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Sample records for adolescent health survey

  1. Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.

    The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…

  2. The National Adolescent Student Health Survey: Survey Replication Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association, Kent, OH.

    The National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS), initiated in 1985, is conducted to examine the health-related knowledge, practices, and attitudes of the nation's youth in the following health areas: AIDS; Nutrition; Consumer Health; Sexually Transmitted Disease; Drug and Alcohol Use; Suicide; Injury Prevention; and Violence. Findings…

  3. New Mexico Adolescent Health Risks Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, David

    To inform students of health risks (posed by behavior, environment, and genetics) and provide schools with collective risk appraisal information as a basis for planning/evaluating health and wellness initiatives, New Mexico administered the Teen Wellness Check in 1985 to 1,573 ninth-grade students from 7 New Mexico public schools. Subjects were…

  4. Suicide Ideation, Plan, and Attempt in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Nock, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The study examines data from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey to study the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Mexican adolescents. The results reveal patterns of the risk factors and suggest that intervention should focus on adolescents with mental disorders to effectively prevent suicides.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Israeli Adolescents: Results from a National Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.; Brent, David A.; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers.…

  6. Comparing Data Collected by Computerized and Written Surveys for Adolescence Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying; Newfield, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether data-collection formats, computerized versus paper-and-pencil, affect response patterns and descriptive statistics for adolescent health assessment surveys. Youth were assessed as part of a health risk reduction program. Methods: Baseline data from 1131 youth were analyzed. Participants completed the…

  7. Health information seeking among Mbararan adolescents: results from the Uganda Media and You survey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Emenyonu, Nneka; Nansera, Denis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R

    2008-04-01

    To maximize scarce intervention dollars, pediatricians and other adolescent health professionals must position health promotion efforts in mediums that most effectively reach youth. This may be especially true in resource-limited settings where access to primary health care and medications is limited. To improve the efficiency and impact of disease prevention and health promotion efforts in resource-limited settings, we examine sources of health information cited by adolescents in Mbarara Uganda. Participants in the Uganda Media and You survey were students aged 12-18 (n = 500) randomly identified in five secondary schools in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. Ninety-three percent of eligible and invited youth completed the cross-sectional, pencil-and-paper survey. Four in five adolescents (81%) indicated they turned to parents, teachers, and other adults while around half read a book/went to the library (56%) or turned to siblings and friends (50%) for information about health and disease. More than one in three (38%) indicated that they used the computer and Internet to search for health information. Older versus younger respondents tended to rely upon siblings and friends for all types of health questions. On the other hand, younger versus older youth were significantly more likely to turn to parents, teachers, and other adults for their questions about sexual health. Adults may be an important component of effective disease prevention and health promotion campaigns. Multiple delivery methods may be especially effective for reaching older adolescents. Technology also may be an important health promotion tool in resource-limited settings.

  8. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…

  9. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  10. Influence of risk-taking health behaviours of adolescents on cervical cancer prevention: a Hungarian survey.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Berenyi, K; Dergez, T; Kiss, I; D'Cruz, G

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among the Hungarian adolescents to establish their use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual behaviours, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and beliefs and attitudes towards screening and vaccination. Results indicated that adolescent risk-taking health behaviours correlate with risky sexual behaviours. As risk-taking behaviours do not correlate with a better awareness of the risk associated with HPV infection, it is of crucial importance that HPV/cervical cancer preventing educational programmes shall be sensitive to this 'vulnerable' population and draw the attention of these adolescents to their increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and undesired pregnancies. Well-designed behavioural change interventions may be effective when in addition to providing adolescents (both men and women) with clear information about the implications of an HPV infection, they also aim to improve safer sex behaviours: consistent condom usage, limiting the number of sex partners, as well as encouraging regular participation in gynaecological screenings and uptake of the HPV vaccine. As this study population demonstrated positive attitudes towards the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the free HPV vaccination for the 12-13-year-old girls in Autumn 2014 will hopefully increase the currently low uptake of the vaccine in Hungary.

  11. [Child and adolescent psychiatry in the Public Health department--a status survey].

    PubMed

    Stober, B

    1990-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is still a neglected discipline in Public Health, despite the fact that a high degree of effectiveness can be definitely achieved especially as regards prevention if physicians specialising in child and adolescent psychiatry are employed by Public Health services. Thus avoiding that children develop into psychiatrist-prone adults after taking up a career or profession. The child and adolescent psychiatrist in Public Health services is not only competent in respect of giving advice and mediating help in the areas of kindergarten and school problems, but is also a significant key person in health education. It is urgently recommended to recruit a sufficient number of child and adolescent psychiatrists for Public Health service or to train them within the framework of their activities as Public Health physicians. Prevention is better than cure--this is especially true for children and adolescents.

  12. Mental Health Needs in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Cross-Sectional Survey of a Service Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Turk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted on the mental health needs of adolescents with intellectual disability, despite the severity and rates of such needs being high throughout childhood and in adulthood. We have investigated the prevalence and predictors of mental health needs and service use in adolescents with intellectual…

  13. Associations between motor vehicle crashes and mental health problems: data from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Knowlton, Alice W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2015-02-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. A sample of 3,604 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, was assessed as part of the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R) study. Data were weighted according to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates. Within this sample, 10.2% of adolescents reported having at least 1 serious MVC. The prevalence of current PTSD and depression among adolescents having an MVC was 7.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Analyses revealed that an MVC among adolescents aged 15 years and younger was independently associated with depression (OR = 2.17) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.36) after adjusting for other risk factors, including a history of interpersonal violence. Among adolescents aged 16 years and older, an MVC was associated only with alcohol abuse (OR = 2.08). This study was the first attempt to explore adverse mental health outcomes associated with MVCs beyond traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in a nationally representative sample.

  14. Media Use and Health Outcomes in Adolescents: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Hygiea; Kinley, D. Jolene; Katz, Laurence Y.; Chartier, Mariette J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the association between quantity of media use and health outcomes in adolescents. Method: Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.1 (youth aged 12–19 (n=9137)) to determine the association between hours of use of television/videos, video games, and computers/Internet, and health outcomes including depression, alcohol dependence, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, help-seeking behaviour, risky sexual activity, and obesity. Results: Obesity was associated with frequent television/video use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.10). Depression and risky sexual behaviour were less likely in frequent video game users (AOR 0.87 and 0.73). Binge drinking was less likely in frequent users of video games (AOR 0.92) and computers/Internet (AOR 0.90). Alcohol dependence was less likely in frequent computer/Internet users (AOR 0.89). Conclusions: Most health outcomes, except for obesity, were not associated with using media in youth. Further research into the appropriate role of media will help harness its full potential. PMID:23133464

  15. Health Care Disparities and Language Use at Home among Latino, Asian American, and American Indian Adolescents: Findings from the California Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lahiff, Maureen; Barreto, Rose M.; Shin, Sunny; Chen, Wan-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Using the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, this study compared health status, medical insurance, and having a usual source of care for 2,230 ethnic minority adolescents based on language use at home: Group 1, English only; Group 2, both English and another language; and Group 3, exclusively another language. Adjusting for demographic…

  16. [Children and adolescents in Germany with a migration background. Methodical aspects in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Schenk, L; Ellert, U; Neuhauser, H

    2007-01-01

    A migration-specific approach was used in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and thus it was possible for the first time to include children with a migration background in a nationwide health survey in Germany in a number corresponding to their percentage of the population. This article presents the migration-specific approach used in KiGGS as well as a definition of the term "migrant" and its operationalisation. In addition, we analyse the representativity of the migrant subsample and present data on its composition. Altogether 2,590 children and adolescents with a migration background (both parents) took part in the study; in the weighted sample they account for 17.1% of all children and adolescents. Another 8.3% of the children and adolescents have one parent with a migration background. The two largest groups among the migrant children are Germans from Russia (29.9%) and children and adolescents of Turkish origin (28.2%). There are differences between migrants and non-migrants related to socio-economic status and place of living (rural/urban and East/West). Analyses of the representativity of the migrant sample show that children and adolescents with a lower level of education are under-represented, whereas there were no differences with regard to sex, the fathers' occupation or the mothers' smoking status. Non-respondents rate their children's health better than respondents. Since the successful integration of children and adolescents with a migration background into the KiGGS study brings with it a sufficiently large number of cases and since KiGGS covers a wide range of health-related topics, comprehensive migration-specific analyses can be performed. Thus, KiGGS will contribute to filling some of the current gaps in our knowledge of migrant children's health.

  17. Identifying Adolescent Patients at Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Development of a Brief Sexual Health Screening Survey.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients.

  18. School context, friendship ties and adolescent mental health: A multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (KYPS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo

    2015-11-01

    Research on the social determinants of health suggests that interpersonal networks play a critical role in facilitating individual mental and physical well-being. Prior studies also indicate that ecological or contextual factors contribute to positive health outcomes. This study extends prior research by examining the factors associated with adolescent health in an Asian context. Based on the multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (2006 & 2007), a longitudinal project funded by the Korean government, it investigates some of the key variables related to the mental health of Korean students. Much of previous research focuses on the functions of social capital. This study contributes to the social epidemiology literature by investigating the possible downside of network ties. Specifically, it asks whether having delinquent friends is associated with negative mental health experiences. In addition, little research has been conducted concerning the associations between adolescent health outcomes and school characteristics. This study moves in that direction by examining the relationship between mental well-being of students and a variety of school related variables (e.g., subjective attitude toward school and quality of relationship with peers and teachers). Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, among the social capital control variables, being properly integrated into the family and frequent peer interaction significantly add to mental health. At the individual (student) level only, ties to delinquent friends are negatively associated with mental health, while at both individual and contextual levels, school characteristics are positively related to adolescent subjective well-being.

  19. The Alabama Adolescent Health Survey: Health Knowledge and Behaviors. Summary Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Stephen; Adcock, Anthony

    This survey is a follow-up to a comprehensive survey of eighth- and tenth-grade public school students conducted in 1988. The 1990 sample includes over 3,400 students from rural, metropolitan, and mixed school districts. Data were collected using a 120-item questionnaire and compared to available information from the 1988 survey. The study…

  20. Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

  1. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... help strengthen their capacity to improve child and adolescent health. More > DASH Home About DASH At A ...

  2. Mentally Handicapped Adolescents: A Survey of Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheseldine, Sally E.; Jeffree, Dorothy M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 245 severely mentally handicapped adolescents was conducted to investigate basic skills needed for an independent life style. Interviews covered such areas as eating and drinking skills, domestic tasks, cleanliness and health, and use of amenities. (SB)

  3. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School: Analysis of Pooled Data From Korean Nationwide Survey From 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-05-01

    Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents.Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models.Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33-2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54-2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61-3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81-4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35-4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27-3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19-13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03-1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06-1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26-1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16-1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37-2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34-2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents.Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities.

  4. Correlates of sexual behaviors with health status and health perception in Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey in schools.

    PubMed

    Wong, William C W; Lee, Albert; Tsang, Kwong Ka

    2004-08-01

    Sexual intercourse remains taboo among adolescents in a Chinese society such as Hong Kong. It is not openly discussed and little research has been done on its impact on health, although it carries serious risks of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV. In 1999, a cross-sectional, self-report survey on youth risk behaviors was carried out on 8382 students 15-18 years of age from 48 schools in Hong Kong. Three hundred seventy-seven (4.69%) reported that they had had sexual intercourse. Among them, forced sex (16.94%) was common, most often happening to boys (52.38%). They were more likely to have consulted doctors in the last month (odds ration [OR] 1.41 in boys 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.94; OR 2.46 in girls 95% CI 1.81, 3.30) and 6 months (OR 1.33 in boys 95% CI 0.98, 1.78; OR 2.66 in girls 95% CI 1.80, 3.91). They also perceived poorer and deteriorating health. The sexually active female students were 6.70 times (95% CI 4.65, 9.66) more likely to attempt suicide than the other group and were more likely to take sick leaves (OR 3.56 in girls 95% CI 2.35, 5.41). Parental education and occupation, place of birth, and type of housing did not correlate in the initiation of sexual intercourse. The sexually experienced group reported worse physical and psychological health as well as health perception. Some of the characteristics and patterns identified in our study were quite different from the findings in the West but further studies are required to determine the reason for this.

  5. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  6. Adolescent health psychology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2002-06-01

    In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.

  7. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans. PMID:22639924

  8. [Physical activity among children and adolescents in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Mensink, G B M; Romahn, N; Woll, A

    2007-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive effect on health and wellbeing at any age. For this reason, sports and exercise enhancing measures are inherent parts of public health in Germany. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) provides a nationally representative database which allows a comprehensive analysis of physical activity behaviour among young people. This may support the planning and implementation of health intervention measures. Primary results of KiGGS indicate that most children aged 3 to 10 years regularly go in for sports: around three quarters of girls and boys go in for sports at least once a week, and even more than one third three times a week or more. Children without sport engagement come disproportionately often from families with low socioeconomic status, with a migration background or from former East Germany. Also among adolescents sports and exercise activity is very common. Among 11-17 year olds, how ever, the current recommendation to conduct physical and or sports activities on most days of the week is only achieved by every fourth boy and every sixth girl. Especially girls with low socioeconomic status and with a migration background show a lack of physical activity. These results underline the importance of sports- and exercise-promoting measures in childhood and adolescence, designed for specific target groups.

  9. Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.

  10. Health Status and Risk Behaviors of Sexual Minorities Among Chinese Adolescents: A School-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between sexual orientation and health disparities among a stratified random sample of 3776 secondary students in Hong Kong. The prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality were 1.5% and 2.6% in boys and 1.8% and 3.7% in girls, respectively. A total of 10.7% of boys and 8.8% of girls were unsure of their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual boys reported poorer physical and mental health than their heterosexual peers. Homosexual and bisexual boys were more likely to engage in smoking, frequent drinking, and vaginal sex and be subjected to sexually transmitted disease and sexual victimization. However, lesbian and bisexual girls were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors except for smoking and being subjected to sexual victimization. There is a gender-specific problem that may warrant prevention and intervention programs to address the unique health issues facing homosexual and bisexual adolescents in Hong Kong.

  11. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  12. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 7: Special Health Care Needs among Children in Child Welfare, Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This research brief, the seventh in a series of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) briefs, examines the presence of special health care needs among children in the child welfare system (CWS). It specifically examines the presence of chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes) and special needs (e.g., emotional…

  13. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  14. The effects of connectedness on health-promoting and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents: evidence from a statewide survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Tan, Kit-Aun; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2014-02-01

    Using a social ecological perspective, we examined the effects of connectedness in multiple domains on health-promoting and health-compromising behaviors among Asian American (AA), Pacific Islander (PI), and Caucasian/White American (WA) adolescents in California. After adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, the following consistent results emerged across the three ethnic groups: (a) community connectedness increased the odds of physical activity; (b) internal, family, and school connectedness decreased, whereas friend connectedness increased, the odds of substance use; and (c) internal and family connectedness decreased the odds of violent behavior. We also found specific ethnic variations pertaining to the effects of connectedness. Friend connectedness increased the odds of violent behavior for AAs and WAs, but not for PIs. Meanwhile, community connectedness increased the odds of substance use and violent behavior for AAs and PIs, but decreased the odds of these behaviors for WAs. Findings for healthy dietary behavior were inconsistent across ethnic groups and connectedness domains. Our overall findings suggest that the effects of connectedness were more salient for health-compromising behaviors than for health-promoting behaviors. Health prevention and intervention efforts in adolescents could target the role of their connectedness to their multiple social domains.

  15. [Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.

  16. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  17. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Conclusion The percentage of

  18. [Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985) in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1). Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal schooling, not living with the mother, history of smoking or drinking, less frequent toothbrushing, and heavy consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Dental pain was thus associated with socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors.

  19. Fruit juice consumption is associated with improved nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...

  20. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  1. Health counseling of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Joffe, A; Radius, S M

    1991-05-01

    Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.

  2. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  3. Relationship of sodium intake with obesity among Korean children and adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-03-14

    We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95% CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95% CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95% CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95% CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95% CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption.

  4. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results. The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions. Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  5. Patterns of health-related behaviours among adolescents: a cross-sectional study based on the National Survey of School Health Brazil 2012

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse the clustering of multiple health-related behaviours among adolescents and describe which socio-demographic characteristics are associated with these patterns. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Brazilian schools assessed by the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE, 2012). Participants 104 109 Brazilian ninth-grade students from public and private schools (response rate=82.7%). Methods Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to identify behaviour clustering and linear regression models were used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with each one of these behaviour patterns. Results We identified a good fit model with three behaviour patterns. The first was labelled ‘problem-behaviour’ and included aggressive behaviour, alcohol consumption, smoking, drug use and unsafe sex; the second was labelled ‘health-compromising diet and sedentary behaviours’ and included unhealthy food indicators and sedentary behaviour; and the third was labelled ‘health-promoting diet and physical activity’ and included healthy food indicators and physical activity. No differences in behaviour patterns were found between genders. The problem-behaviour pattern was associated with male gender, older age, more developed region (socially and economically) and public schools (compared with private). The ‘health-compromising diet and sedentary behaviours’ pattern was associated with female gender, older age, mothers with higher education level and more developed region. The ‘health-promoting diet and physical activity’ pattern was associated with male gender and mothers with higher education level. Conclusions Three health-related behaviour patterns were found among Brazilian adolescents. Interventions to decrease those negative patterns should take into account how these behaviours cluster together and the individuals most at risk. PMID:28186927

  6. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  7. [Determinants of asthma among children and adolescents in Germany. Results of the German Health and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Laussmann, D; Haftenberger, M; Langen, U; Eis, D

    2012-03-01

    In this study, associations between current asthma and possible determinants were studied using data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents ("Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland," KiGGS). In this nationwide cross-sectional survey, 17,461 subjects aged 0-17 years were examined between 2003 and 2006. Data collection included a medical examination of the child, an interview of the parents, and written questionnaires. Apart from prevalence estimates, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Increasing age and male sex, previous atopic diseases of the child, a positive family history of allergic diseases and low birth weight were significant risk factors of asthma, as were overweight and moldy walls in the residence. Breast feeding was not associated with a reduced risk of asthma. Low age at delivery of the mother and living in rural or provincial regions were shown to be protected. Overall, this study suggests that allergies of the parents and previous atopic disease of the child are the strongest determinants of asthma. However, environmental factors (mold on walls, living in rural and provincial towns) and lifestyle factors could also modify asthma risk.

