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  1. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  2. Measuring subjective health in children and adolescents: results of the European KIDSCREEN/DISABKIDS Project

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Schmidt, Silke; Gosch, Angela; Erhart, Michael; Petersen, Corinna; Bullinger, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Currently there is a lack of information regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of healthy as well as chronically ill children on a European level. In 2 European projects questionnaires for the assessment of the HRQoL in children and adolescents have been developed: The KIDSCREEN project aims at a co-operative European development of a standardised screening instrument for children's HRQoL for the implementation in representative national and European health surveys. In the DISABKIDS project a chronic-generic questionnaire as well as modules for specific conditions (e.g. asthma) were developed for children with chronic conditions. Methods: Both projects shared similar steps: 1. Development phase, in which the items were generated and tested, 2. Survey and Field phase, in which the modified questionnaires were tested with healthy and chronically ill children and adolescents in national representative surveys, and 3. Implementation phase in national health surveys or clinical studies. Results: In the sister projects, the KIDSCREEN instrument was tested in 22,830 children and the DISABKIDS instrument in 1605 chronically ill children. The current paper describes the development and pilot-testing as well as psychometric results of the field tests of both studies. Conclusion: The KIDSCREEN/DISABKIDS instruments make it possible to assess generic, chronic-generic and disease-specific aspects of quality of life in children and present an innovative approach to intercultural HRQoL assessment in health research. PMID:19742297

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  5. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  6. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:17514448

  7. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.

  8. [Adolescent health in numbers].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives.

  9. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F

    2012-07-01

    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures. PMID:22836889

  10. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F

    2012-07-01

    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures.

  11. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender) were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females) reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females) reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001). Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use), and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence". PMID:19939261

  12. Health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents are the future adults of the world. While adolescence is typically regarded as a period of life relatively free from health problems, adolescents are actually in need of the attention of health professionals and health services, especially with regard to sexual health. A trend of decreasing age at menarche and increasing age at marriage presents adolescents with a substantial number of years in which they will experiment with their developing reproductive organs and sexuality. Substantial psychological and physical change takes place during this period. Inconsistent and suboptimal users of contraception, youths are at high risk for reproductive health problems and sexually transmitted diseases. Substance abuse, unintentional and intentional injuries and their sequelae, academic underachievement and illiteracy, and obesity may also be problematic for adolescents. Adolescents are, however, most damaged by internalized and externalized homophobia. The authors point out that adolescents may be persuaded to learn and change their behaviors more readily than adults. Appropriate messages could be conveyed through targeted information, education, and communication strategies to complement medical and health care services which are available, accessible, and acceptable. PMID:12318653

  13. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  14. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  15. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  17. [Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.

  18. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Craig A; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2) loss of control over drinking (difficulty stopping, amnesia), (3) binge drinking (5+ standard drinks in a day) and (4) heavy binge drinking (20+ and 11+ standard drinks in a day for males and females, respectively). Young Adult Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) was assessed at 3 yearly intervals (3 waves) across the 20s (mean ages 20.7 through 29.1 years). Results We show that patterns of teen drinking characterised by loss of control increase risk for AUD across young adulthood: loss of control over drinking (one wave OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8; two or more waves OR 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.7); binge drinking (one wave OR 1.7, CI 1.3 to 2.3; two or more waves OR 2.0, CI 1.5 to 2.6), and heavy binge drinking (one wave OR 2.0, CI 1.4 to 2.8; two or more waves OR 2.3, CI 1.6 to 3.4). This is not so for frequent drinking, which was unrelated to later AUD. Although drinking was more common in males, there was no evidence of sex differences in risk relationships. Conclusions Our results extend previous work by showing that patterns of drinking that represent loss of control over alcohol consumption (however expressed) are important targets for intervention. In addition to current policies that may reduce overall consumption, emphasising prevention of more extreme teenage bouts of alcohol consumption appears warranted. PMID:26868948

  19. Promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-10-01

    The aim is to discuss why paediatricians should be involved in adolescent health care and provide youth-friendly-health-services. Global epidemiological data on morbidity and mortality demonstrate that much of ill health in the short and long run are connected to adolescent behaviour and in theory available for prevention. Young people seemingly lose their heads and do not consider dangers. Recent research on brain development provides us with an understanding how this may have a biological base. Also psychology has long taught us how adolescents use experimental behaviours as means to satisfy developmental needs and explore identity. Prevention and health promotion are areas of research where much more needs to be done. There is also a lack of venues for publishing even excellent studies in this field.

  20. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  1. FastStats: Adolescent Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Adolescent Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of adolescents 12-17 years of age who are in ...

  2. Imagine HEALTH: results from a randomized pilot lifestyle intervention for obese Latino adolescents using Interactive Guided ImagerySM

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for innovative and developmentally appropriate lifestyle interventions to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and to prevent the early onset of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in obese Latino adolescents. Guided imagery offers promise to reduce stress and promote lifestyle behavior change to reduce disease risk in obese adolescents. Our objectives were: 1) To pilot test a new 12-wk lifestyle intervention using a randomized trial design in obese Latino adolescents, in order to determine the effects of the mind-body modality of Interactive Guided ImagerySM (IGI), over and above those of a didactic lifestyle education, on insulin resistance, eating and physical activity behaviors, stress and stress biomarkers; and 2) To explore the role of intervention-related changes in stress and stress biomarkers on changes in metabolic outcomes, particularly insulin resistance. Methods Obese (BMI > 95th percentile), Latino adolescents (n = 35, age 14-17) were randomized to receive either 12 weekly sessions of a lifestyle education plus guided imagery program (GI), or lifestyle education plus a digital storytelling computer program (DS). Between-group differences in behavioral, biological, and psychological outcomes were assessed using unpaired T-tests and ANCOVA in the 29 subjects who completed the intervention. Results The GI group demonstrated significant reductions in leisure sedentary behavior (p < .05) and increases in moderate physical activity (p < .05) compared to DS group, and a trend toward reduced caloric intake in GI vs DS (p = .09). Salivary cortisol was acutely reduced by stress-reduction guided imagery (p < .01). There were no group differences in adiposity, insulin resistance, perceived stress, or stress biomarkers across the 12-week intervention, though decrease in serum cortisol over the course of the intervention was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (p = .03) independent

  3. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  4. Comparison of Breast Health Teaching Methods for Adolescent Females: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Ahmad, Wajih A.; Davies, Susan L.; Snyder, Scott W.; Macrina, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A breast health educational program was administered in two public high school settings in north Alabama to subjects enrolled in health related courses. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if teaching breast health with or without interactive learning would affect the breast health knowledge and beliefs of…

  5. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  6. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  7. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-05-11

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  8. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience. PMID:17081315

  9. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were

  10. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  11. Improving adolescent maternal health.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C; Moodley, D

    2015-11-01

    Each year thousands of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa (SA) become pregnant and many die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although women of all ages are susceptible, girls<15 years of age are five times as likely, and those aged 15-19 years twice as likely, to die from complications related to childbirth than women in their 20s. In SA, non-pregnancy-related infections (e.g. HIV), obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension contributed to almost 70% of avoidable maternal deaths. In addition to the implementation of standardized preventive interventions to reduce obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension, better reproductive health services for adolescents, access to HIV care and treatment for women infected with HIV, and improved access to and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception are important ingredients for reducing maternal mortality among adolescents. PMID:26937508

  12. Adolescence: a foundation for future health.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.

  13. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Implications for the Provision of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Results of a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Lith, Lynn M.; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C.; Waxman, Aliza; Hatzhold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V.; Kasedde, Susan; Lija, Gissenge; Hasen, Nina; Ncube, Gertrude; Samuelson, Julia L.; Bonnecwe, Collen; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. Methods and Findings A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. Conclusions VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population. PMID:26938639

  14. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  15. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  16. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents. PMID:27171604

  17. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents.

  18. COMT Val(158)Met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Anney, R J L; Collins, V; Hemphill, S A; Williamson, R; Patton, G C

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether a composite genetic factor, based on the combined actions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (Val(158)Met) and serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) (Long-Short) functional loci, has a greater capacity to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence than either locus in isolation. Analyses were performed on DNA collected from 962 young Australians participating in an eight-wave longitudinal study of mental health and well-being (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study). When the effects of each locus were examined separately, small dose-response reductions in the odds of reporting persisting generalized (free-floating) anxiety across adolescence were observed for the COMT Met(158) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.004] and 5HTTLPR Short alleles (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.033). There was no evidence for a dose-response interaction effect between loci. However, there was a double-recessive interaction effect in which the odds of reporting persisting generalized anxiety were more than twofold reduced (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.29-0.70, P < 0.001) among carriers homozygous for both the COMT Met(158) and the 5HTTLPR Short alleles (Met(158)Met + Short-Short) compared with the remaining cohort. The double-recessive effect remained after multivariate adjustment for a range of psychosocial predictors of anxiety. Exploratory stratified analyses suggested that genetic protection may be more pronounced under conditions of high stress (insecure attachments and sexual abuse), although strata differences did not reach statistical significance. By describing the interaction between genetic loci, it may be possible to describe composite genetic factors that have a more substantial impact on psychosocial development than individual loci alone, and in doing so, enhance understanding of the contribution of constitutional processes in mental health outcomes. PMID:17504250

  19. Dietary patterns of Brazilian adolescents: results of the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adolescents, describe their distributions in Brazil's State capitals and Federal District, and analyze the correlations with the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M). The study analyzed a sample of 60,954 ninth-graders from public and private schools who participated in the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. Cluster analysis was used to characterize dietary patterns. Three patterns were identified: healthy (27.7%), unhealthy (34.6%), and mixed (37.7%). Adolescents in the country's Southeast, South, and Central West regions showed a higher proportion of the healthy eating pattern. HDI-M showed a positive correlation with the healthy pattern and a negative correlation with the mixed pattern. The identification of different dietary patterns within and between regions and according to HDI-M highlights the need for better knowledge of each local context in terms of both the magnitude of events and the examination of determinants within these different realities.

  20. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  1. [Body measurements of children and adolescents in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, H; Kahl, H; Bergmann, K E

    2007-01-01

    In the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a number of anthropometric parameters were assessed in a standardised way in 17,641 boys and girls. To this end, body weight and height, head circumference and upper arm length, as well as two skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular) were measured for the entire age range (0-12 years); starting from 6 years of age, elbow breadth and from 11 years of age waist and hip circumference were measured in addition. For all parameters, means with confidence intervals are reported per age (in years) and gender. Median graphs depict the changes with increasing age according to gender for each body measurement. The complex age-related anthropometric developments along with significant gender specificity show the full range of the dynamic physical development in boys and girls. Based on skinfold measurement data, the body fat percentage was estimated. Thickness and location of the skinfolds, as well as the calculated waist-to-hip ratio is used as an indicator for gender-specific fat distribution. Using the frame index, it is attempted to estimate skeletal robustness. For the anthropometric parameters studied, hardly any regional differences were found. However, head circumference, frame index and all parameters strongly associated with body fat show a significant social status gradient. Children and adolescents with migration background have on average a lower height, larger waist circumference and higher percentage of body fat. PMID:17514450

  2. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  3. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  4. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health.

  5. Adolescents' Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  6. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  7. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  8. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  9. Comparisons between Thai Adolescent Voices and Thai Adolescent Health Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.

    2006-01-01

    Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…

  10. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-10-01

    The pediatrician plays a major role in helping optimize bone health in children and adolescents. This clinical report reviews normal bone acquisition in infants, children, and adolescents and discusses factors affecting bone health in this age group. Previous recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D are updated, and clinical guidance is provided regarding weight-bearing activities and recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake and supplementation. Routine calcium supplementation is not recommended for healthy children and adolescents, but increased dietary intake to meet daily requirements is encouraged. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the higher recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D advised by the Institute of Medicine and supports testing for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with conditions associated with increased bone fragility. Universal screening for vitamin D deficiency is not routinely recommended in healthy children or in children with dark skin or obesity because there is insufficient evidence of the cost-benefit of such a practice in reducing fracture risk. The preferred test to assess bone health is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but caution is advised when interpreting results in children and adolescents who may not yet have achieved peak bone mass. For analyses, z scores should be used instead of T scores, and corrections should be made for size. Office-based strategies for the pediatrician to optimize bone health are provided. This clinical report has been endorsed by American Bone Health. PMID:25266429

  11. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  12. Increasing healthy behaviors in adolescents of Mexican heritage in rural emerging Latino communities: results from a school-based health intervention pilot study.

    PubMed

    Villalba, José A; Amirehsani, Karen; Lewis, Todd F

    2011-06-01

    The rapid Latino population growth in emerging Latino communities (EmLCs) presents a challenge to health care providers as most current health interventions and health promotion programs intended for Latinas/os are based on characteristics of established Latino communities (EsLCs). This study addresses the gap in the literature by modifying and testing the beginning efficacy of a school-based health intervention for adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC. Seventy adolescents of Mexican heritage attending a rural middle school participated in the intervention. Paired samples t-tests were performed to determine differences between healthy behaviors at post-intervention compared to pre-intervention. Significant improvements in participants' physical activity and healthy eating were observed between pre-intervention and post-intervention. A school-based health intervention designed to increase healthy behaviors of adolescents of Mexican heritage in a rural EmLC was successful. PMID:20803071

  13. Homelessness and health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haldenby, Amy M; Berman, Helene; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Despite an abundance of resources, many of the world's wealthiest nations have a large homeless population. People at all stages of development are affected by this problem, but adolescents who are homeless face a unique set of challenges. In this critical narrative study the authors examined the experiences of homeless adolescents with particular attention to the role of gender and public policy, health experiences and perceptions, and barriers to health care services. Six girls and 7 boys participated in semistructured dialogic interviews. Their stories revealed that living without a home had a substantial impact on their health and wellness. The findings from this study support the need for health care professionals to work in collaboration with homeless youth so that more effective care that is sensitive to their unique health needs can be provided.

  14. Adolescent mental health in China.

    PubMed

    McClure, G M

    1988-03-01

    Adolescent Mental Health in China is the responsibility of the wider society and is supported by social, educational and health care resources. With limited facilities, China emphasizes community mental health care, with prevention and health promotion as priorities. Mental health is considered in the context of an orderly socialist society with stable family life supported by the state. Society is currently influenced by a mixture of Communist ideology, ancient tradition and newer Western approaches. Difficulties in reconciling these factors are affecting the attitudes and behaviour of China's youth. PMID:3290295

  15. Facing Facts: Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W., Ed.

    This report summarizes the deliberations, findings, and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. The report defines the characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent, provides a foundation for understanding the three developmental stages of adolescents (early, middle, and late adolescence), and offers…

  16. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  17. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  18. A Guide to Adolescent Health Care EPSDT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…

  19. [Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents in Germany: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Ellert, U; Brettschneider, A-K; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a change in the health and disease spectrum among children and adolescents, with an increase in mental health problems and a shift from acute to chronic illness. In this phase, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has increased in importance as a dimension of subjective health. The aim of this study is to describe the HRQoL of children and adolescents measured with the internationally standardized screening instrument KIDSCREEN-10. In the follow-up of the KiGGS study in 2009-2012 (KiGGS Wave 1), 2,567 parents of children aged 7-10 years and 4,878 adolescents aged 11 years or older completed the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. In all, 94% of parents of 7- to 10-year-old girls and boys estimate the HRQoL of their children to be "very good" or "good." Of the 11- to 17-year-old adolescents, 96% report their HRQoL as "very good" or "good." Somatic diseases and pain as well as mental health problems and a low social status are included in the HRQoL in only a limited way. Potential differences in HRQoL by social status were not confirmed in multivariate models. The HRQoL of the examined children and adolescents is predominantly very good or good. Interventions to improve the HRQoL of children and adolescents with diseases and psychopathological problems are necessary, regardless of their social status.

  20. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  1. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  2. Teaching adolescents about adolescence: experiences from an interdisciplinary adolescent health course.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri

    2006-01-01

    As abstract reasoning increases in complexity, adolescents may face dissonance between new thoughts and prior beliefs. Students in the health professions may be forced to resolve these dissonances in order to execute their professional responsibilities. In developing an undergraduate interdisciplinary course on adolescent health, the authors anticipated challenges in teaching adolescents about adolescence. Over the course of the semester, the anticipated challenges became reality. The author discusses pertinent developmental theories and their application in facilitating late adolescent identity formation and professional role development.

  3. Assessing Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Meghan; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Ball, Victoria N.

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive health of American adolescents has been, and continues to be, a matter of serious concern. America's teen birth rate--already one of the highest among developed nations--is again on the rise. Also, rates of sexually-transmitted infection (STI) among teens remain disconcertingly high, with one-quarter of the 19 million new cases of…

  4. Assessing the Mental Health of Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa

    2007-01-01

    Mental health problems can develop at any point in life and may be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics or family history of a disorder, chemical imbalances in the brain, or stressors in the environment. Adolescence is a time of great change and transition, when youth are starting to make decisions about career paths, further…

  5. Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Use by Adolescents Mental Health Sexual & Reproductive Health Sports Medicine Substance Use Transition to Adult Care Related ... Puberty/Normal Development Eating Disorders and Nutrition LGBT Health Media Use by ... Medicine Substance Abuse Transition to Adult Care Clinical ...

  6. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Steenland, Kyle; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS have been positively associated with serum lipids. Our objective is to interrogate the association between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children. Design Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting Mid-Ohio river valley. Participants 12,476 children included in the C8 Health Project, resultant from the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply. Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides). Results Mean serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2±111.9 ng/mL and 22.7±12.6 ng/mL. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. In GLM ANCOVA analysis, between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6 mg/dL and 3.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean of total and LDL cholesterol, and an 8.5 mg/dL and 5.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean for total and LDL cholesterol between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and gender-group strata. Observed effects were non-linear, with larger increases in total and LDL cholesterol occurring the lowest range of particularly PFOA. Conclusions While the epidemiologic and cross-sectional nature of the current study limit causal inferences, the consistent observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total and LDL cholesterol warrant further study. PMID:20819969

  7. Adolescent Health in the United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…

  8. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  9. Predictors of Participation in Parenting Workshops for Improving Adolescent Behavioral and Mental Health: Results from the Common Sense Parenting Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Fernandez, Kate; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Oats, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging and retaining participants are crucial to achieving adequate implementation of parenting interventions designed to prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. This study examined predictors of engagement and retention in a group-based family intervention across two versions of the program: a standard version requiring only parent attendance for six sessions and an adapted version with two additional sessions that required attendance by the son or daughter. Families included a parent and an eighth grader who attended one of five high-poverty schools in an urban Pacific Northwest school district. The adapted version of the intervention had a higher rate of engagement than the standard version, a difference that was statistically significant after adjusting for other variables assessed at enrollment in the study. Higher household income and parent education, younger student age, and poorer affective quality in the parent-child relationship predicted greater likelihood of initial attendance. In the adapted version of the intervention, parents of boys were more likely to engage with the program than those of girls. The variables considered did not strongly predict retention, although retention was higher among parents of boys. Retention did not significantly differ between conditions. Asking for child attendance at workshops may have increased engagement in the intervention, while findings for other predictors of attendance point to the need for added efforts to recruit families who have less socioeconomic resources, as well as families who perceive they have less need for services. PMID:25656381

  10. Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C): survey design and pilot study results on selected exposure biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Lee, Kee Jae; Park, Inho; Lim, Young-Wook; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Yeni; Seo, Ju-Hee; Hong, Soo-Jong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Yu, Jeesuk; Kim, Jeongseon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Bo-Eun

    2014-03-01

    For the first nationwide representative survey on the environmental health of children and adolescents in Korea, we designed the Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C) as a two-phase survey and planned a sampling strategy that would represent the whole population of Korean children and adolescents, based on the school unit for the 6-19 years age group and the household unit for the 5 years or less age group. A pilot study for 351 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years in elementary, middle, and high school of two cities was performed to validate several measurement methods and tools, as well as to test their feasibility, and to elaborate the protocols used throughout the survey process. Selected exposure biomarkers, i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium in blood, and bisphenol A, metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate and cotinine in urine were analyzed. We found that the levels of blood mercury (Median: 1.7 ug/L) and cadmium (Median: 0.30 ug/L) were much higher than those of subjects in Germany and the US, while metabolites of phthalates and bisphenol A showed similar levels and tendencies by age; the highest levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A occurred in the youngest group of children. Specific investigations to elucidate the exposure pathways of major environmental exposure need to be conducted, and the KorEHS-C should cover as many potential environmental hazards as possible.

  11. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  12. Pre-testing. Adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mariano, C S; Alvarez, R O

    1994-03-01

    Sex and contraception are still taboo topics in the Philippines, distorted and kept in the dark by the media, the Roman Catholic Church, and fundamentalist groups. Adolescents therefore generally learn about sex education from peers who are often equally misinformed. Myths abound about the realities of sex and sexuality. Uninformed though they may be, Filipino adolescents still experiment with sexuality and sexual intercourse, and have generated a high incidence of unwanted teen pregnancy and maternal mortality. 50% of pregnant women below the age of 15 die from pregnancy- and childbirth-related complications. The Japan Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and MEXFAM jointly produced three animated films for Latin American adolescents and young couples. The Institute for Social Studies in Action (ISSA) and JOICFP conducted a series of focus group discussions between the months of July and August 1993 to see whether these films would also be effective and appropriate among Filipino counterparts. The ISSA is a nongovernmental organization promoting women's reproductive health in the Philippines. "The Blue Pigeon" focuses upon sexual changes which take place in the minds and bodies of boys and girls and graphically explains the processes of sexual intercourse, contraception, pregnancy, and childbirth. "Music for Two" features a girl in pursuit of love who imagines a variety of male-female relationships. Finally, "Best Wishes" focuses on the importance of good communication between partners and sharing household responsibilities.

  13. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…

  14. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  15. Medical and Mental Health Needs of Adolescent Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a study analyzing the health records of 181 adolescent Indochinese refugees in San Diego, CA. Focuses on the medical problems known to be prevalent among adult Indochinese refugees: tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasites, and hepatitis B antigenemia. Reports that Indochinese adolescents may have a high rate of mental…

  16. Impact of an Intervention Designed to Reduce Sexual Health Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenner, Lynne W.; Walsh, Sarah; Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Davis, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To replicate an evidence-based HIV risk reduction program and assess its impact on 2 behavioral outcomes—inconsistency of condom use and frequency of sex—6 months after the program. Methods. The study was an individual-level randomized controlled trial in which we randomly assigned 850 youths (aged 14–18 years) to 1 of 2 conditions. The treatment (Becoming a Responsible Teen) is a group-level sociocognitive and skills training sexual education course; the control is a general health intervention that includes the same initial informational component as the treatment. Participants were recruited over 3 summers (2012–2014) from a summer employment program in New Orleans, Louisiana, that serves primarily African American adolescents. Results. Six months after program exposure, we found no statistically significant difference between treatment and control group members’ self-reported inconsistency of condom use or frequency of sex (P > .05). Conclusions. Although previous evidence has indicated that this particular program can be effective, this study’s findings indicate that it was not effective in this setting with this specific population. Results should provide an incentive to learn why the intervention works in some cases and what conditions are necessary for causal impacts. PMID:27689499

  17. Parental violence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention. PMID:20821263

  18. Adolescent sexuality, contraceptive health and STD.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Y; Jainudeen, M R; Irvin, R P

    1986-10-01

    Major topics addressed by this article on adolescent sexuality include adolescent festivals, adolescent reproductive psychophysiology, contraception for adolescents, the World Federation of Contraception and Health, sexually transmitted diseases, and recommendations for research. The purpose of adolescent festivals is to increase communication between young people and their parents on subjects such as sexuality. Of particular concern is the traumatic emotional, physical, and financial impact of adolescent pregnancy, both in developed and developing countries. Contraceptive methods considered to be most appropriate for use in developing countries are injectable Depo-Provera and the Norplant contraceptive implant system. To reduce the problem of adolescent pregnancy, television programs need to portray responsible sexuality, family responsibility and involvement must be strengthended, funds for education and prevention programs should be increased, and there must be more intraprofessional collaboration. The World Federation of Contraception and Health, a nonprofit multicenter institution, has been created to make recommendations on how current resources can be utilized to address problems of adolescent sexuality. Adolescent clubs are being set up to provide adolescents and their families with computer support and information. Another concern is the spread of sexually transmitted diseases that cause infections in the genitourinary tract and threaten to impair future fertility. The incidence of diseases such as chlamydia trachomatis and nongonococcal urethritis is especially high in teenagers. Needed in the future are more multicenter studies conducted by microbiologists, pathophysiologists, family planning experts, epidemiologists, venereologists, gynecologists, obstetricians, and dermatologists on the many aspects of adolescent sexuality.

