organizational resources and responsibilities. The users wanted to discuss health issues with health experts having little time to set aside to the OHPC and it was unclear who should set the norms for the online discussions. Conclusions OHPCs can be designed to satisfy both the needs of user communities and public health goals and service capabilities. Compromises are needed to resolve conflicts between users’ needs to discuss health issues with domain experts and the management of resources and responsibilities in public health organizations. PMID:23826944
The author traces the development of the concept of health promotion from 1980s policies of the World Health Organization. Two approaches that signify the modernization of public health are outlined in detail: the European Health for All targets and the settings approach. Both aim to reorient health policy priorities from a risk factor approach to strategies that address the determinants of health and empower people to participate in improving the health of their communities. These approaches combine classic public health dictums with “new” strategies, some setting explicit goals to integrate public health with general welfare policy. Health for All, health promotion, and population health have contributed to this reorientation in thinking and strategy, but the focus of health policy remains expenditure rather than investment. PMID:12604477
Dunne, Cathy; Somerset, Maggie
This qualitative research was designed to investigate students' health needs and their views on health promotion in a University. A total of 31 students participated in focus group discussions. Inductive analysis revealed two central themes: student health concerns and health promotion in a University setting. The former included issues associated…
Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero
Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group. PMID:26107840
Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F
Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team.
McDermott, Brett M.; Cobham, Vanessa E.
Background From a global perspective, natural disasters are common events. Published research highlights that a significant minority of exposed children and adolescents develop disaster-related mental health syndromes and associated functional impairment. Consistent with the considerable unmet need of children and adolescents with regard to psychopathology, there is strong evidence that many children and adolescents with post-disaster mental health presentations are not receiving adequate interventions. Objective To critique existing child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) models of care and the capacity of such models to deal with any post-disaster surge in clinical demand. Further, to detail an innovative service response; a child and adolescent stepped-care service provision model. Method A narrative review of traditional CAMHS is presented. Important elements of a disaster response – individual versus community recovery, public health approaches, capacity for promotion and prevention and service reach are discussed and compared with the CAMHS approach. Results Difficulties with traditional models of care are highlighted across all levels of intervention; from the ability to provide preventative initiatives to the capacity to provide intense specialised posttraumatic stress disorder interventions. In response, our over-arching stepped-care model is advocated. The general response is discussed and details of the three tiers of the model are provided: Tier 1 communication strategy, Tier 2 parent effectiveness and teacher training, and Tier 3 screening linked to trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy. Conclusion In this paper, we argue that traditional CAMHS are not an appropriate model of care to meet the clinical needs of this group in the post-disaster setting. We conclude with suggestions how improved post-disaster child and adolescent mental health outcomes can be achieved by applying an innovative service approach. PMID:25045422
Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence
This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…
Michielsen, Kristien; De Meyer, Sara; Ivanova, Olena; Anderson, Ragnar; Decat, Peter; Herbiet, Céline; Kabiru, Caroline W; Ketting, Evert; Lees, James; Moreau, Caroline; Tolman, Deborah L; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Vega, Bernardo; Verhetsel, Elizabeth; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman
On December 4th 2014, the International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) at Ghent University organized an international conference on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) and well-being. This viewpoint highlights two key messages of the conference--(1) ASRH promotion is broadening on different levels and (2) this broadening has important implications for research and interventions--that can guide this research field into the next decade. Adolescent sexuality has long been equated with risk and danger. However, throughout the presentations, it became clear that ASRH and related promotion efforts are broadening on different levels: from risk to well-being, from targeted and individual to comprehensive and structural, from knowledge transfer to innovative tools. However, indicators to measure adolescent sexuality that should accompany this broadening trend, are lacking. While public health related indicators (HIV/STIs, pregnancies) and their behavioral proxies (e.g., condom use, number of partners) are well developed and documented, there is a lack of consensus on indicators for the broader construct of adolescent sexuality, including sexual well-being and aspects of positive sexuality. Furthermore, the debate during the conference clearly indicated that experimental designs may not be the only appropriate study design to measure effectiveness of comprehensive, context-specific and long-term ASRH programmes, and that alternatives need to be identified and applied. Presenters at the conference clearly expressed the need to develop validated tools to measure different sub-constructs of adolescent sexuality and environmental factors. There was a plea to combine (quasi-)experimental effectiveness studies with evaluations of the development and implementation of ASRH promotion initiatives.