  8. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  9. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  10. Health effects of family size: cross sectional survey in Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T; Qu, J; Tomkins, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether only children differ in terms of morbidity, nutritional status, risk behaviours, and utilisation of health services from children with siblings, in China. Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out using self completion questionnaires, anthropometry, and haemoglobin measurement in middle schools (predominant age 12–16 years) in three distinct socioeconomic areas of Zhejiang province, eastern China. Results: Data were obtained for 4197 participants. No significant differences were found between only children and those with siblings for some key indicators: underweight 19% v 18%, suicide ideation 14% v 14%, and ever smoking 17% v 15%. Only children were more likely to be overweight (4.8% v 1.5%), and to have attended a doctor (71% v 63%) or dentist (17% v 10%) in the past year. Sibling children are significantly more likely to be anaemic (42% v 32%) and to admit to depression (41% v 21%) or anxiety (45% v 37%). However, after adjusting for area, sex, and parental education levels only two differences remained: sibling children are more likely to be bullied (OR 1.5, 1.1–2.0; p = 0.006) and are less likely to confide in parents (OR 0.6, 0.3–0.8, p = 0.009). There were no significant differences in the key parameters between first and second born children. Conclusions: We found no detrimental effects of being an only child using the indicators measured. Being an only child may confer some benefits, particularly in terms of socialisation. PMID:12765907

  11. [German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). First results].

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Wolf, U; Becker, K; Conrad, A; Hünken, A; Lüdecke, A; Müssig-Zufika, M; Riedel, S; Seiffert, I; Seiwert, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M

    2007-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) is the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) of the Robert Koch Institute and the fourth GerES of the Federal Environment Agency. The main objective of GerESs is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. GerES IV was performed from 2003 to 2006. A total of 1.790 children aged 3-14 years from 150 sampling locations participated in GerES IV. Samples of blood, urine, tap water, house dust and indoor air were analysed. Hearing tests, measurements of traffic noise and interviews to get exposure-related information were conducted. First results indicate a clear decrease of the exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury. Cotinine concentrations in urine can be used to classify the exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke. The examination of the tap water used in the subjects' households indicates that in some households the guideline values of the German Drinking Water Ordinance were not always met. This is the case for nickel, copper and lead which are used as pipe material for domestic plumbing.

  12. Hmong American Parents' Views on Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…

  13. The Mental Health Care Gap among Children and Adolescents: Data from an Epidemiological Survey from Four Brazilian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Cristiane S.; Bordin, Isabel A. S.; Mari, Jair Jesus; Velasque, Luciane; Rohde, Luis A.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU) among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy. Objectives To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders from four Brazilian regions; and to identify structural/psychosocial/demographic barriers associated with child/adolescent MHSU. Methods Multicenter cross-sectional-study involving four towns from four out of five Brazilian regions. In each town, a representative sample of elementary public school students was randomly selected (sample: 1,721). Child/adolescent MHSU was defined as being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist/neurologist in the previous 12 months. Standardized instruments measured: (1) children/adolescent characteristics [(1.1) Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL)-psychiatric disorders; (1.2) Ten Questions Screen-neurodevelopment problems; (1.3) two subtests of WISC-III-estimated IQ; (1.4) Academic Performance Test-school performance)], (2) factors related to mothers/main caregivers (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-anxiety/depression), (3) family (Brazilian Research-Companies-Association's Questionnaire-SES). Results Only 19.8% of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorder have used mental health services in the previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified five factors associated with lower rates of MHSU (female gender, adequate school performance, mother/main caregiver living with a partner, lower SES, residing in deprived Brazilian regions) regardless of the presence of any psychiatric disorders/neurodevelopmental problems. Conclusions Only a small proportion of children/adolescents with

  14. Prevalence and Mental Health Outcomes of Homicide Survivors in a Representative US Sample of Adolescents: Data from the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zinzow, Heidi; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Each homicide leaves behind several friends and family members, or homicide survivors. However, limited information is available on the impact of homicide on adolescent survivors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the prevalence of homicide survivorship and to determine mental health outcomes within a sample of US…

  15. Continuity of care from child and adolescent to adult mental health services: evidence from a regional survey in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Paolo; Galeotti, Simona; Mimmi, Stefano; Starace, Fabrizio; Castagnini, Augusto C

    2015-12-01

    To examine clinical and demographic factors associated with continuity of care from child-adolescent (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS), we undertook a record-linkage study to the Adult Mental Health Information System including all those 16 years old and over who were listed between 2010 and 2013 in the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Information System in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region of nearly 4.5 million residents. From a cohort of 8239 adolescents attending CAMHS (population at risk about 144,000), 821 (19.4 %) moved to AMHS, excluding cases with specific developmental disorders, whose conditions were not managed by adult psychiatrists, and those with mental retardation who attended usually social services. Young people referred for treatment to AMHS were more likely to receive a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.92; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.17-7.08), personality disorders (OR 2.69; 95 % CI 1.89-3.83), and pervasive developmental disorders (OR 2.13; 95 % CI 1.51-2.99). Further factors predicting transfer to AMHS were not living with parents, inpatient psychiatric admission, and being on medication in the previous 24 months. These findings suggest that a relatively small number of adolescents moved to AMHS and are likely to reflect the configuration of local mental health services and alternative care available, mainly for those with less-severe mental disorders.

  16. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...

  17. Bone Health in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Carey, Dennis E; Golden, Neville H

    2015-08-01

    Osteoporosis occurs during childhood and adolescence as a heritable condition such as OI, with acquired disease (eg, IBD), or iatrogenically as a result of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. However, the number of children affected by osteoporosis during youth is small compared to the numbers who will develop osteoporosis in adulthood. Prevention of adult osteoporosis requires that an optimal environment for the achievement of peak bone mass be established during the growing years. Detection of low BMD can be achieved using modalities such as DXA and pQCT. Standard radiologic studies, especially vertebral radiography, may also be helpful in children and adolescents at high risk for osteoporosis. It is critical to the development of healthy bones that adolescents have proper nutrition with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and that they participate in regular physical activity (especially weight-bearing exercise). In the recent past, the dual goals of proper nutrition and exercise were not being achieved by many, if not most, adolescents. Those caring for adolescents should strive to educate teens and their families on the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D as well as advocate for supportive environments in schools and communities that foster the development of healthy habits with regard to diet and exercise. In order to help identify the population at risk for osteoporosis, a bone health screen with assessment of calcium intake and determination of family history of adult osteoporosis (hip fracture, kyphosis) should be a routine part of adolescent health care. Universal screening of healthy adolescents with serum 25OHD levels is not recommended. Adolescents with conditions associated with reduced bone mass should undergo bone densitometry or other studies as a baseline, and BMD should be monitored at intervals no more frequently than yearly. Although controversy remains regarding the optimum dose of vitamin D for treatment of osteoporosis, all would

  18. National Health Care Survey

    Cancer.gov

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  19. An international survey of pain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A common belief is that pain is uncommon and short lived in adolescents. However, the burden of pain in adolescents is unclear because of limitations in previous research. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of headache, stomach-ache and backache in adolescents and to explore the extent to which these three forms of pain coexist based upon a representative sample of adolescents from 28 countries. Methods Data were analysed from three consecutive waves (1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06) of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children: WHO Collaborative Cross-National survey (HBSC). Prevalence estimates are based upon adolescents who reported experiencing headache, stomach-ache or backache at least monthly for the last 6 months. Results There were a total of 404,206 participants with a mean (±SD) age of 13.6 (±1.7) years (range 9.8 to 17.3 years). The prevalence of headache was 54.1%, stomach-ache 49.8%, backache 37%, and at least one of the three pains 74.4%. Girls had a higher prevalence of the three pains than boys and the prevalence of pain increased with age. Headache, stomach-ache and backache frequently coexist, for example, of those with headache: 21.2% had headache alone, 31% suffered from both headache and stomach-ache, 12.1% suffered from backache and headache, and 35.7% had all three pains. Conclusions Somatic pain is very common in adolescents, more often coexisting than occurring in isolation. Our data supports the need for further research to improve the understanding of these pains in adolescents. PMID:24885027

  20. [Dental and gingival pain and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: an analysis of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Borges, Carolina Marques; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Fischer, Tatiana Konrad; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental and gingival pain and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents (15-19 years of age). Data from 16,126 adolescents who participated in the Brazilian Oral Health Survey SB-Brazil 2002-2003 were used. The outcome measured was dental and gingival pain in the last six months. Independent variables were per capita income, schooling, school enrollment, gender, skin color, age, area of residence, time since last dental appointment, type of dental service, DMFT index and its components, dental calculus, and Dental Aesthetic Index. Simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses were performed. Prevalence of dental and gingival pain was 35.6% (95%CI: 34.8-36.4). Increased prevalence of pain was associated with: female gender, low income, non-students, students enrolled in public schools, and grade-for-age lag. In addition, adolescents with high levels of dental caries and dental calculus also reported higher prevalence of dental pain. Dental and gingival pain can be considered a relevant public health problem, suggesting the need for preventive measures.

  1. Reproductive health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H L

    1994-01-01

    The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  3. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  4. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  5. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risks of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yup; Kwon, Ah Reum; Ahn, Jung Min; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have revealed many inconsistent results regarding the relationship between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and factors that characterize metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from 2,880 children and adolescents aged 10-18 years collected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We investigated the data according to quartiles of 25(OH)D concentrations. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with adjustment for sex and age differed significantly between the serum 25(OH)D groups and exhibited negative trend as 25(OH)D concentrations increased. The number of subjects with metabolic syndrome was greater in the low 25(OH)D groups (I, II, and III quartile) than in the high 25(OH)D group (IV quartile) (P=0.029). BMI and waist circumference were lower in the high 25(OH)D group. Serum 25(OH)D concentration correlated negatively with homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (ρ=-0.073, P<0.001) and correlated positively with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (ρ=0.095, P<0.001). Conclusion Low serum 25(OH)D level is associated with an increase of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. PMID:25883927

  6. Regional percent fat and bone mineral density in Korean adolescents: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3), 2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of total and regional (trunk, arm, and leg) percent fat on total and regional (arm, leg, rib, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and pelvis) bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adolescents were examined using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009. Percent fat and BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in a population-based sample of 710 Korean adolescents (365 boys and 345 girls), aged 10-19 years. After adjusting for age, height, weight, serum vitamin D, dietary calcium intake, and menarche for girls in complex sampling linear regression analysis, higher total and regional percent fat were associated with low total BMD and BMD in all regions in boys aged 13-16 years, while the associations were inconsistent for early and late adolescent boys. In girls, the inverse associations were more consistent for those aged 17-19 years than for younger girls. While most of total and regional percent fat were negatively associated with BMD of thoracic and lumbar spine and femur in boys, most of these relationships were not significant in girls. The negative association with total BMD was consistent for trunk percent fat but variable for arm and leg percent fat according to age subgroup and gender. In conclusion, the unfavorable effect of regional percent fat on all regional BMD is more consistent in boys aged 13-16 years and in girls aged 17-19 years, while the relationship appears to be gender and age subgroup-specific.

  7. Body fat percentile curves for Korean children and adolescents: a data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-03-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys and 745 for girls aged between 10 and 18 yr. Fat mass and fat free mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of development in body fat percentage, fat mass and fat free mass differed for boys and girls, showing a decreased fat mass with an increased fat free mass in boys but gradual increases with age in girls. The considerable proportion of boys and girls with relatively normal fat mass appeared to be misclassified to be at risk of overweight based on the BMI criteria. Therefore, the information on the percentiles of body fat and fat free mass with their patterns would be helpful to complement assessment of overweight and obesity based on BMI for Korean children and adolescents.

  8. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  9. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  10. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  12. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  13. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and parental socio-economic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The positive association between parental socio-economic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by physical activity behaviour. We investigated the associations between physical activity, aerobic fitness and PSEP in a population based sample of German adolescents. Methods 5,251 participants, aged 11–17 years, in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS) underwent a sub-maximal cycle ergometer test and completed a questionnaire obtaining information on physical activity and media use. The associations between physical activity, media use, aerobic fitness and PSEP were analysed with multivariate logistic regression models for boys and girls separately. Odds ratios (ORs) of PSEP (education, occupation and income) on the outcomes were calculated adjusted for age, region, and other influencing factors. Results Parental education was more strongly associated with the outcome variables than parental occupation and income. After adjusting for age and region, a higher parental education level was associated with better aerobic fitness – with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls whose parents had primary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.3 (1.0-1.6) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with lower media use: an OR of 2.1 (1.5-3.0) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 2.7 (1.8-4.1) for girls whose parents had primary education compared to girls whose parents had tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.9 (1.5-2.5), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with a higher physical activity level only among girls: an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.6) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.2 (0.9-1.5) for girls whose parents had

  14. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  15. Mental Health Inequalities in Adolescents Growing Up in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Cross-Sectional Survey, SHaW Study

    PubMed Central

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Lund, Crick; Mathews, Catherine; Clark, Charlotte; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background South Africa is one of the most ‘unequal’ societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD) among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14–15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD); Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression); Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety). Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys. Results Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals). Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%), anxiety (16%) and PTSD (21%). A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as ‘black’ or ‘coloured’ were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR) of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15) and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83). Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as ‘coloured’ (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70). Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem) partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD. Conclusions Adolescent mental

  16. The Personal Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    The Personal Health Survey (PHS) is a 200-item inventory designed to sample symptomatology as subjective experiences from the 12 principal domains of organ system and psychophysiological functioning. This study investigates the factorial validity of the empirically constructed scales. (Author)

  17. Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…

  18. Low hepatitis B immunogenicity of a hexavalent vaccine widely used in Germany: results of the German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, P; Poethko-Müller, C; Hellenbrand, W; Jilg, W; Thierfelder, W; Meyer, C; an der Heiden, M; Schlaud, M; Radun, D

    2010-11-01

    The success of childhood vaccination against hepatitis B relies on persistence of immunity into adolescence and adulthood. In 2000, two hexavalent vaccines with a hepatitis B component (Hexavac, Infanrix hexa) were introduced in Germany. Hexavac was withdrawn in 2005 amidst concerns about its long-term hepatitis B protection. We compared hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels in children fully vaccinated with Hexavac or Infanrix hexa (n=477) in a secondary data analysis of a large cross-sectional health survey in Germany. On average 2.4 years after vaccination, 25.3% of Hexavac vaccinees had anti-HBs levels <10 mIU/ml (95% CI 19.0-32.8) compared to 4.7% of Infanrix hexa vaccinees (95% CI 2.4-8.9). These findings suggest that short-term hepatitis B immunogenicity in Hexavac vaccinees may also be weaker. Further studies are warranted to assess whether Hexavac vaccinees should be re-vaccinated or receive a booster vaccination before these birth cohorts reach adolescence.

  19. Impact of lifestyle factors on trends in lipid profiles among Korean adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys study, 1998 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hye; Song, Young-Hwan; Park, Sangshin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Only a few studies have explored nationwide trends in lipid profiles among Asian adolescents. We aimed to assess trends in lipid profiles and the associated lifestyle factors among Korean children. Methods We analyzed data for 2,094 adolescents who were aged 10–18 years and had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998 and 2010. Results During 1998–2010, the prevalence of obesity significantly increased in boys, but no changes were observed in girls. Over this period, there was a small but significant decrease in the mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level in boys (1998, 87.5 mg/dL; 2010, 83.6 mg/dL; P=0.019) and mean triglyceride levels in girls (1998, 90.8 mg/dL; 2010, 85.8 mg/dL; P=0.020). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of dyslipidemia in boys, but a modest decrease was noted in girls (1998, 25.1%; 2010, 18.3%; P=0.052). During the study period, the prevalence of breakfast skipping decreased, whereas that of regular exercise increased in both groups. Daily total energy intake did not change between these years. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, breakfast skipping was associated with increased risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia in boys (odds ratio [OR], 5.77) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 2.27) in girls. Regular exercise was associated with decreased risk of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (OR, 0.40) in boys. Conclusion Although the prevalence of obesity in boys increased, favorable or constant trends in lipid profiles were observed among Korean adolescents during 1998–2010. Decrease in breakfast skipping and increase in regular exercise may have contributed to these trends. PMID:26958065

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents: Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007-2009) and Cycle 2 (2009-2011)

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, M.; de Groh, M.; Loukine, L.; Prud’homme, D.; Dubois, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors, and the influence of socioeconomic status, in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009) and cycle 2 (2009–2011) respondents aged 10 to 18 years who provided fasting blood samples were included (n  =  1228). The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) consensus definition for children and adolescents (10–15 years) and worldwide adult definition (≥ 16 years) were used to diagnose MetS. Prevalence of MetS and its risk factors were calculated and differences by socioeconomic status were examined using χ2 tests. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 2.1%. One-third (37.7%) of participants had at least one risk factor, with the most prevalent being abdominal obesity (21.6%), low HDL-C (19.1%) and elevated triglyceride levels (7.9%). This combination of abdominal obesity, low HDL-C and elevated triglyceride levels accounted for 61.5% of MetS cases. Participants from households with the highest income adequacy and educational attainment levels had the lowest prevalence of one or more MetS risk factors, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C. Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS (2.1%) was lower than previously reported in Canada (3.5%) and the USA (4.2%–9.2%), potentially due to the strict application of the IDF criteria for studying MetS. One-third of Canadian children and adolescents have at least one risk factor for MetS. Given that the risk for MetS increases with age, these prevalence estimates, coupled with a national obesity prevalence of almost 10% among youth, point to a growing risk of MetS and other chronic diseases for Canadian youth. PMID:26878492

  1. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 14 044 US children and adolescents aged 2-19 years. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted with the use of the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-, plausible and over-reporters of EI were identified using two methods: based on the 95 % confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI:BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under- or over-reporter compared with a plausible reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-, plausible and over-reporters were 13·1, 81·5 and 5·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR and 18·8, 72·3 and 8·8 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and overweight and obesity (compared with normal weight). Over-reporting was associated with younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, normal weight and the first survey cycle. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 22 949). In conclusion, we found that EI misreporting remains prevalent and differential in US children and adolescents.