  19. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents.

  20. Self-reported lifetime asthma and nativity status in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sharon P; Borrell, Luisa N; Shapiro, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Nativity status seems to have a protective effect on asthma. However, there is little information in the literature on the effect of nativity status on asthma for non-Hispanic Black and White children and adolescents. This study investigates the association between nativity status and self-reported asthma in U.S. children and adolescents under 21 years of age after controlling for selected characteristics including education and income. Logistic regression was conducted using SUDAAN to estimate odds ratios from data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The prevalence of asthma for U.S. children and adolescents is 14.5%, with U.S.-born exhibiting a higher prevalence (15.1%) than foreign-born (7.3%, p<.0001). In the fully-adjusted analysis, foreign-born children and adolescents were almost twice less likely than U.S.-born counterparts to report asthma. This association differs by race/ethnicity, with the lowest odds being observed in Whites (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.86), followed by Mexican Americans (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.25-0.56) and Blacks (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94). Moreover, this association varies by education: Foreign-born children of survey respondents who had at least a high school education were more than twice less likely than their U.S.-born counterparts to have asthma. The findings of this study underscore the importance of inquiring about nativity status when studying asthma among U.S. children and adolescents. PMID:20453381

  1. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative

  2. [Health of children and adolescents in single-parent, step-, and nuclear families: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Rattay, P; von der Lippe, E; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of data from KiGGS Wave 1, the following manuscript investigates potential differences in the health status of children and adolescents aged 3-17 years according to the family form they live in: nuclear, single-parent, or stepfamily (n = 10,298). Additionally, we investigate whether differences persist after controlling for age, gender, living area, parental social status, and getting along in the family. Parent-rated health, chronic diseases, emotional or behavior problems, health-related quality of life, and daily consumption of fruits and vegetables were analyzed (prevalence, odds ratios). While the parent-rated health was independent of the family form, the prevalence of the other outcomes differed significantly according to the family form. Emotional or behavior problems were measured more often among children and adolescents growing up in single-parent families (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.17-2.26) or stepfamily households (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.63-3.41) than among those growing up in nuclear families, after adjusting for age, gender, living area, social status, and getting along in the family. Additionally, children and adolescents from single-parent families had chronic diseases (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.20-1.96) more often than their counterparts who lived together with both parents. Compared with those growing up in nuclear families, children and adolescents from stepfamilies showed a greater risk of lower health-related quality of life (OR 2.91; 95% CI 1.76-4.80) and of lower daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.67). The results indicate the importance of the family context for the health of children and adolescents.

  3. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  4. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes.

  5. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. PMID:26162972

  6. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  7. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  8. Psychometrics of the Laffrey Health Conception Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.

  9. The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Aneshensel, C S; Sucoff, C A

    1996-12-01

    Mental health disorders in adolescence are pervasive, often carry into adulthood, and appear to be inversely associated with social status. We examine how structural aspects of neighborhood context, specifically, socioeconomic stratification and racial/ethnic segregation, affect adolescent emotional well-being by shaping subjective perceptions of their neighborhoods. Using a community-based sample of 877 adolescents in Los Angeles County, we find that youth in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods perceive greater ambient hazards such as crime, violence, drug use, and graffiti than those in high SES neighborhoods. The perception of the neighborhood as dangerous, in turn, influences the mental health of adolescents: the more threatening the neighborhood, the more common the symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Social stability and, to a lesser extent, social cohesion, also emerge as contributors to adolescent disorder. This investigation demonstrates that research into the mental health of young people should consider the socioeconomic and demographic environments in which they live.

  10. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all.

  11. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  12. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  13. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  14. Achieving Quality Health Services for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This update of the 2008 statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics redirects the discussion of quality health care from the theoretical to the practical within the medical home. This statement reviews the evolution of the medical home concept and challenges the provision of quality adolescent health care within the patient-centered medical home. Areas of attention for quality adolescent health care are reviewed, including developmentally appropriate care, confidentiality, location of adolescent care, providers who offer such care, the role of research in advancing care, and the transition to adult care. PMID:27432849

  15. Association of Arsenic with Kidney Function in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Darcy; Chin-Chi, Kuo; Ana, Navas-Acien; Abraham, Alison G.; Virginia, Weaver; Jeffrey, Fadrowski

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests adverse health effects even at low levels of exposure. This study examined the association of arsenic exposure with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and compared methods of adjustment for urinary dilution in a representative sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,253 participants ages 12–30 years in the 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available urinary arsenic and eGFR measures. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the association of urinary total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA) with eGFR. Results The median urinary total arsenic and DMA concentrations were 6.3 μg/L (IQR 3.3 – 12.7 μg/L) and 3.3 μg/L (IQR 1.7 – 5.7 μg/L), respectively. Median eGFR was 109 mL/min/1.73 m2. Adjusting arsenic for urine concentration with urinary creatinine, eGFR was 4.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 7.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% CI 0.5 to 8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) per log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA, respectively. When using urine osmolality to adjust for urine concentration, a log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA was associated with a 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.8 to 1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 0.01 (95% CI −1.9 to 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2) lower eGFR, respectively. Conclusions Discordant associations were observed between arsenic and eGFR levels depending on whether urinary creatinine or osmolality was used to adjust for urine concentration. Further study should be dedicated to validating the best approach to account for urinary dilution in research in toxicants, and this may have implications for all studies which examine urinary biomarkers. PMID:25909687

  16. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  17. [Prospective study of psychiatric and pedagogic evaluation of the adolescent service of the Student Health Foundation of France. Methodology and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Halfon, O; Laget, J; Ekbatani, A; Barbaux, J J

    1992-01-01

    The present prospective study, with a five-year follow-up, presents an extensive psychiatric and educational assessment of an adolescent population (N = 30) in the age range 14-20, suffering from several psychiatric disorders, though apt to follow a normal academic program. The residential settings where the study took place provide both psychiatric and schooling facilities. In this environment, what is the effectiveness of long-term hospitalization? Are there any criteria for predicting results? After discharge, could social adjustments difficulties be prevented? Assessment instruments are described and the results of one preliminary study are presented. The actual data seems to confirm the impact of the special treatment facilities combining schooling and psychiatric settings on the long term outcome of adolescents. PMID:1342658

  18. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents.This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na]), U[Na] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na]/Cr), and U[Na] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion.The mean levels of U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1-3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na]/Cr and U[Na]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly increasing trends with

  19. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  20. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  1. Predictors of Adolescent Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…

  2. Adolescent Health Research Updates: Supplement to the Adolescent Health Plan, Numbers 1-6, December 1996-November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleich, Ley, Ed.

    This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth Hatton) examines the…

  3. Adolescent confidentiality: Understanding and practices of health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Wadman, Ruth; Thul, Deborah; Elliott, April S; Kennedy, Andrea Pritchard; Mitchell, Ian; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent confidentiality may present practice challenges for health care providers related to family, medical, ethical, legal, social and bureaucratic processes. It is unclear how health care providers understand and practice confidentiality with adolescents in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice of health care providers at Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta), and to inform practice about the adolescent’s right to confidentiality. METHODS: The present study was a voluntary, anonymous online survey. Invitations to participate were sent through the paediatric facility’s electronic mailing list to all currently employed health care providers who potentially engaged in caregiving interactions with adolescents. The survey consisted of 15 closed items and seven open comment items. Closed items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and open comments were analyzed using manifest thematic coding. RESULTS: A total of 389 responses were received, representing health care providers in many disciplines. A variety of practices related to adolescent confidentiality and widespread misunderstanding of this issue were apparent. Respondents’ comments revealed individual and team knowledge gaps regarding adolescent and parent/guardian rights, and the difference between the constructs of consent to treatment and the provision of confidential health care for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: While health care providers regard confidentiality as paramount, the present survey revealed a wide variation in understanding and practices regarding confidential care for adolescents. This was revealed in both the qualitative and quantitative data. The authors’ recommended strategies to improve the understanding and practice of adolescent confidentiality include: encouraging individuals’ examination of beliefs; postsecondary instruction; knowledge-translation strategies within programs; and institution-directed guidelines and policy. PMID

  4. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  5. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  6. Association between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and persisting patterns of anxiety and alcohol use: results from a 10-year longitudinal study of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Lotfi-Miri, M; Collins, V; Williamson, R; Patton, C; Anney, R J L

    2005-09-01

    The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) encodes a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in regulating serotonergic neurotransmission and related aspects of mood and behaviour. The short allele of a 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (S-allele) within the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) confers lower transcriptional activity relative to the long allele (L-allele) and may act to modify the risk of serotonin-mediated outcomes such as anxiety and substance use behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (or not) 5-HTTLPR genotypes moderate known associations between attachment style and adolescent anxiety and alcohol use outcomes. Participants were drawn from an eight-wave study of the mental and behavioural health of a cohort of young Australians followed from 14 to 24 years of age (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, 1992 - present). No association was observed within low-risk attachment settings. However, within risk settings for heightened anxiety (ie, insecurely attached young people), the odds of persisting ruminative anxiety (worry) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 30% per allele: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.97, P=0.029). Within risk settings for binge drinking (ie, securely attached young people), the odds of reporting persisting high-dose alcohol consumption (bingeing) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 35% per allele: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86, P<0.001). Our data suggest that the S-allele is likely to be important in psychosocial development, particularly in those settings that increase risk of anxiety and alcohol use problems.

  7. Racial disparities in mental health service use by adolescents who thought about or attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Freedenthal, Stacey

    2007-02-01

    Differences in rates and predictors of mental health service use among 2,226 Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents (aged 12-17) who reported recent suicidal thoughts or an attempt were examined. Black adolescents were 65% (OR = .65, p < .05), and Hispanic adolescents were 55% (OR = .55, p < .001), as likely as White adolescents to report service use, even when controlling for need for care and ability to secure services. Suicide attempt and psychiatric symptoms each interacted with race to increase the odds of service use uniquely for White adolescents. Results indicate that racial disparities characterize adolescents' mental health service use even when suicide risk increases. PMID:17397277

  8. [Effects of family or school disconnection on adolescents' health].

    PubMed

    Demerval, R; Cartierre, N; Coulon, N

    2003-03-01

    This article presents research on the health of adolescents who are in situations of either family or school detachment. Fourteen health indicators were used to investigate the physical, social and psychological well-being of adolescents. In addition, two separate scales were constructed to take into account family and school disengagement. As anticipated, the results prove that detachment from either family or school has a negative impact on health and this effect is amplified in cases of double detachment--both from family and school. The results also suggest an effect of contextual resilience since the school can play a protective role in for the health of adolescents who are in a situation of family disaffiliation. This research emphasises the need to analyse the risk and protective factors within a developmental and ecological theoretical framework to allow for the consideration of the dynamics involved between the different areas of life which are significant for an individual at a given moment in his development.

  9. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  10. Update: Health Insurance and Utilization of Care among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…

  11. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  12. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16-20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  13. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

  14. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…

  15. Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    This article reviews the progress made in meeting United States' existing mental health goals for adolescents, and identifies issues that will have to be considered in setting new goals. The article examines the substantial need for child mental health services, particularly among young, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The unmet need for…

  16. Media Literacy and Health Promotion for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…

  17. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  18. Adolescent mental health as a risk factor for adolescent smoking onset

    PubMed Central

    Hockenberry, Jason M; Timmons, Edward J; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2011-01-01

    Smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable deaths and rates of trying cigarettes and progression to daily smoking among adolescents continues to remain high. A plethora of risk factors for smoking among adolescents has been addressed in the research literature. One that is gaining particular interest is the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking (both initiation and progression). This paper reviews the evidence for adolescent mental health as a risk factor for cigarette smoking. We focus on the specific mental health conditions that have been more thoroughly addressed as possible risk factors in community-dwelling adolescents. We discuss the multiple hypotheses that have been posited as to the nature of the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking, as well as detailing so called third factors that may account for the observed relationship. We highlight the contribution of the existing studies to the body of knowledge on this topic, as well as the limitations and open questions that remain as a result. We conclude with discussion of a broad research agenda going forward. PMID:24600273

  19. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  20. Determinants of Mental Health Service Use Among Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Breland, David J.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rockhill, Carol; Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate determinants of mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Method We assessed mental health services use over the 12 months following screening among 113 adolescents (34 males, 79 females) from an integrated healthcare system who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 11). Youth characteristics (demographics, depression severity, and co-morbidity) and parent characteristics (parent history of depression, parent-report of youth externalizing and internalizing problems) were compared among youth who had received mental health services and those who had not. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the strongest factors associated with mental health service use. Results Overall, 52% of adolescents who screened positive for depression received mental health service in the year following screening. Higher parent-reported youth internalizing problems (OR 5.37 CI 1.77–16.35), parental history of depression/anxiety (OR 4.12 CI 1.36–12.48) were significant factors associated with mental health service use. Suicidality and functional impairment were not associated with increased mental health services use. Conclusion Parental factors including recognition of the adolescent’s internalizing symptoms and parental experience with depression/anxiety are strongly associated with mental health service use for depressed adolescents. This highlights the importance of educating parents about depression and developing systems to actively screen and engage youth in treatment for depression. PMID:24417955

  1. Parents' work patterns and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Alfred; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth

    2009-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that non-standard work schedules undermine the stability of marriage and reduce family cohesiveness. Limited research has investigated the effects of parents working non-standard schedules on children's health and wellbeing and no published Australian studies have addressed this important issue. This paper contributes to bridging this knowledge gap by focusing on adolescents aged 15-20 years and by including sole parent families which have been omitted in previous research, using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Multilevel linear regression models are estimated to analyse the association between parental work schedules and hours of work and measures of adolescents' mental health derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. Evidence of negative impacts of parents working non-standard hours upon adolescent wellbeing is found to exist primarily within sole parent families.

  2. Childhood and adolescence: challenges in mental health.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-05-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.

  3. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  4. Rural Latino adolescent health: preliminary examination of health risks and cultural correlates.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Kidwell, Katherine M; Armenta, Brian E; Crockett, Lisa J; Carlo, Gustavo; Whitbeck, Les B

    2014-06-01

    Latino adolescents living in rural settings may be at increased risk of health problems; however, data describing the health status of this population are limited. This study examined 60 rural Latino adolescents and found high rates of health risk, including at-risk/clinical results for hemoglobin A1C (23.3%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55%), systolic blood pressure (21.7%), and overweight/obesity (55%). Time in sedentary behaviors was high and physical activity was limited. Adolescent language use was associated with health risk status, with greater use of English associated with lower risk. Health psychologists could promote improved health by providing health behavior interventions to this underserved population. PMID:23520352

  5. The mass media and American adolescents' health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D; Witherspoon, Elizabeth M

    2002-12-01

    American teens today grow up in a world saturated with the mass media. In general, the media depict a world in which unhealthy behaviors such as physical aggression, unprotected sex, smoking, and drinking are glamorous and risk-free. We summarize what is known about the media's effects on four adolescent health issues that have been studied most comprehensively: violence and aggression; sex; obesity, nutrition, and eating disorders; and alcohol and tobacco use. A number of approaches that have potential for helping turn the media into more positive forces for adolescents' health are discussed

  6. Suicide Ideation, Plan, and Attempt in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Nock, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The study examines data from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey to study the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Mexican adolescents. The results reveal patterns of the risk factors and suggest that intervention should focus on adolescents with mental disorders to effectively prevent suicides.

  7. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  8. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quantitative key-informant survey

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Christina P.C.; Ng, Lauren C.; Stevenson, Anne; Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Harris, Benjamin L.; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Gray, Deborah A.; Carney, Julia R.; Domínguez, Silvia; Wang, Edward K.S.; Boxill, Ryan; Song, Suzan J.; Henderson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Between 1989 and 2004, Liberia experienced a devastating civil war that resulted in widespread trauma with almost no mental health infrastructure to help citizens cope. In 2009, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare collaborated with researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital to conduct a rapid needs assessment survey in Liberia with local key informants (n = 171) to examine the impact of war and post-war events on emotional and behavioral problems of, functional limitations of, and appropriate treatment settings for Liberian youth aged 5–22. War exposure and post-conflict sexual violence, poverty, infectious disease and parental death negatively impacted youth mental health. Key informants perceived that youth displayed internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mental health-related functional impairment at home, school, work and in relationships. Medical clinics were identified as the most appropriate setting for mental health services. Youth in Liberia continue to endure the harsh social, economic and material conditions of everyday life in a protracted post-conflict state, and have significant mental health needs. Their observed functional impairment due to mental health issues further limited their access to protective factors such as education, employment and positive social relationships. Results from this study informed Liberia's first post-conflict mental health policy. PMID:26807147

  9. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of

  10. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  11. Cultivating Health: An Agenda for Adolescent Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aurora Camacho de

    Nearly 20 percent of all migrant farmworkers are adolescents, and as many as half of these may be unaccompanied by their families. These youth clearly have special health and educational needs that require commitment from social institutions and agencies. In June 1991, a conference held in Delray Beach, Florida by the National Coalition of…

  12. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  13. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  14. Who Adolescents Trust May Impact Their Health: Findings from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Marshall, Beth; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-06-01

    This study is one of the first to explore the relevance of trust to the health of adolescents living in a disadvantaged urban setting. The primary objectives were to determine the differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between adolescents who do and do not trust and to examine the associations between trust and health. Data were drawn from the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, which is a cross-sectional global study of adolescents in very low-income urban settings conducted in 2011-2013. This paper focused on 446 adolescents in Baltimore as it was the primary site where trust was explicitly measured. For the main analyses, six health outcomes were examined: (1) self-rated health; (2) violence victimization; (3) binge drinking; (4) marijuana use; (5) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (6) condom use at last sex. Independent variables included sociodemographic variables (age, gender, current school enrolment, perceived relative wealth, and family structure) and two dimensions of trust: community trust (trust in individuals/groups within neighborhood) and institutional trust (trust in authorities). The results show that more than half the sample had no trust in police, and a high proportion had no trust in other types of authority. Among girls, those with higher levels of community trust were less likely to be victimized and involved in binge drinking. Meanwhile, girls with higher levels of institutional trust were more likely to use a condom and less likely to have used marijuana. Among boys, those with higher levels of community trust were more likely to use a condom, while those with higher levels of institutional trust were less likely to use marijuana, but more likely binge drink. Overall, this study highlights the importance of trust for adolescent health. Most surprising were the differences in the associations between boys and girls with regard to the type of trust and specific health outcome that was

  15. [Expertising according to the federal German social welfare legislation and child and adolescent welfare laws by public health offices--results of an inquiry].

    PubMed

    Raithel, F; Hilbert, T; Walter, K

    2002-07-01

    Between December 2000 and February 2001 a survey among public health offices was conducted on the practice of expert reports on recipients of income support. More than 50 % (232) of the German public health offices participated; they carried out 164.000 of these reports in 1999. The analysis of the data shows considerable differences between the states (Bundesländer) concerning reasons and practice of expert reports which cannot be explained by a different social structure of population but indicate that quality of orders from Social Services and the work process in Public Health Offices may be inadequate. The findings result in recommendations for social services and public health offices to develop standards and improve quality, which can help to achieve greater equality.

  16. Promoting Teen Health and Reducing Risks: A Look at Adolescent Health Services in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This study examined data from focus groups with New York City adolescents and interviews with health care providers serving New York City adolescents (hospital based clinics, school based health centers, child health clinics, community health centers, and a multi-service adolescent center) in order to determine how to promote health and reduce…

  17. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.

  18. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce. PMID:26540584

  19. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  20. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. PMID:22281841

  1. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles.

  2. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting.

    PubMed

    East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Barber, Jennifer S

    2012-02-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents' lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents' poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents' wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents' poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences.

  3. Adolescent health care education and training: insights from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kerem, Nogah C; Hardoff, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing need for health care professionals to extend their knowledge in adolescent health care. Formal training curricula in adolescent medicine have been established in the United States, Canada, and Australia, yet many other countries have developed shorter training programs to enable interested physicians to further pursue knowledge and practical experience in delivering improved quality health care for adolescents. The Israeli experience in building an infrastructure that allows students and physicians to learn about adolescent medicine and to train in the field is described. It includes a series of lectures and seminars for medical students during medical school and at the clinical rotations in pediatric wards; the development of hospital-based and community-based multidisciplinary adolescent health services where residents can practice adolescent health care; a 3-year diploma course in adolescent medicine for specialists in pediatrics and family medicine; mini courses in adolescent medicine for pediatricians and family practitioners working in community settings; and a simulated patient-based program regarding communication with adolescents, aimed for all professional levels - medical students, residents, and specialists. This infrastructure has been developed to create a leading group of physicians, who are able to operate adolescent clinics and to teach adolescent medicine. Recently, a formal fellowship program in adolescent medicine has been approved by the Scientific Council of the Israel Medical Association. The Israeli experience described here could be applied in countries, where formal training programs in adolescent health care are not yet established. PMID:27341557

  4. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  5. Health Concerns of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery

    1987-01-01

    Examined health concerns of 278 urban junior high school students. Highest levels of concerns pertained to dental health, friendships, nutrition, and sex; lowest levels pertained to smoking, birth control, pregnancy, and homosexuality. Younger, female, and less healthy students expressed greater health concerns. (Author/NB)

  6. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA): Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Shahla; Ramezankhani, Ali; Montazeri, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA). Methods This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012–2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15–18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13) and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16). In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and factor analysis were assessed. Results An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15–18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93). The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy. Conclusion The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA) is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15

  7. The influence of living conditions on adolescent girls’ health

    PubMed Central

    Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is described by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare as the healthiest period in life. However, adolescent girls differ in that they self-report that their health decreases with age. The aim of this hermeneutical study was to describe the meaning of living conditions in relation to adolescent girls’ health. Guided by principles of reflective lifeworld research, 15 interviews with adolescent girls were analysed. The result section consists of four narratives with their existential interpretations illustrating different ways of approaching living conditions and their meaning for health and well-being. The narratives are: Approaching everyday life in a balanced way—feeling harmonious; approaching everyday life with ambiguity—feeling confused; approaching everyday life as an intellectual project—striving for control; approaching everyday life as a struggle—feeling forlorn. In addition, a comprehensive understanding was developed by using the lifeworld dimensions: lived body, lived room, lived time, and lived relations. These dimensions may deepen the understanding of important parts of those living conditions which are meaningful for the girls’ health and well-being. By using the dimensions, complex living conditions have been explored and the meaning of different parts clarified. The girls’ thoughts and feelings are often ambiguous and sometimes contradictory, depending on the situation. The health of adolescent girls needs to be understood against the background of their experiences of living conditions. One way to support their health and well-being seems to be to supply them with forums where they can talk about their living conditions. PMID:23237626

  8. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  9. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents.