Brekke, Idunn; Reisel, Liza
This article examines the relationship between birthweight, adolescent health (general health and psychological distress) and high school completion in Norway, using survey data linked to longitudinal registry data (n = 5,354). The findings show that the positive association between birthweight and high school completion can be attributed to…
Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha
Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…
Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.
Percival, Nikki; O’Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470
Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Linnan, Laura A; McLellan, Deborah L
Most American workplaces are smaller, with fewer than 1,000 employees. Many of these employees are low-wage earners and at increased risk for chronic diseases. Owing to the challenges smaller workplaces face to offering health-promotion programs, their employees often lack access to health-promotion opportunities available at larger workplaces. Many smaller employers do not offer health insurance, which is currently the major funding vehicle for health-promotion services. They also have few health-promotion vendors to serve them and low internal capacity for, and commitment to, delivery of on-site programs. The programs they offer, whether aimed at health promotion alone or integrated with health protection, are rarely comprehensive and are understudied. Research priorities for health promotion in smaller workplaces include developing programs feasible for the smallest workplaces with fewer than 20 employees. Policy priorities include incentives for smaller workplaces to implement comprehensive programs and an ongoing system for monitoring and evaluation.
Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes; Arruda, José Maria; Barroso, Maria Auxiliadora Bessa; Lobato Tavares, Maria de Fátima; Ribeiro Campos, Nora Zamith; Zandonadil, Regina Celi Moreira Basílio; da Rocha, Rosa Maria; Parreira, Clélia Maria de Souza Ferreira; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Correa, Carlos Roberto Silveira; Serrano, Miguel Malo
This article focuses on health promotion (HP) outcomes, illustrated through evaluation of case studies and identification of strategies which have contributed to their success and sustainability. Evaluation research and practice in three distinct sceneries are discussed: (i) institutional and governmental agencies; (ii) communities in the "Manguinhos Complex" and Nova Iguaqu Municipality, and (iii) building of potentially healthy municipality networks. The effectiveness of a social program in a health promotion perspective was based in the "School for Parents" program, undertaken by the First Court of Childhood and Youth of Rio de Janeiro, between 2001 and 2004. The analysis was grounded in the monitoring of 48 parents in charge of children under 18, who were victims of abuse, violence or negligence, and social exclusion, most of all. The study's objectives were: illustrating the evidence of effectiveness of health promotion, discussing the concept of HP effectiveness under macro unfavorable conditions, and identifying strategies that foster sustainability of results. Institutional resources included a multi-professional staff, multidisciplinary approaches, participatory workshops, family case management, partnership with public and private institutions, and volunteer and civil society sponsorship of the families. Evaluation was based on social impact indicators, and psychosocial and contextual determinants. Evaluation methods included program monitoring and quantitative-qualitative methods, through a longitudinal evaluation of 3 years, including one year post program. The evaluation showed highly favorable results concerning "family integration', "quality of family relations" and "human rights mobilization". Unsatisfactory results such as "lack of access to formal employment" are likely related to structural factors and the need for new public policies in areas such as education, professional training, housing, and access to formal employment. The training process
Orkin, F. Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E.; Yakubovich, Alexa R.; Sherr, Lorraine
Background The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of ‘cash’ (economic provision) and ‘care’ (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Findings Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys’ hunger and girls’ school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys’ sexual exploitation and girls’ mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. Interpretation National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and
Juszczak, Linda; Cooper, Kathleen
Adolescent men are at risk of having significant unmet health care needs. Like adolescent girls, they have complex health care needs and are more likely than younger children to be to be uninsured. They are less likely than women and other age groups to seek medical attention from traditional sources of care. Because of inadequate youth-oriented services, as well as teens' developmental stage, they have a tendency to receive care that is brief and problem oriented . Such care is not likely to address complex problems that may be related to risk behaviors. Adolescent boys are also more concerned with the skills of the provider offering services than with the system in which the provider functions. Opportunities for outreach to adolescent men exist within many institutions. Nurses as advocates, educators, counselors, and providers of preventive health care have a creative opportunity for enhancing services to the teenage boy. The school is a natural place to begin as adolescents spend a significant part of each day there. Family planning and STI clinics are a source of care that are not well used by adolescent males, but when they do attend it is an opportunity to identify problems, provide counseling and referrals, and offer continuity. These health care institutions are not often welcoming or comfortable for the male youth. Use of these clinics will be enhanced by providers demonstrating increased acceptance of the adolescent when he attends as well as actively requesting that he attend with his partner. The most unusual but sorely needed outreach must be made to incarcerated and delinquent adolescent male. Residential facilities for delinquent youth need to be encouraged to provide a multidisciplinary comprehensive medical, mental health, and social services model. This approach will not only benefit the adolescent but the youth's community as well. Emergency rooms represent another crucial, missed opportunity to connect with young men. With some forethought