  3. Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.

  4. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  5. Maltese Survey of Adolescent Drug Use, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ronald D.; Gleaton, Thomas J.

    A national survey to obtain adolescent drug use patterns in Malta was conducted on November 29, 1991. A total of 20,815 students were surveyed in Malta and Gozo. Ages ranged from 11 to 17 years. Tabular reports were prepared for each participating school, regionally, and for the total or national sample. The overwhelming majority of students…

  6. Relationships between Health Status, Self Esteem and Social Support among Adolescents: Gender and Race Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    To locate possible causes for the gender and race differences observed in adolescent health status, an analysis was made of the relationship between the scores of a national sample of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents on selected items of the National Center for Health Statistics' Health Examination Survey. Thirty survey items indicating social…

  7. Examining longer-term effects of parental death in adolescents and young adults: Evidence from the national longitudinal survey of adolescent to adult health.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, William; Rosen, Zohn; Joiner, Thomas; Silva, Caroline; Mueller, Anna S

    2017-03-01

    Using longitudinal data spanning a 7-year period, we investigated the behavioral and psycho-social effects resulting from a parent's death during early childhood or teenage years on adolescent and early adulthood functioning. Findings confirmed previous work demonstrating various behavioral problems and social-psychological adjustment deficits during adolescence. Results suggested that most detrimental adjustment behaviors among parentally bereaved youth fade as they entered into young adulthood. Yet, premature school withdrawals and diminished interests in college attendance at Wave 1 left many of these young adults with diminished academic accomplishments, lingering economic disadvantages and for females a hesitancy to marry as their lives progressed into adulthood.

  8. Pregnancy threat to adolescent health.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is investigating factors which affect the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Benin, Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and the Philippines. The research is funded through the US Agency for International Development's Office of Nutrition. 22.5% of women in Nepal marry before they reach age 14 years, with most marrying before age 18. The research in the country has found pregnancy to be a burden among these young women which threatens their nutritional and health status as well as that of their offspring. Unequal distribution of food in the household and heavy workloads increase the level of risk faced by adolescent females. Postponing pregnancy in adolescents, however, delays the onset of increased nutritional needs in girls who are already likely to be undernourished. Delayed pregnancy also gives girls more time to complete their physical growth and avoids the risk of medical emergencies in childbirth, such as hemorrhage which, if survived, can lead to anemia which is aggravated by nutritional deficiencies. The ICRW has therefore proposed four strategies for postponing first births among female adolescents: encouraging later marriage, providing family planning and reproductive health services specially for adolescents, providing family life education about options for the future, and increasing educational opportunities for girls.

  9. Online health information seeking among Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel: results from a national school survey.

    PubMed

    Neumark, Yehuda; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Feldman, Becca S; Hirsch Allen, A J; Shtarkshall, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns and determinants of seeking online health information among a nationally representative sample of 7,028 Jewish and Arab 7th- through 12th-grade students in 158 schools in Israel. Nearly all respondents (98.7%) reported Internet access, and 52.1% reported having sought online health information in the past year. Arab students (63%) were more likely than Jewish students (48%) to seek online health information. Population-group and sex differences in health topics sought online were identified, although fitness/exercise was most common across groups. Multivariate regression models revealed that having sought health information from other sources was the strongest independent correlate of online health information-seeking among Jews (adjusted odds ratio = 8.93, 95% CI [7.70, 10.36]) and Arabs (adjusted odds ratio = 9.77, 95% CI [7.27, 13.13]). Other factors associated with seeking online health information common to both groups were level of trust in online health information, Internet skill level, having discussed health/medical issues with a health care provider in the past year, and school performance. The most common reasons for not seeking online health information were a preference to receive information from a health professional and lack of interest in health/medical issues. The closing of the digital divide between Jews and Arabs represents a move toward equality. Identifying and addressing factors underpinning online health information-seeking behaviors is essential to improve the health status of Israeli youth and reduce health disparities.

  10. A Guide to Adolescent Health Care EPSDT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…

  11. Covariations of Adolescent Weight-Control, Health-Risk and Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…

  12. Foregone Mental Health Care and Self-Reported Access Barriers among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samargia, Luzette A.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Elliott, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents forego mental health care in spite of self-perceived needs for services; this presents a significant public health problem. Using data from the 2001 Adolescent Health Care Access Survey of 16-year-olds in Saint Louis County, Minnesota, we assessed barriers to mental health care among the 878 respondents who reported ever needing…

  13. The Impact of Birthweight and Adolescent Health on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Idunn; Reisel, Liza

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between birthweight, adolescent health (general health and psychological distress) and high school completion in Norway, using survey data linked to longitudinal registry data (n = 5,354). The findings show that the positive association between birthweight and high school completion can be attributed to…

  14. Enrollment in Private Medical Insurance and Utilization of Medical Services Among Children and Adolescents: Data From the 2009-2012 Korea Health Panel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Young-Taek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purposes of this study were to examine the status of children and adolescents with regard to enrollment in private medical insurance (PMI) and to investigate its influence on their utilization of medical services. Methods: The present study assessed 2973 subjects younger than 19 years of age who participated in five consecutive Korea Health Panel surveys from 2009 to 2012. Results: At the initial assessment, less than 20% of the study population had not enrolled in any PMI program, but this proportion decreased over time. Additionally, the number of subjects with more than two policies increased, the proportions of holders of indemnity-type only (‘I’-only) and of fixed amount+indemnity-type (‘F+I’) increased, whereas the proportion of holders with fixed amount-type only (‘F’-only) decreased. Compared with subjects without private insurance, PMI policyholders were more likely to use outpatient and emergency services, and the number of policies was proportionately related to inpatient service utilization. Regarding out-patient care, subjects with ‘F’-only PMI used these services more often than did uninsured subjects (odds ratio [OR], 1.69), whereas subjects with ‘I’-only PMI or ‘F+I’ PMI utilized a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and emergency services relative to uninsured subjects (ORs for ‘I’-only: 1.39, 1.63, and 1.38, respectively; ORs for ‘F+I’: 1.67, 2.09, and 1.37, respectively). Conclusions: The findings suggest public policy approaches to standardizing PMI contracts, reform in calculation of premiums in PMI, re-examination regarding indemnity insurance products, and mutual control mechanisms to mediate between national health insurance services and private insurers are required. PMID:27055548

  15. Where Are the Guys in Peer Education? A Survey of Peer Education Programs Related to Adolescent Sexual Health in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with adolescent male participation in sexual health peer education programs. Research questions focused on identifying the percentages of male peer educators in these programs, exploring the relationship between financial compensation and male participation, and identifying male-specific recruitment strategies, if…

  16. Association of serum ferritin with insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescent and adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Shim, Young Suk; Kang, Min Jae; Oh, Yeon Jeong; Baek, Joon Woo; Yang, Seung; Hwang, Il Tae

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associations of serum ferritin with insulin resistance indices, body fat mass/percentage, and all the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as the risk for MetS according to serum ferritin levels in Korean adolescents and adults.A total of 15,963 Korean males and females aged 16 to 80 years were analyzed using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 to 2011.The median serum ferritin concentration was 98.82 ng/mL for males and 38.60 ng/mL for females (P < 0.001). Increased risks of greater waist circumference and elevated glucose levels, elevated triglyceride levels, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were noted across the serum ferritin quartiles after adjustment for confounders in both genders (P ≤ 0.012 for trend). Insulin resistance indices and abdominal obesity (trunk fat mass/percent) increased across the ferritin concentration quartiles after adjustment for confounders in males and females (P ≤ 0.011 for trend), and the risk of MetS increased across the ferritin quartiles in males (P < 0.001 for trend) and females (P = 0.001 for trend). The highest serum ferritin quartile exhibited a 1.62-fold increased risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.28-2.12) in males and a 1.36-fold increased risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.09-1.69) in females compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounders.Our results suggest that ferritin is associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity.

  17. Association of Arsenic with Kidney Function in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Darcy; Chin-Chi, Kuo; Ana, Navas-Acien; Abraham, Alison G.; Virginia, Weaver; Jeffrey, Fadrowski

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests adverse health effects even at low levels of exposure. This study examined the association of arsenic exposure with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and compared methods of adjustment for urinary dilution in a representative sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,253 participants ages 12–30 years in the 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available urinary arsenic and eGFR measures. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the association of urinary total arsenic and dimethylarsinate (DMA) with eGFR. Results The median urinary total arsenic and DMA concentrations were 6.3 μg/L (IQR 3.3 – 12.7 μg/L) and 3.3 μg/L (IQR 1.7 – 5.7 μg/L), respectively. Median eGFR was 109 mL/min/1.73 m2. Adjusting arsenic for urine concentration with urinary creatinine, eGFR was 4.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 7.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (95% CI 0.5 to 8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) per log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA, respectively. When using urine osmolality to adjust for urine concentration, a log-unit increase in total arsenic and DMA was associated with a 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.8 to 1.1 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 0.01 (95% CI −1.9 to 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m2) lower eGFR, respectively. Conclusions Discordant associations were observed between arsenic and eGFR levels depending on whether urinary creatinine or osmolality was used to adjust for urine concentration. Further study should be dedicated to validating the best approach to account for urinary dilution in research in toxicants, and this may have implications for all studies which examine urinary biomarkers. PMID:25909687

  18. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  19. Adolescent Health in the United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…

  20. Vitamin D and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, Faustino R; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo; López-Baena, María T

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the supplementation of 400 IU/day of vitamin D is advised in children and adolescents–though correcting vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency may require 1000 IU/day or more. High-dose calcifediol depots are an alternative for

  1. Adolescents and their music. Insights into the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, E F; Hendee, W R

    During adolescence, teenagers are expected to develop standards of behavior and reconcile them with their perceptions of adult standards. In this context, music, a powerful medium in the lives of adolescents, offers conflicting values. The explicit sexual and violent lyrics of some forms of music often clash with the themes of abstinence and rational behavior promoted by adult society. Identification with rock music, particularly those styles that are rejected by adults, functions to separate adolescents from adult society. Some forms of rock music extend well beyond respectability in fulfilling this definitional role. Total immersion into a rock subculture, such as heavy metal, may be both a portrait of adolescent alienation and an unflattering reflection of an adolescent's perception of the moral and ethical duplicity of adult society. Physicians should be aware of the role of music in the lives of adolescents and use music preferences as clues to the emotional and mental health of adolescents.

  2. Adolescence: a foundation for future health.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.

  3. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents, and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past-year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey--Adolescent Supplement (2002-2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents aged 13 to…

  4. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  5. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…

  6. Adolescent Lifestyle and Behaviour: A Survey from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. Methods A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12–19 years of age. Results Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16–18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8%) and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9%) of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5%) of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8%) of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut). Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1%) to start smoking. Conclusion Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population. PMID:20886001

  7. Health Care Reform: Opportunities for Improving Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Charles E., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Health care reform represents a major step toward achieving the goal of improved preventive and primary care services for all Americans, including children and adolescents. Adolescence is a unique developmental age district from both childhood and adulthood with special vulnerabilities, health concerns, and barriers to accessing health care. It is…

  8. Dimensions of Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Adolescents' Health Literacy and Health Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Samar, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults, but it is unclear whether this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ), and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents' health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills. Participants were 187 D/HH and 94 hearing college-bound high school students. When we adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, school grade, and socioeconomic status, D/HH adolescents demonstrated weaker general and functional health literacy and cardiovascular health knowledge than hearing adolescents on the HLSI, S-TOFHLA, and CHDKQ (all ps < .0001). Standard health literacy or knowledge scores were associated with several interactive and critical health literacy skills (all ps < .05). D/HH adolescents who reported greater hearing-culture identity, having hearing aids, experiencing better hearing with assistive devices, having good quality of communication with parents, and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher functional health literacy (all ps < .025). Those who reported English as their best language and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher cardiovascular health knowledge scores (all ps < .03). Results suggest that interventions to improve D/HH adolescents' health literacy should target their health-related conversations with their families; access to printed health information; and access to health information from other people, especially health care providers and educators.

  9. Mothers' union histories and the mental and physical health of adolescents born to unmarried mothers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children's well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers' subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers' subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with their biological fathers without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered.

  10. The Impact of Single Mothers' Health Insurance Coverage on Behavioral Health Services Utilization by Their Adolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Teich, Judith L; Mutter, Ryan

    2017-03-02

    Adolescents living in single-mother households are more likely to have behavioral health conditions, but are less likely to utilize any behavioral health services. Using nationally representative mother-child pair data pooled over 6 years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the study finds that when single mothers were uninsured, their adolescent children were less likely to utilize any behavioral health services, even when the children themselves were covered by insurance. The extension of health coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to uninsured single mothers could improve the behavioral health of the adolescent population.

  11. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based.

  12. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings.

  13. Northern Ireland Tier 4 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services: A Survey of Admissions to the Child and Family Centre, January 2001-April 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Karen; Cassidy, Lisheen

    2007-01-01

    In-patient care, provided at Tier 4 level, is a specialised field aimed at provision of high-quality care for young people with serious mental health problems. This survey investigates how the regional in-patient unit for children in Northern Ireland functioned. A retrospective investigation was performed of cases admitted under the care of the…

  14. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  15. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  16. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  17. Adolescent sexual health in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Edgardh, K

    2002-10-01

    In Sweden, society's attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health clinics. Screening for genital chlamydial infection is performed at these clinics, thus providing a "one stop shop" service. Condoms and oral contraception are available at low cost, emergency contraception is sold over the counter. Teenage childbearing is uncommon. However, sexual and reproductive health problems are on the increase among young people. During the 1990s, a period of economic stagnation in Sweden, schools have suffered budget cut backs. Sex education is taught less. Social segregation, school non-attendance, smoking, and drug use have increased. Teenage abortion rates have gone up, from 17/1000 in 1995 to 22.5/1000 in 2001. Genital chlamydial infections have increased from 14,000 cases in 1994 to 22,263 cases in 2001, 60% occurring among young people, and with the steepest increase among teenagers. Thus, a question of major concern is whether and how adolescent sexual behaviour has shifted towards more risky practices during the late 1990s.

  18. Social networking sites and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Kolb, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Social networking sites are popular among and consistently used by adolescents. These sites present benefits as well as risks to adolescent health. Recently, pediatric providers have also considered the benefits and risks of using social networking sites in their own practices.

  19. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury.