  10. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  11. Adolescents’ Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents’ views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. Results A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for “safe” resources. Discussion Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents’ preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. Translation to Health Education Practice Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents’ views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  12. Adolescent Health Care Use: Investigating Related Determinants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…

  13. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  14. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  15. Positive Self-Beliefs as a Mediator of the Relationship between Adolescents' Sports Participation and Health in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an…

  16. Health-related quality of life and perceived need for mental health services in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Loiselle, Kristin A; Devine, Katie A; Simons, Laura E; Mee, Laura L; Blount, Ronald L

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to assess interest in mental health services among parents of adolescent solid organ transplant recipients and the relationship between parent perceived need for mental health services and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Sixty-three parents rated interest in receiving 10 mental health services, and patient HRQOL ratings were gathered from adolescent transplant recipients and their parents. Ninety-four percent of parents expressed some level of interest in at least one of the proposed services, with over 40 % indicating maximum interest. Parents' perceived need for mental health services was inversely related to adolescent and parent reports of HRQOL on the behavior, mental health, family cohesion, and parental impact-emotional domains. Results suggest that parents of adolescent solid organ transplant recipients are interested in receiving mental health services for their families. Assessment of need for mental health services and HRQOL may inform the medical team of families requiring intervention.

  17. Irregular breakfast eating and health status among adolescents in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rea-Jeng; Wang, Edward K; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2006-01-01

    Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE) is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE), health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB) for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade) adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1%) and girls (52.9%) ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6%) reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04), and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly. PMID:17150112

  18. Implications of Type 2 Diabetes on Adolescent Reproductive Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Julie S.; Arslanian, Silva; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Copeland, Valire Carr; Doswell, Willa; Herman, William; Lain, Kristine; Mansfield, Joan; Murray, Pamela J.; White, Neil; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article was to summarize scientific knowledge from an expert panel on reproductive health among adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Using a mental model approach, a panel of experts—representing perspectives on diabetes, adolescents, preconception counseling, and reproductive health—was convened to discuss reproductive health issues for female adolescents with T2D. Results Several critical issues emerged. Compared with adolescents with type 1 diabetes, (1) adolescents with T2D may perceive their disease as less severe and have less experience managing it, putting them at risk for complications; (2) T2D is more prevalent among African Americans, who may be less trusting of the medical establishment; (3) T2D is associated with obesity, and it is often difficult to change one’s lifestyle within family environments practicing sedentary and dietary behaviors leading to obesity; (4) teens with T2D could be more fertile, because obesity is related to earlier puberty; (5) although obese teens with T2D have a higher risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is associated with infertility, treatment with metformin can increase fertility; and (6) women with type 2 diabetes are routinely transferred to insulin before or during pregnancy to allow more intensive management. Conclusions Findings from the expert panel provide compelling reasons to provide early, developmentally appropriate, culturally sensitive preconception counseling for teens with T2D. PMID:20944055

  19. Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. Results In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference < 0.5 standard deviations) ranges from 34.9% for the 'Self-esteem' scale to 51.9% in the 'Psychological' scale. The most important factor explaining parents rating was the level of the child's self-assessment followed by the parent's assessment of the subjective health, or reported emotional abnormalities. Conclusions Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information. PMID:22111939

  20. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  1. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  2. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  3. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  4. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  5. Adolescent Health Promotion Groups: A Primer for Milieu Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…

  6. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  7. Immunization Services for Adolescents within Comprehensive School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Mary E.; Bryan, Gloria; Hunt, Pete; Allensworth, Diane; Bradley, Beverly

    1997-01-01

    Discusses school health services, adolescent immunization, current school immunization practices, and support for school-based immunization programs. Children and adolescents can receive preventive health services, including immunizations and monitoring of immunization levels. Expanding school health services could improve the immunization levels…

  8. Addressing Safety in Schools: CDC's Division of Adolescent & School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH) is to prevent the most serious health risks among children, adolescents, and young adults. Its goal is to prevent unintentional injuries and violence by enabling the nation's schools to address safety through coordinated school health programs. It attempts to achieve this goal…

  9. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future. PMID:27491062

  10. Differential Effects of Support Providers on Adolescents' Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the differential effects of parent, teacher, and peer social support on depression and self-esteem of 217 adolescents. Results indicate that female adolescents perceived significantly more support from friends than male adolescents did, whereas male adolescents perceived significantly more support from fathers. Self-esteem was…

  11. Facing facts: sexual health for America's adolescents: the report of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D W

    1995-01-01

    Compared to life in the 1950s, today's teenagers become physically mature earlier and marry later. There is a steady increase in the proportion of adolescents having sexual intercourse, and in the percentage doing so at younger ages. Moreover, almost all teens experiment with some type of sex, with largely similar patterns of sexual activity among males and females, and young people from different ethnic, socioeconomic, and religious groups. There is, however, little public, professional, or political consensus about what is sexually healthy for teenagers. SIECUS convened the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health in 1994. The commission believes that there is an urgent need for a new approach to adolescent sexual health, one in which adults help young people avoid unprotected and unwanted sexual behavior. Individual adults and society in general must help adolescents develop the values, attitudes, maturity, and skills to become sexually healthy adults. On June 21, 1995, SIECUS released its report on adolescent sexual health in America. This condensed version highlights key findings and recommendations of the National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health. Sections consider adolescent development, adolescent sexual behavior in the 1990s, abstinence and sexual intercourse, the adult role in promoting adolescent sexual health, and recommendations for policymakers. A consensus statement on adolescent sexual health endorsed by 48 national organizations and the commission, as well as a listing of characteristics of a sexually healthy adolescent are also presented. PMID:12319704

  12. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents. PMID:19551327

  13. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.

  14. The Relationship between Adolescents' Locus of Control and Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Its Implications for School Psychologists and Other Health Related Professionals: Results from a Turkish Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Ruhi Selcuk; Piyal, Birgul; Celen, Umit; Karakoc, Serife; Ozen, Yelda

    2009-01-01

    The Concept of Health Locus of Control (HLOC) indicates the personal belief of an individual about who or what affects his/her health. This approach emphasizes the importance of individual responsibility for health, especially in the school years which represent a "critical period" for students to adopt healthy behaviours and lifestyles. The main…

  15. Factors associated with perceived health among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, JongSerl; Nam, Sunghee; Chung, Ick-Joong; Kang, Hyunah; Nho, Choong Rai; Woo, Seokjin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influences of personal, social, and environmental-structural factors on the perceived health of Korean adolescents. Using a two-stage generalized hierarchical logistic linear multilevel model, this study found that general high school enrollment, younger age, normal weight, and frequent exercise increased the likelihood of a positive self-perception of health. Higher levels of parental concern and quality of school life also contributed to the likelihood of students perceiving themselves as healthy. In contrast, psychological symptoms and negative self-esteem decreased the likelihood that students perceived themselves as healthy. The results provide implications for disease prevention and health promotion programs. PMID:25144695

  16. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2

  17. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  18. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  19. Perceptions of mental health among recently immigrated Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are high among Latino adolescents in the U.S., many of whom are immigrants. Immigration during adolescence creates risk factors for mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the health-related perceptions of Mexican-origin immigrant adolescents to inform the design of culturally and developmentally appropriate mental health services. This focused ethnography was guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework and symbolic interactionism. Fourteen adolescents were recruited from two non-health-based community settings. Data from one-to-one semi-structured interviews and a visual narrative project were coded and analyzed inductively. Three thematic patterns were identified: "mentally healthy," "mentally unhealthy," and "health promotion." Increased awareness of cultural influences and immigration on Latino adolescents' mental health is needed. Mental health nurses are in a unique position to educate and to influence accessibility of services. PMID:17130006

  20. Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…

  1. Inclusiveness: a mental health strategy for preventing future mental health problems among adolescents orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G; Mokomane, Z

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise an argument that inclusiveness will lessen the pain of losing a parent among adolescents orphaned by AIDS and as a result, prevent future mental health problems that may occur because of inappropriate grieving and maladaptive coping strategies. Participation of adolescents orphaned by AIDS in decisions pertaining to their parents' illnesses and funeral arrangements, for example, may shorten the grieving process and allow for closure. The paper draws data from focus group discussions that were held with 15 adolescents orphaned by AIDS in urban South Africa. The focus group discussions that were structured around four themes: grieving patterns; coping strategies; experience with loss; and expectations. The results of the study demonstrate inclusiveness as an overarching factor in the healing process. The concept is thus a strong recommendation for mental health practice and further study. PMID:22192336

  2. Cultural diversity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David L; Chown, Peter; Kang, Melissa S-L

    2005-10-17

    In Australia, where about 16% of young people are born overseas and 24% are from a non-English-speaking background, adolescent health care is a multicultural challenge. "Cultural competency" involves challenging one's own cultural assumptions and beliefs, developing empathy for people from other cultures, and applying specific communication and interaction skills in clinical encounters. For health professionals, sensitivity to the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and social diversity among young people helps to avert problems and misunderstandings, improves satisfaction for all concerned and leads to better outcomes. Engaging the family and gaining the trust of parents is critical in treating young people from cultural backgrounds in which participation in health care is a family concern rather than an individual responsibility.

  3. Prospective comparison of parent and adolescent report of health-related quality of life in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Devine, Katie A; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Simons, Laura E; Mee, Laura L; Blount, Ronald L

    2010-12-01

    This 18-month prospective investigation sought to examine changes in HRQOL over time for adolescent solid organ transplant recipients. Additionally, this study examined the relationship between adolescent and parent report of HRQOL and compared parent report of HRQOL to published normative data. Forty-eight adolescent-parent dyads completed the CHQ, a measure of HRQOL, at two time periods. Parent and adolescent reports of HRQOL were stable over time. ICCs between parent and adolescent reports were significant and moderate across most domains of HRQOL, with the exception of family cohesion, physical functioning, and bodily pain. However, mean differences indicated that parents perceived significantly worse self-esteem and general health perceptions compared to their adolescents. Compared to normative data, parents reported significantly lower HRQOL across several domains, including adolescents' physical functioning and the emotional impact of their adolescent's condition on themselves. However, parents also reported higher levels of family cohesion. Results indicate that assessment of HRQOL for transplant recipients should include multiple reporters and that HRQOL as reported by adolescents and parents is generally stable over time without intervention. Further research is needed to understand factors related to differential HRQOL outcomes.

  4. An investigation of adolescent health from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, G R

    1997-04-01

    In a senior high school in the Weicheng District of Weifang City, we studied the health of a total 445 students. The age of the first emission was 15.22 +/- 2.24 years, and the age of menarche was 13.56 +/- 2.26 years. Because 47.9% of boys and 63.8% of girls did not have previous knowledge about puberty, 39.9% of boys and 52.2% of girls felt puzzled and disgusted with the onset of puberty. About 18% of boys and about 2% of girls reported masturbation. The average frequency of masturbation was 3.5 times a month in the boys and two times monthly in girls. Adolescents acquired sexual knowledge and information predominantly from magazines (25.8% of boys and 28.0% of girls). About 64% of boys and 44% of girls wanted to be given educational programs on sex. About 43% of boys and 1% of girls smoked cigarettes and 83.5% of boys and 54.9% of girls drank alcohol. The survey suggested that it is essential to teach the senior high school students about the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of adolescence and promote research on adolescent medicine.

  5. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157

  6. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship.

    PubMed

    Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean

    2015-02-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles. PMID:25376658

  7. Leadership in Adolescent Health: Developing the Next Generation of Maternal Child Health Leaders Through Mentorship

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M.; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011–2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were “very satisfied” with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles. PMID:25376658

  8. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship.

    PubMed

    Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean

    2015-02-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles.

  9. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  10. Consumerism: its impact on the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Austin, S B; Rich, M

    2001-10-01

    Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.

  11. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  12. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  13. [Child and adolescent workers: a commitment for collective health

    PubMed

    Minayo-Gomez; Meirelles

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some issues pertaining to child and adolescent labor and their impact on health, pointing out the main structural characteristics which are responsible for and socially justify the early incorporation of this segment into the labor market. In Brazil, legislation governing adolescent labor is frequently ignored, showing the need to implement health surveillance programs involving both public institutions and civil rights movements.

  14. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  15. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  16. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  17. Adolescence as a gateway to adult health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.

  18. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  19. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  20. Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.

  1. The Perceptions of Adolescents, Parents and Teachers on the Same Adolescent Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Joy; Salili, Farideh; Ho, S. Y.; Mak, K. H.; Lai, M. K.; Lam, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health…

  2. [Adolescent pregnancy, a public health problem].

    PubMed

    Viel Vicuna, B

    1986-01-01

    Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.

  3. Yo Puedo - a conditional cash transfer and life skills intervention to promote adolescent sexual health: results of a randomized feasibility study in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, Alexandra M.; vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Luecke, Ellen; Dow, William; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Padian, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We designed and evaluated for feasibility an intervention - Yo Puedo - that addresses social network influences and socioeconomic opportunities in a neighborhood with substantial gang exposure and early childbearing. Methods Yo Puedo combined conditional cash transfers for completion of educational and reproductive health wellness goals with life skills sessions, and targeted youth 16 to 21 years old and same-aged members of their social network. We conducted a 2-arm study with social networks randomized to the intervention or a standard services control arm. We evaluated intervention uptake, adherence and safety; and assessed evidence of effects on behavioral outcomes associated with unintended pregnancy and STI risk. Results Seventy-two social networks comprised of 162 youth enrolled, with 92% retention over six months. Seventy-two percent of youth randomized to the intervention participated in intervention activities: 53% received at least one CCT payment; and 66% came to at least one life skills session. We found no evidence that cash payments financed illicit or high-risk behavior. At six months, intervention participants, compared to controls, had a lower odds of hanging out on the street frequently (OR = 0.54, p = 0.10) and a lower odds of reporting their close friends had been incarcerated (OR = 0.6, p=0.12). They reported less regular alcohol use (OR = 0.54, p=0.04) and a lower odds of having sex (OR = 0.50, p = 0.04). Conclusions The feasibility evaluation of Yo Puedo demonstrated its promise; a larger evaluation of effects on pregnancy and sustained behavioral changes is warranted. PMID:24518532

  4. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  5. Adolescent health issues: what is our role?

    PubMed

    Elders, M J

    1991-05-01

    The state of US children's health and recommendations for improvement are reported. The 1st table identifies youth as risk, i.e., at the current rate, 1 in 10 women will give birth by the time they turn 18. Among black children, white children 1-4 years, and blacks 15-24 years, death rates actually increased from 1985 to 1987. Injuries, particularly due to violence, have replaced communicable diseases as the primary cause of death among adolescents. Since 1976, immunization has deteriorated. There is a refusal to recognize sexually active adolescents, in spite of 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted disease. The 6 strategies discussed intervention begin with providing high quality preschool education programs for all children. The 2nd urges educational programs from kindergarten through 12th grade that help children make healthy choices, improve their self-esteem, and accept as much responsibility for their own lives as possible. Parenting education, as the 3rd strategy, promotes the education and support of parents, especially for young and poor parents. The 4th strategy involves male responsibility and instruction on obligations in pregnancy and parenthood, including a requirement of financial commitment from fathers and identification of the father by Social Security number on an infant's birth certificate. The 5th strategy is the provision for school-based health services, including family life counseling and contraceptive services for adolescents. The 6th strategy is to provide free college tuition and books at a state supported school for students with at least a B average, good citizenship record, and a family income of $20,000. It is cheaper to offer children opportunity than to pay the costs of the consequences of poverty.

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  7. The health of Swiss adolescents and its implications for training of health professionals in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Anne; Rutishauser, Christoph; Thomi, Mirjam; Stronski Huwiler, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Swiss adolescents generally enjoy satisfying life conditions. Nonetheless, violence, suicide and mental health are the main concerns together with injuries, chronic conditions and eating disorders. Adolescents still face barriers to access the care they need. Adequate training can improve practitioners' skills when dealing with adolescents. The last two decades have seen the development of innovative adolescent health units and networks in various regions of Switzerland as well as research and public health programmes. Training programmes in adolescent health (continuous medical education, post-graduate or pre-graduate) for physicians and nurses are developing but still patchy in Switzerland. Adolescent health is not a sub-specialty as such. Efforts have to be made in order to link with professional associations and institutions to implement adolescent health curricula more efficiently. PMID:26124048

  8. Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

    The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

  9. Adolescents' health identities: a qualitative and theoretical study of health education courses.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents--using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents--not just for those who are already healthy.

  10. Health-related quality of life and body mass index among US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Wethington, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by body mass index (BMI) in a population-based sample of United States adolescents overall and by sex, and to provide national prevalence estimates of reported HRQOL outcomes for not only obese and overweight but also underweight adolescents. Methods From the 2001 through 2010 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we estimated the percentages of four HRQOL outcomes—self-rated health, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days—in four BMI categories—obese, overweight, normal weight, and underweight—of approximately 6,000 US adolescents aged 12–17 years. We also estimated the percentages for boys and girls separately. Results Substantial gaps in self-rated health exist between normal-weight adolescents and those who are obese and overweight, but not underweight. Eighteen percent (95 % CI 15–22) of obese adolescents reported fair or poor health compared to only 5 % (95 % CI 4–7) of normal-weight adolescents. Thirty-seven percent (95 % CI 33–42) of obese adolescents reported excellent or very good health, compared to 65 % (94 % CI 63–67) of normal-weight adolescents. However, all BMI groups reported similar percentages of physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and activity limitation days. The associations between HRQOL and BMI groups did not vary by sex. Boys generally reported significantly better self-rated health and mental health than girls. Specifically, obese boys reported better self-rated health, mental health, and fewer activity limitation days than obese girls. Conclusions Substantially, significant differences in some domains of HRQOL are found between above normal-weight and normal-weight US adolescents. This relationship between BMI and HRQOL is robust and observed among both boys and girls. PMID:24526296

  11. A sociological study of adolescent health in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kasapoğlu, M Aytül; Ecevit, Mehmet C

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to explore the associations between socio-demographic factors and subjective health complaints of adolescents in Turkey. A sample of 248 students in the 8th-grade from four primary schools with different socio-economic family backgrounds completed a questionnaire on their socio-demographic characteristics and health complaints. Findings revealed that adolescents are not homogeneous in terms of their socio-economical backgrounds and infra-structural living conditions. The distribution of illnesses/complaints compared among schools groups, only catching cold was significantly different. Factor analysis results showed that there are three groups of diseases that differ from one another namely psychological, physical and other. Adolescents' perception about their general health varied among the four schools. According to the regression analysis between three factor groups of illness/complains and socio-demographic and personal characteristics of students, only number of children and working status of fathers showed a significant difference among the socio-demographic characteristics, while weight and height among the personal characteristics. Although the first findings suggested that respondents' physical characteristics affected their physical complaints, it seemed that several complaints could also be affected by social and cultural context.

  12. Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N = 141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries.

  13. The Relationship of Parental Mental Health and Dietary Pattern With Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068

  14. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  15. Energy drinks: a new health hazard for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-10-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and insomnia. Health care providers report that they have seen the following effects from the consumption of energy drinks: dehydration, accelerated heart rates, anxiety, seizures, acute mania, and strokes. This article is a comprehensive literature review on the health effects of energy drinks. Findings from this article indicate the need for educational intervention to inform adolescents of the consequences of consuming these popular drinks. School nurses are in a unique position to teach adolescents about the side effects and possible health issues that can occur when energy drinks are consumed.

  16. Roles of interpersonal and media socialization agents in adolescent self-reported health literacy: a health socialization perspective.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H; Lariscy, Ruthann W

    2011-02-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis results show that both interpersonal and media socialization agents are significantly and positively related to adolescent health literacy. Media socialization agents seem to play a strong role in health literacy orientation, not much weaker than those of interpersonal socialization agents. The proposed health socialization model could contribute to the literature on how adolescents acquire health-related information and channels through which they are most receptive.

  17. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves.

  18. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves. PMID:26581723

  19. Health risk-factors for gay American Indian and Alaska Native adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Barney, David D

    2003-01-01

    Having multiple identities as a homosexual American Indian or Alaska Native adolescent male increases the likelihood for poorer health and diminished well-being. This study assessed the differences in self-perceived health status between gay adolescent males and their heterosexual counterparts. A national nonrepresentative sample of 5,602 Indian and Native adolescent males was surveyed about issues of sexual behavior, physical and sexual abuse, mental health status, substance use, attitudes about school, participation in violence, and access to health care. Results indicate that there were no real differences between gay and heterosexual male respondents for substance use or attitudes about school. Statistically significant differences were found, however, in areas of mental health, as well as physical and sexual abuse. Gay adolescents were twice as likely to have thought of or attempted suicide. Gay adolescents were twice as likely to have been physically abused and nearly six times more likely to have been sexually abused. Gay American Indian or Alaska Native adolescent males constitute a very vulnerable population and are clearly in need of targeted health and social services. Unfortunately, the benefits seen by adults of the "two-spirited" gay and lesbian American Indian movement have not been accessible to Indian and Native adolescents.

  20. Health risk-factors for gay American Indian and Alaska Native adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Barney, David D

    2003-01-01

    Having multiple identities as a homosexual American Indian or Alaska Native adolescent male increases the likelihood for poorer health and diminished well-being. This study assessed the differences in self-perceived health status between gay adolescent males and their heterosexual counterparts. A national nonrepresentative sample of 5,602 Indian and Native adolescent males was surveyed about issues of sexual behavior, physical and sexual abuse, mental health status, substance use, attitudes about school, participation in violence, and access to health care. Results indicate that there were no real differences between gay and heterosexual male respondents for substance use or attitudes about school. Statistically significant differences were found, however, in areas of mental health, as well as physical and sexual abuse. Gay adolescents were twice as likely to have thought of or attempted suicide. Gay adolescents were twice as likely to have been physically abused and nearly six times more likely to have been sexually abused. Gay American Indian or Alaska Native adolescent males constitute a very vulnerable population and are clearly in need of targeted health and social services. Unfortunately, the benefits seen by adults of the "two-spirited" gay and lesbian American Indian movement have not been accessible to Indian and Native adolescents. PMID:15086222

  1. The economic impact of adolescent health promotion policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Yumiko; Schwarz, Susan Wile; Skinner, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in the human lifecycle, a time of rapid physical and socioemotional growth and a time when individuals establish lifestyle habits and health behaviors that often endure into and have lasting effects in adulthood. Adolescent health promotion programs play a critical role in helping youth establish healthy lifestyles. In this article, we present a socio-ecological model as a framework for identifying effective policy and program areas that have a positive impact on adolescent health behaviors. Our discussion focuses on 4 key areas: reproductive health; obesity prevention; mental health and substance use, including smoking; and injury and violence prevention. We proceed with an overview of the current status of state-led adolescent health promotion policies and programs from a newly created policy database and then examine the evidence on the cost of preventable adolescent health problems and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion programs and policies. We conclude by discussing the threat posed to adolescent health promotion services and state-led policy initiatives by proposed and implemented federal and state-level budget cuts and examine the possible health and economic repercussions of reducing or eliminating these programs.

  2. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  3. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents. PMID:12289887

  4. Adolescent reproductive health. What are CBHC programmes doing about it?

    PubMed

    Odembo, E A

    1992-09-01

    The first Inter-African Conference on Adolescent Health, entitled "Adolescent Health in sub-Saharan Africa: Present and Future" and held in Nairobi on March 24-27, 1992, addressed major issues on adolescent fertility, sexuality, and family planning services. Delegates from 40 countries joined to: 1) discuss problems in adolescents; 2) formulate a plan of action for tackling these problems; 3) examine ways of linking research and service activities; and 4) create a supportive network for individuals and groups working in this area. Statistics demonstrate the increasing number of births to adolescents in the developing world. These births have enormous social consequences, particularly for young women, whose education and future employment potential is often diminished. The consequences compromise a country's goals for socioeconomic development. A community-based health care (CBHC) program is needed to address adolescent reproductive health as a national issue. The program focuses on the following aspects of an integrated adolescent health policy: education on family life, sex and AIDS; training of special education teachers; renting skills education; sexually transmitted diseases (treatment and prevention); individual counseling; information, education and communication; general media attention to adolescents and their children; prenatal care and family planning; youth participation in programs; research and dissemination on data; primary schools and adult literacy programs; and youth serving organizations.

  5. A Behavior Genetic Investigation of Adolescent Motherhood and Offspring Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Waldron, Mary D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children’s behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring behavior problems and substance use was partially confounded by family background variables that influence both generations. The results are consistent with a causal relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring mental health problems, and they highlight the usefulness of behavior genetic designs when examining putative environmental risks for the development of psychopathology. The generalizability of these results to the United States, which has a higher adolescent birth rate, is discussed. PMID:18020715

  6. Adolescent health care in Italy: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.

  7. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems.