Knishkowy, Barry; Schein, Moshe; Kiderman, Alexander; Velber, Aliza; Edman, Richard; Yaphe, John
The AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) has been the cornerstone of preventive care for teenagers since its publication in 1994. Despite this, there has been little documentation of their implementation in the family medicine literature. This article gives an overview of a family practice-based adolescent preventive health program based on GAPS recommendations, and reports on compliance, feasibility and health issues. A Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) program targeted all adolescent patients aged 12-18 years in two Israeli family practices. 321 teenagers were invited to participate. Every 7th and 10th grader was invited for a preventive health visit with the family physician and nurse. The visits included a medical evaluation, screening and counseling regarding health issues recommended by GAPS, and counseling regarding personal health concerns. Parents were also invited to meet with the staff. 184 (57%) of the adolescents invited for health visits attended. The overall visit time was 47 minutes, including 12 minutes for a questionnaire and 35 minutes with providers. Common biomedical problems included overweight, acne and dysmenorrhea. Health risk behaviors and psychosocial problems included cigarette or alcohol use, dieting, infrequent/never seat belt use, and feeling depressed. 78% wanted to discuss at least one personal health issue. 27% were invited for follow-up visits. Only 3% of the parents came for visits. A community-oriented approach facilitates bringing adolescents for preventive health visits. Many previously undetected health issues, particularly psychosocial and behavioral, are revealed during these visits. A concerns checklist aids in addressing personal health concerns.
Clark, Peter A.; Schadt, Sam
The foreign-born population in the United States, according to the “Current Populations Report” published in 2010, is estimated to exceed 39.9 million, or “12.9 percent of the U.S. population.” The increase in foreign-born peoples and their need for health care is a complicated issue facing many cities, health systems and hospitals. Over the course of the past few years Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia has treated increasing numbers of foreign-born African patients. The majority have been presenting in the late stages of disease. The increase of foreign-born documented and undocumented African patients seen by Mercy Hospitals seems to reflect a foreign-born population “boom” in Philadelphia over the past decade. To meet the needs of this growing population, the Mercy Hospital Task Force on African Immigration and the Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University designed a program that centers on the third world concept of “Health Promoters.” This program is intended to serve as one possible solution for hospitals to cost-effectively manage the care of this growing percentage of foreign-born individuals in the population. This notion of a “Health Promoter” program in Philadelphia is unique as one of those rare occasions when a third world concept is being utilized in a first world environment. It is also unique in that it can serve as a paradigm for other hospitals in the United States to meet the growing need of health care for the undocumented population. As of November 2012 the Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia clinic became operative for patients who were referred from the Health Promoter clinics. To date, a total of forty-two patients have actively participated in the screenings, sixteen of which have been referred to Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia clinic for further evaluation. More than 75% of patient referrals were a result of high blood pressure. According to the American Medical Association, readings of 140–159 mmHg and
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida
Although parents play a vital role in fostering healthy sexuality-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents, many parents struggle with how to address sexuality-related topics with their adolescent child. This article provides practitioners with evidence-based frameworks and guidelines on how to work with parents in order to improve their…
Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.
This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…
Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar
In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity.
Harris, Katherine M.; Martin, Laurie T.; Lurie, Nicole
In 2007, Sanofi Pasteur asked RAND Health, a division of the RAND Corporation, to study the current climate for adolescent immunization in the United States, to recommend broad strategies for immunizing low-income adolescents (through age 18), and to identify promising "on the ground" practices consistent with the proposed strategic…
Shah, Brandi; Chan, Serena H.; Perriera, Lisa; Gold, Melanie A.; Akers, Aletha Y.