  20. Certain Grain Foods Can Be Meaningful Contributors to Nutrient Density in the Diets of U.S. Children and Adolescents: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    Grain foods may play an important role in delivering nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents. The present study determined grain food sources of energy/nutrients in U.S. children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-h recall in participants 2–18 years old (N = 6109). Sources of nutrients contained in grain foods were determined using U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and excluded mixed dishes. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain foods were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 14% ± 0.2% kcal/day (263 ± 5 kcal/day), 22.5% ± 0.3% (3 ± 0.1 g/day) dietary fiber, 39.3% ± 0.5% (238 ± 7 dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day) folate and 34.9% ± 0.5% (5.6 ± 0.1 mg/day) iron in the total diet in children and adolescents. The current analyses showed that certain grain foods, in particular breads, rolls and tortillas, ready-to-eat cereals and quick breads and bread products, are meaningful contributors of folate, iron, thiamin, niacin and dietary fiber, a nutrient of public health concern as outlined by the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Thus, specific grain foods contribute to nutrient density and have the potential to increase the consumption of several under-consumed nutrients in children and adolescents. PMID:28230731

  1. Health as a Life Value of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, I. V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on materials from a questionnaire survey of tenth-graders in the city of Toliatti [Togliatti], conducted by the monitoring division of the Resource Center of the Department of Education. A total of 958 adolescents in eighteen schools took part in the survey in March and April 2005. Nine schools served as "base"…

  2. Can Social Protection Improve Sustainable Development Goals for Adolescent Health?

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, F. Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E.; Yakubovich, Alexa R.; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Background The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of ‘cash’ (economic provision) and ‘care’ (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Findings Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys’ hunger and girls’ school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys’ sexual exploitation and girls’ mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. Interpretation National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care among U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic disparities in medical and oral health status, access to care, and use of services in U.S. adolescents. Data Source Secondary data analysis of the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. The survey focus was children 0–17 years old. Study Design Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted for white, African American, Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and multiracial adolescents 10–17 years old (n = 48,742) to identify disparities in 40 measures of health and health care. Principal Findings Certain disparities were especially marked for specific racial/ethnic groups and multiracial youth. These disparities included suboptimal health status and lack of a personal doctor or nurse for Latinos; suboptimal oral health and not receiving all needed medications in the past year for African Americans; no physician visit or mental health care in the past year for Asian/Pacific Islanders; overweight/obesity, uninsurance, problems getting specialty care, and no routine preventive visit in the past year for American Indian/Alaska Natives; and not receiving all needed dental care in multiracial youth. Conclusions U.S. adolescents experience many racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. These findings indicate a need for ongoing identification and monitoring of and interventions for disparities for all five major racial/ethnic groups and multiracial adolescents. PMID:22417169

  4. Relationship of Sleep Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents According to Self- and Proxy Ratings: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Roeser, Karolin; Eichholz, Ruth; Schwerdtle, Barbara; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common in adolescents and adversely affect performance, social contact, and susceptibility to stress. We investigated the hypothesis of a relationship between sleep and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and applied self- and proxy ratings. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 92 adolescents aged 11–17 years. All participants and their parents completed a HRQoL measure and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Children with SDSC T-scores above the normal range (above 60) were classified as poor sleepers. Results: According to self- and proxy ratings, good sleepers reported significantly higher HRQoL than poor sleepers. Sleep disturbances were significantly higher and HRQoL significantly lower in self- as compared to parental ratings. Parent-child agreement was higher for subscales measuring observable aspects. Girls experienced significantly stronger sleep disturbances and lower self-rated HRQoL than boys. Discussion: Our findings support the positive relationship of sleep and HRQoL. Furthermore, parents significantly underestimate sleep disturbances and overestimate HRQoL in their children. PMID:22969731

  5. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quantitative key-informant survey

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Christina P.C.; Ng, Lauren C.; Stevenson, Anne; Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Harris, Benjamin L.; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Gray, Deborah A.; Carney, Julia R.; Domínguez, Silvia; Wang, Edward K.S.; Boxill, Ryan; Song, Suzan J.; Henderson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Between 1989 and 2004, Liberia experienced a devastating civil war that resulted in widespread trauma with almost no mental health infrastructure to help citizens cope. In 2009, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare collaborated with researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital to conduct a rapid needs assessment survey in Liberia with local key informants (n = 171) to examine the impact of war and post-war events on emotional and behavioral problems of, functional limitations of, and appropriate treatment settings for Liberian youth aged 5–22. War exposure and post-conflict sexual violence, poverty, infectious disease and parental death negatively impacted youth mental health. Key informants perceived that youth displayed internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mental health-related functional impairment at home, school, work and in relationships. Medical clinics were identified as the most appropriate setting for mental health services. Youth in Liberia continue to endure the harsh social, economic and material conditions of everyday life in a protracted post-conflict state, and have significant mental health needs. Their observed functional impairment due to mental health issues further limited their access to protective factors such as education, employment and positive social relationships. Results from this study informed Liberia's first post-conflict mental health policy. PMID:26807147

  6. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quantitative key-informant survey.

    PubMed

    Borba, Christina P C; Ng, Lauren C; Stevenson, Anne; Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Harris, Benjamin L; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Gray, Deborah A; Carney, Julia R; Domínguez, Silvia; Wang, Edward K S; Boxill, Ryan; Song, Suzan J; Henderson, David C

    2016-01-02

    Between 1989 and 2004, Liberia experienced a devastating civil war that resulted in widespread trauma with almost no mental health infrastructure to help citizens cope. In 2009, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare collaborated with researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital to conduct a rapid needs assessment survey in Liberia with local key informants (n = 171) to examine the impact of war and post-war events on emotional and behavioral problems of, functional limitations of, and appropriate treatment settings for Liberian youth aged 5-22. War exposure and post-conflict sexual violence, poverty, infectious disease and parental death negatively impacted youth mental health. Key informants perceived that youth displayed internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mental health-related functional impairment at home, school, work and in relationships. Medical clinics were identified as the most appropriate setting for mental health services. Youth in Liberia continue to endure the harsh social, economic and material conditions of everyday life in a protracted post-conflict state, and have significant mental health needs. Their observed functional impairment due to mental health issues further limited their access to protective factors such as education, employment and positive social relationships. Results from this study informed Liberia's first post-conflict mental health policy.

  7. Relationship between Poverty and Health among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Thomas J.; Webster, Greg; Vermeulen, Marian

    2002-01-01

    Examines data on 1,759 adolescents to assess the effect of low socioeconomic status on their health. Results confirm the relationship between income and health. Explains how the pathway to poor health care operates through the social environment, lifestyle differences, access to care, and self-esteem problems. Findings do suggest that physical…

  8. Racially mixed neighborhoods, perceived neighborhood social cohesion, and adolescent health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Abada, Teresa; Hou, Feng; Ram, Bali

    2007-11-01

    Using data from the Canadian Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, we examine the effects of neighborhood concentration of racial minorities on general health status and depressive symptoms of Canadian adolescents. We also examine the role of perceived neighborhood cohesion and the extent to which it contributes to adolescent health. Our findings show that the racial concentration of ethnic minorities represents a health disadvantage for visible minority youth while perceived neighborhood cohesion is found to be a protective factor for both health outcomes. Perceived neighborhood cohesion is beneficial for the general health status (but not depression) of adolescents residing in neighborhoods with a high concentration of racial minorities.

  9. Adolescent Health Research Updates: Supplement to the Adolescent Health Plan, Numbers 1-6, December 1996-November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleich, Ley, Ed.

    This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth…

  10. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  11. Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and third generation U.S. immigrants: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M; Udry, J R

    1998-04-01

    Little is known concerning obesity patterns of ethnic subpopulations in the U.S. and the effects of acculturation on these patterns. Adolescent obesity, a major public health problem, has important health, social and economic consequences for the adolescent. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health survey is unique in the size of the adolescent sample and in its ability to provide large representative samples of Anglo, African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 13,783 adolescents was studied. Measurements of weight and height collected in the second wave of the survey were used to study adolescent obesity. Multivariate logit techniques were used to provide an understanding of the ethnic, age, gender and intergenerational patterns of adolescent obesity. Comparisons are presented between the NHANES III results and those from the Adolescent Health Survey. The smoothed version of the NHANES I 85th percentile cut-off was used for the measure of obesity in this paper. For the total sample, 26.5% were obese. The rates were as follows: white non-Hispanics, 24.2%; black non-Hispanics, 30.9%; all Hispanics, 30.4%; and all Asian-Americans, 20.6%. Important variations within the Hispanic and Asian-American subpopulations are presented. The Chinese (15.3%) and Filipino (18.5%) samples showed substantially lower obesity than non-Hispanic whites. All groups showed more obesity among males than among females, except for blacks (27.4% for males and 34.0% for females). Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents born in the U.S. are more than twice as likely to be obese as are first generation residents of the 50 states.

  12. Mental Health Disorders. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…

  13. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  14. Social Influence, Health Variables and Criminal Behaviours Associated with Substance Use among Rural Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Dahl, Hilde; Flemmen, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate social influence, health, criminality and substance use in a sample of 1288 Norwegian rural adolescents. Relations between these factors and substance use were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the "UngData" study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among adolescents (n = 740) in nine…

  15. Sleep problems of adolescents: A detailed survey.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bulbul, Selda Fatma; Turğut, Mahmut; Ağirtaş, Gülşah

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the sleep problems and sleep habits of adolescents at three public primary schools and two high schools. Our study included 428 Turkish school children (244 girls and 184 boys). We used a questionnaire to determine the time they went to sleep at night; waking time in the morning; incidence of nightmares, snoring, daytime sleepiness, and intrafamilial physical trauma; concentration difficulty in class; and school success. The students were divided into age-related groups (group 1 = 11 to 13 years of age; group 2 = 14 to 15 years; group 3 = 16 to 18 years). The time they went to sleep was mostly between 10 and 11 p.m. in groups 1 and 2, and 11 to 12 p.m. in group 3. Difficulty in falling asleep was reported by 16.8 to 19.6% of the students in the three groups. Difficulty in waking up in the morning was reported by 12.7% of group 1, 16.0% of group 2, and 16.8% of group 3. Snoring was present in 12.1% of females and 22.0% of males. The occurrence of one nightmare in the preceding 3 months was reported by 11.3% of the students; 17.9% of the students reported having nightmares several times. Daytime sleepiness was present in 65.1%, and concentration difficulty was present in 56.8% of the students. We conclude that difficulty in falling asleep, snoring, and daytime sleepiness may be seen in adolescents who are in both primary and high schools. Watching inappropriate programs and movies on television and intrafamilial physical trauma may cause nightmares and sleeping problems in these adolescents. Students and families should be educated about the importance of sleep in academic performance. Countries' public health policies should address sleep problems and related educational activities.

  16. Update: Health Insurance and Utilization of Care among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…

  17. [Adolescent mental health promotion in school context].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari

    2010-01-01

    School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk.

  18. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.

  19. Roles of Interpersonal and Media Socialization Agents in Adolescent Self-Reported Health Literacy: A Health Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…

  20. Coping and Mental Health in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique

    1995-01-01

    Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)

  1. Media Literacy and Health Promotion for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…

  2. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…

  3. Weight indicators and nutrient intake in children and adolescents do not vary by sugar content in ready-to-eat cereal: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas R; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrient intake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-06 were used to analyze cereal consumption. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age, waist-to-height ratio, percent overweight or obese, mean day-1 intake, and usual daily intake of macronutrients and micronutrients were the dependent variables; day-1 cereal intake, categorized by tertiles of sugar content, was the main independent variable. Weighted regression with adjustment for the survey design was used to model the dependent variables as a function of day-1 cereal intake, adjusting for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, total day-1 intake of energy, calcium and sugar, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 total score, and household income. For all tertiles of sugar classifications of cereal, children who consumed cereal had significantly lower BMI compared with children who consumed no cereal (P's < .05). Similarly, when compared with children who consumed no cereal, those who ate cereal consumed significantly less fat and cholesterol and significantly more carbohydrates, sugar, whole grains, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B(6), folic acid, vitamin B(12), vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Lower weight and positive nutrient profiles were associated with cereal consumption regardless of sugar content.

  4. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-10-01

    The pediatrician plays a major role in helping optimize bone health in children and adolescents. This clinical report reviews normal bone acquisition in infants, children, and adolescents and discusses factors affecting bone health in this age group. Previous recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D are updated, and clinical guidance is provided regarding weight-bearing activities and recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake and supplementation. Routine calcium supplementation is not recommended for healthy children and adolescents, but increased dietary intake to meet daily requirements is encouraged. The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the higher recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D advised by the Institute of Medicine and supports testing for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with conditions associated with increased bone fragility. Universal screening for vitamin D deficiency is not routinely recommended in healthy children or in children with dark skin or obesity because there is insufficient evidence of the cost-benefit of such a practice in reducing fracture risk. The preferred test to assess bone health is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, but caution is advised when interpreting results in children and adolescents who may not yet have achieved peak bone mass. For analyses, z scores should be used instead of T scores, and corrections should be made for size. Office-based strategies for the pediatrician to optimize bone health are provided. This clinical report has been endorsed by American Bone Health.

  5. A Navajo health consumer survey.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T; May, P; Muneta, A

    1980-12-01

    The findings of a health consumer survey of 309 Navajo families in three areas of the Navajo Reservation are reported. The survey shows that access to facilities and lack of safe water and sanitary supplies are continuing problems for these families. The families show consistent use of Indian Health Service providers, particularly nurses, pharmacists and physicians, as well as traditional Navajo medicine practitioners. Only incidental utilization of private medical services is reported. Extended waiting times and translation from English to Navajo are major concerns in their contacts with providers. A surprisingly high availability of third-party insurance is noted. Comparisons are made between this data base and selected national and regional surveys, and with family surveys from other groups assumed to be disadvantaged in obtaining health care. The comparisons indicate somewhat lower utilization rates and more problems in access to care for this Navajo sample. The discussion suggests that attitudes regarding free health care eventually may be a factor for Navajo people and other groups, that cultural considerations are often ignored or accepted as truisms in delivering care, and that the Navajo Reservation may serve as a unique microcosm of health care in the U.S.

  6. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA): Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Shahla; Ramezankhani, Ali; Montazeri, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA). Methods This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012–2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15–18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13) and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16). In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and factor analysis were assessed. Results An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15–18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93). The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy. Conclusion The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA) is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15

  7. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  8. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  9. Loss, Trauma Exposure, and Mental Health in a Representative Sample of 12-17-Year-Old Youth: Data from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Smith, Daniel W.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2004-01-01

    More than 2 million children and adolescents experience the death of a close relative each year. Additionally, a substantial number of adolescents experience the death of a friend. This study investigated various factors that may be associated with exposure to the death of a family member or friend, including gender, age, race, socioeconomic…

  10. Personal and Parental Weight Misperception and Self-Reported Attempted Weight Loss in US Children and Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008 and 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Barton, Bruce A.; Lapane, Kate L.; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of our study was to describe perceptions of child weight status among US children, adolescents, and their parents and to examine the extent to which accurate personal and parental perception of weight status is associated with self-reported attempted weight loss. Methods Our study sample comprised 2,613 participants aged 8 to 15 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the 2 most recent consecutive cycles (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Categories of weight perception were developed by comparing measured to perceived weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between weight misperception and self-reported attempted weight loss. Results Among children and adolescents, 27.3% underestimated and 2.8% overestimated their weight status. Among parents, 25.2% underestimated and 1.1% overestimated their child’s weight status. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss was 9.5 times as high (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–23.6) among healthy-weight children and adolescents who overestimated their weight status as among those who perceived their weight status accurately; the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.4–6.4) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6) times as high among overweight and obese children and adolescents, respectively, who accurately perceived their weight status than among those who underestimated their weight status. Parental misperception of weight was not significantly associated with self-reported attempted weight loss among children and adolescents who were overweight or obese. Conclusion Efforts to prevent childhood obesity should incorporate education for both children and parents regarding the proper identification and interpretation of actual weight status. Interventions for appropriate weight loss can target children directly because one of the major driving forces to lose

  11. Data Collection Procedures for School-Based Surveys among Adolescents: The Youth in Europe Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusson, Jon; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Collection of valid and reliable surveillance data as a basis for school health promotion and education policy and practice for children and adolescence is of great importance. However, numerous methodological and practical problems arise in the planning and collection of such survey data that need to be resolved in order to ensure the…

  12. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  13. Cross-validation and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale among overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Chang, Chee-Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study used cross-validation and discriminant analysis to evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale between the overweight and nonoverweight adolescents in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey method was used and 660 adolescents participated in this study. Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that the AHP is a valid and reliable scale to discriminate between the health-promoting behaviors of overweight and nonoverweight adolescents. For the total scale, cluster analyses revealed two distinct patterns, which we designated the healthy and unhealthy groups. Discriminate analysis supported this clustering as having good discriminant validity, as nonoverweight adolescents tended to be classified as healthy, while the overweight tended to be in the unhealthy group. In general, overweight adolescents practiced health-related behaviors at a significantly lower frequency than the nonoverweight. These included exercise behavior, stress management, life appreciation, health responsibility, and social support. These findings can be used to further develop and refine knowledge of adolescent overweight and related strategies for intervention.

  14. Perceptions of Parents, Mental Health, and School among Canadian Adolescents from the Provinces and the Northern Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Anthony A.; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; King, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined whether perceptions of parents and personal mental health significantly influenced perceptions of school achievement and enjoyment in a large sample of Canadian adolescents. Responses from more than 10,000 Canadian adolescents in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey were used to create a Parental Support…

  15. Violence exposure and mental health of adolescents in small towns: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lai, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the impact of violence exposure on the mental health of the adolescents in a rural small town. A structured questionnaire was used to survey 347 adolescents. Violence experienced and witnessed by the adolescents at school, in the neighbourhood, and at home was measured. Mental health was represented by the psychiatric symptoms, depression level, and self-esteem. The level of violence perpetrated by the adolescents was also explored. Results of the multiple regression analysis show that adolescents who have been exposed to more violence, either as a victim or as a witness, report more psychiatric symptoms, higher levels of depression, and more problems of self-esteem. Being a witness of violence also contributes significantly to the variance of violence committed by the adolescents. The implications of the findings to violence prevention are discussed in the conclusion.

  16. America's Adolescents: How Healthy Are They? Volume 1. Profiles of Adolescent Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Janet E.; And Others

    Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…

  17. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  18. Cultivating Health: An Agenda for Adolescent Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aurora Camacho de

    Nearly 20 percent of all migrant farmworkers are adolescents, and as many as half of these may be unaccompanied by their families. These youth clearly have special health and educational needs that require commitment from social institutions and agencies. In June 1991, a conference held in Delray Beach, Florida by the National Coalition of…

  19. Reference Values for The Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean Children and Adolescents: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Young Suk; Baek, Joon Woo; Kang, Min Jae; Oh, Yeon Jeong; Yang, Seung

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cholesterol levels vary throughout childhood and adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and identify age- and gender-specific reference values for serum lipid concentrations including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C ratio) in apparently healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 6197 participants aged 10 to 19 years old from the 2007–2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Serum lipid concentrations were evaluated according to age and gender. Results: The overall mean concentration of non-HDL-C was 105.5 ± 25.6 mg/dL, with a significant gender difference: 103.3 ± 26.1 mg/dL in boys and 107.9 ± 24.7 mg/dL in girls (p = 0.028). The median values of non-HDL-C concentrations in boys and girls, respectively, were 111 and 112 mg/dL in the 10-year-old age group, 95 and 103 mg/dL in the 15-year-old age group, and 109 and 103 mg/dL in the 19-year-old age group. The overall mean TG/HDL-C ratio was 1.74 ± 1.22, and there were no significant gender differences: 1.77 ± 1.25 in boys and 1.72 ± 1.22 in girls (p = 0.183). The median values of the TG/HDL-C ratio in boys and girls were 1.16 and 1.00 in the 10-year-olds, 1.54 and 0.95 in the 15-year-olds, and 1.74 and 0.84 in the 19-year-olds, respectively. Conclusions: Age- and gender-specific reference values for non-HDL-C and for the TG/HDL-C ratio in children and adolescents could provide valuable information for individualized interpretations of lipid profiles and interventions as well as for strategies to prevent and manage childhood and adolescent dyslipidemia. PMID:27373984

  20. Sexuality Talk During Adolescent Health Maintenance Visits

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant

  1. Telemental health for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce.

  2. Truth or consequences: the intertemporal consistency of adolescent self-report on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2009-06-01

    Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents' health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents' responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other risk behaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other Youth Risk Behavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics.