  8. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  9. Dietary supplement use by children and adolescents in the United States to enhance sport performance: results of the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marion Willard; Ndetan, Harrison; Perko, Michael; Williams, Ronald; Walker, Clark

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplements may improve sport performance in adults. However, this has not been established in children. The aim of this study was to assess self-reported or parental-reported dietary supplement use to enhance sports performance among the child subset of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) dataset and determine national population estimates for that use. NHIS 2007 Child Alternative Medicine files containing records for children aged\\18 years were used. Typical demographic variables were utilized as well as parental presence; parental education level; use of any herb, vitamin, and/or mineral use for sports performance by children; and age. Most (94.5%) who reported using supplements used multivitamin and/or mineral combinations followed by fish oil/omega-3 s, creatine, and fiber. Males were more likely users (OR = 2.1; 95% CI [1.3, 3.3]), and Whites reported greater usage. Mean user age was 10.8 (SD = 0.2) with 57.7%[10 years, indicating some increase in use with higher age categories (p\\.001). Most were US born and reported living with both parents. Parents and children report child use of a wide variety of herbal and vitamin/mineral supplements to improve sports performance. Usage could be predicted by age, gender, and level of education but less likely by parent-based demographics.

  10. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  11. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  12. Peer Approach in Adolescent Reproductive Health Education: Some Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This package is one of a series of repackaged products aimed at alerting UNESCO users to a wealth of highly valuable educational resources that exist in the field of adolescent reproductive and sexual health. This document focuses on what research says is the impact of peer education in promoting necessary changes among adolescents in attitudes…

  13. Declining Health Behavior of Adolescents: A Measure of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell

    1981-01-01

    Cites statistics on such adolescent problems as pregnancy, drugs, and obesity as evidence of the serious neglect and alienation of this age group in an era of family instability and declining social roles for youth. Urges educators to give concerted attention to the physical, mental, and health needs of adolescents. (SJL)

  14. The Two Faces of Narcissism and Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…

  15. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  16. Tobacco Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…

  17. Neighborhood Processes, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…

  18. Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Building a System of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Barbara G.; Collins, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines unnecessary hospitalization and inadequacy of community services for children and adolescents with serious emotional or behavioral disorders. Discusses barriers that impede improved mental health services systems for children and their families and presents Child and Adolescent Service System Program "system of care" model as alternative.…

  19. Resiliency-Based Research and Adolescent Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Elizabeth; Tricker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, research on adolescents' behavior has focused primarily on risk factors. The study of resiliency and what buffers adolescents from engaging in harmful health behaviors has received much less attention. This risk-focused approach has included examining what is lacking in a youth's life that may contribute to that youth's…

  20. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  1. School-Based Health Clinics: An Emerging Approach to Improving Adolescent Health and Addressing Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report discusses the ongoing movement to provide health care and health information to adolescents through school-based clinics and other programs. The report begins with an overview of programs, focusing on: the unique health needs of adolescents; the growth in the number of school-based clinics; goals and objectives of the special programs;…

  2. Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: What Do They Say about Health Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Explores the health-related views and experiences of adolescent users of mental health services through interviews with adolescents who had been diagnosed with a mental illness. The majority of respondents had both negative and positive things to say about their contact with health services. These relate to: the doctor-patient relationship,…

  3. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. METHODS Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. RESULTS Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. CONCLUSIONS Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being “free” or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. PMID:25388597

  4. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  5. Media Health Literacy (MHL): development and measurement of the concept among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health information, while analyzing its role in promoting empowerment and health behavior (cigarette/water-pipe smoking, nutritional/dieting habits, physical/sedentary activity, safety/injury behaviors and sexual behavior). The school-based study included a representative sample of 1316 Israeli adolescents, grades 7, 9 and 11, using qualitative and quantitative instruments to develop the new measure. The results showed that the MHL measure is highly scalable (0.80) includes four sequenced categories: identification/recognition, critical evaluation of health content in media, perceived influence on adolescents and intended action/reaction. Multivariate analysis showed that MHL was significantly higher among girls (β = 1.25, P < 0.001), adolescents whose mothers had higher education (β = 0.16, P = 0.04), who report more adult/interpersonal sources of health information (β = 0.23, P < 0.01) and was positively associated with health empowerment (β = 0.36, P < 0.0005) and health behavior (β = 0.03, P = 0.05). The findings suggest that as a determinant of adolescent health behavior, MHL identifies groups at risk and may provide a basis for health promotion among youth.

  6. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  7. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.

  8. A Global Study on the Influence of Neighborhood Contextual Factors on Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Sangowawa, Adesola; Yu, Chunyan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study uses data collected as part of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study to: 1) compare the perceptions of neighborhood-level factors among adolescents across five different urban sites; 2) examine the associations between factors within the physical and social environments; and 3) examine the influence of neighborhood-level factors on two different health outcomes -- violence victimization in the past 12 months and ever smoked. Methods Across five urban sites (Baltimore, New Delhi, Johannesburg, Ibadan, and Shanghai), 2320 adolescents aged 15-19 years completed a survey using ACASI technology. To recruit adolescents, each site used a respondent-driven sampling method, which consisted of selecting adolescents as ‘seeds’ to serve as the initial contacts for recruiting the entire adolescent sample. All analyses were conducted with Stata 13.1 statistical software, using complex survey design procedures. To examine associations between neighborhood-level factors, as well as among our two outcomes, violence victimization and ever smoked, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Across sites, there was great variability in how adolescents perceived their neighborhoods. Overall, adolescents from Ibadan and Shanghai held the most positive perceptions about their neighborhoods, while adolescents from Baltimore and Johannesburg held the poorest. In New Delhi, despite females having positive perceptions about their safety and sense of social cohesion, they had the highest sense of fear, as well as the poorest perceptions about their physical environment. The study also found that one of the most consistent neighborhood-level factors across sites and outcomes was witnessing community violence, which was significantly associated with smoking among adolescents in New Delhi and Johannesburg, and with violence victimization across nearly every site except Baltimore. No other neighborhood-level factor exerted

  9. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  10. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  11. Adolescent health promotion and risk reduction: cementing the social contract between pediatricians and the schools.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. J.; Kress, J. S.; Gager, P. J.; Hancock, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    In this article the implications of a biopsychosocial model of adolescent health promotion for the delivery of relevant services in the schools are examined. Adolescent health status is reviewed and is found, despite existing efforts for health promotion and risk reduction, to be in need of substantial improvement. For this to happen, having an early and sustained positive impact on the health trajectory of children is essential; further school-based and school-linked curricular efforts for health promotion are a necessary feature of a successful strategy for adolescent health promotion. In fact, this approach brings to life the social contract between pediatricians and the public to apply the biopsychosocial model at both clinical and societal levels. Curricula serve as the glue that binds diverse health-related concerns and findings emerging from health research into a coordinated, thorough, and detailed strategy and set of actions for school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts. School-linked health programs are consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, from which the school is best viewed as a health-promoting environment, centered in concepts and practices outlined in and conveyed through the curriculum and associated instructional practices and delivery systems. Many benefits can result from pediatricians and other medical professionals taking a renewed, prominent role in comprehensive school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts, beginning in the early grades, when the trajectory of adolescent health is strongly set into motion. PMID:8069279

  12. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  13. Beyond talking groups: strategies for improving adolescent health education.

    PubMed

    Banister, Elizabeth; Begoray, Deborah

    2004-05-01

    In a study that focused on adolescent girls' health issues within their dating relationships, we found that nonstructured focus group conversation can be augmented with structured strategies to generate a nonthreatening environment in which participants are enabled to co-create an understanding of their experiences. The use of free writing, role playing, and body tracing helped raise participants' awareness and understanding of some of their health behaviors. We suggest that these strategies can be used in health care and educational contexts to promote the health of adolescents. By sharing strategies between education and health care professionals, both professions will benefit.

  14. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  15. The health of adolescent women in the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, I F

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities and stresses faced by today's adolescent women have the potential to affect their health, either directly or through interaction with biologic and psychosocial events. Recently achieved entry into the world of endurance and competitive sports; smoking, drug, and alcohol use; the toxic shock syndrome; and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome threaten the health of young women today. Physicians who care for adolescent women in the 1980s and in the future will require special skills to do so successfully. Images PMID:3074565

  16. Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Method: Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Conclusion: Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals’ towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents PMID:24772122

  17. Reproductive health awareness among rural school going adolescents of Vadodara district

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P. V.; Patel, Sangita; Baxi, R. K.; Mazumdar, V. S.; Misra, Shobha; Modi, Ekta; Diwanji, Mansi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the reproductive health issues associated with adolescence and their readiness to avail services like Adolescent Friendly Clinic (AFC) among rural school going children. Materials and Methods: A quantitative survey was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire among 768 (428 boys and 340 girls) students from 15 schools by systematic random sampling from schools (3 schools from 5 talukas). Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls and teachers were held. Results and Discussion: Only 31% of the boys and 33% of the girls mentioned that they had heard about contraception. More than half of the adolescent boys and girls knew correctly about various modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. A large proportion of boys and girls have mentioned changes in the opposite sex such as increase in height, change in voice, breast development, and growth of facial hair, growth of hair in private parts, onset of menstruation in girls, etc. Nearly 70% of adolescents were ready to use AFC. Teachers perceived that adolescents become curious about the changes taking place in them, but they lack information and opportunities for open-discussions to get answers to their queries related to reproductive health. They are willing to take help from teachers but teachers are not equipped with knowledge nor are they comfortable discussing these issues with their students. Recommendations: Information on the human reproductive system and related issues on reproductive health need special attention. Teachers’ sensitization to “adolescent health care” is required. PMID:21938128

  18. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  19. Issues in adolescent health: a challenge for nursing.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M J; Nichol, M J; Manoharan, H; Marfell-Jones, M J; Meha-Hoerara, K; Milne, R; O'Connell, M; Olliver, J; Teekman, B

    2002-04-01

    The young people of today are the greatest investment we as adults have in our future. The care and nurturing we afford the adolescent is just as important as that which we afford to children or the elderly. Although most adolescents have a preoccupation with their bodies, they do not always engage in activities that will protect and develop them. Adolescents are often exposed to peer pressure, the effects of which may impact negatively on their behaviour and their health. Many adolescent health and behavioural issues evolve from developmental changes and can manifest in a confrontational attitude toward society, parents and others. They are hormonally 'fully charged', and their adolescent sexuality can have enormous effects on their future physical, psychosocial, moral and sexual development. Nurses have a pivotal role to play in ensuring children and adolescents learn the facts relating to the consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviour and lifestyle. Nurses must also encourage parents to model and reinforce good health practices, such as serving balanced and nutritious meals at regular times and planning positive family activities. In this paper we review some of the salient issues in adolescent health today.

  20. Issues in adolescent health: a challenge for nursing.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M J; Nichol, M J; Manoharan, H; Marfell-Jones, M J; Meha-Hoerara, K; Milne, R; O'Connell, M; Olliver, J; Teekman, B

    2002-04-01

    The young people of today are the greatest investment we as adults have in our future. The care and nurturing we afford the adolescent is just as important as that which we afford to children or the elderly. Although most adolescents have a preoccupation with their bodies, they do not always engage in activities that will protect and develop them. Adolescents are often exposed to peer pressure, the effects of which may impact negatively on their behaviour and their health. Many adolescent health and behavioural issues evolve from developmental changes and can manifest in a confrontational attitude toward society, parents and others. They are hormonally 'fully charged', and their adolescent sexuality can have enormous effects on their future physical, psychosocial, moral and sexual development. Nurses have a pivotal role to play in ensuring children and adolescents learn the facts relating to the consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviour and lifestyle. Nurses must also encourage parents to model and reinforce good health practices, such as serving balanced and nutritious meals at regular times and planning positive family activities. In this paper we review some of the salient issues in adolescent health today. PMID:12188150

  1. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  2. Is co-ruminating with friends related to health problems in victimized adolescents?

    PubMed

    Guarneri-White, Maria E; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Knack, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    Co-rumination, or the tendency to revisit and endlessly discuss problems and negative events, has been linked to depression and other emotional difficulties (Rose, Carson, & Waller, 2007). The current study examined the moderating effect of co-rumination on the relationship between peer victimization and depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health problems in 108 adolescents aged 10-15 years. Adolescents and a parent completed measures of adolescents' peer victimization, co-rumination, depression, and health problems. Results indicate that adolescents who are both peer victimized and engaged in high levels of co-rumination were at highest risk for psychological problems. Co-rumination also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and physical health problems via general depressive symptoms (i.e., moderated mediation).

  3. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  4. Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416

  5. Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.

    This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…

  6. Health assets for adolescents: opinions from a neighbourhood in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel

    2015-09-01

    This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.

  7. Does class matter? SES and psychosocial health among Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piko, B; Fitzpatrick, K M

    2001-09-01

    Previous research finds a significant relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and health status: individuals with lower income, education, and occupational prestige have and report more health problems. Interestingly, this relationship is not consistent across the life cycle: health differences among adolescents across socioeconomic groups are not as clearly defined. Using data (n = 1,039) on adolescents from southern Hungary, we examine the role of socioeconomic differences in predicting psychosocial health. We argue that this investigation is of particular importance in a post-communist system where the general perception of SES is undergoing significant transformation. Findings show that classical' SES (socioeconomic status) indicators (manual/nonmanual occupational status) were not significant predictors of psychosocial health in this sample of Hungarian adolescents. While parents' employment status as a 'objective' SES indicator had limited effect, SES self-assessment, as a subjective SES variable, proved to be a strong predictor of adolescents' psychosocial health. We discuss the implications of these findings for the broader SES-health literature with specific attention paid to the impact these relationships may have for adolescent and young adult development in a post-communist country like Hungary. PMID:11511056

  8. Development of the Health Literacy Assessment Scale for Adolescents (HAS-A)

    PubMed Central

    Manganello, Jennifer A.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Davis, Terry C.; Schottler-Thal, Carrin

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy has been found to be a crucial component of successful communication and navigation in health care. Various tools have been developed to measure health literacy skills, but few have been developed specifically for adolescents, and most require in-person administration. This study sought to develop a self-report health literacy scale for adolescents to assess four key health literacy domains: the ability to obtain, communicate, understand, and process health information. Methods We collected data from 272 youth aged 12–19 recruited from a pediatrics clinic (37%) and the community (63%). We administered the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen, Newest Vital Sign, and three surveys, and used factor analysis to identify scale items. Results Using multiple health literacy assessments, it was clear that many teens struggle with low health literacy skills. When identifying items that can be used as self-report items in future research, factor analysis identified three subscales; a 5-item communication scale (alpha = 0.77), a 4-item confusion scale (alpha = 0.73), and a 6-item functional health literacy scale (alpha = 0.76). The scales performed reasonably well when compared with validation items. Conclusions Self-report items can be used to assess health literacy skills for adolescents when in-person administration is not possible or feasible. Such items will allow for greater study of how health literacy impacts communication in not only health care settings, but for all levels of health communication. The tool will also allow researchers to better understand how adolescent health literacy is related to a variety of health outcomes. Further testing of these scales with different populations is warranted.

  9. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757

  10. Assessing the congruence of transition preparedness as reported by parents and their adolescents with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.

  11. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  12. [Opinion of medical and nursing students on the autonomy of adolescents in health care services].

    PubMed

    Fortes, P A; Kurita, G de P

    1998-12-01

    In an effort to better understand some of the ethical and legal dilemmas that health professionals face in their daily activities, this study identified and analyzed the opinions and expectations of medical and nursing students at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding the autonomy of adolescents in receiving health care services. Over the 1995-1996 period, interviews were done with students in the first and last years of their programs in the School of Medicine and the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results from the first-year students were compared with those of the final-year students. The interview questions dealt with such issues as providing medical care to adolescents when a parent or guardian was not present, adolescents making their own decisions on health care services, the confidentiality of information that adolescents provide, the circumstances in which that information could be given to parents or guardians, and situations where there were conflicts between the decisions of parents and adolescents. Despite variations among the opinions and expectations of the students, the overall results suggest that most of the medical and nursing students do not accept the concept of "health adulthood" or autonomy for adolescents and that the students instead choose to rely on current legal definitions of adulthood.

  13. Individual Differences in Adolescent Health Symptoms: The Effects of Gender and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G.S.; Pritchard, M.E.; Revalee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that adult men and women experience different types and severities of physical and psychological health symptoms. This study examined whether in the case of adolescents these reported gender differences in physical and psychological health symptoms could actually be the result of differences in coping styles. Five…

  14. Transitioning from pediatric to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs: adolescent and parent perspectives (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Stephanie; Neff, John; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to understand transitions from pediatric dental care to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs (ASHCN) from the parent and adolescent perspectives. Methods We conducted focus groups and interviews with 59 parents and 13 adolescent-parent dyads to identify factors associated with transitions to adult-centered dental care for ASHCN. Results Most parents believed ASHCN were at-risk for caries, but ASHCN were not concerned about tooth decay. Parents of adolescents with complex SHCN believed it would be acceptable to continue seeing a pediatric dentist. Parents of Medicaid-enrolled ASHCN reported lower efficacy in transitioning. ASHCN desired personalized, adolescent-centered care and were motivated to transition when they felt out of place at the pediatric dentist office. Parents believed pediatric dentists have an important role in initiating and facilitating transitions. Conclusions Pediatric dentists are well-positioned to implement family- and adolescent-centered policies to ensure dental transitions for ASHCN and their families. PMID:26531087

  15. COMPREHENSIVE ADOLESCENT HEALTH PROGRAMS THAT INCLUDE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert Wm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics and evidence of comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs encompassing sexual and reproductive and other health services, educational and social support. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on CAH programs (1998-2013). Only programs with experimental, quasi-experimental or pre-post evaluations were included. Two independent reviewers screened 36,119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. Data was synthesised into descriptive characteristics; quality was assessed by evidence level (rigorous, strong, modest). Results Data was extracted on 46 programs (181 studies) of which 19 programs were defined as comprehensive; 9 were excluded due to insufficient evaluations. Ten CAH programs met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia and Mexico. Few programs (N=3) displayed rigorous evidence, 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. All programs with rigorous/strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Common elements of these programs included: long-term commitment to adolescents, interpersonal connections, community mobilization, and skill-building elements. Conclusion The long term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven due to insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  16. Longitudinal Associations of Childhood Parenting and Adolescent Health: The Mediating Influence of Social Competence

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Brittany P.; Nelson, Jackie A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined a process through which parenting during the primary school transition contributes to cardiovascular health in adolescence, a foundational period for adult health trajectories. Using path analyses, social competence was tested as a mediator between parental sensitivity and adolescent health among 884 families. Results indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ sensitivity was associated with increasing social competence from first grade (age 7) to sixth grade (age 12), which was associated with higher awakening cortisol in ninth grade (age 15) and decreasing blood pressure from sixth to ninth grade. Results suggest that social competence mediates associations between childhood parenting and adolescent cardiovascular risk, and may be protective to children’s health over time. PMID:25639280

  17. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:25977175

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  19. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  20. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement.

  1. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  2. A focus on adolescence to reduce neurological, mental health and substance-use disability.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan

    2015-11-19

    Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability.

  3. A focus on adolescence to reduce neurological, mental health and substance-use disability.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Boivin, Michael J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan

    2015-11-19

    Globally, there is a crucial need to prioritize research directed at reducing neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders in adolescence, which is a pivotal age for the development of self-control and regulation. In adolescence, behaviour optimally advances towards adaptive long-term goals and suppresses conflicting maladaptive short-lived urges to balance impulsivity, exploration and defiance, while establishing effective societal participation. When self-control fails to develop, violence, injury and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders can result, further challenging the development of self-regulation and impeding the transition to a productive adulthood. Adolescent outcomes, positive and negative, arise from both a life-course perspective and within a socioecological framework. Little is known about the emergence of self-control and regulation in adolescents in low- and middle-income countries where enormous environmental threats are more common (for example, poverty, war, local conflicts, sex trafficking and slavery, early marriage and/or pregnancy, and the absence of adequate access to education) than in high-income countries and can threaten optimal neurodevelopment. Research must develop or adapt appropriate assessments of adolescent ability and disability, social inclusion and exclusion, normative development, and neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. Socioecological challenges in low- and middle-income countries require innovative strategies to prevent mental health, neurological and substance-use disorders and develop effective interventions for adolescents at risk, especially those already living with these disorders and the consequent disability. PMID:26580322

  4. Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Health Effects and Imaging Implications.

    PubMed

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are pandemic health problems, not just among the adult population, but in children and adolescents as well. This article presents information on the prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment of overweight and obesity in young people, with particular focus on the medical and psychological complications associated with the diseases. In addition, the challenges of imaging the obese pediatric population are discussed, and public policy changes that could help reverse obesity trends in children and adolescents are introduced.

  5. Cambodian refugee adolescents: cultural factors and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Frye, B A; McGill, D

    1993-01-01

    Cambodian adolescents in America are a high-risk group for physical, psychosomatic, and drug-related problems. Communication with the Cambodian community is a challenge to mental health nurses due to fundamental differences in American and Cambodian perceptions about parental roles and causation and treatment of illness. The authors focus on the Cambodian cultural theme of equilibrium in treatment of illness, management of stress, and patterns of parenting. Conflicts faced by Cambodian adolescents and nursing intervention strategies are identified. PMID:8106981

  6. Transitioning adolescents and young adults with a chronic health condition to adult healthcare - an exemplar program.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann Rauen, Karen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Bartelt, Tera; Waring, William P; Orr, Merle; Corey O'Connor, R

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric specialists have successfully improved the longevity and quality of life of many children with chronic health conditions. As these children reach adolescence and young adulthood, the scope of their concomitant medical problems often include those typically seen in older patients. As a result, these individuals need continuing quality health care in focused adult healthcare facilities. This article describes the effective partnership between pediatric and adult healthcare providers to create and implement an exemplar Spina Bifida Transition Program. The processes, strategies and tools discussed are likely to be useful to other healthcare professionals interested in developing pediatric to adult transition programs for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

  7. The Measurement of Adolescent Psychological Health: One or Two Dimensions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.; Walford, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Measures of psychological health were administered to 345 late adolescents. A series of confirmatory factor analyses supported an oblique two-factor model of psychological health with measures of anxiety and negative affect defining a distress construct and measures of positive affect, satisfaction with life, and happiness defining a well-being…

  8. The Illinois 9th Grade Adolescent Health Survey. Full Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    A survey was conducted in Illinois to identify the risk of certain health problems among adolescents; to determine the health status of Illinois youth in relation to the Surgeon General's "Healthy People 2000 Objectives" and monitor progress toward national and state goals; and to help those working at national, state, and local levels develop…

  9. Mental Health and Help-Seeking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lori A.; Adelman, Howard S.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on survey on mental health status and help-seeking behavior of adolescents of lower SES, ethnic minority backgrounds. Found mental health status was similar to that of nonminorities. Respondents reported low service utilization. Primary providers were school-based sources and medical personnel. Cognitive-affective factors are potential…

  10. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  11. Can Social Protection Improve Sustainable Development Goals for Adolescent Health?

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, F. Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E.; Yakubovich, Alexa R.; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Background The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of ‘cash’ (economic provision) and ‘care’ (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Findings Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys’ hunger and girls’ school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys’ sexual exploitation and girls’ mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. Interpretation National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and

  12. Occupational Therapy and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Adolescence: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2016-03-01

    Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence.