OBJECTIVE Delivery of reproductive services to adolescents varies by specialty and has been linked to differences in clinical training. Few studies have explored how different specialties’ graduate medical education (GME) programs prepare providers to deliver adolescent reproductive services. We explored the perceptions of resident physicians regarding their training in delivering adolescent reproductive health services. DESIGN Between November 2008 and February 2009, nine focus groups were conducted with graduate medical trainees in three specialties that routinely care for adolescents. The semi-structured discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an inductive approach to content analysis. SETTING Large, urban academic medical center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PARTICIPANTS 54 resident trainees in pediatrics, family medicine and obstetrics/gynecology INTERVENTIONS None MAIN OUTCOMES Trainees’ perspectives regarding the didactic teaching and clinical training in providing adolescent reproductive services RESULTS Five themes emerged reflecting trainees’ beliefs regarding the best practices GME programs can engage in to ensure that trainees graduate feeling competent and comfortable delivering adolescent reproductive services. Trainees believed programs need to: 1) Provide both didactic lectures as well as diverse inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences; 2) Have faculty preceptors skilled in providing and supervising adolescent reproductive services; 3) Teach skills for engaging adolescents in clinical assessments and decision-making; 4) Train providers to navigate confidentiality issues with adolescents and caregivers; and 5) Provide infrastructure and resources for delivering adolescent reproductive services. CONCLUSIONS The three specialties differed in how well each of the five best practices were reportedly addressed during GME training. Policy recommendations are provided. PMID:26542014
Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N
Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused
Epping, Jacqueline N
Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity.
Mulé, Nick J; Ross, Lori E; Deeprose, Barry; Jackson, Beth E; Daley, Andrea; Travers, Anna; Moore, Dick
In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH), and public health goals, in light of the lack of recognition of gender and sexually diverse individuals and communities. By first acknowledging the unique health and social care needs of LGBT people, then employing anti-oppressive, critical and intersectional analyses we offer recommendations for how to make population health perspectives, public health goals, and the design of public health promotion policy more inclusive of gender and sexual diversity. In health promotion research and practice, representation matters. It matters which populations are being targeted for health promotion interventions and for what purposes, and it matters which populations are being overlooked. In Canada, current health promotion policy is informed by population health and social determinants of health (SDOH) perspectives, as demonstrated by Public Health Goals for Canada. With Canada's multicultural makeup comes the challenge of ensuring that diverse populations are equitably and effectively recognized in public health and health promotion policy.
Loss, Julika; Lindacher, Verena; Curbach, Janina
Among adolescents, online social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook are popular platforms for social interaction and may therefore be considered as 'novel settings' that could be exploited for health promotion. In this article, we examine the relevant definitions in health promotion and literature in order to analyze whether key characteristics of 'settings for health promotion' and the socio-ecological settings approach can be transferred to SNS. As many of our daily activities have shifted to cyberspace, we argue that online social interaction may gain more importance than geographic closeness for defining a 'setting'. While exposition to positive references to risk behavior by peers may render the SNS environment detrimental to health, SNS may allow people to create their own content and therefore foster participation. However, those health promotion projects delivered on SNS up until today solely relied on health education directed at end users. It remains unclear how health promotion on SNS can meet other requirements of the settings approach (e.g. building partnerships, changing the environment). As yet, one should be cautious in terming SNS a 'setting'.
... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...
Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.
This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412
Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy
Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010
Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Ahmad, Nihal
Abstract Significance: Diet-derived antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects, including their role in the chemoprevention of cancer. In general, botanical antioxidants have received much attention, as they can be consumed for longer periods of time without any adverse effects. Flavonoids are a broadly distributed class of plant pigments that are regularly consumed in the human diet due to their abundance. One such flavonoid, fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in various fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber. Recent Advances: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of fisetin against numerous diseases. It is reported to have neurotrophic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and other health beneficial effects. Critical Issues: Although fisetin has been reported as an anticarcinogenic agent, further in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies are required to delineate the mechanistic basis of its observed effects. In this review article, we describe the multiple effects of fisetin with special emphasis on its anticancer activity as investigated in cell culture and animal models. Future Directions: Additional research focused toward the identification of molecular targets could lead to the development of fisetin as a chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer and other diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 151–162. PMID:23121441
Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…
Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm
To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…
Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E
In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health.
Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.
This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893
Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Sandberg, Joanne C; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Altizer, Kathryn P; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A
This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures.
Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk
Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.
Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S
In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement.