  3. [Suspected adverse reactions after vaccination. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents. Part 2: predictors of parental reporting of suspected adverse reactions after vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Poethko-Müller, C; Atzpodien, K; Schmitz, R; Schlaud, M

    2011-03-01

    Each method to monitor vaccine safety has strengths and limitations. Therefore, vaccine safety monitoring should rely on different types of data sources. Methods commonly rely on patient-reported adverse reactions. Little is, however, known about factors that may affect the probability with which patients report adverse reactions to vaccines. From 2003-2006, the representative National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents ("Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey", KiGGS) retrospectively collected information about vaccines, vaccination dates, and suspected vaccine related adverse reactions from a total of 17,641 participants (<17 years). Poorly tolerated vaccinations were more likely reported from parents living in former West Germany compared to former East Germany (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.08-2.39), parents of children with special health care needs (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.08-2.04), and from parents reporting reservations against vaccinations (OR 3.29; 95% CI 2.28-4.75). Parental reporting of adverse vaccine reactions appears to be associated with parental perception and assessment of possible adverse vaccine reactions, as well as with the parents' attitude towards immunization in general.

  4. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  5. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=32...

  6. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  7. Adolescence and asthma management: the perspective of adolescents receiving primary health care☆

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845

  8. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed.

  9. Health Outcomes in Adolescence: Associations with Family, Friends and School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melissa; McGee, Rob; Taylor, Barry; Williams, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the associations between connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement, and selected health compromising and health promoting behaviours in a sample of New Zealand adolescents. Methods: A web-based survey was designed and administered to a random sample of 652 Year 11 students aged 16 years from all Dunedin (NZ) high…

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  11. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Mental Health: Problem Co-Occurrence and Access to Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…

  12. National health surveys and health policy: impact of the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys and the Reproductive Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T S; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Gordon-Strachan, G; Hamilton, P; Wilks, R J

    2012-07-01

    Over the last six decades, comprehensive national health surveys have become important data-gathering mechanisms to inform countries on their health status and provide information for health policy and programme planning. Developing countries have only recently begun such surveys and Jamaica has been at the forefront of this effort. Jamaica's Reproductive Health Surveys and programme response to their findings have resulted in an almost 50% reduction infertility rates over three decades as well as a 40% reduction in unmet contraceptive needs and a 40% reduction in unplanned pregnancies over the last two decades. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys have served to reinforce the major burden that non-communicable diseases place on the society and the extent to which these are driven by unhealthy lifestyles. These surveys have shown that obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia affect approximately 50%, 25%, 10% and 10% of the adult population, respectively. These surveys have documented low rates of treatment and control for these chronic non-communicable diseases despite two major policy initiatives, the National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles and the creation of the National Health Fund which subsidizes healthcare provision for chronic diseases. In order to maximize the uptake of the findings of future surveys into effective health policy, there will need to be effective collaborations between academia, policy-makers, regional and international health agencies, non-government organizations and civil society. Such collaborations should take into account the social, political and economic issues, thus ensuring a more comprehensive approach to health policy and result in improvement of the nation's health status and by extension national development.

  13. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  14. Adolescent Health Care Use: Investigating Related Determinants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…

  15. Child and Adolescent Health Profile: New York State 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda; And Others

    This profile of child and adolescent health, which was designed for policymakers and program planners, contains over 40 indicators grouped into 10 categories: (1) population characteristics; (2) socioeconomic status; (3) program participation; (4) health care access; (5) pregnancies, births and infant health; (6) adolescent health; (7) morbidity;…

  16. Characteristics of metabolic syndrome based on clustering pattern among Korean adolescents: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min Jung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang

    2013-02-01

    To define the factors that influence the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) characteristics in adolescents, this study assessed the clustering pattern for MetS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Components of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia, were analyzed in 1,514 Korean adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. The validities of one-factor models underlying a unifying etiology and a four-factor model based on more than one physiologic process for MetS across sex and age groups were assessed using the CFA method. The one-factor model, which incorporated waist circumference (WC), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) values, had the best goodness-of-fit indices among the models (comparative fit index 0.99, root mean square error of approximation 0.04), with stability over sex and age groups. MetS was mainly defined by WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, and HDL values, with factor loadings of 0.78, 0.47, 0.44, and -0.37, respectively. WC contributed the most to MetS, with the highest factor loading value across sex and age groups. In conclusion, a single underlying factor representing the common pathway linking abdominal obesity, SBP, HOMA-IR, and HDL may explain MetS in Korean adolescents with stability across sex and age groups.

  17. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES, FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Alvira-Hammond, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACE on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Study Design Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Methods Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents ages 12 through 17. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Results Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Conclusions Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. PMID:26718424

  18. Mental health of adolescents before and after the death of a parent or sibling.

    PubMed

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H M; Reitz, Ellen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2016-01-01

    The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss family functioning, or multiple bereavements. In this study, a prospective longitudinal assessment of change in mental health following bereavement was done in a large representative sample from the 'Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Survey' (TRAILS). This is a four-wave prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents (n = 2230) of whom 131 (5.9 %) had experienced family bereavement at the last wave (T4). Family-bereaved adolescents reported more internalizing problems, within 2 years after family bereavement, compared to the non-bereaved peers, while taking into account the level of internalizing problems before the bereavement. A clinically relevant finding was that 22 % new cases were found in family-bereaved, in comparison to 5.5 % new cases in non-bereaved. Low SES predicted more internalizing problems in family-bereaved but not in non-bereaved adolescents. Family functioning, reported by the adolescent, did not predict mental health problems within 2 years. Multiple family bereavements predicted fewer externalizing problems. In conclusion, internalizing problems increase in adolescents after family bereavement in comparison to non-bereaved and these can be predicted by pre-loss factors. Awareness among professionals regarding the risks for aggravation of mental health problems after family loss is needed.

  19. Parental violence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention.

  20. Correlates of overweight and obesity among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White children and adolescents: National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, behavioral (child's sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting television viewing, and television in the child's bedroom), neighborhood (neighborhood support, perceived community and school safety, and presence of parks, sidewalks, and recreation centers in the neighborhood), and sociodemographic (child's age and sex, household structure, and poverty status) correlates of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥85th percentile for age and sex) were assessed among 10-17 year-old non-Hispanic white (NHW) and AI/AN children residing in Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota (n = 5,372). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.0 % among NHW children and 48.3 % among AI/AN children in this sample. Viewing more than 2 h of television per day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.8), a lack of neighborhood support (aOR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.5), and demographic characteristics were significantly associated with overweight/obesity in the pooled sample. Lack of sport team participation was significantly associated with overweight/obesity only among AI/AN children (aOR = 2.7; 95 % CI = 1.3-5.2). Culturally sensitive interventions targeting individual predictors, such as sports team participation and television viewing, in conjunction with neighborhood-level factors, may be effective in addressing childhood overweight/obesity among AI/AN children. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  2. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  3. Deaf Adolescents' Learning of Cardiovascular Health Information: Sources and Access Challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media.

  4. Adolescent Health Concerns and Influences in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nancy T.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    1994-01-01

    Ninth and twelfth graders were surveyed to identify their health concerns and primary sources of learning about health. Results were consistent with current epidemiological data. There were statistically significant differences by grade and gender. The most prevalent concerns were weight, staying healthy, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually…

  5. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  6. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  7. Standards for health information technology to ensure adolescent privacy.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Margaret J; Del Beccaro, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Privacy and security of health information is a basic expectation of patients. Despite the existence of federal and state laws safeguarding the privacy of health information, health information systems currently lack the capability to allow for protection of this information for minors. This policy statement reviews the challenges to privacy for adolescents posed by commercial health information technology systems and recommends basic principles for ideal electronic health record systems. This policy statement has been endorsed by the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

  8. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  9. Immunization Services for Adolescents within Comprehensive School Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Mary E.; Bryan, Gloria; Hunt, Pete; Allensworth, Diane; Bradley, Beverly

    1997-01-01

    Discusses school health services, adolescent immunization, current school immunization practices, and support for school-based immunization programs. Children and adolescents can receive preventive health services, including immunizations and monitoring of immunization levels. Expanding school health services could improve the immunization levels…

  10. An Assessment of Personal Health Protective Practices of Out-of-School Adolescents in South-South Senatorial District of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izevbigie, T. I.; Owie, Ikponmwosa

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Health Protective Practices of the out-of-school adolescent was investigated using a survey design. Three research questions were formulated and tested. The population consists of out-of-school adolescents in South-South Senatorial District of Nigeria. The sample consists of 320 adolescents randomly selected using purposive sampling…

  11. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  12. CDC Grand Rounds: Adolescence - Preparing for Lifelong Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Banspach, Stephen; Zaza, Stephanie; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Brindis, Claire D; Thorpe, Phoebe

    2016-08-05

    Approximately 42 million adolescents aged 10-19 years, representing 13% of the population, resided in the United States in 2014 (1). Adolescence is characterized by rapid and profound physical, intellectual, emotional, and psychological changes (2), as well as development of healthy or risky behaviors that can last a lifetime. Parents have strong influence on their adolescent children's lives, and family-based programs can help parents support healthy adolescent development. Because schools are natural learning environments, implementing and improving school-based policies and programs are strategic ways to reinforce healthy behaviors and educate adolescents about reducing risky behaviors. Health care during adolescence should be tailored to meet the changing developmental needs of the adolescent while providing welcoming, safe, and confidential care. Parents, educators, care providers, public health officials, and communities should collaborate in fostering healthy environments for all adolescents, now and into the future.

  13. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  14. Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Girard, Gustavo A

    2009-12-01

    Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored.

  15. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.

  16. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  17. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  18. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is associated with reduced blood pressure and serum vitamin D levels: results from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas; Becker, Andreas; Sundermann, Jessika; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Alterations in blood pressure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specifically during dopaminergic stimulant intake, are not fully understood. It has been reported that vitamin D deficiency might modify dopaminergic pathways and thus influence ADHD symptoms. Using data from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study, we compared blood pressure and vitamin D levels in healthy controls to both diagnosed ADHD patients and suspected ADHD subjects, as defined by a value of ≥7 on the hyperactivity-inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In a total cohort of n = 6922 study participants aged 11-17 years, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in controls (86.7 ± 8.2 mmHg) than in the two groups of confirmed (85.5 ± 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.004, n = 430) and suspected ADHD patients (84.6 ± 8.2, p < 0.001, n = 399). In addition, we found an inverse association between vitamin D and blood pressure in both ADHD groups (p < 0.003). Regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index, psychotropic medication use, and serum vitamin D levels confirmed that low blood pressure was a significant and independent predictor of ADHD. Furthermore, we observed that vitamin D mediated the effect of systolic blood pressure on ADHD diagnosis (b = 0.007, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.001-0.013, p = 0.021, R (2) = 0.050). In a large and representative national sample of German adolescents, we found a significant association between low blood pressure and ADHD symptoms. In addition, we observed that circulating vitamin D mediated the inverse relation between blood pressure and ADHD, although the effect size was very low. These findings highlight the role of dysregulated pathways of the autonomic nervous system in ADHD.

  19. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  20. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10–19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010–2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013–2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47–0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43–0.50 in boys and 0.43–0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant

  1. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157

  2. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  3. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  4. Assessing the congruence of transition preparedness as reported by parents and their adolescents with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.

  5. Risk and Protective Factors for Depression and Health Outcomes in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David D.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined whether protective factors reduce the effects of depression in American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Surveys of 2,034 Native high school students from 33 states indicated that depression moderately influenced self-perceived health status and that caring and connectedness counteracted the risk factors from depression that…

  6. Adolescent Self-Reported Health in Relation to School Factors: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…

  7. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  8. Examining the Influences of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Social Capital on the Subjective Health of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almgren, Gunnar; Magarati, Maya; Mogford, Liz

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the factors that influence adolescent self-assessed health, based upon surveys conducted between 2000 and 2004 of high-school seniors in Washington State (N = 6853). A large proportion of the sample (30%) was first and second generation immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. Findings include a robust negative…

  9. Self-Rated Mental Health, School Adjustment, and Substance Use in Hard-of-Hearing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats

    2008-01-01

    This survey, "Life and Health--Young People 2005," included all 15/16-year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Orebro, Sweden. Just students with a slight/mild or moderate hearing loss were included. There were 56 (1.9%) "hard-of-hearing (HH) students with multiple disabilities," 93 (3.1%) students who were…

  10. Evaluation of the Rural South Australian Tri-Division Adolescent Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naccarella, Lucio

    2003-01-01

    An Australian project aimed to strengthen relationships of general practitioners (GPs) with rural adolescents and school personnel through GP school visits, educational seminars on health topics for students, and student visits to GP clinics. Surveys of 5 project personnel, 6 GPs, 3 school counselors, and 30 secondary school students found…

  11. The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A previous project by the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities analysed data that had been collected by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in 1999 in their survey of the mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. The Foundation found that in this nationally representative sample of just over 10,000 children, 39%…

  12. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain

    2014-01-01

    A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. PMID:24785743

  13. Psychological health and life experiences of pregnant adolescent mothers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain

    2014-04-30

    A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13-15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%-20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a 'Teen Pregnancy Clinic' and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.

  14. Consumerism: its impact on the health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Austin, S B; Rich, M

    2001-10-01

    Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people.

  15. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  16. Adolescent Health Risk Profiles: The Co-Occurrence of Health Risks among Females and Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)

  17. Adolescence as a gateway to adult health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.

  18. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  19. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  20. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  1. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  2. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  3. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  4. Estimating health expenditure shares from household surveys

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Benjamin PC; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the effects of household expenditure survey characteristics on the estimated share of a household’s expenditure devoted to health. Methods A search was conducted for all country surveys reporting data on health expenditure and total household expenditure. Data on total expenditure and health expenditure were extracted from the surveys to generate the health expenditure share (i.e. fraction of the household expenditure devoted to health). To do this the authors relied on survey microdata or survey reports to calculate the health expenditure share for the particular instrument involved. Health expenditure share was modelled as a function of the survey’s recall period, the number of health expenditure items, the number of total expenditure items, the data collection method and the placement of the health module within the survey. Data exists across space and time, so fixed effects for territory and year were included as well. The model was estimated by means of ordinary least squares regression with clustered standard errors. Findings A one-unit increase in the number of health expenditure questions was accompanied by a 1% increase in the estimated health expenditure share. A one-unit increase in the number of non-health expenditure questions resulted in a 0.2% decrease in the estimated share. Increasing the recall period by one month was accompanied by a 6% decrease in the health expenditure share. Conclusion The characteristics of a survey instrument examined in the study affect the estimate of the health expenditure share. Those characteristics need to be accounted for when comparing results across surveys within a territory and, ultimately, across territories. PMID:23825879

  5. Health Snapshot: Hispanic Adolescents in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... three Hispanic adolescents ages 12 to 17 lacked health insurance; in 2011, that figure was fewer than one ... as white or black youth not to have health insurance, and were also less likely to have a “ ...

  6. Health and the structure of adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-12-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions. We first develop theoretical predictions for how health may influence the structure of adolescent networks. We then test these predictions using longitudinal analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We find important relationships between the health status of adolescents and the characteristics of the social network positions within which they are embedded. Overall we find that adolescents in poor health form smaller local networks and occupy less central global positions than their healthy peers. These results also have implications for social network research, expanding the scope of factors responsible for the network positions individuals occupy.

  7. The Perceptions of Adolescents, Parents and Teachers on the Same Adolescent Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Joy; Salili, Farideh; Ho, S. Y.; Mak, K. H.; Lai, M. K.; Lam, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health…

  8. Adolescent health issues: what is our role?

    PubMed

    Elders, M J

    1991-05-01

    The state of US children's health and recommendations for improvement are reported. The 1st table identifies youth as risk, i.e., at the current rate, 1 in 10 women will give birth by the time they turn 18. Among black children, white children 1-4 years, and blacks 15-24 years, death rates actually increased from 1985 to 1987. Injuries, particularly due to violence, have replaced communicable diseases as the primary cause of death among adolescents. Since 1976, immunization has deteriorated. There is a refusal to recognize sexually active adolescents, in spite of 2.5 million cases of sexually transmitted disease. The 6 strategies discussed intervention begin with providing high quality preschool education programs for all children. The 2nd urges educational programs from kindergarten through 12th grade that help children make healthy choices, improve their self-esteem, and accept as much responsibility for their own lives as possible. Parenting education, as the 3rd strategy, promotes the education and support of parents, especially for young and poor parents. The 4th strategy involves male responsibility and instruction on obligations in pregnancy and parenthood, including a requirement of financial commitment from fathers and identification of the father by Social Security number on an infant's birth certificate. The 5th strategy is the provision for school-based health services, including family life counseling and contraceptive services for adolescents. The 6th strategy is to provide free college tuition and books at a state supported school for students with at least a B average, good citizenship record, and a family income of $20,000. It is cheaper to offer children opportunity than to pay the costs of the consequences of poverty.