  13. Occupational Therapy and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Adolescence: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2016-03-01

    Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. PMID:26174484

  14. Health of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Kajal; Payne, Donald; Mutch, Raewyn; Cherian, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Adolescent refugees are a vulnerable population with complex healthcare needs that are distinct from younger and older age groups. Physical health problems are common in this cohort with communicable diseases being the focus of attention followed by an emphasis on nutritional deficiencies and other chronic disorders. Adolescent refugees have also often experienced multiple traumatic stressors and are at a heightened risk of developing mental health problems. Navigating these problems at the time of pubertal development adds further challenges and can exacerbate or lead to the emergence of health risk behaviours. Educational difficulties and acculturation issues further compound these issues. Adolescents who have had experiences in detention or are unaccompanied by parents are particularly at risk. Despite a constantly growing number of adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries, knowledge regarding their specific healthcare needs is limited. Research data are largely extrapolated from studies conducted within paediatric and adult cohorts. Holistic management of the medical and psychological issues faced by this group is challenging and requires an awareness of the socioeconomic factors that can have an impact on effective healthcare delivery. Legal and ethical issues can further complicate their management and addressing these in a culturally appropriate manner is essential. Early identification and management of the healthcare issues faced by adolescent refugees resettling in high-income countries are key to improving long-term health outcomes and future healthcare burden. This review article aims to increase knowledge and awareness of these issues among paediatricians and other health professionals.

  15. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  16. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  17. Bisexual Invisibility and the Sexual Health Needs of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. Method: We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. Conclusion: We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education. PMID:27604053

  18. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

  19. Psychological distress as a mediator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sleep quality in adolescence: results from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Meghan L; Weiss, Jonathan A; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents an important public health concern, as it is often associated with a host of negative outcomes across development. In recent years, researchers have begun to examine the link between negative health-related behaviors and history of childhood maltreatment. The current study considers the relationship between history of childhood maltreatment and sleep disturbances in adolescence. Further, the role of psychological distress is considered as an explanatory link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent sleep disturbances. The current study is a secondary analysis using a subsample (N=73) of child welfare-involved youth who participated in the initial and 2-year time-point of the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study on the variables of interest. Youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances, in addition to the other measures administered as part of the larger MAP study protocol. More severe childhood maltreatment was related to increased sleep disturbances during adolescence, and psychological distress was a significant mediator of the childhood maltreatment-adolescent sleep disturbance association. The results demonstrate that a history of childhood maltreatment represents a risk factor for sleep disturbances in adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of inquiring about health-related behaviors in child welfare youth and the need to promote psychological well-being within this population.

  20. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A.; Stoyanov, Stoyan R.

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  1. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  2. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-05-06

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  3. Adolescent sleep misalignment: a chronic jet lag and a matter of public health.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health.

  4. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N

    1985-10-01

    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  5. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  6. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.

  7. Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

  8. Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

  9. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  10. Tattooing: another adolescent risk behavior warranting health education.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M L; Murphy, K P

    1997-11-01

    A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people. PMID:9419914

  11. Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide: a review

    PubMed Central

    REMSCHMIDT, HELMUT; BELFER, MYRON

    2005-01-01

    The magnitude of mental health problems in children and adolescents has not been recognized sufficiently by many governments and decision-makers. This paper reviews the epidemiology of these problems as a basis for planning of services; the situation of mental health services for children and adolescents in the various regions of the world; the principles and strategies of intervention for mental health disorders in children and adolescents; and the role of international organizations and advocacy groups. It is concluded that old myths, treatments and policies are no longer to be tolerated and that there is now the opportunity to develop and implement evidence-based interventions, modern training programs and effective policies. PMID:16633533

  12. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  13. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  14. Health-risk behaviors among a sample of US pre- adolescents: Types, frequency, and predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Kedrowski, Karen; Brown, Roger L.; Temkin, Barbara Myers; Wang, Kevin; Henriques, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Gloria; Giustino-Kluba, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Background Children as young as 10 years old report curiosity and participation in health-risk behaviors, yet most studies focus upon adolescent samples. Objective To document the types and frequencies of health risk behavior among pre-adolescents and to examine the child, family, and environment factors that predict them. Method A sample of 297 pre-adolescents (mean age = 10.5, SD = 0.6) from two Midwestern US cities and their parents (child-parent dyads) provided data about demographic characteristics, health risk behavior participation, child self-esteem, child pubertal development, child and adult perception of their neighborhood, and parent monitoring. Their participation was at intake to a 5-year clustered randomized controlled trial. Results Pre-adolescents participated in an average of 3.7 health-risk behaviors (SD = 2.0), primarily those that lead to unintentional (helmet and seatbelt use) and intentional (feeling unsafe, having something stolen, and physical fighting) injury. Factors predictive of unintentional injury risk behavior were self-esteem, pubertal development, parent monitoring, and parent perception of the neighborhood environment. Boys were 1.8 times less likely than girls to use helmets and seatbelts. Pre-adolescents whose parents were not partnered were 2.8 times more likely than pre-adolescents whose parents were partnered to report intentional risk behavior. Recommendations These data demonstrate trends that cannot be ignored. We recommend, focused specifically upon boys and non-partnered families, that (a) developmentally-appropriate, appealing prevention messages be developed and delivered for parents and pre-adolescents and community interventions targeting both parent and pre-adolescent together be provided to help them establish and monitor behavioral expectations and (b) organized nursing endorse policy in the US and globally that assures adequate family environments for children. PMID:23177901

  15. Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  16. Weight indicators and nutrient intake in children and adolescents do not vary by sugar content in ready-to-eat cereal: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas R; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-06 were used to analyze cereal consumption. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age, waist-to-height ratio, percent overweight or obese, mean day-1 intake, and usual daily intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were the dependent variables; day-1 cereal intake, categorized by tertiles of sugar content, was the main independent variable. Weighted regression with adjustment for the survey design was used to model the dependent variables as a function of day-1 cereal intake, adjusting for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, total day-1 intake of energy, calcium and sugar, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 total score, and household income. For all tertiles of sugar classifications of cereal, children who consumed cereal had significantly lower BMI compared with children who consumed no cereal (P's < .05). Similarly, when compared with children who consumed no cereal, those who ate cereal consumed significantly less fat and cholesterol and significantly more carbohydrates, sugar, whole grains, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), folic acid, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Lower weight and positive nutrient profiles were associated with cereal consumption regardless of sugar content.

  17. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  18. Health-Promoting and Health-Compromising Behaviors among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.

    This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…

  19. From Advocacy to Action in Global Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S

    2016-10-01

    In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement. PMID:27664465

  20. From Advocacy to Action in Global Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S

    2016-10-01

    In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement.

  1. A school-linked health service for adolescents in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Hardoff, D; Knishkowy, B; Palti, H

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Health Service (AHS) and its multidisciplinary, school-linked, community-based adolescent health clinic located in a western neighborhood of Jerusalem. Files of the first 134 adolescents who completed or discontinued treatment in the clinic during the first two years of operation were reviewed for demographic data, referral source, number of visits, health concerns and clinical impressions. The clinic population included Jewish Jerusalem residents, ages 12-18, 75% of whom were female. Most referrals came from schools. The average number of visits per patient was five (range 1-20). The most frequent presenting concerns as well as the most frequent clinical impressions were in the psychosocial and nutritional domains. Concordance between presenting concern and clinical impression was 61% (k = 0.47). Health problems of Israeli high school students attending the clinic mainly were psychosocial and nutritional. The school-linked health service applied a comprehensive approach to the biopsychosocial needs of adolescents, not addressed at other health services.

  2. Involvement of stakeholders in determining health priorities of adolescents in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’) aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. Objective This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Design Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Results Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity) were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. Conclusions The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place. PMID:26983724

  3. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  4. Rural maternal, child, and adolescent health.

    PubMed Central

    McManus, M A; Newacheck, P W

    1989-01-01

    Authors cite recommendations for research in light of a general lack of current literature on health status, health services utilization, organization and delivery of health services, and health care financing in this field. PMID:2645249

  5. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  6. Clinician-rated mental health in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services: associations with parent, teacher and adolescent ratings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinician-rated measures are used extensively in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) is a short clinician-rated measure developed for ordinary clinical practice, with increasing use internationally. Several studies have investigated its psychometric properties, but there are few data on its correspondence with other methods, rated by other informants. We compared the HoNOSCA with the well-established Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) questionnaires: the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Methods Data on 153 patients aged 6-17 years at seven outpatient CAMHS clinics in Norway were analysed. Clinicians completed the HoNOSCA, whereas parents, teachers, and adolescents filled in the ASEBA forms. HoNOSCA total score and nine of its scales were compared with similar ASEBA scales. With a multiple regression model, we investigated how the ASEBA ratings predicted the clinician-rated HoNOSCA and whether the different informants' scores made any unique contribution to the prediction of the HoNOSCA scales. Results We found moderate correlations between the total problems rated by the clinicians (HoNOSCA) and by the other informants (ASEBA) and good correspondence between eight of the nine HoNOSCA scales and the similar ASEBA scales. The exception was HoNOSCA scale 8 psychosomatic symptoms compared with the ASEBA somatic problems scale. In the regression analyses, the CBCL and TRF total problems scores together explained 27% of the variance in the HoNOSCA total scores (23% for the age group 11-17 years, also including the YSR). The CBCL provided unique information for the prediction of the HoNOSCA total score, HoNOSCA scale 1 aggressive behaviour, HoNOSCA scale 2 overactivity or attention problems, HoNOSCA scale 9 emotional symptoms, and HoNOSCA scale 10 peer problems; the TRF for all

  7. Health Information Needs of d/Deaf Adolescent Females: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…

  8. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD.

  9. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD. PMID:27070095

  10. New approaches to the delivery of health care to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Millar, H E

    1975-01-01

    Adolescents are a new population group showing certain common characteristics which transcend the confines of geography, economics, education, culture and race. Certain health problems have emerged which are closely related to the life style of teenagers. These health needs are not met by existing health care delivery systems, and future planning must take into account the morals of young people. At present there is no unified approach to the development of health care programs for adolescents, but important explorations of effective methods are are taking place in a fragmentary way. The challenge is to provide the necessary technology and professional expertise in an accessible setting and then to weld these services into programs which will become cohensive and stable. Analyses of data show that adolescents seek help more often for primary and preventive care than for serious ilnesses. Services are particulary needed for addictive problems, emotional disorders, suicidal states, and conditions related to sexual activity. Consideration of the effect of adolescent behavior on the reproductive cycle is of the utmost importance. These sequelae of conception and veneral disease can be extremely serious for the immature girl and her baby. Therefore the opportunity for birth control, health education, abortion and prenatal care for teenagers should be priority goals in any program for adolescents. The provision of services for the young mother and her baby should be included in the overall plan. New approaches in the ambulatory care of adolescents include an age-specific operation, satellite clinics with hospital backup, and the inclusion of young people in the planning services. Care should be comprehensive and continuous, and a multi-disciplinary staff team would permit a more effective approach. The involvement of other teenagers as assistants in counseling has been found an effective method of communication; this relaitonship may bridge the generation gap when highly

  11. Adolescent Mental Health: Delinquency. Matrix No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan

    Research related to identification of delinquents, causes of delinquency, and effective intervention to stop delinquency is reviewed in this paper. In summary, the review indicates that adolescent problems appear to be concentrated among those disadvantaged in a variety of ways. Further, the reviewed literature indicates that biases in the justice…

  12. School engagement, acculturation, and mental health among migrant adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children of migrants living in Israel), 118 second-generation migrants (children of migrants born and living in Israel), and an age-matched sample of 202 native-born Jewish adolescents. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing mental health symptoms, engagement in risk behaviors, social adjustment, and school engagement. Both migrant adolescent groups also completed an acculturation questionnaire. Differences between groups in school engagement, mental health symptoms, and risk behavior were examined, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of acculturation. Findings revealed substantially higher levels of mental health symptoms (p < .001) and risk behaviors (p = .001) among 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents compared with native-born adolescents, with no significant differences between 1.5 generation and second-generation migrants. Migrants' age and gender were associated with mental health symptoms and risk behaviors-older participants engaged in more risk behaviors (p = .02), and females had elevated mental health symptoms (p = .007). Identification with the host country mediated the relationships between school engagement and mental health symptoms (ps .006 and .008) and risk behaviors (ps .001 and .004) in 1.5 generation and second-generation migrants, respectively. The results are discussed in reference to current theories and research, as well as practical implications for prevention and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Indonesian survey looks at adolescent reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Achmad, S I; Westley, S B

    1999-10-01

    The Baseline Survey of Young Adult Reproductive Welfare in Indonesia, conducted from September to December 1998, provides information about young Indonesians on topics concerning work, education, marriage, family life, sexuality, fertility, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The survey interviewed 4106 men and 3978 women aged 15-24 years in three provinces of Java. Survey findings showed that 42% of the women and 8% of the men are currently or have been married. There was a strong inverse relationship between marriage and schooling, which suggests that greater educational attainment and a higher average age at marriage are likely to go together. Although most young couples prefer to delay and space births, only half of currently married young women are using any type of contraception. These results indicate that there is a need for better reproductive health care as well as improved reproductive health education. Moreover, the current economic crisis has lead to a decline in the use of the private sector for health care. Instead, young people are using the less-expensive government services, and young women are turning to pharmacies and midwives rather than to private doctors to obtain contraceptives. These findings have several policy implications including the need for reproductive health programs that provide services needed by young people. PMID:12295693

  14. Health promotion for adolescents: preventive and corrective strategies against problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hurrelmann, K

    1990-09-01

    This paper, in its first part, gives an overview of research on "problem behavior" in adolescence. Adolescence is considered to be a stage in life characterized by more experimentation, exploration, risk-taking, and rebellion than any other stages. Many health-damaging behaviors (drug consumption, precocious sexual activity, riskful driving, aggressive behavior, etc.) have important psychosocial functions in adolescents' developments. Some of these behaviors can be signals of "stress", defined as a bio-psycho-social state of tension resulting from a variety of stressors which confront adolescents daily in modern industrial societies. In the second part of the paper, the implications of this research for strategies of intervention are discussed. The systematic analysis distinguishes between different stages in the process by which problem behavior emerges and separates "preventive" from "corrective" forms of intervention. Additionally, the analysis differentiates between the dimensions targeted by the measures: interventions addressed toward individual behavior ("personal resources") on the one hand, and living conditions ("social resources") on the other hand. The resulting types of intervention approaches are illustrated with examples and discussed in view of how appropriate they are for health promotion in adolescence. Implications for "social policy for adolescents" are discussed.

  15. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs. PMID:18047940

  16. Health-seeking behaviours by gender among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Otwombe, Kennedy; Dietrich, Janan; Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda E.; Miller, Cari L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents are an important age-group for preventing disease and supporting health yet little is known about their health-seeking behaviours. Objective We describe socio-demographic characteristics and health-seeking behaviours of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa, in order to broaden our understanding of their health needs. Design The Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study was an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey of 830 adolescents (14–19 years) conducted in Soweto from 2010 to 2012. Health-seeking behaviours were defined as accessing medical services and/or being hospitalised in the 6 months prior to the survey. Chi-square analysis tested for associations between gender, other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and health-seeking behaviours. Results Of 830 adolescents, 57% were female, 50% were aged 17–19 years, 85% were enrolled in school, and 78% reported experiencing medium or high food insecurity. Males were more likely than females to report sexual debut (64% vs. 49%; p<0.0001) and illicit drug use (11% vs. 3%; p<0.0001). Approximately 27% (n=224) and 8% (n=65) reported seeking healthcare or being hospitalised respectively in the previous 6 months, with no significant differences by gender. Services were most commonly sought at medical clinics (75%), predominantly because of flu-like symptoms (32%), followed by concerns about HIV (10%). Compared to females, males were more likely to seek healthcare for condom breakage (8% vs. 2%; p=0.02). Relative to males, a significantly higher proportion of females desired general healthcare services (85% vs. 78%; p=0.0091), counselling (82% vs. 70%; p<0.0001), and reproductive health services (64% vs. 56%; p=0.02). Conclusions A quarter of male and female adolescents accessed health services in the 6 months prior to the interview. Adolescents reported a gap between the availability and the need for general, reproductive, and counselling services. Integrated adolescent

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  18. Self-concept and dental health behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, I D; Regis, D; Balding, J

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relation between some dental health behaviours and 2 measures of self-concept in adolescents. Data from a survey of 41142, 12-16-year-old children from 244 secondary schools throughout England were analysed to obtain information about their frequencies of toothbrushing, use of dental floss and dental attendance, and whether they recalled advice about toothbrushing, in relation to self-esteem and health locus of control (HLOC). Subjects completed a questionnaire, anonymously, in school class. The results showed a significant positive correlation (Spearman) between the frequencies of flossing and toothbrushing, in both sexes, and between social group and toothbrushing frequency, where brushing frequency increased as socio-economic status improved. Some association between use of floss and social group emerged, but this was smaller and less consistent than that observed with toothbrushing brushing frequency. Self-esteem was positively correlated with toothbrushing frequency at ages 12-15 years, while HLOC showed correlations at some ages but not others. Use of dental floss showed no relation to self-concept. Subjects with more favourable self-concept were more likely to make more frequent dental visits than those with a poorer self-view. There was a strong and consistent correlation between recalled advice about toothbrushing and lower self- esteem and external locus of control. The results are in agreement with our earlier reports and suggest that self-concept may play a significant role in mediating changes in dental health behaviour.

  19. The health challenge of stress experienced by Native American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Melessa; Lowe, John

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about how Native American youth experience or manage stress. The purpose of this study was to describe the health challenge of stress experienced by Cherokee-Keetoowah adolescents and to identify approaches used to manage stress. All adolescents regardless of ethnicity face normative sources of stress, such as daily hassles and transition experiences like moving to a new school. Native American youth are known to have significantly greater stress, related to social and economic factors, than their white peers. They are exposed to a variety of continuous stressors including poverty and family disruption. A qualitative story-theory-guided approach was used to conduct a secondary analysis of existing data collected from a larger study where written stories of stress were gathered from 50 Cherokee-Keetoowah adolescents ranging in ages from 14 to 18 years. The data analysis was guided by the story inquiry method to identify dimensions of the health challenge of stress and approaches used to resolve the health challenge. Three health challenge groups were identified: burden of expectations, relationship disruption, and imposing feelings and the actions of others. The most frequently described stories of stress expressed were the burden of expectation of self or from others (n=33). Connecting with valued others, engaging in meaningful activities, and choosing a positive attitude about change were themes that characterized ways that these adolescents managed stress. It is essential to understand how Native American adolescents experience stress and what they do to manage it if we wish to deter the physical and mental consequences of stress. The development of stress-reducing culturally competent interventions that are built on a foundation such as story sharing is a culturally congruent approach for intervening with Native American adolescents. PMID:22284082

  20. Determinants and trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Utz, Bettina; Bardají, Azucena; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinants and measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Methods In order to measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections, Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) data sets were analysed (BDHS; 1993–1994, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004, 2007, 2011). The BDHS 2011 data sets were analysed to identify the determinants of health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections. A total of 2813 adolescent girls (aged 10–19 years) were included for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Health facility-based deliveries have continuously increased among adolescents in Bangladesh over the past two decades from 3% in 1993–1994 to 24.5% in 2011. Rates of population-based and facility-based caesarean sections have increased linearly among all age groups of women including adolescents. Although the country's overall (population-based) caesarean section rate among adolescents was within acceptable range (11.6%), a rate of nearly 50% health facility level caesarean sections among adolescent girls is alarming. Among adolescent girls, use of antenatal care (ANC) appeared to be the most important predictor of health facility-based delivery (OR: 4.04; 95% CI 2.73 to 5.99), whereas the wealth index appeared as the most important predictor of caesarean sections (OR: 5.7; 95% CI 2.74 to 12.1). Conclusions Maternal health-related interventions should be more targeted towards adolescent girls in order to encourage them to access ANC and promote health facility-based delivery. Rising trends of caesarean sections require further investigation on indication and provider–client-related determinants of these interventions among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. PMID:27633641

  1. Alcohol consumption and social network ties among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Nikaj, Silda

    2014-05-01

    Although many studies have estimated the influence of peers on risky health behaviors, few have estimated the gains that adolescents receive from such behaviors, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. In this paper, we explore the extent to which alcohol consumption increases popularity of adolescents. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models with school-level fixed effects to identify the effect of alcohol consumption on social network ties. We find that alcohol consumption leads to an increase in popularity, with the largest gains experienced by white males and females. Our results provide new evidence on the motivation behind adolescent drinking and have important implications for substance abuse interventions.

  2. Relations between Mattering to Step- and Non-Residential Fathers and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Clorinda E.; Braver, Sanford L.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Saenz, Delia; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relations between perceptions of 133 early adolescents in stepfamilies concerning how much they mattered to their stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers and adolescents' mental health problems. Mattering to nonresidential biological fathers significantly negatively predicted mother-, teacher-, and youth-reported internalizing problems. Mattering to stepfathers significantly negatively predicted youth-reported internalizing and stepfather- and youth- reported externalizing problems. For teacher-reported externalizing problems, mattering to stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers significantly interacted. Mattering to either father predicted low externalizing problems; perceptions of mattering to the second father did not predict a further reduction in problems. Results suggest that mattering is an important aspect of father-adolescent relationships, and highlight the importance of considering adolescents' relationships with both nonresidential fathers and stepfathers. PMID:20019889

  3. Mental health screening of adolescents in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Husky, Mathilde M; Miller, Kathleen; McGuire, Leslie; Flynn, Laurie; Olfson, Mark

    2011-04-01

    This study examines routine computerized mental health screening for adolescents scheduled for a routine physical examination in a group pediatric practice. Medical records of adolescents aged 13 to 17 who were offered screening (n = 483) were reviewed. Approximately 44.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 40.3-49.2) were screened, and 13.9% (95% CI 9.3-18.5) were identified as being at risk. Screening was associated with significantly increased odds of receiving either pediatric mental health care or a referral for specialty mental health care (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6). Among patients who received either mental health intervention, those who were screened were significantly more likely to be referred to specialty care (AOR: 15.9 95% CI 2.5-100.4), though they were less likely to receive pediatric mental health care (AOR: 0.10 95% CI 0.02-0.54). The findings support the feasibility of routine mental health screening in pediatric practice. Screening is acceptable to many parents and adolescents, and it is associated with referral for specialized mental health care rather than care from the pediatrician.

  4. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  5. Prerequisites for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon; Belfer, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of the mental and physical health of children and adolescents the world over reflects: the genomes they inherit (and the modifications those genes undergo in utero); the pregnancies that led to their births, whether their mothers survive those pregnancies, and whether their births were welcome; the parents, the neighbors, and the…

  6. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  7. Developments in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, David; Gallagher, Peter; Growcott, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the main issues that are present in the field of child and adolescent mental health services with regard to strategic development. It identifies the major themes that have emerged concerning the commissioning and delivery of services, and also highlights the difficulties faced by particular groups of children. The authors…

  8. Parental Rule Socialization for Preventive Health and Adolescent Rule Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Baxter, Leslie A.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Wolf, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family rules about nutrition, exercise, and sun protection in 164 parent-young adult children dyads. Both parents and their young adult children independently reported on health rules that they perceived throughout their child's adolescent years and the extent to which the rules were articulated, violations sanctioned, and…

  9. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  10. The relationship between monogamous/polygamous family structure and the mental health of bedouin Arab adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, S; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second study involved 182 Bedouin Arab adolescents in which the student participants completed a single instrument about themselves and in which the teachers of the students completed the Teachers' Report Form of the Child Behaviour Checklist by Achenbach. The Bedouin Arab adolescents fell into two groups: (a) adolescents in monogamous family structures and (b) adolescents in polygamous family structures. The findings of the first study suggest that the two groups did not differ significantly in the majority of the assessed variables, even though there were significant differences obtained between groups for 4 of the 13 assessed variables. The two groups did not differ significantly in the second study. Results were discussed in terms of their cultural and developmental significance.

  11. The National Adolescent Student Health Survey. A Report on the Health of America's Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association, Kent, OH.

    The National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS) was designed to assess students' health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in eight areas of critical importance to the health of youth. Two grade levels, eighth and tenth, were chosen to be the focus of the study. The survey provides a national profile of students at these two grade…

  12. Adolescent Health Care in School-Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…

  13. Enhancing Health Literacy through Accessing Health Information, Products, and Services: An Exercise for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.; Wantz, Molly S.