Murphy, P. Karen; Rowe, Meredith L.; Ramani, Geetha; Silverman, Rebecca
Engaging in critical-analytic thinking is essential for knowledge construction and school success. However, little is known about how best to promote such thinking in children and adolescents. Since the research base on promoting critical-analytic thinking is nascent, considering research on fostering skills that could be considered its…
Dombrowski, Jill J; Snelling, Anastasia M; Kalicki, Michelle
Health promotion practice has evolved over the past four decades in response to the rising rates of chronic disease. The focus of health promotion is attaining wellness by managing modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, diet, or physical activity. Occupational health nurses are often asked to conduct worksite health promotion programs for individuals or groups, yet may be unfamiliar with evidence-based strategies. Occupational health nurses should lead interprofessional groups in designing and implementing worksite health promotion programs. This article introduces occupational health nurses to health promotion concepts and discusses evidence-based theories and planning models that can be easily introduced into practice.
Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil
Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…
Mackie, J W; Oickle, P
At the August 1995 meeting of the General Council of the CMA, a resolution supporting school-based health promotion (comprehensive School Health) was adopted. This article briefly reviews the research supporting this integrated approach to school and community programs, applies the recommended approach to reducing tobacco use and outlines a role for physicians in promoting Comprehensive School Health in their communities. PMID:9145058
Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek
Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830
Herbert, Patrick C.; Lohrmann, David K.
Health promotion programs for school staff are an overlooked and underused resource that can reduce overweight and obesity among teachers and other staff members. They can also reduce staff absenteeism, increase productivity, reduce costs associated with health care and disability, and foster a climate that promotes good health schoolwide. An…
Feldman, Robert H. L.
By working with labor unions, health educators have the opportunity to reach worker groups that have been ignored by many worksite health promotion programs. A union-based smoking cessation program is described, and general guidelines for worksite health promotion are given. (IAH)
Ryan, Kelly M.
Health promotion of school faculty and staff is an important part of a coordinated school health program. The lack of evaluation of health promotion programs and inconsistent results highlighting the efficacy and benefits of programs adds to employers' perceptions of inconsistent benefits. More studies evaluating effectiveness and development of…
Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek
Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.
Thomas, Tami L
The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients.
McPherson, Lyn; Ware, Robert S.; Carrington, Suzanne; Lennox, Nicholas
Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability have high levels of unrecognized disease and inadequate health screening/promotion which might be addressed by improving health advocacy skills. Methods: A parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether a health intervention package, consisting of…
This special issue, Developing Social- Emotional and Behavioral Interventions with School Communities: Systematic and Collaborative Processes, reflects the current state of the science for improving schools to better educate children and adolescents and promote their behavioral health. The innovations described in this volume describe advancements…
Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ortega, Diana Patricia
In Latin America, comprehensive health promotion programmes and activities are being implemented in the school setting, which take into account the conceptual framework of the Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional office of the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). These programmes help to strengthen the working relationships between the health and education sectors. The Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative, officially launched by PAHO/WHO in 1995, aims to form future generations to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills necessary for promoting and caring for their health and that of their family and community, as well as to create and maintain healthy environments and communities. The Initiative focuses on three main components: comprehensive health education, the creation and maintenance of healthy physical and psychosocial environments, and the access to health and nutrition services, mental health, and active life. In 2001, PAHO conducted a survey in 19 Latin American countries to assess the status and trends of Health-Promoting Schools in the Region, for the appropriate regional, subregional, and national planning of pertinent health promotion and health education programmes and activities. The results of this survey provided information about policies and national plans, multisectoral coordination mechanisms for the support of health promotion in the school settings, the formation and participation in national and international networks of Health-Promoting Schools and about the level of dissemination of the strategy. For the successful development of Health-Promoting Schools is essential to involve the society as a whole, in order to mobilise human resources and materials necessary for implementing health promotion in the school settings. Thus, the constitution and consolidation of networks has been a facilitating mechanism for the exchange of ideas, resources and experiences to strengthen
Clarke, Aleisha M; Kuosmanen, Tuuli; Barry, Margaret M
The rapid growth in the use of online technologies among youth provides an opportunity to increase access to evidence-based mental health resources. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a narrative synthesis of the evidence on the effectiveness of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions for youth aged 12-25 years. Searching a range of electronic databases, 28 studies conducted since 2000 were identified. Eight studies evaluating six mental health promotion interventions and 20 studies evaluating 15 prevention interventions were reviewed. The results from the mental health promotion interventions indicate that there is some evidence that skills-based interventions presented in a module-based format can have a significant impact on adolescent mental health, however, an insufficient number of studies limits this finding. The results from the online prevention interventions indicate the significant positive effect of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy on adolescents' and emerging adults' anxiety and depression symptoms. The rates of non-completion were moderate to high across a number of studies. Implementation findings provide some evidence that participant face-to-face and/or web-based support was an important feature in terms of program completion and outcomes. Additional research examining factors affecting exposure, adherence and outcomes is required. The quality of evidence across the studies varied significantly, thus highlighting the need for more rigorous, higher quality evaluations conducted with more diverse samples of youth. Although future research is warranted, this study highlights the potential of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions in promoting youth wellbeing and reducing mental health problems.