  9. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  10. National total survey of German adolescent suicide in prison.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, D; Lempp, T; Herrmann, E; Kettner, M; Bennefeld-Kersten, K; Freitag, C M

    2015-02-01

    Incarcerated adolescents are a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour, but data on completed suicide are scarce in this population. The present study aimed at calculating relative risks (RR) of suicide in detention and identifying age-related risk factors. We compared data of a German national total survey of completed suicide of young detainees (14 to <21 years, N = 79) during the years 2000-2010 with age- and gender-adjusted suicide deaths in non-incarcerated adolescents (N = 3,484) and incarcerated adults (N = 781). Prison suicide accounted for 2.3% of all suicide deaths in adolescents, but only 0.1% of this age group was detained. The RR = 23.0 for adolescent suicide in detention exceeded the RR = 7.7 of adults by far. In adults, suicide rates in pre-trial detention was fivefold higher than in criminal detention; suicide rates were more balanced in adolescent detainees. Our results underline the need for age-specific suicide prevention strategies in detention.

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  12. [Socioeconomic status, toothbrushing frequency, and health-related behaviors in adolescents: an analysis using the PeNSE database].

    PubMed

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.

  13. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  14. Adolescent-Friendly Technologies as Potential Adjuncts for Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Janan J.; Coetzee, Jenny; Otwombe, Kennedy; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Mdanda, Sanele; Nkala, Busisiwe; Makongoza, Matamela; Tshabalala, Celokhuhle; Soon, Christine N.; Kaida, Angela; Hogg, Robert; Gray, Glenda E.; Miller, Cari L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure prevalence and predictors of mobile phone access and use among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: The current study was an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey among adolescents 14-19 years living in a hyper-endemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)…

  15. Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others

    The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…

  16. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  17. Adolescents' health identities: a qualitative and theoretical study of health education courses.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents--using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents--not just for those who are already healthy.

  18. The State of Adolescent Health in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Office of the Commissioner, Juneau.

    A survey was conducted to provide a profile of the health status and risk behaviors of youth in Alaska. The goal was to develop a statewide database which, when coupled with morbidity and mortality data, would provide information that would allow those who plan and develop services at state and local levels to better target those services. During…

  19. Fukushima Health Management Survey and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred. The Fukushima prefectural government decided to launch the Fukushima Health Management Survey; Fukushima Medical University was entrusted to design and implement the survey. The survey process and development is described from the standpoint of its background and aim. An overview of the basic survey and 4 detailed surveys is briefly provided. Issues related to the survey are discussed from the perspective of supporting the Fukushima residents.

  20. Adolescent Volunteers: An Untapped Resource in the Delivery of Adolescent Preventive Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schondel, Connie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides survey findings from 54 adolescent hotlines, and presents an organizational case study of an existing peer listening phone program. A brief discussion of the role of professionals is also explored in relation to the use of adolescent volunteers. The case study suggests that volunteering is beneficial to both customers and adolescent…

  1. The effects of harassment and victimization on self-rated health and mental health among Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abada, Teresa; Hou, Feng; Ram, Bali

    2008-08-01

    Using 1996/1997 to 2000/2001 data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, this paper examines the effects of harassment on self-rated and mental health status among Canadian adolescents aged 16-17 years. Forty-six percent of the children experienced harassment and victimization (verbal aggression, threat, and physical harm/assault) at school and 40% outside of school. Harassment at school, rather than otherwise, was associated with poor health status and higher levels of depression even when previous health conditions and socio-demographic variables were held constant. The relationship between harassment and mental health is particularly pronounced among girls, immigrant children and those living in single-parent households. Given the sizable proportion of adolescents as victims of harassment at school and its significant relationship with both health status and depression, the issue warrants serious public health attention through school-based intervention programs.

  2. Development of the Health Literacy Assessment Scale for Adolescents (HAS-A)

    PubMed Central

    Manganello, Jennifer A.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Davis, Terry C.; Schottler-Thal, Carrin

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy has been found to be a crucial component of successful communication and navigation in health care. Various tools have been developed to measure health literacy skills, but few have been developed specifically for adolescents, and most require in-person administration. This study sought to develop a self-report health literacy scale for adolescents to assess four key health literacy domains: the ability to obtain, communicate, understand, and process health information. Methods We collected data from 272 youth aged 12–19 recruited from a pediatrics clinic (37%) and the community (63%). We administered the Rapid Estimate of Adolescent Literacy in Medicine-Teen, Newest Vital Sign, and three surveys, and used factor analysis to identify scale items. Results Using multiple health literacy assessments, it was clear that many teens struggle with low health literacy skills. When identifying items that can be used as self-report items in future research, factor analysis identified three subscales; a 5-item communication scale (alpha = 0.77), a 4-item confusion scale (alpha = 0.73), and a 6-item functional health literacy scale (alpha = 0.76). The scales performed reasonably well when compared with validation items. Conclusions Self-report items can be used to assess health literacy skills for adolescents when in-person administration is not possible or feasible. Such items will allow for greater study of how health literacy impacts communication in not only health care settings, but for all levels of health communication. The tool will also allow researchers to better understand how adolescent health literacy is related to a variety of health outcomes. Further testing of these scales with different populations is warranted. PMID:27656257

  3. Child and Adolescent Health Profile Project: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda; And Others

    Developed as part of the Child and Adolescent Health Profile Project, this annotated bibliography is intended as a reference for professionals interested in key dimensions of children's health. Citations are grouped into the following four categories: (1) background information on child health issues, (2) child health indicators and health status…

  4. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) CPS Sample Component Wave 1 Data Analysis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Bureau of the Administration on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has undertaken the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to learn about the experiences of children and families who come in contact with the child welfare system. NSCAW is gathering information associated…

  5. National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): III. Concordance of DSM-IV/CIDI Diagnoses with Clinical Reassessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Green, Jennifer; Gruber, Michael J.; Guyer, Margaret; He, Yulei; Jin, Robert; Kaufman, Joan; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnoses that was based on the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and implemented in the National comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement is found to have good individual-level concordance with diagnosis based on blinded…

  6. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  7. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  8. Predictors of physical assault victimization: findings from the National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Elwood, Lisa S; Begle, Angela Moreland; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Smith, Daniel W; Resnick, Heidi S; Hanson, Rochelle F; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to interpersonal victimization during childhood and adolescence is prevalent and has been found to be associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The present study examined the relations between childhood violence exposure and mental health on subsequent exposure to new physical assault in young adults using longitudinal nationally representative, prospective data from the initial (Wave I) and follow-up interviews (Wave II) of the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA). Among the 1,753 participants who completed both assessment time points, 15.8% reported a new physical assault experience at Wave II. Results indicated that racial/ethnic status, gender, history of child physical abuse, witnessed violence drug use, and family drug problems reported at Wave I were all significant predictors of new physical assault. Implications are discussed.

  9. How to Improve the Health of American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    The major threats to the health of American teenagers are behavioral-risky and reckless things adolescents do that threaten their well-being and that of others. The primary approach to preventing adolescent risk taking has been classroom-based health education. Yet, most systematic research indicates that even the best programs are successful mainly at changing adolescents' knowledge but not in altering their behavior. Research on adolescent brain development has revolutionized our understanding of this stage of life, but our approach to deterring adolescent risk taking remains grounded in old, antiquated, and erroneous views of the period. Classroom-based health education is an uphill battle against evolution and endocrinology, and it is not a fight we are likely to win. Instead of trying to change teenagers into something they are not, we should try to reduce the risks they are exposed to. We should spend less money and effort trying to influence how adolescents think, and focus more on limiting opportunities for their inherently immature judgment to hurt themselves or others. Although there is evidence that some programs aimed at strengthening adolescents' self-regulation may also deter risky behavior, our public health policies should emphasize changing the context in which adolescents live, rather than solely attempting to change adolescents themselves.

  10. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Marahatta, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years) and late adolescence (16–19 years). Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%). The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%). Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45). Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation. PMID:27747130

  11. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5–14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5–20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8–21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems. PMID:26000035

  12. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-04-03

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5-14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5-20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8-21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems.

  13. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  14. Adolescent consent for vaccination: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B

    2013-10-01

    Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.

  15. Religion/spirituality and adolescent health outcomes: a review.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sian; Zebracki, Kathy; Rosenthal, Susan L; Tsevat, Joel; Drotar, Dennis

    2006-04-01

    Religion/spirituality is important to adolescents, is usually considered a protective factor against a host of negative health outcomes, and is often included in adolescent health outcomes research. Previous reviews of the relationship among spirituality, religion, and adolescent health have been limited by scope, focusing primarily on distal aspects of religion/spirituality (e.g., attendance at religious services). We reviewed the literature examining proximal domains of religion/spirituality (e.g., spiritual coping) in adolescent health outcomes research. Constructs such as spiritual coping and religious decision-making were the ones most often studied and were generally positively associated with health outcomes. Measurement of proximal domains, associations of proximal domains with health outcomes, methodological issues and recommendations for future research were covered in this review.

  16. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOME PREVENTIVE HEALTH SERVICES PROVIDED FOR ADOLESCENT INDIVIDUALS IN DUBAI.

    PubMed

    Khansaheb, Hamda; Hussein, Ayman; Hamidi, Samer; Brown, David; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2016-01-01

    The United Arab Emirate (UAE) of Dubai, faces significant adolescent health problems. In 2009, evidence based clinical guidelines were developed for primary health care professionals in Dubai to help reduce adolescent health problems. This research study explores adolescents' self-reports about health education services received between 2008 and 2010. The sample consisted of 730 public high school students in grades 10 through 12 between the ages of 15 and 19. 357 (48.9%) of the sample were males and 373 (51.1%) were female. The major language spoken in the home was Arabic (77.4%). All students completed a 27-item survey in Arabic that was adapted from the Young Adult Health Care Survey (YAHCS). The YAHCS is a 56-item research instrument traditionally administered in English and Spanish. The sample reported they had received little or no health education from their health care providers. 94.2% reported receiving no information about using a helmet for bicycle and motorbike safety; 88.2% reported receiving no information about drug use; and 81.9% reported that they received no information about smoking. The instrument also explored the health education material students received within the last 12 months. 65.5% of the sample reported seeing and/or hearing safety tips; 84.9% reported hearing and/or seeing health information about healthy diet, physical activity and exercise; and 79.2% reported seeing and/or hearing information about the risks of smoking and substance abuse.

  17. Mental Health Need and Access to Mental Health Services by Youths Involved with Child Welfare: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Barbara J.; Phillips, Susan D.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Barth, Richard P.; Kolko, David J.; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Method: Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were…

  18. Dietary intakes and lifestyle patterns of Korean children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis: Using the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV,V), 2007-11.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ae-Ri; Kim, Young-Nam; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dietary intake and lifestyle patterns of atopic children and adolescents (N = 539) by obesity level using a national survey of South Korea. Intakes of calcium, iron, and vitamin C in the underweight group were less than those of other groups. The frequency of drinking milk of the overweight group was higher than that of the normal weight group. Majority of the subjects had not applied nutrition labeling in food choices, had no experience of nutrition education, and were vitamin D deficient. In conclusion, most of the atopic subjects had little knowledge of nutrition and were vitamin D deficient.

  19. Survey of adolescents with severe intellectual handicap.

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, J C; Sinha, S; Haslam, J S; Kingston, H M

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic survey was undertaken of children aged 11 to 19 years in Tameside with severe learning difficulties (intelligence quotient less than or equal to 50). Eighty-two children were identified and their medical records reviewed. A specific diagnosis for the retardation was documented in 25 (30%) of the children, 18 of whom had Down's syndrome. A probable aetiology or a disorder of unknown aetiology had been identified in a further 21 (26%) children. To confirm the existing diagnosis, identify new diagnoses, and offer genetic counselling, the parents of 63 children were offered detailed reassessment of their child. Fifty three children were reviewed, and a specific disorder identified in 25 out of 31 previously undiagnosed children. The most frequent diagnoses made were fragile X syndrome and Rett's syndrome. On completion of the survey, 61 of the 82 children (74%) had a specific diagnosis or probable aetiology identified, 12 (15%) had associated disorders such as cerebral palsy, and in only nine of the 82 children (11%) were there no clues at all to the cause of their retardation. PMID:2248505

  20. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  1. Harnessing technology for adolescent health promotion.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Paula M; Martínez, Raquel Andrés

    2007-08-01

    Sexually active adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Teen pregnancies can be prevented by consistent use of birth control, such as oral contraceptives. However, many teens forget their daily doses and eventually stop using oral contraceptives altogether. Teen pregnancies are more likely to be medically complicated and can adversely impact the teen, her child, and their community. Cell-phone use is becoming widespread, and teen cell-phone users frequently use text messaging. We describe a study in which we use cell-phone text-messaging technology in a novel way: we provide daily oral contraceptive dosing reminders and educational messages and evaluate oral contraceptive continuation at 6 months. We will use the information we obtain to develop specific, practice-based interventions to improve reproductive health programs and policies.

  2. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hosptal

    PubMed Central

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management .The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014 .The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused

  3. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes.

  4. Health care issues facing adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Canobbio, M M

    2001-10-01

    The number of children with congenital heart disease surviving beyond adolescence is rapidly increasing. Consequently, pediatric health providers not only have to address medical issues associated with the cardiac condition but must begin to develop programs that assist adolescents and their families in dealing with special health care needs for the young patient to successfully move into the adult world. Transitional health-related issues facing the adolescent with congenital heart disease including medical follow-up, insurability, employability, sexuality, and reproduction are described. Discussion about advising and counseling both patient and parents is included.

  5. Pregnancy and Birth Survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kayoko; Goto, Aya; Ota, Misao; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya

    2017-03-01

    The Pregnancy and Birth Survey was started by Fukushima Medical University as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in 2011 in order to assess the physical and mental health of mothers and provide parenting support (telephone counseling) for those in need. The present study reviewed the major findings from 4 annual surveys conducted from 2011 to 2014. Overall proportions of preterm deliveries, low birth weight infants, and congenital anomalies in the first year were almost the same as those in national surveillance data. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mothers held steady at about 25% over the 4 years. Regarding the content of parenting counseling, the proportion of mothers who voiced concerns about radiation decreased each year. This survey should be continued to provide support to mothers in Fukushima.

  6. The Cardiff health survey: teaching survey methodology by participation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P A; Charny, M

    1987-01-01

    Medical students were taught survey methodology by participating in all phases of a large community survey. The survey examined health beliefs, knowledge and behaviour in a sample of 5150 people drawn from the electoral register of the City of Cardiff. The study achieved several educational objectives for the medical students: they met well people in their own homes and had an opportunity to get to know a community; by taking part in a study from the initial phases to the conclusion they could appreciate the context of the theoretical teaching they were being given concurrently in their undergraduate course; they learnt to analyse raw data and produce reports; and they gained insights into the health knowledge, behaviour, attitudes and beliefs of a population. In addition, the survey produced a substantial quantity of valuable data which staff and students are analysing and intend to publish.

  7. Severity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2012-01-01

    Context Estimates of DSM-IV disorder prevalence are high; stringent criteria to define need for services are desired. Objective To present US national data on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of 12-month serious emotional disturbance (SED), defined by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Design The National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement is a national survey of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders among US adolescents. Setting Dual-frame household and school samples of US adolescents. Participants Total of 6483 pairs of adolescents aged 13 to 17 (interviews) and parents (questionnaires). Main Outcome Measures The DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview and validated with blinded clinical interviews based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Serious emotional disturbance was operationalized as a DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorder with a score of 50 or less on the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (ie, moderate impairment in most areas of functioning or severe impairment in at least 1 area). Concordance of Composite International Diagnostic Interview SED diagnoses with blinded Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children diagnoses was good. Results The estimated prevalence of SED was 8.0%. Most SEDs were due to behavior (54.5%) or mood (31.4%) disorders. Although respondents with 3 or more disorders made up only 29.0% of those with 12-month DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders, they constituted 63.5% of SEDs. Predictive effects of high comorbidity were significantly greater than the product of their disorder-specific odds ratios and consistent across disorder types. Associations of sociodemographic variables with SED

  8. Reproductive health services for adolescents. Critical legal issues.

    PubMed

    English, A

    2000-03-01

    The contemporary legal and policy environment has increased the challenges associated with providing health care services to the adolescent population. The issue of reproductive health care services is particularly intense because of the controversial nature of services for contraception and abortion. As the debates continue, one must remember the background against which they are occurring. The current legal framework, developed over nearly 40 years, enables adolescents who are minors to give their own consent for care in numerous circumstances and provides them with a significant level of confidentiality protection, particularly for reproductive health services. Laws have been enacted to expand adolescents' financial access to health care, through targeted publicly funded service programs and expanded health insurance coverage. This background provides the foundation for addressing the current challenges and for protecting and expanding adolescents' access to care.