    2007-01-01

    The second National Health Education Standard states the importance of student demonstration of the ability to access valid health information and services. The teaching technique presented in this article provides an opportunity for children and adolescents to develop their health literacy and advocacy skills by contributing to a class resource…

  14. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1999-06-01

    No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, "psychosis" or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenon-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in Satanism were conducted, literature in the form of books, magazines and newspaper-clippings were used to verify the research findings. The most important guidelines are that the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show any fear or sympathy; they must have sufficient knowledge about Satanism; the adolescents have to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team and the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions.

  15. [Adolescents previously involved in Satanism: mental health problems experience].

    PubMed

    Heathcote, H; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-03-01

    As far as the phenomena of adolescents previously involved with satanism that experience obstacles in the strive for mental health, no research has previously been done. Adolescents previously involved in satanism, presents behaviour problems like aggressive outbursts depression, "psychosis", or suicide attempts that can even lead to suicide. In the phenomena-analysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews with the respondents and their parents, were performed. The respondents were requested to write a naive sketch about there life. After the data-control was done, guidelines for nursing staff had been set. The guidelines are set for the management of adolescents that has previously been involved in satanism, and experiences obstacles in their strive for mental health. Interviews with experts in satanism was done, literature in the form of books, magazines and newsclippings were used to verify the findings in the research. The most important guidelines are that: the caregivers have to be reborn Christians; they are not allowed to show, any fear or sympathy; they have to have sufficient knowledge about satanism; the adolescent has to be unconditionally accepted; the caregivers have to work in a team; the adolescents have to be taught to deal with their emotions.

  16. Use of the internet as a source of health information by Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet is a fundamental part of the daily life of adolescents, they consider it as a safe and confidential source of information on health matters. The aims is to describe the experience of Spanish adolescents searching for health information on the Internet. Methods A cross-sectional study of 811 school-age adolescents in Granada was carried out. An adapted and piloted questionnaire was used which was controlled by trained personnel. Sociodemographic and health variables were included together with those concerning the conditions governing access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Results 811 adolescents were surveyed (99.38% response rate), mean age was 17 years old. Of these, 88% used the Internet; 57.5% used it on a daily or weekly basis and 38.7% used it occasionally. Nearly half the sample group (55.7%) stated that they used the Internet to search for health-related information. The main problems reported in the search for e-health were the ignorance of good web pages (54.8%) and the lack of confidence or search skills (23.2%). Conclusions In conclusion, it seems plausible to claim that websites designed and managed by health services should have a predominant position among interventions specifically addressed to young people. PMID:20113486

  17. [Articulation between child and adolescent mental health services].

    PubMed

    Delfini, Patricia Santos de Souza; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe and analyze the articulation between children and adolescent mental health care interventions undertaken by teams working under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSI). In order to achieve these objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five CAPSI and 13 FHS managers from five different regions of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The 18 interviews were transcribed and analyzed froma hermeneutic perspective. It was found that interactions between the FHS and CAPSI occur mainly through referral of cases, matrix support or partnerships in cases concerning CAPSI. Obstacles, such as a lack of human resources, productivity goals and lack of training in mental health of FHS professionals were mentioned. The referral system and passing responsibility for mental health cases to specialized services and the hegemonic biomedical model and the fragmentation of care are common place in these services.

  18. Dietary fibre and health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine A; Xie, Chengru; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-08-01

    The role of dietary fibre in promoting sustained health has been studied for several decades and in adults there is good evidence that diets rich in high-fibre foods reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and cancer. Research in this area, however, has been hampered by uncertainties about the definition of dietary fibre which has resulted in many studies measuring fibre in different ways. There is also a wide range of properties and actions of different fibres in the human body, depending on their solubility, viscosity and fermentability by the colonic microbiota. This review considers the epidemiological evidence for dietary fibre and health in children and the current dietary recommendations and measured intakes in several countries using national surveys. In children and adolescents, there is a particular lack of relevant research on which to formulate appropriate dietary fibre recommendations and these are often based on extrapolation from adult data. However, children are not little adults and have differing physiology and nutritional needs as they grow. The dietary recommendations in different countries are based on varying premises and daily amounts. Intakes vary from country to country and on the whole do not meet recommendations. Much more research is needed in children to fully understand the impact of dietary fibre on growth and health in the young to allow more appropriate recommendations to be made.

  19. Longitudinal and secular trends in parental encouragement for healthful eating, physical activity, and dieting throughout the adolescent years

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Laska, Melissa N.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Parental encouragement of healthful eating and physical activity has been found to be associated with adolescents’ long-term healthful habits, while parental encouragement to diet has been associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. However, little is known about how parental encouragement changes as adolescents grow older (longitudinal trends), or how parental encouragement has changed over time (secular trends). This study examined 5-year longitudinal and secular trends in adolescents’ report of their parents’ encouragement to eat healthfully, be physically active, and diet. Methods Project EAT surveyed a cohort of Minnesota adolescents (n=2516) in 1999 and 2004. Mixed-model regressions were used to assess changes in adolescents’ report of parental encouragement from early to middle adolescence (middle school to high school) and from middle to late adolescence (high school to post-high school), and secular changes in parental encouragement among middle adolescents between 1999 and 2004. Results There were significant decreases in parental encouragement to eat healthfully, be active, and diet between early and middle adolescence. Between middle and late adolescence, among males parental encouragement for all behaviors decreased while among females parental encouragement to diet increased. Few secular changes in parental encouragement were observed between 1999 and 2004. Conclusions Given the importance of parental support for healthful eating and physical activity, efforts should be made to help parents maintain a high level of encouragement for their children's healthful behavior throughout adolescence. Parents of late-adolescent females should aim to decrease the pressure on their daughters to diet during these critical developmental years. PMID:21856524

  20. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  1. Your Health, an Intervention at Senior Vocational Schools to Promote Adolescents' Health and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Heydelberg, Jurriën; van 't Klooster, Els; van Baar, Cathelijn; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the appreciation, application and effects of an intervention (Your Health), in which adolescents received a consultation with the school nurse. A cluster randomized controlled trial with an intervention and control group (care-as-usual) was conducted among first-grade senior vocational students. Adolescents (n = 418) completed…

  2. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Funtikova, Anna N; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship between their dietary patterns, especially when derived a posteriori, and cardiovascular risk. An adverse association of cardiovascular health and increased intake of sodium, saturated fat, meat, fast food and soft drinks has been reported in this population. In contrast, vitamin D, fiber, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, dairy, fruits and vegetables were positively linked to cardiovascular health.The aim of this review was to summarize current epidemiological and experimental evidence on the impact of nutrients, foods, and dietary pattern on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. A comprehensive review of the literature available in English and related to diet and cardiometabolic health in this population was undertaken via the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. PMID:26574072

  3. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Funtikova, Anna N; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-11-14

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship between their dietary patterns, especially when derived a posteriori, and cardiovascular risk. An adverse association of cardiovascular health and increased intake of sodium, saturated fat, meat, fast food and soft drinks has been reported in this population. In contrast, vitamin D, fiber, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, dairy, fruits and vegetables were positively linked to cardiovascular health.The aim of this review was to summarize current epidemiological and experimental evidence on the impact of nutrients, foods, and dietary pattern on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. A comprehensive review of the literature available in English and related to diet and cardiometabolic health in this population was undertaken via the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline.

  4. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-06-24

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  5. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted. The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender–power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters. PMID:20596248

  6. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  7. Victimization among Peruvian Adolescents: Insights into Mental/Emotional Health from the Young Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…

  8. Relationships among Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Mental Health in Taiwanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Lee, Ching Mei; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Hsi, Wen-Yun; Huang, Tzu-Fu; Pan, Yun-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationships among cyberbullying, school bullying, and mental health in adolescents. Methods: In 2010, a total of 2992 10th grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan completed questionnaires. Results: More than one third of students had either engaged in cyberbullying or had been the…

  9. Religious Doubts and Mental Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Association with Religious Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezdy, Aniko; Martos, Tamas; Boland, Vivian; Horvath-Szabo, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Religious doubts seem to be a part of identity and faith development in adolescence and young adulthood. Such doubts, however, are often linked with psychological distress, though the results in the field are not consistent. It seems important therefore to explore further the relationship between religious doubts and mental health. This study…

  10. Increasing the Screening and Counseling of Adolescents for Risky Health Behaviors: A Primary Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Elizabeth M.; Adams, Sally H.; Lustig, Julie L.; Gee, Scott; Garber, Andrea K.; Gardner, Linda Rieder; Rehbein, Michael; Addison, Louise; Irwin, Charles E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a systems intervention for primary care providers resulted in increased preventive screening and counseling of adolescent patients, compared with the usual standard of care. Methods: The intervention was conducted in 2 out-patient pediatric clinics; 2 other pediatric clinics in the same health maintenance…

  11. Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2014-09-01

    Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention.

  12. Adolescent interpersonal violence: implications for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2014-09-01

    Violence involvement is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. This review provides a summary of the burden of adolescent violence and violence-related behavior, risk, and protective factors for violence outcomes. The importance of screening for violence involvement in the primary care setting and examples of online resources to support providers in advocating, assessing, and intervening on behalf of youth are also reviewed. The article draws attention to bullying and dating/relationship violence, not as new forms of violence-related behavior, but as behaviors with health outcomes that have recently received increased attention. PMID:25124212

  13. Health-related quality of life in a clinical sample of obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity affects ethnic minority groups disproportionately, especially in the pediatric population. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents from mixed-ethnic samples. The purpose of this study was to: 1) measure HRQoL in a mixed-ethnic clinical sample of obese children and adolescents, 2) compare HRQoL assessments in obese participants and healthy controls, and 3) compare HRQoL in obese children and adolescents according to their pubertal status. Methods A clinical sample of children and adolescents with obesity (n = 96) and healthy children and adolescents attending local schools (n = 444) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL; UK version 4). Age-appropriate versions were self-administered by children and adolescents aged 8-18 years, and interview administered to children aged 5-7 years. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, gender, pubertal status, and ethnicity were used to compare the PedsQL scores of the two samples. Results The clinical sample of obese children and adolescents had poorer HRQoL scores on all dimensions of the PedsQL compared to the healthy controls (p < 0.005). Subsequent analyses also demonstrated that in this sample of mixed-ethnic children and adolescents, prepubescent obese children achieved the poorest scores in the emotional functioning dimension. Conclusions Obesity significantly impacts on physical, emotional, social and school functioning of mixed-ethnic children and adolescents. Clinicians need to be aware of the significant impact of obesity on all aspects of functioning. More effort is required to target interventions to improve the quality of life of children with obesity. PMID:21078146

  14. Improving the Quality of Health Care Services for Adolescents, Globally: A Standards-Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Baltag, Valentina; Bose, Krishna; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lambrechts, Thierry; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The World Health Organization (WHO) undertook an extensive and elaborate process to develop eight Global Standards to improve quality of health care services for adolescents. The objectives of this article are to present the Global Standards and their method of development. Methods The Global Standards were developed through a four-stage process: (1) conducting needs assessment; (2) developing the Global Standards and their criteria; (3) expert consultations; and (4) assessing their usability. Needs assessment involved conducting a meta-review of systematic reviews and two online global surveys in 2013, one with primary health care providers and another with adolescents. The Global Standards were developed based on the needs assessment in conjunction with analysis of 26 national standards from 25 countries. The final document was reviewed by experts from the World Health Organization regional and country offices, governments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and development partners. The standards were subsequently tested in Benin and in a regional expert consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries for their usability. Results The process resulted in the development of eight Global Standards and 79 criteria for measuring them: (1) adolescents' health literacy; (2) community support; (3) appropriate package of services; (4) providers' competencies; (5) facility characteristics; (6) equity and nondiscrimination; (7) data and quality improvement; and (8) adolescents' participation. Conclusions The eight standards are intended to act as benchmarks against which quality of health care provided to adolescents could be compared. Health care services can use the standards as part of their internal quality assurance mechanisms or as part of an external accreditation process. PMID:26299556

  15. Prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. PMID:23461668

  16. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  17. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking…

  18. The Role of Parental and Peer Attachment in the Psychological Health and Self-Esteem of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…

  19. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  20. Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic measures for specific physical and psychiatric symptoms. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were systematically assessed by self- and clinician reports. Suicidal events were also reanalyzed by the Columbia Group and expert raters using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm for Suicidal Assessment used in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reclassification effort. Results Depressed adolescents reported high rates of physical symptoms at baseline, which improved as depression improved. Sedation, insomnia, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain occurred in at least 2% of those treated with FLX and/or COMB and at twice the rate of placebo. The rate of psychiatric AEs was 11% in FLX, 5.6% in COMB, 4.5% in PBO, and 0.9% in CBT. Suicidal ideation improved overall, with greatest improvement in COMB. Twenty-four suicide-related events occurred during the 12-week period: 5 patients (4.7%) in COMB, 10 (9.2%) in FLX, 5 (4.5%) in CBT, and 3 (2.7%) in placebo. Statistically, only FLX had more suicide-related events than PBO (p = .0402, odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CI 1.00–13.7). Only five actual attempts occurred (2 COMB, 2 FLX, 1 CBT, 0 PBO). There were no suicide completions. Conclusions Different methods for eliciting AEs produce different results. In general, as depression improves, physical complaints and suicidal ideation decrease in proportion to treatment benefit. In this study, psychiatric AEs and suicide-related events are more common in FLX-treated patients. COMB treatment may offer a more favorable safety profile than medication alone in adolescent depression. PMID:17135989

  1. Perseverative thoughts and subjective health complaints in adolescence: Mediating effects of perceived stress and negative affects.

    PubMed

    Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.

  2. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services and Illness Perceptions Among Adolescents with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Floersch, Jerry E.; Townsend, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes how adolescents perceive their mood disorders (MD; e.g., acute vs. chronic) and their attitudes toward mental health services. The study also explores the relationships between demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions of illness and attitudes. Finally, we examine the psychometric properties of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (Moss-Morris et al. in Psychology & Health 17(1):1–16, 2002). Seventy adolescents were recruited from the greater Cleveland area. Structured interviews were conducted utilizing standardized instruments. Results show that adolescents with MD have fairly positive attitudes, with Caucasian youth reporting more positive attitudes than their nonwhite ounterparts. Illness perceptions were related to psychological openness and indifference to stigma. Implications are discussed. PMID:19834581

  3. Examining non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents with mental health needs, in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; Theall-Honey, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents with mental health needs and specific factors associated with NSSI among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years who received mental health services in adult mental health facilities in Ontario, Canada. Data on 2,013 adolescents were obtained from the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) and were analyzed using logistic regression. Approximately, 20.2% (407 adolescents) of the sample engaged in NSSI within the last 12 months. Results from multivariate logistic regression indicate that females were 2.19 times more likely to engage in NSSI than males. Intentional misuse of prescription medication emerged as the most important factor associated with NSSI. Other factors found to be associated with NSSI included multiple psychiatric admissions, sexual abuse, use of alcohol, mood disorders (e.g., depression), adjustment disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of depression. The article discusses the implications of the findings, with suggestions for future research.

  4. Health Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Compared to a Representative Reference Population

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Sebastian; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Bächle, Christina; Graf, Christine; Straßburger, Klaus; Salgin, Burak; Mayatepek, Ertan; Giani, Guido; Holl, Reinhard W.; Meissner, Thomas; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Objective We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status. Methods Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629) were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813). Results Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56), short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week), and high daily computer use (OR 2.51). They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29), and high daily television time (OR 0.68). The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c. Conclusions Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use. PMID:25384048

  5. Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baroun, Khader A

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.

  6. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Emily S; Laird, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. PMID:25177156

  7. Fatigue in children and adolescents with cancer from the perspective of health professionals 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Michele Cristina Miyauti; Lopes, Luís Carlos; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate health professionals' knowledge about the concept, assessment and intervention in fatigue in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: exploratory study with qualitative approach, with 53 health professionals (10 nurses, 33 assistant nurses, 3 physicians, 3 nutritionists, 2 psychologists and 2 physical therapists). Semi structured interviews were held, which were recorded and analyzed by means of inductive thematic content analysis. Results: the data were organized around three themes: knowledge of health professionals about fatigue; identification of fatigue and interventions to relieve fatigue. Conclusion: the results indicate the health professionals' limited knowledge about fatigue, as well as the lack of investment in their training and continuing education. Most of all, the lack of research on the theme in the Brazilian context remains a barrier to support improvements in care for this symptom in children and adolescents with cancer. PMID:27579937

  8. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:27283139

  9. Quality of Primary Health Care for children and adolescents living with HIV 1

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Leticia; de Paula, Cristiane Cardoso; Magnago, Tania Solange Bosi de Souza; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Harzheim, Erno; da Silva, Clarissa Bohrer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. Results: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. Conclusion: the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV. PMID:27579927

  10. Resource Needs for Adolescent Friendly Health Services: Estimates for 74 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Deogan, Charlotte; Ferguson, Jane; Stenberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6, it is essential to address adolescents’ health. Objective To estimate the additional resources required to scale up adolescent friendly health service interventions with the objective to reduce mortality and morbidity among individuals aged 10 to 19 years in 74 low- and middle- income countries. Methods A costing model was developed to estimate the financial resources needed to scale-up delivery of a set of interventions including contraception, maternity care, management of sexually transmitted infections, HIV testing and counseling, safe abortion services, HIV harm reduction, HIV care and treatment and care of injuries due to intimate partner physical and sexual violence. Financial costs were estimated for each intervention, country and year using a bottom-up ingredients approach, defining costs at different levels of delivery (i.e., community, health centre, and hospital level). Programme activity costs to improve quality of care were also estimated, including activities undertaken at national-, district- and facility level in order to improve adolescents’ use of health services (i.e., to render health services adolescent friendly). Results Costs of achieving universal coverage are estimated at an additional US$ 15.41 billion for the period 2011–2015, increasing from US$ 1.86 billion in 2011 to US$ 4,31 billion in 2015. This corresponds to approximately US$ 1.02 per adolescent in 2011, increasing to 4.70 in 2015. On average, for all 74 countries, an annual additional expenditure per capita ranging from of US$ 0.38 in 2011 to US$ 0.82 in 2015, would be required to support the scale-up of key adolescent friendly health services. Conclusion The estimated costs show a substantial investment gap and are indicative of the additional investments required to scale up health service delivery to adolescents towards universal coverage by 2015. PMID:23300548

  11. The role of Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine in training of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Ford, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) was created by health professionals committed to identifying and better addressing the health needs of adolescents and young adults, and this work has continued for nearly 50 years. The society initially focused primarily on clinical education, but has evolved to include educational activities providing clinical, research, policy, advocacy, and professional development content. Strategies have included high-quality annual meetings designed to meet the educational needs of its multi-disciplinary membership, publishing an internationally recognized journal, and developing strategic collaborations to advocate for legitimacy of the field and reform in health profession education. Historically, SAHM has been most successful at increasing specialized training in the United States among physicians, and primarily pediatricians, likely driven by the nuances of the development of adolescent medicine in this country. Successes are often linked to strategic collaborations with other professional organizations, and have been facilitated by federally funded initiatives to improve adolescent and young adult health. Recent efforts to improve professional training are focused on the use of technology, and SAHM is also currently exploring strategies to directly reach adolescents, young adults, and their parents. As the society becomes increasingly multidisciplinary and international, members have extraordinary opportunities to learn from each other, build upon lessons learned, and collaborate. Descriptions of the history of SAHM's training-focused efforts, selected highlights, and current priorities will be used to illustrate this long-standing commitment to the training of health professionals.

  12. Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M; Poulton, R

    2006-04-01

    According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.

  13. Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents spend increasingly more time on electronic devices, and sleep deficiency rising in adolescents constitutes a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate daytime screen use and use of electronic devices before bedtime in relation to sleep. Design A large cross-sectional population-based survey study from 2012, the youth@hordaland study, in Hordaland County in Norway. Setting Cross-sectional general community-based study. Participants 9846 adolescents from three age cohorts aged 16–19. The main independent variables were type and frequency of electronic devices at bedtime and hours of screen-time during leisure time. Outcomes Sleep variables calculated based on self-report including bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Results Adolescents spent a large amount of time during the day and at bedtime using electronic devices. Daytime and bedtime use of electronic devices were both related to sleep measures, with an increased risk of short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and increased sleep deficiency. A dose–response relationship emerged between sleep duration and use of electronic devices, exemplified by the association between PC use and risk of less than 5 h of sleep (OR=2.70, 95% CI 2.14 to 3.39), and comparable lower odds for 7–8 h of sleep (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.96). Conclusions Use of electronic devices is frequent in adolescence, during the day as well as at bedtime. The results demonstrate a negative relation between use of technology and sleep, suggesting that recommendations on healthy media use could include restrictions on electronic devices. PMID:25643702

  14. Effect on Health-related Quality of Life of changes in mental health in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to assess the effect of changes in mental health status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents aged 8 - 18 years. Methods A representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years completed the self-administered KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire at baseline and after 3 years. Mental health status was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Changes on SDQ scores over time were used to classify respondents in one of 3 categories (improved, stable, worsened). Data was also collected on gender, undesirable life events, and family socio-economic status. Changes in HRQOL were evaluated using effect sizes (ES). A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of poor HRQOL at follow-up. Results Response rate at follow-up was 54% (n = 454). HRQOL deteriorated in all groups on most KIDSCREEN dimensions. Respondents who worsened on the SDQ showed the greatest deterioration, particularly on Psychological well-being (ES = -0.81). Factors most strongly associated with a decrease in HRQOL scores were undesirable life events and worsening SDQ score. Conclusions Changes in mental health status affect children and adolescents' HRQOL. Improvements in mental health status protect against poorer HRQOL while a worsening in mental health status is a risk factor for poorer HRQOL. PMID:20030835

  15. Sleep deficiency and sleep health problems in chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Victor; Shao, Jesus; Zhang, Kai; Mulvey, Martha; Ming, Xue; Wagner, George C

    2012-01-01

    A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported (P < 0.0001). Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers (P < 0.0001). Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance. PMID:23641162

  16. Fifteen-minute consultation: public health for paediatricians-adolescent public health.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Dougal S; Williams, Bhanu; Straw, Fiona; Gregorowski, Anna; Yassaee, Arrash; Devakumar, Delan

    2016-10-01

    Paediatricians have a key role to play in ensuring a holistic, integrated approach is taken to meeting adolescent health needs. There is increasing evidence that failure to do so can lead to poor healthcare experience, avoidable ill health and increased need for healthcare services, both in the short term and in adult life. This article aims to guide paediatricians in answering the questions 'How well are the public health and clinical needs of the adolescent population in my area being met? And how can we improve?'

  17. A PARENT–ADOLESCENT INTERVENTION TO INCREASE SEXUAL RISK COMMUNICATION: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent–adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HTV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6– and 12–month follow–ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent–adolescent communication related to general and sex–specific communication. PMID:18956979

  18. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  19. Early Adolescents Perceptions of Health and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Health illiteracy is a societal issue that, if addressed successfully, may help to reduce health disparities. It has been associated with increased rates of hospital admission, health care expenditures, and poor health outcomes. Because of this, much of the research in the United States has focused on adults in the health care system.…

  20. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  1. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  2. Teachers' perspectives on sexual and reproductive health interventions for in-school adolescents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aransiola, Joshua O; Asa, Sola; Obinjuwa, Patience; Olarewaju, Oluseyi; Ojo, Olubukola O; Fatusi, Adesegun O

    2013-12-01

    High prevalence of early and unprotected sex, resulting in adverse reproductive health outcomes, has been reported among adolescents in Nigeria. While school-based sexual and reproductive health interventions for in-school adolescents is widely recognized, little is known on the kind of involvements desired by teachers and their perceptions of handling students' reproductive health concerns. In this study, the teachers favoured school-based reproductive health education (RHE), but have divers' opinions on what should be included in such RHE. Majority was not willing or comfortable in personal counseling of students but can teach RHE in classroom environment. They support the current approach of expelling pregnant school girls. The article advocates for gender-sensitive and developmental-oriented approaches that will ensure rehabilitation and re-integration of pregnant girls into the school system after their delivery, and recommend the need to build teachers skills and promote students-teachers dialogue in order to optimize school environment for addressing ASRH.