Fajardo, Daniel M.; McGourty, David G.
A method for fading object rewards for superordinate prerequisites to social play simultaneously with socially rewarded training on specific play was effective in teaching games to 15 institutionalized retarded adolescents. (Author/CL)
Smith, Scott R; Samar, Vincent J
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults, but it is unclear whether this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ), and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents' health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills. Participants were 187 D/HH and 94 hearing college-bound high school students. When we adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, school grade, and socioeconomic status, D/HH adolescents demonstrated weaker general and functional health literacy and cardiovascular health knowledge than hearing adolescents on the HLSI, S-TOFHLA, and CHDKQ (all ps < .0001). Standard health literacy or knowledge scores were associated with several interactive and critical health literacy skills (all ps < .05). D/HH adolescents who reported greater hearing-culture identity, having hearing aids, experiencing better hearing with assistive devices, having good quality of communication with parents, and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher functional health literacy (all ps < .025). Those who reported English as their best language and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher cardiovascular health knowledge scores (all ps < .03). Results suggest that interventions to improve D/HH adolescents' health literacy should target their health-related conversations with their families; access to printed health information; and access to health information from other people, especially health care providers and educators.
Baños, Rosa M; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina
Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual's strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research-prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents-and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks.
Baheiraei, Azam; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Weiler, Robert M
Objective It is important to consider the health concerns of adolescents before developing and implementing public health promotion or health education curriculum programs aimed at ameliorating priority health problems experienced by adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the original Adolescent Health Concern Inventory (AHCI) for use with an Iranian population. Methods This was a methodological study in which 50 adolescents with age range of 14-18 years were selected using convenience sampling. The translation and cultural adaptation process of The AHCI followed recognized and established guidelines. The face and content validity was established by analyzing feedback solicited from teenagers and professionals with expertise in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was examined using test-retest and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency reliability. Kappa and McNemar tests were used to examine test-retest reliability for each item. Results Minor cultural differences were identified and resolved during the translation process and determining the validity of the checklist. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicate a high degree of test-retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha for the subscales were between 0.68 and 0.87 with total instrument reliability of 0.96 indicating considerable overall reliability. Conclusion The Persian version of the AHCI appears valid and reliable. Hence, it can be used for filling a gap in identifying the adolescents’ health concerns in the research and community settings and school health education programs in Iran to design appropriate interventions. PMID:23682249
This is the second in a two-part unit on health promotion in sexual health. Part 1 outlined various theories and models on the issue. This part examines the factors that contribute towards successful health promotion, such as an effective communication style. It outlines how nurses can put health-promotion theory, competencies and guidance into practice.
Presents a model curriculum on health promotion and disease prevention for allied health students. Suggested program elements include (1) promoting personal health patterns, (2) fitting health promotion into daily routines, (3) using persuasion, (4) working with support groups and individuals, and (5) serving as a clearinghouse. (CH)
Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.
Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890
Kickbusch, Ilona; Reddy, K Srikanth
Communities are characterized by common interests, common ecology, and common social system or structure. These characteristics, qualities, and processes involved in the community affect both health behaviors and health outcomes during disease outbreaks. Hence, health promotion theorists and practitioners emphasize working 'with' rather than 'on' communities. They believe health promotion, with all its experiences in community mobilization, empowerment, and health literacy programs, should be part of disease prevention and control efforts from the very beginning. Health promotion knowledge needs to be fully integrated into infectious disease control, especially in the context of outbreaks.
Taylor, Gary; Hawley, Helen
This article considers the extent to which health promotion strategies pose a threat to individual freedom. It begins by taking a look at health promotion strategies and at the historical development of health promotion in Britain. A theoretical context is then developed in which Berlin's distinction between negative and positive liberty is used alongside the ideas of John Stuart Mill, Charles Taylor and T.H. Green to discuss the politics of health promotion and to identify the implications of conflicting perspectives on freedom. The final section looks at current health promotion policy in Britain and beyond and argues that, if freedom is seen in terms of empowerment, health promotion can enhance individual freedom.
Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline
Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…
Tucker, Carolyn M; Butler, Ashley M; Loyuk, Imicuk S; Desmond, Frederic F; Surrency, Sharon L
This study used Health Self-Empowerment (HSE) Theory as a framework for examining the predictors of engagement in both a health-promoting lifestyle and individual health-promoting behaviors among low-income African American mothers and non-Hispanic white mothers (N = 96), each of whom is the primary caregiver for a chronically ill adolescent. The individual health-promoting behaviors investigated are eating a healthy diet, exercising consistently, stress management practices, and health responsibility behaviors. The examined HSE Theory-based predictor variables were health self-efficacy, active coping, health motivation, and health self-praise. Multiple regression analyses revealed that these predictor variables together accounted for a significant amount of variance (67%) in level of engagement in a health-promoting lifestyle. Additionally, active coping, health self-praise, health self-efficacy, and health motivation were significant individual predictors of 1 or more individual health-promoting behaviors. Findings from this study suggest that further research should be conducted to assess the usefulness of HSE Theory in predicting level of engagement in health-promoting behaviors and to examine the effectiveness of HSE Theory-based interventions for increasing health-promoting behaviors among women similar to those in this study. The findings also suggest that health care providers should promote active coping, health self-praise, health self-efficacy, and health motivation to increase health-promoting behaviors among patients who are similar to those in this study.
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.
Roden, Janet; Jarvis, Lynda
Researchers were involved in an evaluative approach to examine the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses from a paediatric tertiary hospital centre (N = 83) and five paediatric non-tertiary hospital centres (N = 48) from Sydney, Australia. The aims of this study were to understand the nature of heath promotion in paediatric nursing practice by examining nurses' attitudes, investigating paediatric nurses' involvement in the five action area of the Ottawa Charter, and identifying barriers to the implementation of health promotion in practice. The researchers developed a health promotion survey based around the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (World Health Organisation, 1986a), and a literature review of nurses' involvement in health promotion. Results showed that tertiary paediatric nurses undertook more varied health promotion activities such as creating supportive environments (CSE), reorienting health services (RHS) and building healthy public policy (BHPP) than did non-tertiary paediatric nurses who were involved in only one action area of the Charter, that of developing personal skills (DPS). This research revealed that within paediatric nursing practice the action areas of the Ottawa Charter of BHPP and CSE were important; and that there is support for the advocacy role of paediatric nurses. There is also evidence that paediatric nurses may have health promotion knowledge deficits associated with the Ottawa Charter, and that the environment of multidisciplinary allied health professionals in a tertiary paediatric centre may positively influence senior paediatric nurses and their capacity to be involved in varied health promotion activities associated with the Ottawa Charter.
Sieving, Renee E; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Gower, Amy L; Kapa, Hillary M; Beckman, Kara J; Doty, Jennifer L; Plowman, Shari L; Resnick, Michael D
Over the past 30 years, prevention science in the adolescent health field has moved from interventions focused on preventing single problem behaviors to efforts employing a dual approach, addressing risk factors that predict problems while simultaneously nurturing protective factors and promoting positive development. Through an examination of previous research and empirical case examples with vulnerable youth, this article considers the hypothesis that adolescents' sense of connectedness to caring adults acts as a protective factor against a range of risk behaviors. Multivariate analyses with existing data examined indicators of youth-adult connectedness among two groups at high risk for poor health outcomes: (1) mentor-youth relationship quality in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of students in a school-based mentoring program (2014 survey, N=239); and (2) parent-youth connectedness in a statewide sample of high school students who reported homelessness in the past year (2013 survey, N=3,627). For youth in the mentoring program, a high-quality youth-mentor relationship was significantly associated with positive social, academic, and health-related behaviors. Among students who experienced homelessness, all measures of parent connectedness were significantly associated with lower sexual risk levels. Collectively, findings from these analyses and previously published studies by this research group provide evidence that strong, positive relationships with parents and other caring adults protect adolescents from a range of poor health-related outcomes and promote positive development. Youth-adult connectedness appears to be foundational for adolescent health and well-being. Program, practice, and policy decisions should consider what strengthens or hinders caring, connected youth-adult relationships.