  9. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

  10. Familial Risk and Protective Factors Influencing Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    This study examined the relation between family variables and the mental health outcomes of adolescents. Family members' feelings about one another were assessed when the children were in grades 6 and 8. Family members' closeness to one another was assessed when children were in grades 8 and 12, and in a 4-year follow-up study. Adolescents' mental…

  11. Declining Health Behavior of Adolescents: A Measure of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell

    1981-01-01

    Cites statistics on such adolescent problems as pregnancy, drugs, and obesity as evidence of the serious neglect and alienation of this age group in an era of family instability and declining social roles for youth. Urges educators to give concerted attention to the physical, mental, and health needs of adolescents. (SJL)

  12. Tobacco Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…

  13. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  14. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  15. The Two Faces of Narcissism and Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Varshney, Nicole M.; Arens, Daniel; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between two forms of adolescent narcissism and indicators of self-worth (positive adjustment and psychopathology) in a sample of 561 adolescents. School structure, academic performance, and school participation were also examined and mental health functioning was assessed by measures of…

  16. Medical and Mental Health Needs of Adolescent Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a study analyzing the health records of 181 adolescent Indochinese refugees in San Diego, CA. Focuses on the medical problems known to be prevalent among adult Indochinese refugees: tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasites, and hepatitis B antigenemia. Reports that Indochinese adolescents may have a high rate of mental…

  17. Toward Teen Health. The Ounce of Prevention Fund School-Based Adolescent Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…

  18. Adolescent Sexual Health Education: Parents Benefit Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…

  19. Psychometrics of the Laffrey Health Conception Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.

  20. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.

  1. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  2. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  3. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth.

  4. Health Care Reform Tracking Project: Tracking State Health Care Reforms as They Affect Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disorders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Sheila A.; Stroul, Beth A.

    The Health Care Reform Tracking Project is a 5-year national project to track and analyze state health care reform initiatives as they affect children and adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders and their families. The study's first phase was a baseline survey of all 50 states to describe current state reforms as of 1995. Among findings of…

  5. Predictors of parental consent for adolescent participation in sexual health-related research.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the degree to which parents of adolescents were willing to grant consent for their teenagers' participation in sexually themed research, and to link the likelihood of consent to parents' demographics, personality traits, parenting, attitudes, and their children's characteristics. A total of 203 parents of adolescents ages 13 to 18 years anonymously responded to an internet survey (81.7% mothers; 87% European American). Approximately 40% of respondents were possibly willing and 36% were definitely willing to provide consent for a hypothetical study covering all included sexual health topics. Parents were more likely to give consent if they were highly extraverted, viewed science positively, were not highly conservative about sexuality, and if they thought their teenager was already sexually experienced. Overall, many parents appear to be quite open to adolescent survey participation.

  6. The Relationship between the Use of Health Clinics in Rural Mississippi Schools and the CHIP-AE Adolescent Health Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Judith Young; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    School health clinics are one way to meet the objectives in "Healthy People 2010" for adolescent health. To determine the relationship between adolescent health status and use of the school health clinics in four Mississippi high schools, the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was used. The CHIP-AE identifies…

  7. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  8. Intervening via chat: an opportunity for adolescents' mental health promotion?

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; De Nooijer, Jascha

    2011-06-01

    Mental health problems are highly prevalent among adolescents, but a majority of adolescents is reluctant to seek help at mental health services because of shame and lack of anonymity. Intervening via chat (i.e. offering online support) could be a solution to remove these barriers and to reach adolescents. The dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) served as a guiding principle for discussing the potential of offering online support via chat. It appeared that the use of chat may be an appropriate way to reach adolescents and may have a positive impact on outcome measures related to mental health. Additional efforts are needed to stimulate adoption at the individual level (target group, intermediaries) and the organizational level. Future research needs to focus on the dissemination of chat-based interventions, differences between online peer support and online professional support, and the content of conversations via chat about mental health problems.

  9. Ethical Issues in School Health: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Glenn E.; Jose, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    The need for a code of ethics for health educators is discussed, and results of a survey of school health educators' opinions on curriculum-related ethical issses are reported. Ethical issues of concern include use of scare tactics, efforts to change behavior and attitudes, and appropriate subject matter. (PP)

  10. California Community Colleges Health Services Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a telephone survey was conducted of health services offered by California's community colleges. Statewide, 42 of the 71 districts in California levied a health service fee, 18 districts offered services without charge, and 11 offered no service. Districts operating programs collected an average of $15.81 in student fees per credit average…

  11. Hispanic Health Care Survey of Southeastern Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvasnica, Barbara; And Others

    The results of a study on the health care needs and utilization patterns of Hispanic (primarily Mexican American) families in southeastern Wisconsin are presented in this report. The methodology of the study, which included two surveys in a 9 county area, is described. Findings of the two studies, one focusing on health services utilization by…

  12. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  13. Unmet health and mental health need among adolescents: the roles of sexual minority status and child-parent connectedness.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

    2012-10-01

    Using a representative national sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey (N = 18,924), this article explores sexual minority status (SMS) and child-parent connectedness in relation to the unmet needs for health or mental health care among adolescents. Through the use of logistic regression models, data were analyzed to determine whether SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. In addition, models tested whether child-parent connectedness, sex or gender, and race or ethnicity interact with SMS to predict unmet need. Results show that both SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. Being a sexual minority youth (SMY) significantly increases the odds of having an unmet need for health or mental health care; female SMY have the highest odds of an unmet mental health need. Child-parent connectedness is a predictor of unmet need regardless of SMS. Youth with lower levels of child-parent connectedness have significantly higher odds of an unmet health or mental health need. Findings call for service providers to address the unmet needs of SMY both in terms of outreach to youth and parents and to communicate the importance of the parental role in helping teens access care.

  14. The health of adolescent women in the 1980s.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, I F

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities and stresses faced by today's adolescent women have the potential to affect their health, either directly or through interaction with biologic and psychosocial events. Recently achieved entry into the world of endurance and competitive sports; smoking, drug, and alcohol use; the toxic shock syndrome; and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome threaten the health of young women today. Physicians who care for adolescent women in the 1980s and in the future will require special skills to do so successfully. Images PMID:3074565

  15. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  16. Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. PMID:24155192

  17. Survey of health planning proposals.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, R S

    1994-02-01

    It is important that physicians participate in the debate and planning process that will ultimately guide how we reform the way health care is financed and delivered in the United States. Herein is offered a perspective on the problem, one which is not necessarily appreciated by health planners. While we deliver the best quality of care in the world to most of our population, our system has been severely criticized because we fail to provide for access to a substantial minority of our population. Additionally, the cost of the product is considerably greater than that in comparable countries. Attempts to control costs without diminishing quality have introduced expensive complexities into our system without any real success in cutting costs. Several proposals have been advanced to address the issues of cost and access. One of these is a single payer system, common in Europe and Canada, whereby a single agent or group of agents finances all health care through universal rules and means. A system operating in Hawaii is a simple employer mandate to provide health insurance. A uniquely American plan is the Jackson Hole Plan or Managed Competition (now called "Managed Cooperation"). This system is currently popular among national health planners, and involves a defined minimum managed health plan offered by various groups of providers to employees and individuals through health plan purchasing cooperatives. This plan is interesting, but has not been implemented in any jurisdiction, and it is not certain it would accomplish its goals in practice since it is difficult to predict behavior of all parties to such a system.

  18. Risky health-related behaviours among school-aged adolescents: a rational 'consumer' choice?

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K

    2016-05-01

    Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism.

  19. Parental Divorce or Death During Childhood and Adolescence and Its Association With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Tebeka, Sarah; Hoertel, Nicolas; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Strat, Yann

    2016-09-01

    Despite the severity of the loss of a parent and the frequency of parental divorce, few studies compared their impact on mental health in the general adult population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of parental loss and parental divorce during childhood and adolescence. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 43,093). Of the 43,093 participants, parental divorce during childhood or adolescence was reported by 5776 participants, whereas 3377 experienced parental death during childhood or adolescence. Participants reporting a history of parental divorce present a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly alcohol and drug use disorders compared with control subjects. While participants experiencing the death of a parent reported a poorer overall health, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder after 17 years of age was not significantly higher than that of the control subjects.

  20. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  1. Discovering Sexual Health Conversations between Adolescents and Youth Development Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs), working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents as they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the framework of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) comprehensive sexuality education guidelines. YDPs reported conversations with adolescents that included topics related to the SIECUS key concepts of human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behavior, and sexual health. PMID:27081375

  2. Parentification, Stress, and Problem Behavior of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M

    2017-03-01

    When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems.

  3. Use of the internet as a source of health information by Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet is a fundamental part of the daily life of adolescents, they consider it as a safe and confidential source of information on health matters. The aims is to describe the experience of Spanish adolescents searching for health information on the Internet. Methods A cross-sectional study of 811 school-age adolescents in Granada was carried out. An adapted and piloted questionnaire was used which was controlled by trained personnel. Sociodemographic and health variables were included together with those concerning the conditions governing access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Results 811 adolescents were surveyed (99.38% response rate), mean age was 17 years old. Of these, 88% used the Internet; 57.5% used it on a daily or weekly basis and 38.7% used it occasionally. Nearly half the sample group (55.7%) stated that they used the Internet to search for health-related information. The main problems reported in the search for e-health were the ignorance of good web pages (54.8%) and the lack of confidence or search skills (23.2%). Conclusions In conclusion, it seems plausible to claim that websites designed and managed by health services should have a predominant position among interventions specifically addressed to young people. PMID:20113486

  4. Assessment of Health Decision Making Skills of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gary D.

    Although the development of rational decision making skills among school age populations has been identified as a goal of school health education programs, few measurement tools or methods exist to assess such skills. In order to develop an instrument for assessing adolescent health decision-making skills, a preliminary health decision making…

  5. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  6. World Health Organization approaches for surveys of health behaviour among schoolchildren and for health-promoting schools.

    PubMed

    Honkala, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait.

  7. Determinants and trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Utz, Bettina; Bardají, Azucena; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinants and measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Methods In order to measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections, Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) data sets were analysed (BDHS; 1993–1994, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004, 2007, 2011). The BDHS 2011 data sets were analysed to identify the determinants of health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections. A total of 2813 adolescent girls (aged 10–19 years) were included for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Health facility-based deliveries have continuously increased among adolescents in Bangladesh over the past two decades from 3% in 1993–1994 to 24.5% in 2011. Rates of population-based and facility-based caesarean sections have increased linearly among all age groups of women including adolescents. Although the country's overall (population-based) caesarean section rate among adolescents was within acceptable range (11.6%), a rate of nearly 50% health facility level caesarean sections among adolescent girls is alarming. Among adolescent girls, use of antenatal care (ANC) appeared to be the most important predictor of health facility-based delivery (OR: 4.04; 95% CI 2.73 to 5.99), whereas the wealth index appeared as the most important predictor of caesarean sections (OR: 5.7; 95% CI 2.74 to 12.1). Conclusions Maternal health-related interventions should be more targeted towards adolescent girls in order to encourage them to access ANC and promote health facility-based delivery. Rising trends of caesarean sections require further investigation on indication and provider–client-related determinants of these interventions among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. PMID:27633641

  8. Health workers' perceptions of Italian female adolescents: a qualitative study about sexuality, contraception, and caring practices in family health centers.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Santoro, Elena; Stagni Brenca, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Di Blasio, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to explore health workers' perceptions of providing sexuality and contraception care for female adolescents within family health centers. We interviewed 26 volunteer health workers and analyzed the interviews using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes: (a) "adolescents and sexuality," with the subthemes "initiation rite," "me like the others," and "just for fun"; (b) "adolescents and contraception," with the subthemes "omnipotent adolescents," "aware adolescents," and "women's responsibility"; and

  9. Polyvictimization, Income, and Ethnic Differences in Trauma-Related Mental Health During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Arthur R.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; López, Cristina M.; Metzger, Isha W.; de Arellano, Michael A. R.; Saunders, Ben; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate ethnic differences in trauma-related mental health symptoms among adolescents, and test the mediating and moderating effects of polyvictimization (i.e., number of types of traumas/victimizations experienced by an individual) and household income, respectively. Methods Data were drawn from the first wave of the National Survey of Adolescents replication study (NSA-R), which took place in the U.S. in 2005 and utilized random digit dialing to administer a telephone survey to adolescents ages 12-17. Participants included in the current analyses were the 3,312 adolescents (50.2% female; Mean age = 14.67 years) from the original sample of 3,614 who identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 2,346, 70.8%), non-Hispanic Black (n = 557, 16.8%), or Hispanic (n = 409, 12.3%). Structural equation modeling was utilized to test hypothesized models. Results Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic participants reported higher levels of polyvictimization and trauma-related mental health symptoms (symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression) compared to non-Hispanic Whites, though the effect sizes were small (γ ≤ .07). Polyvictimization fully accounted for the differences in mental health symptoms between non-Hispanic Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites, and partially accounted for the differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. The relation between polyvictimization and trauma-related mental health symptoms was higher for low-income youth than for high-income youth. Conclusions Disparities in trauma exposure largely accounted for racial/ethnic disparities in trauma-related mental health. Children from low-income family environments appear to be at greater risk of negative mental health outcomes following trauma exposure compared to adolescents from high-income families. PMID:26048339

  10. Discussing Adolescent Sexual Health in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terrinieka T.; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C.; Griffith, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education 1) churches as sources of sexual information; 2) churches as complex communities; and 3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:22814618

  11. Nurses on the Front Lines: Improving Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Across Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Diane; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    : Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine's goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue.

  12. Adolescent maturity and the brain: the promise and pitfalls of neuroscience research in adolescent health policy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sara B; Blum, Robert W; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-09-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being.

  13. Adolescent Maturity and the Brain: The Promise and Pitfalls of Neuroscience Research in Adolescent Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416

  14. Adolescent Peer Victimization and Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245

  15. Health assets for adolescents: opinions from a neighbourhood in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel

    2015-09-01

    This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level.

  16. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland.…

  17. On self-perceived oral health in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena

    2002-01-01

    Aiming to investigate adolescents' perceptions of oral health, with a focus on gender differences, quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Skaraborg County, Sweden. Adolescents (13-18 years; n = 17,280) answered a school questionnaire, epidemiological indices on oral health were collected, and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most adolescents perceived their oral health as good, girls more often than boys. The oral behavior of girls was also more often healthy (floss usage: girls 31%, boys 21%), and they were consistently less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth than boys. Girls considered their own consumption of candy to be too high more often than boys. Acknowledging the importance of sound teeth was strongly associated with self-perceived oral health: boys, odds ratio (OR) 8.58 [confidence interval (CI) 7.12-10.34]; girls, OR 5.56 [CI 4.23-7.30]. Adolescents living with a single mother (13-15-yr-olds OR 1.37 [CI 1.20-1.57], 16-18-yr-olds OR 1.51 [CI 1.28-1.77]), or with neither parent, more often reported bleeding gums than those who lived with both parents, while adolescents who lived with a single father did not. Weak correlations between epidemiological indices and self-perceived oral health were found at the school level. In the interviews, adolescents perceived the possibilities to influence their own oral health as limited. Perceptions of influences on oral health were related to personal and professional care, social support, social impact, and external factors such as time and economy. Support from the mother--more than from the father--was emphasized. This thesis showed that positive oral health attitudes and parental support are of great importance if oral health is to be perceived as good. There were gender differences in all issues related to self-perceived oral health.

  18. Investing in very young adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2014-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757

  19. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations

  20. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  1. Demographic and health surveys: a profile.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Neuman, Melissa; Finlay, Jocelyn E; Subramanian, S V

    2012-12-01

    Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are comparable nationally representative household surveys that have been conducted in more than 85 countries worldwide since 1984. The DHS were initially designed to expand on demographic, fertility and family planning data collected in the World Fertility Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, and continue to provide an important resource for the monitoring of vital statistics and population health indicators in low- and middle-income countries. The DHS collect a wide range of objective and self-reported data with a strong focus on indicators of fertility, reproductive health, maternal and child health, mortality, nutrition and self-reported health behaviours among adults. Key advantages of the DHS include high response rates, national coverage, high quality interviewer training, standardized data collection procedures across countries and consistent content over time, allowing comparability across populations cross-sectionally and over time. Data from DHS facilitate epidemiological research focused on monitoring of prevalence, trends and inequalities. A variety of robust observational data analysis methods have been used, including cross-sectional designs, repeated cross-sectional designs, spatial and multilevel analyses, intra-household designs and cross-comparative analyses. In this profile, we present an overview of the DHS along with an introduction to the potential scope for these data in contributing to the field of micro- and macro-epidemiology. DHS datasets are available for researchers through MEASURE DHS at www.measuredhs.com.

  2. Health Physics Enrollents and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-03-31

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey.

  3. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team.

  4. Adolescent sexual offenders: a total survey of referrals to Social Services in Sweden and subgroup characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Wassberg, Annika; Carlberg, Margareta; Långström, Niklas; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2006-10-01

    Sampling methodology (e.g. population-based vs. clinical samples, anonymous self-reports vs. data collected as part of mandated treatment) affects the validity of conclusions drawn from research addressing the etiology of adolescent sexual offending. Studies of unselected samples allow testing of the generalizability of etiological models suggested from investigation of selected clinical or forensic populations. Further, representative epidemiological data on adolescent sexual offending is needed for policy-making and the planning of services. We conducted a national survey of all adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs, 12-17 years) referred to Social Services during 2000. Social workers at all child and adolescent units in Social Service authorities throughout Sweden (N=285, 99% response rate) completed a questionnaire about new ASO referrals in 2000. The National Board of Health and Welfare commissioned the survey and questionnaire items tapped offender, offence, and victim characteristics. A total of 197 boys and 2 girls aged 12-17 years were referred to Social Services because of sexually abusive behavior in 2000. Focusing specifically on males, this yielded a one-year incidence of .060% (95% confidence interval = .052-.068). Forty-six percent of male ASOs abused at least one child younger than age 12 years (child offenders) whereas the rest had abused peer or adult victims (peer offenders). Forty-two percent of male ASOs had ever committed sexual offences together with at least one other offender (group offenders). Child- vs. peer offenders and group vs. single offenders, suggested typologies in the literature, were compared to explore potential subtype-specific risk factors and correlates. The results suggested a higher proportion of group ASOs than previously reported and stronger support for subdividing ASOs into child vs. peer offenders than into group vs. single ASOs.