  3. Primary health care use and health care accessibility among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Barakat-Haddad, C; Siddiqua, A

    2015-05-19

    This study examined primary health care use and accessibility among adolescents living in the United Arab Emirates. In a cross-sectional study, we collected health care use, sociodemographic and residential data for a sample of 6363 adolescents. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine predictors of health care use. The most-consulted health professionals were dentists or orthodontists, family doctors and eye specialists. Local adolescents were more likely to attend public clinics/hospitals than private facilities, while the opposite was true for expatriates. In the previous 12 months 22.6% of the participants had not obtained the health care they needed and 19.5% had not had a routine health check-up. Common reasons for not obtaining care were busy schedules, dislike/fear of doctors and long waiting times. Predictors of not obtaining needed care included nationality and income, while those for having a routine check-up were mother's education and car ownership. Improvements to the health care sector may increase health care accessibility among adolescents.

  4. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life and Asthma among United States Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M.; Zahran, Hatice S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the direction and the magnitude of associations between asthma and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population-based sample of US adolescents. Study design We obtained data from the 2001–2010 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used multinomial logistic regression and negative binomial regression to estimate corresponding percentages, prevalence ratios (PRs), and predicted days of 4 domains of HRQoL by 3 asthma status categories: never having asthma, having asthma without symptoms, and having asthma with symptoms. Results Compared with those who never had asthma, adolescents with asthma with symptoms of dry cough or wheezing reported significantly worse self-rated health (13.58% [95% CI, 10.32%–17.67%] vs 7.54% [95% CI, 6.50%–8.72%] for fair or poor health), significantly impaired physical health (PR = 1.34, P = .004; adjusted physically unhealthy days, 2.7 days vs 2 days), and impaired mental health (PR = 1.26, P = .025). Among adolescents having asthma with symptoms, those who currently smoked reported 1 more physically unhealthy day and 2.4 more mentally unhealthy days than those who did not smoke and did not have asthma. Those reporting limited physical functioning reported 2 more physically unhealthy days and 1.5 more mentally unhealthy days than those who did not report limited functioning. Conclusion Adolescents with asthma and symptoms reported worse HRQoL compared with those with asthma not reporting symptoms and those without asthma. Those who smoked or reported limited physical functioning reported worse physical and mental HRQoL. Reducing symptoms, quitting smoking, and improving physical functioning may improve HRQoL among adolescents with asthma. PMID:25454936

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Anísio Luiz da Silva; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Results: Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). PMID:26298656

  7. Polyvictimization, Income, and Ethnic Differences in Trauma-Related Mental Health During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Arthur R.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; López, Cristina M.; Metzger, Isha W.; de Arellano, Michael A. R.; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate ethnic differences in trauma-related mental health symptoms among adolescents, and test the mediating and moderating effects of polyvictimization (i.e., number of types of traumas/victimizations experienced by an individual) and household income, respectively. Methods Data were drawn from the first wave of the National Survey of Adolescents replication study (NSA-R), which took place in the U.S. in 2005 and utilized random digit dialing to administer a telephone survey to adolescents ages 12-17. Participants included in the current analyses were the 3,312 adolescents (50.2% female; Mean age = 14.67 years) from the original sample of 3,614 who identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 2,346, 70.8%), non-Hispanic Black (n = 557, 16.8%), or Hispanic (n = 409, 12.3%). Structural equation modeling was utilized to test hypothesized models. Results Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic participants reported higher levels of polyvictimization and trauma-related mental health symptoms (symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression) compared to non-Hispanic Whites, though the effect sizes were small (γ ≤ .07). Polyvictimization fully accounted for the differences in mental health symptoms between non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites, and partially accounted for the differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. The relation between polyvictimization and trauma-related mental health symptoms was higher for low-income youth than for high-income youth. Conclusions Disparities in trauma exposure largely accounted for racial/ethnic disparities in trauma-related mental health. Children from low-income family environments appear to be at greater risk of negative mental health outcomes following trauma exposure compared to adolescents from high-income families. PMID:26048339

  8. New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, David

    To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

  9. Family context of mental health risk in Tsunami-exposed adolescents: findings from a pilot study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Kaspar, Violet

    2007-02-01

    Using survey data from 325 Tsunami-exposed adolescents and mothers from two villages in southern Sri Lanka, this pilot study investigated influences of Tsunami exposure and subsequent psychosocial losses on adolescent depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Findings generally support the study hypotheses: disaster exposure (for example experiences of property destruction and deaths of close others) contributes to depressive and PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Findings also show that psychosocial losses associated with Tsunami exposure, such as prolonged displacement, social losses, family losses, and mental health impairment among mothers, contribute to depressive and PTSD symptoms in adolescents. Results suggest that the influence of Tsunami exposure on adolescent mental health operates partially through Tsunami-related psychosocial losses. As expected, positive mother-child relationships provide a compensatory influence on both depressive and PTSD symptoms of adolescents. In addition, high levels of depressive symptoms among mothers increases the detrimental influence of other Tsunami-related psychosocial losses on adolescent mental health. These preliminary findings suggest ways to improve ongoing recovery and reconstruction programs and assist in formulating new programs for families exposed to both the Tsunami and other natural disasters. More importantly, findings from this pilot study emphasize the urgent need for larger systematic studies focusing on mental health following disaster exposure.

  10. Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. PMID:24155192

  11. Weight- and race-based bullying: health associations among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-04-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects.

  12. Linkages between mental health need and help-seeking behavior among adolescents: Moderating role of ethnicity and cultural values.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sisi; Nguyen, Hannah; Weiss, Bahr; Ngo, Victoria K; Lau, Anna S

    2015-10-01

    Risk of developing emotional and behavioral mental health problems increases markedly during adolescence. Despite this increasing need, most adolescents, particularly ethnic minority youth, do not seek professional help. Informed by conceptual models of health behavior, the current study examined how cultural values are related to help seeking among adolescents from 2 distinct racial/ethnic groups. Using a prospective survey design, 169 Vietnamese American and European American youth in 10th and 11th grade reported on their mental health need, as measured by emotional/behavioral mental health symptoms and stressful life events, with participants reporting on their help-seeking behavior at 6-month follow-up assessments. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that mental health need interacted with cultural values and ethnicity to predict help-seeking behavior. Specifically, associations between symptoms and stressful life events, and help-seeking behavior were smaller among Vietnamese American adolescents, and among adolescents with strong family obligation values. These results underscore the complex sociocultural factors influencing adolescents' help-seeking behavior, which have important implications for engaging youth in needed mental health care.

  13. Novel methods to collect meaningful data from adolescents for the development of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-09-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions.

  14. Novel methods to collect meaningful data from adolescents for the development of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-09-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  15. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  16. [Sexual health in adolescents: how to approach it in consultation?].

    PubMed

    Launay, Magali; Demierre, Maria; Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent's sexual health, in particular the risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is a complex topic that deserves special attention. Confidential care and non-stigmatizing attitude as well as working with sexual health counsellors are strongly recommended. If an adolescent consults with an adult, it is beneficial to proceed stepwise in order to promote patient's autonomy and to build a relationship of trust with both of them. A focused approach of the teenager, adapted to its needs, as well as techniques such as Quick start and bridging, can improve compliance to contraception. Regarding the risk of STIs, primary prevention remains essential. The most effective prevention currently consists in systematic condom use. PMID:27451513

  17. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  18. Institutionalization and psychological suffering: notes on the mental health of institutionalized adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ligia Costa; Schmid, Patricia C

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the relationship between the institutionalization of needy children and adolescents and the resulting psychological suffering. Individuals who have been institutionalized for long periods suffer from increased fragility in psychological structure, becoming more vulnerable and at risk as a direct consequence of the treatment they receive in such institutions. The work described here is part of the Research Program on Adolescents, Mental Health and Culture, which is being conducted at the Child and Youth Care and Rehabilitation Center at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil (CARIM/IPUB/UFRJ). PMID:15446725

  19. Living as an adolescent with HIV in Zambia -- lived experiences, sexual health and reproductive needs.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Ian; Ross, Julia; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Gitau-Mburu, D

    2012-01-01

    HIV services in developing countries are often ill-equipped to address the specific needs of HIV-positive adolescents. Studies suggest a lack of consistent, age-appropriate support regarding sexuality, relationships and transitioning to adulthood. The aims of this study were to explore and document the informational, psychosocial, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of adolescents (aged 10-19 years) living with HIV in Zambia, and identify gaps between these needs and existing services. This paper reports a qualitative explorative study. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 111 HIV-positive adolescents and 59 key informants, including health care workers (n=38) and parents/guardians (n=21). Participants were selected via a purposive sampling method. Three sites - Lusaka, Kitwe and Kalomo - were selected to ensure a broad representation of service-delivery settings in Zambia. Data were entered into NVIVO (QSR International) software, and analysed inductively to extract key themes, gather results and draw conclusions. Findings confirm that social networks have significant impact on treatment adherence and assist adolescents in coming to terms with an HIV diagnosis. The trauma of diagnosis, however, is exacerbated if poorly managed. Nevertheless, many adolescents are determined not to let HIV change their lives. They want to know SRH and HIV information, but service providers do not often adequately meet these informational needs. Where available, tailored and participatory events around HIV and SRH are greatly appreciated. Services that are welcoming, empowering and provide tailored information are highly valued. Adolescents living with HIV require effective, targeted and sustainable HIV services to navigate safely through adolescence.

  20. The interacting role of physical activity and diet control in Hungarian adolescents' substance use and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Eszter; Piko, Bettina F; Keresztes, Noemi

    2014-08-01

    The interacting protective role of diet control and physical activity was examined in understanding adolescents' substance use and psychological health. Questionnaire survey was conducted in Hungary in 2008 (N = 881). Diet control, physical activity, prevalence of substance use, and psychological health variables were measured. Logistic regression analyses showed that the interaction term of diet control and physical activity significantly increased the odds of self-perceived health, decreased substance use, and influenced the level of optimism, satisfaction with life, and the presence of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that the interaction of diet control and physical activity plays important role in adolescents' health behavior.

  1. Participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Roberta Peixoto; Gomes, Sílvia Helena Pereira; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; Machado, Caroline Antero

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the participation of adolescents in the Family Health Strategy, from the theoretical-methodological structure of an enabler to participation. Method a quantitative study, conducted from December of 2010 to March of 2011, with 213 professionals in the FHS in the region of Cariri-Ceará-Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire and organized in SPSS 18.0. Results the level of normative participation becomes manifest beginning with the adolescent search for health services, motivated by disease (77.9%). Normative participation + independence appear when they seek prenatal care and family planning. Emancipatory participation was identified by the frequency of adolescents in group activities, in the schools, and a move in the direction of the level of transformative participation was observed. Conclusion in this context, it is understood that there exists a need to stimulate the participatory process of the adolescents for a change in health promotion in this group. PMID:26107840

  2. Medical and mental health needs of adolescent Indochinese refugees.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Fitzpatrick, S; Felice, M E

    1986-01-01

    Since 1975 approximately 900,000 Indochinese refugees have immigrated to the US. In conducting a retrospective review of the medical records of Indochinese refugees between the ages of 11 and 21 years, this paper investigates the prevalence of health problems in adolescent Indochinese refugees studied, 85% had at least 1 medical disorder. At least 1 chronic condition associated with signifiant morbidity or functional impairment in daily life was found in 23%. 1 of the most prevalent health problems found in these adolescents was the lack of appropriate immunizations for age in 24%, despite their having been in the US for many months. There was a 15% prevalence of mental health disorders, including psychosomatic illnesses and alcohol abuse. The following suggestions should be considered when assessing the psychological status of the adolescent Indochinese refugees: 1) interpreters should be of the same gender as the patient; 2) an age-appropriate developmental assessment should be conducted; 3) delay the exploration of personal and sexual issues until the 2nd visit; 4) solicitation of the youth's experiences in leaving the home country will help the clinician and patient become better acquainted; 5) a drug history should be obtained; and 6) the clinician should develop a sense of how the adoescent's adjustment to life in the US has been. PMID:12314920

  3. [Family Health Strategies to tackle violence involving adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected.

  4. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadian, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808

  5. Marriage characteristics and reproductive health of adolescents in Turkey: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.

  6. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  7. "I connect with the ringleader:" health professionals' perspectives on promoting the sexual health of adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Ptak, Stephanie J; Stelzer, E Brooke; Harwood, Eileen M; Brady, Sonya S

    2014-12-01

    In-depth interviews with nine professionals in adolescent health were used to identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and innovative strategies to reach, engage, and serve adolescent males for sexual and reproductive health care. Barriers included stigma, embarrassment, and lack of social norms around sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing for men. Facilitators included crisis situations and partner support. Clinic-based approaches to reach and engage young men included developing authentic staff-youth engagement and ensuring that access to services is easy and appealing. To be innovative, providers should become part of the real-world context of adolescent males. Technology (e.g., text messaging) and social media can be utilized to target and eliminate barriers to health care among young men. PMID:25354398

  8. Health Promotion for Adolescent Childhood Leukemia Survivors: Building on Prevention Science and eHealth

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253

  9. "I connect with the ringleader:" health professionals' perspectives on promoting the sexual health of adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Ptak, Stephanie J; Stelzer, E Brooke; Harwood, Eileen M; Brady, Sonya S

    2014-12-01

    In-depth interviews with nine professionals in adolescent health were used to identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and innovative strategies to reach, engage, and serve adolescent males for sexual and reproductive health care. Barriers included stigma, embarrassment, and lack of social norms around sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing for men. Facilitators included crisis situations and partner support. Clinic-based approaches to reach and engage young men included developing authentic staff-youth engagement and ensuring that access to services is easy and appealing. To be innovative, providers should become part of the real-world context of adolescent males. Technology (e.g., text messaging) and social media can be utilized to target and eliminate barriers to health care among young men.

  10. Challenge!: A Mentorship Model of Health Promotion and Obesity Prevention Among Urban, African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Hager, Erin; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Arteaga, S. Sonia; DiClemente, Carlo; Gittelsohn, Joel; Levy, Lauren; Magder, Laurence; Papas, Mia; Shebl, Fatma; Snitker, Soren; Treuth, Margarita S.; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a 12-session home and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention program (Challenge!) on changes in BMI, body composition, physical activity (PA), and diet. Methods 235 African-American adolescents (11–16 yrs, 38% overweight/obese) were recruited from low-income urban communities. Baseline measures included weight, height, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance), physical activity (PA) (accelerometry), and diet (food frequency). PA was measured by time in play-equivalent physical activity (PEPA≥1800 activity counts/min). Participants were randomized into a home- and community-based health promotion/obesity prevention controlled trial, anchored in social cognitive theory and involving motivational interviewing techniques, and delivered by college-enrolled, African-American mentors. Control adolescents did not receive the intervention or a mentor. Post-intervention (10 mos) and delayed follow-up (24 mos) evaluations were conducted. Longitudinal analyses using random mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations (GEE) examined direct and moderated effects of time, gender, and baseline BMI category on changes at both follow-ups. Results Retention was 76% (178/235) over 2 years; overweight/obese status declined 5.3% among intervention adolescents and increased 11.3% among control adolescents (χ2=5.8, p=0.02, GEE). Among males, but not females, fat free mass was significantly higher among intervention members at both follow-up evaluations. PA effects were moderated by baseline BMI category; among adolescents ≥ 85th percentile, control adolescents averaged 25.5 min less daily activity than intervention adolescents (p=0.018) at the 10-mo, but not the 24-mo follow-up. Intervention adolescents declined significantly more in snack and dessert consumption than control adolescents (p=0.045). Conclusion A 12-session, home-and community-based intervention, based on social cognitive

  11. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Visits Among Adolescents Presenting to US Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Jahan; Aurrecoechea, Adrian; Anderson, Erik; Herring, Andrew; Alter, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) visits for substance abuse, including those complicated by mental health (dual diagnosis), and to analyze their effect on ED length of stay (LOS) and disposition. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of ED visits by adolescents (aged 11-24) using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1997-2010), identifying visits for mental health, substance use, and dual diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyze demographic and visit-level factors, factors associated with substance use and dual diagnosis visits, and the effects of substance use and mental health conditions on emergency department LOS and disposition. Results Substance use and mental health accounted for 2.1% and 4.3% of all adolescent visits, respectively, with 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.3-23.5%) of substance abuse visits complicated by mental health. Factors significantly associated with substance use include: male gender, urban location, West region, ambulance arrival, night and weekend shift, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders. Additional LOS was 89.77 minutes for mental health, 71.33 minutes for substance use, and 139.97 minutes for dual diagnosis visits, as compared to visits where these conditions were not present. Both mental health and substance use were associated with admission/transfer as compared to other dispositions: mental health, odds ratio (OR) 5.93 (95% CI 5.14-6.84), illicit drug use, OR 3.56 (95% CI 2.72-4.64), and dual diagnosis, OR 6.86 (95% 4.67-10.09). Conclusions Substance abuse and dual diagnosis are common among adolescent ED visits and are strongly associated with increased use of prehospital resources, emergency department length of stay, and need for hospitalization. PMID:25875990

  12. Adolescent psychopathy and the big five: results from two samples.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness, whereas the aspect of psychopathy representing impulsivity, instability, and social deviance (Factor 2) is associated with low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, and high Neuroticism. Data from 13- and 16-year-old boys and their mothers from two samples of the Pittsburgh Youth Study are used to test these hypotheses. Results were consistent across age and rating source in supporting the initial hypotheses, providing support for the construct of juvenile psychopathy and the interpretation of psychopathy as a constellation of traits drawn from a general model of personality functioning.

  13. Widening the aim of health promotion to include the most disadvantaged: vulnerable adolescents and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-06-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.

  14. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions.

  15. Greek adolescents' views of people with mental illness through drawings: mental health education's impact.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Sourander, Andre; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-09-01

    People with mental illness are among the most stigmatized and discriminated against as a result of lack of knowledge among the public. Our study explored adolescents' perceptions of people with mental illness through drawings, described these perceptions, and tested the possible changes in perceptions after an educational mental health intervention. Drawings were collected before and after an educational mental health intervention from 59 Greek secondary school students. One group of participants served as the experimental group and received the educational mental health intervention. Content analysis of the drawings was used to analyze data. The drawings provided a clear understanding of adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. After the educational mental health intervention the negative elements presenting the people with mental illness were less among the experimental group, while the drawings among the comparison group did not change. The findings support that educational mental health intervention can have a positive impact on adolescents' perceptions towards people with mental illness. Health professionals can use the findings of our study in order to develop and implement similar interventions. PMID:24382318

  16. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  17. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  18. Familial influences on internalizing symptomatology in Latino adolescents: an ecological analysis of parent mental health and acculturation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if family system dynamics (e.g., parent mental health, marriage quality, conflict, and cohesion) that have often been overlooked when studying Latino families play a more important role in predicting adolescent internalizing symptoms than acculturation processes. Data comes from the Latino Acculturation and Health Project, a longitudinal investigation of acculturation in Latino families in North Carolina and Arizona (Smokowski & Bacallao, 2006, 2010). Researchers conducted in-depth, community-based interviews with 258 Latino adolescents and 258 of their parents in metropolitan, small-town, and rural areas. Interviews were conducted at four time points at intervals of approximately 6 months. Parent and adolescent ratings of the adolescent's internalizing symptoms were used as the dependent variable in a longitudinal hierarchical linear model with a rater effects structure. Results showed that parent-adolescent conflict and parent mental health (fear/avoidance of social situations and humiliation sensitivity) were significant predictors of adolescent internalizing symptoms. Acculturation scales were not significant predictors; however, internalizing symptoms decreased with time spent in the United States. Females and adolescents from lower socioeconomic status families reported more internalizing symptoms, while participants who had been in the United States longer reported fewer internalizing symptoms. Implications were discussed.

  19. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  20. Emotional Health in Adolescents with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Botting, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the emotional health of adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: One hundred and thirty-nine adolescents with a history of SLI (15;10 years) and a peer group of 124 adolescents with normal language development (NLD) (15;11 years) participated, who were in their final year of compulsory…

  1. The State of Adolescent Health in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Office of the Commissioner, Juneau.

    A survey was conducted to provide a profile of the health status and risk behaviors of youth in Alaska. The goal was to develop a statewide database which, when coupled with morbidity and mortality data, would provide information that would allow those who plan and develop services at state and local levels to better target those services. During…

  2. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  3. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  4. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  5. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  6. Adolescent Mental Health: Selected Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection, April 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    Items in this annotated bibliography deal with the mental health of adolescents and include materials for adolescents, parents, health educators, and health professionals. Resources cited include 11 videotapes and 64 publications dealing with the following topics: (1) teenage suicide; (2) mental illness in the family; (3) coping; (4) teenage…

  7. Online, Tuned In, Turned On: Multimedia Approaches to Fostering Critical Media Health Literacy for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The commercial media is an influential sociocultural force and transmitter of health information especially for adolescents. Instruction in critical media health literacy, a combination of concepts from critical health literacy and critical media literacy, is a potentially effective means of raising adolescents' awareness about commercial…

  8. Adolescent Health Behaviors among Public School Students in Washington, 1988-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Pollard, James P.

    Many adolescents' health problems arise from preventable behaviors, such as unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created in order to collect information on a variety of health behaviors among students in the state of…

  9. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  10. Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

  11. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  12. Adolescent Health: Present Status and Its Related Programmes in India. Are We in the Right Direction?

    PubMed Central

    Sivagurunathan, C; Umadevi, R.; Rama, R.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of rapid growth and development during which physical, physiological and behavioural changes occur. They constitute more than 1.2 billion worldwide, and about 21% of Indian population. Morbidity and mortality occurring in this age group is mostly due to preventable causes. Young and growing children have poor knowledge and lack of awareness about physical and psychological changes that occurs during adolescence and the ill health affecting them. Existing Adolescent health programmes focus on rendering services like immunization, health education for sexual and reproductive health, nutritional education and supplementation, anemia control measures and counseling. Adolescent health programmes are fragmentary at present and there is no comprehensive programme addressing all the needs of adolescents. Access and availability of health care services are severely limited. Lack of accurate information, absence of proper guidance, parent’s ignorance, lack of skills and insufficient services from health care delivery system are the major barriers. Interventions should focus on providing psychological and mental health services and behaviour change communication towards leading a healthy lifestyle, restricting advertisement related to junk food products, awareness creation about reproductive and sexual health, educating parents to prevent early marriage, teenage pregnancy and to counsel their children on nutrition and reproductive health. Universal coverage of Adolescent friendly clinics is highly recommended. To be cost effective, all health services addressing adolescent should come under single programme. This review is intended to create awareness among the stakeholders about the importance of strengthening adolescent health services in order to meet their felt needs. PMID:25964884

  13. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  14. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Health-Promoting Behaviors of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…

  15. Adolescent health: present status and its related programmes in India. Are we in the right direction?

    PubMed

    Sivagurunathan, C; Umadevi, R; Rama, R; Gopalakrishnan, S

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a phase of rapid growth and development during which physical, physiological and behavioural changes occur. They constitute more than 1.2 billion worldwide, and about 21% of Indian population. Morbidity and mortality occurring in this age group is mostly due to preventable causes. Young and growing children have poor knowledge and lack of awareness about physical and psychological changes that occurs during adolescence and the ill health affecting them. Existing Adolescent health programmes focus on rendering services like immunization, health education for sexual and reproductive health, nutritional education and supplementation, anemia control measures and counseling. Adolescent health programmes are fragmentary at present and there is no comprehensive programme addressing all the needs of adolescents. Access and availability of health care services are severely limited. Lack of accurate information, absence of proper guidance, parent's ignorance, lack of skills and insufficient services from health care delivery system are the major barriers. Interventions should focus on providing psychological and mental health services and behaviour change communication towards leading a healthy lifestyle, restricting advertisement related to junk food products, awareness creation about reproductive and sexual health, educating parents to prevent early marriage, teenage pregnancy and to counsel their children on nutrition and reproductive health. Universal coverage of Adolescent friendly clinics is highly recommended. To be cost effective, all health services addressing adolescent should come under single programme. This review is intended to create awareness among the stakeholders about the importance of strengthening adolescent health services in order to meet their felt needs.

  16. Child rights and Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, J; Sherlock, C

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores children's rights in the child and adolescent mental health arena in Ireland. It begins by outlining the legal and policy contexts of both children's services and mental health policy and practice. It specifically focuses on the notion of participation as a key factor in addressing rights-based approaches in the provision of services. The article explores current practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, highlights some of the disparities in services, which result in questions about human rights. Mainly reflective in its approach, it does, however, provide data from a small scale qualitative study carried out in relation to young people diagnosed with ADHD and their perceptions of psychopharmacological approach. The issue of consent is explored as an example of how current practice approaches fall short of a rights-based framework. It concludes with recommendations for changes incorporating a more participatory and collaborative approach. PMID:23512493

  17. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents. PMID:23421046

  18. Payment by results in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Luke; McCarthy, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Forensic mental health services are low-volume, high-cost services. Payment by results (PbR) is the UK s latest attempt to improve efficiency and controls pending behaviours within the secure services. This article discusses the utility of the PbR mechanic in forensic mental health. It explores PbR implementation in non-forensic mental health settings, similar funding processes internationally, and early PbR implementation work in the UK's secure services. Finally, the article discusses the challenges faced when implementing PbR in forensic mental health services and puts forward possible next steps in determining the utility of PbR in forensic mental health.

  19. Design and Psychometric Properties of Male Adolescent Health Needs-Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents. Methods: This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015). The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability. Results: The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items), including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (P<0.001) Conclusion: According to the psychometric assessment, MAHNAS is a valid and reliable scale compatible with the Iranian culture that can be used in the health needs assessment of male adolescents. PMID:27713893

  20. Adverse life events and mental health in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2011-04-01

    This study's aim was to search for the appropriate functional form of the effect of proximal cumulative contextual risk (PCCR), measured with number of adverse life events experienced in the last 6 months, on adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The study sample was 171 year ten (aged 14-15) adolescents from predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged families in the UK. Adjustment was made for parental education, and for child's age, gender, and academic achievement, which was measured with results in Standard Attainment Tests in English, mathematics and science taken in the previous year. PCCR predicted total difficulties, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The relationship between PCCR and total difficulties and emotional symptoms was non-quadratic; the PCCR/externalizing problems relationship was quadratic. The findings highlight the importance of considering both outcome specificity and non-linear patterns of associations when modelling cumulative contextual risk effects on adolescent psychopathology. PMID:20434208

  1. Marketing HPV vaccine: implications for adolescent health and medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sheila M; Rothman, David J

    2009-08-19

    The new vaccine against 4 types of human papillomavirus (HPV), Gardasil, like other immunizations appears to be a cost-effective intervention with the potential to enhance both adolescent health and the quality of their adult lives. However, the messages and the methods by which the vaccine was marketed present important challenges to physician practice and medical professionalism. By making the vaccine's target disease cervical cancer, the sexual transmission of HPV was minimized, the threat of cervical cancer to adolescents was maximized, and the subpopulations most at risk practically ignored. The vaccine manufacturer also provided educational grants to professional medical associations (PMAs) concerned with adolescent and women's health and oncology. The funding encouraged many PMAs to create educational programs and product-specific speakers' bureaus to promote vaccine use. However, much of the material did not address the full complexity of the issues surrounding the vaccine and did not provide balanced recommendations on risks and benefits. As important and appropriate as it is for PMAs to advocate for vaccination as a public good, their recommendations must be consistent with appropriate and cost-effective use.

  2. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. PMID:23521897

  3. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.

  4. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.

  5. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jessica L; Rushwan, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) has been overlooked historically despite the high risks that countries face for its neglect. Some of the challenges faced by adolescents across the world include early pregnancy and parenthood, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortion, and high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Various political, economic, and sociocultural factors restrict the delivery of information and services; healthcare workers often act as a barrier to care by failing to provide young people with supportive, nonjudgmental, youth-appropriate services. FIGO has been working with partners and its member associations to break some of these barriers-enabling obstetricians and gynecologists to effect change in their countries and promote the ASRH agenda on a global scale. PMID:26433504

  6. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  7. Adolescent Compliance with Dietary Guidelines: Health and Education Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Marsha H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 389 adolescents regarding their compliance with six U. S. Dietary Guidelines. Results indicated highest compliance on "eat a variety of foods" and "eat foods with adequate starch and fiber." Lowest compliance on "reduce sugar intake" and "reduce fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake." Females reported lower compliance to "maintain…

  8. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  9. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  10. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  11. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    Access to youth friendly health services is vital for ensuring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and well-being of adolescents. This study is a descriptive review of the effectiveness of initiatives to improve adolescent access to and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in low- and middle-income countries. We examined four SRHS intervention types: (1) facility based, (2) out-of-facility based, (3) interventions to reach marginalized or vulnerable populations, (4) interventions to generate demand and/or community acceptance. Outcomes assessed across the four questions included uptake of SRHS or sexual and reproductive health commodities and sexual and reproductive health biologic outcomes. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of initiatives that simply provide adolescent friendliness training for health workers. Data are most ample (10 initiatives demonstrating weak but positive effects and one randomized controlled trial demonstrating strong positive results on some outcome measures) for approaches that use a combination of health worker training, adolescent-friendly facility improvements, and broad information dissemination via the community, schools, and mass media. We found a paucity of evidence on out-of-facility-based strategies, except for those delivered through mixed-use youth centers that demonstrated that SRHS in these centers are neither well used nor effective at improving SRH outcomes. There was an absence of studies or evaluations examining outcomes among vulnerable or marginalized adolescents. Findings from 17 of 21 initiatives assessing demand-generation activities demonstrated at least some association with adolescent SRHS use. Of 15 studies on parental and other community gatekeepers' approval of SRHS for adolescents, which assessed SRHS/commodity uptake and/or biologic outcomes, 11 showed positive results. Packages of interventions that train health workers, improve facility adolescent friendliness

  12. Division of Adolescent and School Health School Health Programs, 2008. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Six priority health risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems in the United States. These behaviors are often established during childhood and adolescence. They include tobacco use; unhealthy dietary behaviors; inadequate physical activity; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that may result…

  13. Predicting health-related quality of life by using a health promotion model among Iranian adolescent girls: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Eftekhar, Hasan; Rahimi, Abas; Mohamad, Hosein Taghdisi; Shojaiezade, Davod; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-06-01

    Predicting the significant determinants of health-related quality of life through the application of structural equation modeling in adolescents has received little attention in the health education and health promotion literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-efficacy, barriers, social support, health-promoting lifestyle, and health-related quality of life among Iranian adolescent girls. Pender's health promotion model guided this study. This was a cross-sectional survey of 500 students who were recruited in Kashan, Iran. Their health-related quality of life was measured by using the Short Form Health Survey. A path analysis was conducted to predict the health-related quality of life determinants. The results indicated that 71% of the variance in health-related quality of life could be predicted by the variables. The results affirmed that self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of the students' health-related quality of life. It was concluded that interventions that are aimed at improving self-efficacy can lead to the enhancement of health-related quality of life among adolescent girls in the developing country of Iran.

  14. Health Related Quality of Life of Adolescents in Vietnam: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Adolescent Duke Health Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Xuan Hanh, Vo; Guillemin, Francis; Dinh Cong, Duong; Parkerson, George R., Jr.; Bach Thu, Pham; Tu Quynh, Pham; Briancon, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) of adolescents has been scarcely documented in a general population sample. The study was aimed at translating and adapting the Adolescent Duke Health Profile to Vietnamese, validating the questionnaire, determining reference value, and identifying determinants of poor QOL. Following a cross-cultural methodology, the…

  15. Journal abstracts from current research in the field of child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    at-risk adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 22(3): 160-168 Page RM & Hall CP (2009) Psychosocial distress and alcohol use as factors in adolescent sexual behaviour among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Journal of School Health 79(8): 369-379 Taliaferro LA, Rienzo BA, Pigg RM, Miller MD & Dodd VJ (2009) Spiritual well-being and suicidal ideation among college students. Journal of American College Health 58(1): 83-90 Jarrett T, Horn K & Zhang J (2009) Teen perceptions of facilitator characteristics in a school-based smoking cessation program. Journal of School Health 79(7): 297-303 Parker JS & Morton TL (2009) Distinguishing between early and late onset delinquents: Race, income, verbal intelligence and impulsivity. North American Journal of Psychology 11(2): 273-284 Burris JL, Smith GT & Carlson CR (2009) Relations among religiousness, spirituality and sexual practices. Journal of Sex Research 46(4): 282-289 Brown DW, Riley L, Butchart A, Meddings DR, Kann L & Harvey AP (2009) Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: Results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 87(6): 447-B. PMID:25865730

  16. Understanding of School Related Factors Associated with Emotional Health and Bullying Behavior among Jordanian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    SHAHEEN, Abeer; NASSAR, Omayyah; SALEH, Mohammad; ARABIA T, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students’ health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables. Results Significant correlations (P value was ≤.05) were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying. Conclusion Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students’ emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:26060720

  17. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  18. Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: multiple minority status adolescents and mental health.

    PubMed

    Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974

  19. Health for the world's adolescents: a second chance in the second decade.

    PubMed

    Dick, Bruce; Ferguson, B Jane

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has produced a multimedia, interactive online report entitled Health for the World's Adolescents: A Second Chance in the Second Decade. The report provides an overview of global and regional estimates of adolescent mortality and disability-adjusted life years, disaggregated by age, sex, and cause, and country-level data on health-related behaviors and conditions among adolescents. It outlines the reasons why adolescence is a unique period in the life course requiring special attention and synthesizes current thinking about the determinants that underlie the differences in health status between adolescents. For the first time, this new report pulls together recommendations and guidance from across the World Health Organization relating to interventions directed to a range of priority health problems, including use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, AIDS, injuries, mental health, nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, tobacco use, and violence, focusing on four core functions of the health sector: supportive policies, service provision, strategic information, and working with other sectors. The report concludes with 10 key actions that would strengthen national responses to adolescent health, and outlines the approaches that are needed to overcome the obstacles to accelerating evidence-informed actions to improve the health of adolescents worldwide--with all the benefits that this will have for public health in the present and across the life course, for this generation and the next.

  20. Tobacco use transitions in the United States: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Land, Stephanie; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik; Backinger, Cathy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate and describe transitions in cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) use, including dual use, prospectively from adolescence into young adulthood. Methods The current study utilizes four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine patterns of cigarette and ST use (within 30 days of survey) over time among a cohort in the United States beginning in 7th–12th grade (1995) into young adulthood (2008–2009). Transition probabilities were estimated using Markov modeling. Results Among the cohort (N = 20,774), 48.7% reported using cigarettes, 12.8% reported using ST, and 7.2% reported dual use (cigarettes and ST in the same wave) in at least one wave. In general, the risk for transitioning between cigarettes and ST was higher for males and those who were older. Dual users exhibited a high probability (81%) of continuing dual use over time. Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescents who use multiple tobacco products are likely to continue such use as they move into young adulthood. When addressing tobacco use among adolescents and young adults, multiple forms of tobacco use should be considered. PMID:26361752

  1. Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: the role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Lincoln, Alisa K; Cabral, Howard J

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S. Participants were administered an interview battery comprising self-report instruments that included the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Index, the War Trauma Screening Scale, the Every Day Discrimination scale, the Adolescent Post-War Adversities Scale, and the Acculturative Hassles Inventory. Results indicated that cumulative trauma was related to PTSD and depression symptoms. Further, post-resettlement stressors, acculturative stressors, and perceived discrimination were also associated with greater PTSD symptoms after accounting for trauma, demographic, and immigration variables. Number of years since resettlement in the US and perceived discrimination were significantly related to depressive symptoms, after accounting for trauma, demographic, and immigration variables. Further research elucidating the relations between post-resettlement stressors, discrimination, and mental health of refugee adolescents may inform intervention development. PMID:18377116

  2. Novel Methods to Collect Meaningful Data From Adolescents for the Development of Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R.; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents’ experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  3. Toward improved spectral measures of /s/: Results from adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura L.; Shadle, Christine H.; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mooshammer, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce theoretically-driven acoustic measures of /s/ that reflect aerodynamic and articulatory conditions. The measures were evaluated by assessing whether they revealed expected changes over time and labiality effects, along with possible gender differences suggested by past work. Method Productions of /s/ were extracted from various speaking tasks from typically-speaking adolescents (6 boys; 6 girls). Measures were made of relative spectral energies in low- (550–3000 Hz), mid- (3000–7000 Hz), and high-frequency regions (7000–11025 Hz); the mid-frequency amplitude peak; and temporal changes in these parameters. Spectral moments were also obtained to permit comparison with existing work. Results Spectral balance measures in low–mid and mid–high frequency bands varied over the time course of /s/, capturing the development of sibilance at mid-fricative along with showing some effects of gender and labiality. The mid-frequency spectral peak was significantly higher in non-labial contexts, and in girls. Temporal variation in the mid-frequency peak differentiated ±labial contexts while normalizing over gender. Discussion The measures showed expected patterns, supporting their validity. Comparison of these data with studies of adults suggests some developmental patterns that call for further study. The measures may also serve to differentiate some cases of typical and misarticulated /s/. PMID:23785194

  4. Adolescents with Special Needs: Clinical Challenges in Reproductive Health Care.

    PubMed

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents with special needs have unique reproductive health care needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. This review discusses some of the most common concerns that are encountered in clinical practice, as the clinician will partner with the adolescent and her family to guide her through the pubertal transition and to help navigate the risks and rights of reproduction. Families often seek anticipatory guidance before menarche on menstrual hygiene, abuse risk and sexuality and can be reassured that most teens with special needs do very well with menstruation. The clinician needs to evaluate the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well her risk for abuse and coercion and her ability to consent to sexual activity, if she requests contraception. Menstrual management is mostly based on the impact of the menstrual cycles on the teenager's life and activities. The adolescents may have a decreased ability to tolerate menses or pain, or experience changes in seizure pattern or altered mood. Hormonal treatment is often used to assist with menstrual hygiene, cyclical mood changes or dysmenorrhea. The goal of treatment can be complete amenorrhea, alleviate pain or regulate and decrease menstrual flow. The unique risks and benefits of hormonal treatment for this special population are highlighted.

  5. Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services among Adolescents in Military Families

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sara J.; Swenson, Rebecca; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Cataldo, Andrea; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Military families with adolescents experience high levels of stress associated with parental deployment, but many of these families do not seek or utilize mental health services. The current qualitative study was designed to better understand barriers to mental health treatment experienced by adolescents in military families. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with military adolescents (n = 13), military (non-enlisted) parents (n = 12), and mental health service providers who treat adolescents in military families (n = 20). Discussions primarily explored barriers to seeking treatment, with supplemental questions assessing the ideal elements of mental health services for this population. Seven barriers to engaging in mental health services were identified: four internal (confidentiality concerns, stigma, ethic of self-reliance, lack of perceived relevance) and three external (time and effort concerns, logistical concerns, financial concerns). Challenges engaging military adolescents in mental health services are discussed and several recommendations are offered for service providers attempting to work with this population. PMID:25574070

  6. Social marketing: an underutilized tool for promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K

    2011-12-01

    Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies. PMID:22423457

  7. Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: evaluation based on public health

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina Vieira; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003). Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system. PMID:25769190

  8. Attitudes of gatekeepers towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo

    2014-09-01

    Adults constitute gatekeepers on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). This qualitative paper discusses the views of adults on ASRH problems and challenges based on 60 in-depth interviews conducted among adults in Ghana in 2005. Adults were purposively selected based on their roles as parents, teachers, health care providers and community leaders. The major ASRH problems mentioned were teenage pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. The results indicated a number of challenges confronting ASRH promotion including resistance from parents, attitudes of adolescents, communication gap between adults and adolescents and attitudes of health care providers. Among health workers three broad categories were identified: those who were helpful, judgmental and dictators. Some adults supported services for young people while others did not. Some served as mediators and assisted to 'solve' ASRH problems, which occurred in their communities. It is argued that exploring the views of adults about their fears and concerns will contribute to the development of strategies and programmes which will help to improve ASRH. PMID:25508050

  9. Attitudes of gatekeepers towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo

    2014-09-01

    Adults constitute gatekeepers on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). This qualitative paper discusses the views of adults on ASRH problems and challenges based on 60 in-depth interviews conducted among adults in Ghana in 2005. Adults were purposively selected based on their roles as parents, teachers, health care providers and community leaders. The major ASRH problems mentioned were teenage pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. The results indicated a number of challenges confronting ASRH promotion including resistance from parents, attitudes of adolescents, communication gap between adults and adolescents and attitudes of health care providers. Among health workers three broad categories were identified: those who were helpful, judgmental and dictators. Some adults supported services for young people while others did not. Some served as mediators and assisted to 'solve' ASRH problems, which occurred in their communities. It is argued that exploring the views of adults about their fears and concerns will contribute to the development of strategies and programmes which will help to improve ASRH. PMID:25438519

  10. Natural Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Health: Evidence From a National Study

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to examine the impact of natural (or informal) mentoring relationships on health-related outcomes among older adolescents and young adults. Methods. We examined outcomes from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health as a function of whether or not respondents reported a mentoring relationship. Logistic regression was used with control for demographic variables, previous level of functioning, and individual and environmental risk. Results. Respondents who reported a mentoring relationship were more likely to exhibit favorable outcomes relating to education/work (completing high school, college attendance, working ≥ 10 hours a week), reduced problem behavior (gang membership, hurting others in physical fights, risk taking), psychological well-being (heightened self-esteem, life satisfaction), and health (physical activity level, birth control use). However, effects of exposure to individual and environmental risk factors generally were larger in magnitude than protective effects associated with mentoring. Conclusions. These findings suggest a broad and multifaceted impact of mentoring relationships on adolescent health. However, mentoring relationships alone are not enough to meet the needs of at-risk youths and therefore should be incorporated into more comprehensive interventions. PMID:15727987

  11. The longitudinal BELLA study: design, methods and first results on the course of mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Otto, Christiane; Kriston, Levente; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Barkmann, Claus; Schön, Gerhard; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Klasen, Fionna

    2015-06-01

    The high prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in childhood and adolescence is a global health challenge of the 21st century. Information about age of onset, persistence and development of MHP in young people is necessary to implement effective prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the design and methods of the longitudinal BELLA study, which investigates developmental trajectories of MHP from childhood into adulthood, their determinants, and the utilisation of mental health services. First results on the developmental course of MHP in children and adolescents are reported over a 6-year period. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). BELLA examines the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents aged 7-17 years (a representative subsample of KiGGS, n = 2,863 at baseline). Standardised screening measures served to identify MHP at baseline and at follow-ups (1, 2, and 6 years later). Among children and adolescents participating at all measurement points (n = 1,255), 10 % showed clinically significant MHP at baseline (n = 130). Over the 6-year period, 74.3 % showed no signs of MHP (n = 933), 15.5 % had remitted (n = 194), 2.9 % showed persistent (n = 36) and 7.3 % acute or recurrent MHP (n = 92). Overall, MHP were more likely to occur between the age of 7 and 12 and after the age of 19 years. Regarding mental health service use, 33 % of the participants with acute or recurrent MHP (n = 30) and 63.9 % with persistent MHP used mental health services (n = 23). Mental health problems in children and adolescents have a high risk to persist into adulthood. In children and adolescents a low rate of mental health service use was observed, even among those with mental health problems.

  12. Community embedded reproductive health interventions for adolescents in Latin America: development and evaluation of a complex multi-centre intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents in Latin America are at high risk for unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, which often result in unsafe abortions or poor maternal health outcomes. Both young men and women in the region face an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inadequate sexual and reproductive health information, services and counselling. To date, many adolescent health programmes have targeted a single determinant of sexual and reproductive health. However, recent evidence suggests that the complexity of sexual and reproductive health issues demands an equally multi-layered and comprehensive approach. Methods This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation design of the community-embedded reproductive health care for adolescents (CERCA) study in three Latin American cities: Cochabamba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador) and Managua (Nicaragua). Project CERCA’s research methodology builds on existing methodological frameworks, namely: action research, community based participatory research and intervention-mapping. The interventions in each country address distinct target groups (adolescents, parents, local authorities and health providers) and seek improvement of the following sexual health behaviours: communication about sexuality, sexual and reproductive health information-seeking, access to sexual and reproductive health care and safe sexual relationships. In Managua, we implemented a randomised controlled study, and in Cochabamba and Cuenca we adopted a non-randomised controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CERCA interventions, in addition to a process evaluation. Discussion This research will result in a methodological framework that will contribute to the improved design and implementation of future adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01722084) PMID:23311647

  13. Health Status and Risk Factors among Adolescent Survivors One Month after the 2014 Ludian Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bihan; Ge, Yang; Xue, Chen; Kang, Peng; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Zhipeng; Yu, Wenya; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Background: An earthquake struck Ludian in Yunnan Province (China) on 3 August 2014, resulting in 3143 injuries, 617 deaths, and 112 missing persons. Our study aimed at estimating the health status and associated determinants among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 845 was conducted at the Ludian No. 1 Middle School. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The mean scores on the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) were 46.23 (SD = 7.10) and 36.34 (SD = 7.09), respectively. Lower PCS scores in the aftermath of an earthquake were associated with being trapped or in danger, being female, being an ethnic minority, injury to self and house damage, while lower MSC scores were associated with fear during the earthquake, Han ethnicity, death in the family, not being involved in the rescue and low household income. Conclusions: In our study, significant associations between demographic, socio-economic, and trauma-related experiences variables and overall physical and mental health of adolescent survivors were presented. The results of this study help expand our knowledge of health status among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake. PMID:26053295

  14. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  15. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  16. Adolescent experiences of HIV and sexual health communication with parents and caregivers in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Soon, Christine N; Kaida, Angela; Nkala, Busi; Dietrich, Janan; Cescon, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari L

    2013-01-01

    Communication about sexual health between parents and adolescents has been shown to have a protective influence on behaviours that reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This study explored experiences of HIV and sexual health (HSH) communication between parents and/or caregivers and adolescents in an urban HIV-endemic community in Southern Africa. Adolescents (aged 14-19 years) were recruited from the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre and the Kliptown community between June and August 2009. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (n=10 adolescents) and semi-structured interviews (n=31 adolescents). In total, 41 adolescents (56% female, 44% male, mean age=17.2) participated in the study. Adolescent participants identified emotional, physical and sociocultural barriers to initiating HSH communication with parents and caregivers including fear of verbal warnings, threats and physical assault. Adolescents also expressed a desire for mentorship around HSH communication beyond abstinence and peer-based information. Public health interventions need to support adolescents' access to bi-directional HSH information from adult mentors that address the lived realities of adolescents beyond expectations of abstinence. PMID:24809230

  17. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  18. Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  19. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  20. The 1998 Herbert L. Needleman Award Lecture. Adolescent health: priorities for the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Blum, R W

    1998-09-01

    There have been dramatic changes in adolescent health status over the past decade that have resulted from successful interventions. Overall mortality rates are down 14%, and many morbidities have declined. Today we know many of the elements that reduce risk: parental caring and connectedness, parental expectations for school and parent availability all outweigh family structure, ethnicity, and income. Likewise, schools can be extremely protective when young people feel connectedness. Factors associated with successful interventions include: strengthening families; strengthening educational involvement; expanding economic opportunities; and supporting youth development, not just problem reduction. Priorities for the next decade include: establishing resiliency-building interventions; developing positive correlates of negative behaviors; establishing broader multisectorial interdisciplinary teams; and formulating a new, more inclusive framework for adolescent health and development.