  5. Improving the Quality of Health Care Services for Adolescents, Globally: A Standards-Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Baltag, Valentina; Bose, Krishna; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lambrechts, Thierry; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The World Health Organization (WHO) undertook an extensive and elaborate process to develop eight Global Standards to improve quality of health care services for adolescents. The objectives of this article are to present the Global Standards and their method of development. Methods The Global Standards were developed through a four-stage process: (1) conducting needs assessment; (2) developing the Global Standards and their criteria; (3) expert consultations; and (4) assessing their usability. Needs assessment involved conducting a meta-review of systematic reviews and two online global surveys in 2013, one with primary health care providers and another with adolescents. The Global Standards were developed based on the needs assessment in conjunction with analysis of 26 national standards from 25 countries. The final document was reviewed by experts from the World Health Organization regional and country offices, governments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and development partners. The standards were subsequently tested in Benin and in a regional expert consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries for their usability. Results The process resulted in the development of eight Global Standards and 79 criteria for measuring them: (1) adolescents' health literacy; (2) community support; (3) appropriate package of services; (4) providers' competencies; (5) facility characteristics; (6) equity and nondiscrimination; (7) data and quality improvement; and (8) adolescents' participation. Conclusions The eight standards are intended to act as benchmarks against which quality of health care provided to adolescents could be compared. Health care services can use the standards as part of their internal quality assurance mechanisms or as part of an external accreditation process. PMID:26299556

  6. Health effects of perceived racial and religious bullying among urban adolescents in China: a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Stephen W; Spittal, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Research concerning ethnocultural bullying and adolescent health in China remains extremely limited. This study among Chinese urban adolescents examines associations between ethnocultural bullying and eight health-related outcomes: suicidal ideation, suicide planning, depressive symptomology, anxiety symptomatology, fighting, injury intentionally inflicted by another, smoking and moderate/heavy alcohol consumption. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation's 2003 Chinese Global School-based Health Survey, a cross-sectional national survey of urban adolescents in four Chinese cities. The analytic sample size was n = 8182, which represented a sampling frame of 769,835 adolescents. Statistical analysis was conducted using generalised linear mixed effects models and sampling weights. Prevalence of ethnocultural bullying was significantly higher in Urumqi, Xinjiang province (2.08%) compared with Beijing municipality (0.72%) or Wuhan, Hubei province (0.67%). Compared to participants who were not bullied, religious bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and depressive symptomology. Racial bullying victimisation was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, injury intentionally inflicted by another and among females but not males, depressive symptomology. Health effects of ethnocultural bullying appear to be distinct from that of bullying in general. Additional research on ethnocultural adolescent health issues in China is warranted.

  7. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Harland, E.; Griffith, J.; Lu, H.; Erickson, T.; Magsino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174) and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment) and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one’s body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  8. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  9. Colorado Health Occupations Manpower Survey, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Employment, Denver. Research and Analysis Section.

    This study was conducted to supply information for vocational education planners concerning the employment needs of the health services industry in Colorado. It should also provide some indication of the demand for trained workers in the occupations surveyed by coordinating expected company expansion and replacement needs with the number to be…

  10. Improving the health and well-being of adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Linda; Cooper, Kathleen

    2002-09-01

    Adolescent men are at risk of having significant unmet health care needs. Like adolescent girls, they have complex health care needs and are more likely than younger children to be to be uninsured. They are less likely than women and other age groups to seek medical attention from traditional sources of care. Because of inadequate youth-oriented services, as well as teens' developmental stage, they have a tendency to receive care that is brief and problem oriented [20]. Such care is not likely to address complex problems that may be related to risk behaviors. Adolescent boys are also more concerned with the skills of the provider offering services than with the system in which the provider functions. Opportunities for outreach to adolescent men exist within many institutions. Nurses as advocates, educators, counselors, and providers of preventive health care have a creative opportunity for enhancing services to the teenage boy. The school is a natural place to begin as adolescents spend a significant part of each day there. Family planning and STI clinics are a source of care that are not well used by adolescent males, but when they do attend it is an opportunity to identify problems, provide counseling and referrals, and offer continuity. These health care institutions are not often welcoming or comfortable for the male youth. Use of these clinics will be enhanced by providers demonstrating increased acceptance of the adolescent when he attends as well as actively requesting that he attend with his partner. The most unusual but sorely needed outreach must be made to incarcerated and delinquent adolescent male. Residential facilities for delinquent youth need to be encouraged to provide a multidisciplinary comprehensive medical, mental health, and social services model. This approach will not only benefit the adolescent but the youth's community as well. Emergency rooms represent another crucial, missed opportunity to connect with young men. With some forethought

  11. Preventive adolescent health care in family practice: a program summary.

    PubMed

    Knishkowy, Barry; Schein, Moshe; Kiderman, Alexander; Velber, Aliza; Edman, Richard; Yaphe, John

    2006-06-07

    The AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) has been the cornerstone of preventive care for teenagers since its publication in 1994. Despite this, there has been little documentation of their implementation in the family medicine literature. This article gives an overview of a family practice-based adolescent preventive health program based on GAPS recommendations, and reports on compliance, feasibility and health issues. A Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) program targeted all adolescent patients aged 12-18 years in two Israeli family practices. 321 teenagers were invited to participate. Every 7th and 10th grader was invited for a preventive health visit with the family physician and nurse. The visits included a medical evaluation, screening and counseling regarding health issues recommended by GAPS, and counseling regarding personal health concerns. Parents were also invited to meet with the staff. 184 (57%) of the adolescents invited for health visits attended. The overall visit time was 47 minutes, including 12 minutes for a questionnaire and 35 minutes with providers. Common biomedical problems included overweight, acne and dysmenorrhea. Health risk behaviors and psychosocial problems included cigarette or alcohol use, dieting, infrequent/never seat belt use, and feeling depressed. 78% wanted to discuss at least one personal health issue. 27% were invited for follow-up visits. Only 3% of the parents came for visits. A community-oriented approach facilitates bringing adolescents for preventive health visits. Many previously undetected health issues, particularly psychosocial and behavioral, are revealed during these visits. A concerns checklist aids in addressing personal health concerns.

  12. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  13. Receipt of Recommended Adolescent Vaccines Among Youth With Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Maslow, Gary R; Reiter, Paul L

    2016-07-28

    We examined vaccination coverage among youth with special health care needs (YSHCN) using data from parents of adolescents (11-17 years) who responded to a statewide survey in 2010-2012 (n = 2156). Using a validated screening tool, we identified 29% of adolescents as YSHCN. Weighted multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between special health care needs and receipt of tetanus booster, meningococcal, and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Only 12% of youth had received all 3 vaccines, with greater coverage for individual vaccines (tetanus booster, 91%; meningococcal, 32%; HPV, 26%). YSHCN had greater odds of HPV vaccination than other youth (33% vs 23%, OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.16-2.50) but vaccination coverage was similar (P ≥ .05) for other outcomes. In subgroup analyses, HPV vaccination also differed depending on the number and type of special health care needs identified. Findings highlight low levels of vaccination overall and missed opportunities to administer recommended vaccines among all youth, including YSHCN.

  14. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.

  15. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  16. Adolescent Compliance with Dietary Guidelines: Health and Education Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Marsha H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 389 adolescents regarding their compliance with six U. S. Dietary Guidelines. Results indicated highest compliance on "eat a variety of foods" and "eat foods with adequate starch and fiber." Lowest compliance on "reduce sugar intake" and "reduce fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake." Females reported lower compliance to "maintain…

  17. Teaching Trainees to Deliver Adolescent Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Brandi; Chan, Serena H.; Perriera, Lisa; Gold, Melanie A.; Akers, Aletha Y.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Delivery of reproductive services to adolescents varies by specialty and has been linked to differences in clinical training. Few studies have explored how different specialties’ graduate medical education (GME) programs prepare providers to deliver adolescent reproductive services. We explored the perceptions of resident physicians regarding their training in delivering adolescent reproductive health services. DESIGN Between November 2008 and February 2009, nine focus groups were conducted with graduate medical trainees in three specialties that routinely care for adolescents. The semi-structured discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an inductive approach to content analysis. SETTING Large, urban academic medical center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PARTICIPANTS 54 resident trainees in pediatrics, family medicine and obstetrics/gynecology INTERVENTIONS None MAIN OUTCOMES Trainees’ perspectives regarding the didactic teaching and clinical training in providing adolescent reproductive services RESULTS Five themes emerged reflecting trainees’ beliefs regarding the best practices GME programs can engage in to ensure that trainees graduate feeling competent and comfortable delivering adolescent reproductive services. Trainees believed programs need to: 1) Provide both didactic lectures as well as diverse inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences; 2) Have faculty preceptors skilled in providing and supervising adolescent reproductive services; 3) Teach skills for engaging adolescents in clinical assessments and decision-making; 4) Train providers to navigate confidentiality issues with adolescents and caregivers; and 5) Provide infrastructure and resources for delivering adolescent reproductive services. CONCLUSIONS The three specialties differed in how well each of the five best practices were reportedly addressed during GME training. Policy recommendations are provided. PMID:26542014

  18. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N

    1985-10-01

    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  19. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  20. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.

  1. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  2. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of

  3. Trends in reproductive health indicators in Nigeria using demographic and health surveys (1990-2013).

    PubMed

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Adegoke, Korede K; Olorunsaiye, Comfort Z

    2016-10-16

    There is an urgent need to improve reproductive health (RH) in Nigeria - the most populous country in Africa. In 2015, Nigeria had the highest number of maternal deaths in the world. This study assessed the trends in select RH indicators in Nigeria over two decades. Data used were from Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) conducted between 1990 and 2013. The NDHS uses a two-stage cluster sampling design to select nationally representative samples of reproductive-age women. The study sample ranged from 7620 to 38,948 women aged 15-49 across the five surveys. Trends in modern contraceptive prevalence rate, skilled antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and adolescent birth were assessed. The results show increasing trends in modern contraceptive prevalence rate from 4% in 1990 to 11% in 2013 (p < .001); in skilled antenatal care from 57% in 1990 to 61% in 2013 (p < .001); and in skilled birth attendance from 31% in 1990 to 40% in 2013 (p < .001). The trend in adolescent birth decreased from 24% in 1990 to 17% in 2013 (p < .001). Marked disparities exist as rural, poor, and less educated women bear the greatest burden. Interventions should target the at-risk populations to improve their access and use of RH services.

  4. Social surveys and health policy implications for national health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Aday, L A; Andersen, R; Anderson, O W

    1977-01-01

    The authors explore the utility of applying social survey data (a) to evaluate the impact of existing health programs and (b) to rank-order priorities concerning future health care policies. Based on national survey data from 1963, 1970, and 1976, they concluded that although Medicare and Medicaid have enabled more people to see a physician than ever before, a large proportion of the population still registers dissatisfaction with the health care they received--particularly with respect to their out-of-pocket costs for obtaining it. However, national health insurance options favored by the majority of the population--particularly those who can best afford the cost of care--suggest preferences for programs that incorporate some mix of existing modes of financing rather than those that provide for substantial restructuring of the current system. PMID:337340

  5. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  6. Factors influencing adolescent girls' sexual behavior: a secondary analysis of the 2011 youth risk behavior survey.

    PubMed

    Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.

  7. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  8. Assessing the Use of the Family Affluence Scale as Socioeconomic Indicators for Researching Health Inequalities in Taiwan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Chen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and explored the relationship between FAS and health in a general adolescent population of Taiwan. Our data was obtained from a 2009 school-based survey. In total, 3,368 students (1,741 boys, 1,627 girls) in grades 6-10 in Kinmen County, Taiwan completed a…

  9. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  10. [Children and adolescents: unequal living conditions, unequal health opportunities].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Richter, M; Klocke, A

    2006-02-01

    Today, children and young people represent the age group that is most frequently threatened by poverty in Germany. Poverty during childhood means a bad start to life and often has long-term effects on an adolescent's social and health development. Health problems are more frequent among preschool-age children from socially disadvantaged families. They are also more often affected by accidents and dental problems. In adolescence, links can be established between the social situation and psychosocial well-being, pain incidence and health behaviour. However, poverty does not inevitably go hand-in-hand with health problems. A stable and supporting social environment -- particularly in families, peer groups and schools -- promotes the development of a positive self-image and social skills, thus empowering the child to deal with demanding living conditions. Measures of social and health policy aimed at lessening the effects of poverty on health must start here.

  11. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  12. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  13. Leveraging Neuroscience to Inform Adolescent Health: The Need for an Innovative Transdisciplinary Developmental Science of Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health.

  14. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  15. From Advocacy to Action in Global Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Ross, David A; Viner, Russell M; Santelli, John S

    2016-10-01

    In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement.

  16. Health-Promoting and Health-Compromising Behaviors among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.

    This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…

  17. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  18. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  19. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadian, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808

  20. The 1989 Georgia Survey of Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Use. Volume I: The Narrative Report for Survey Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ronald D.; And Others

    The 1989 Georgia Survey of Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Use was conducted in 373 schools throughout Georgia. The stratified random sample was obtained from schools that participated in the 1987 survey (in which 93% of the school systems in Georgia participated) and were selected randomly from strata based on size of community and geographic…

  1. Youth-Adult Connectedness:: A Key Protective Factor for Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Sieving, Renee E; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Gower, Amy L; Kapa, Hillary M; Beckman, Kara J; Doty, Jennifer L; Plowman, Shari L; Resnick, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, prevention science in the adolescent health field has moved from interventions focused on preventing single problem behaviors to efforts employing a dual approach, addressing risk factors that predict problems while simultaneously nurturing protective factors and promoting positive development. Through an examination of previous research and empirical case examples with vulnerable youth, this article considers the hypothesis that adolescents' sense of connectedness to caring adults acts as a protective factor against a range of risk behaviors. Multivariate analyses with existing data examined indicators of youth-adult connectedness among two groups at high risk for poor health outcomes: (1) mentor-youth relationship quality in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of students in a school-based mentoring program (2014 survey, N=239); and (2) parent-youth connectedness in a statewide sample of high school students who reported homelessness in the past year (2013 survey, N=3,627). For youth in the mentoring program, a high-quality youth-mentor relationship was significantly associated with positive social, academic, and health-related behaviors. Among students who experienced homelessness, all measures of parent connectedness were significantly associated with lower sexual risk levels. Collectively, findings from these analyses and previously published studies by this research group provide evidence that strong, positive relationships with parents and other caring adults protect adolescents from a range of poor health-related outcomes and promote positive development. Youth-adult connectedness appears to be foundational for adolescent health and well-being. Program, practice, and policy decisions should consider what strengthens or hinders caring, connected youth-adult relationships.

  2. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  3. Virtual reality for health care: a survey.

    PubMed

    Moline, J

    1997-01-01

    This report surveys the state of the art in applications of virtual environments and related technologies for health care. Applications of these technologies are being developed for health care in the following areas: surgical procedures (remote surgery or telepresence, augmented or enhanced surgery, and planning and simulation of procedures before surgery); medical therapy; preventive medicine and patient education; medical education and training; visualization of massive medical databases; skill enhancement and rehabilitation; and architectural design for health-care facilities. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and in the future they will result in substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present virtual environment systems are being refined or developed. However, additional large-scale research is necessary in the following areas: user studies, use of robots for telepresence procedures, enhanced system reality, and improved system functionality.

  4. Addictive Internet Use among Korean Adolescents: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. Methods and Findings We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13–18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use. PMID:24505318

  5. Health Information Needs of d/Deaf Adolescent Females: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…

  6. Iron deficiency increases blood cadmium levels in adolescents surveyed in KNHANES 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Suk Hwan; Kim, Nam-Soo; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies have been reported in the relationships between iron and cadmium concentrations. The distribution of blood cadmium concentrations was assessed in a representative sample of Korean adolescents participating in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2011, and the association between blood cadmium and iron concentrations was determined. This study was based on data from KNHANES, in which a rolling sampling design was used to perform a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Serum ferritin was categorized as low (<15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0-<30.0 μg/L for girls, 15.0-<50.0 μg/L for boys), or normal (≥30.0 μg/L for girls, ≥50.0 μg/L for boys), and the association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium concentrations was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. The geometric mean (GM) of blood cadmium was significantly higher among both boys and girls in the low than in the normal ferritin group. After controlling for covariates, multiple regression analysis showed that blood cadmium concentration was inversely correlated with serum ferritin concentration in both boys and girls. In conclusion, iron deficiency is associated with increased blood cadmium concentrations in a representative sample of Korean adolescents, as evaluated in KNHANES.

  7. Human and animal health surveys among pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Schelling, E; Greter, H; Kessely, H; Abakar, M F; Ngandolo, B N; Crump, L; Bold, B; Kasymbekov, J; Baljinnyam, Z; Fokou, G; Zinsstag, J; Bonfoh, B; Hattendorf, J; Béchir, M

    2016-11-01

    Valid human and livestock health surveys, including longitudinal follow-up, are feasible among mobile pastoralists and provide fundamental information to agencies for interventions that are responsive to realities and effective in addressing the needs of pastoralists. However, pastoralists are often excluded from studies, surveillance systems and health programmes. The occurrence of preventable and treatable diseases such as perinatal tetanus, measles and tuberculosis are indicative of limited access to health providers and information. It is difficult for health services to include effective outreach with their available financial and human resources. One consequence is that maternal mortality rates among pastoralists are unacceptably high. Environmental determinants such as the quality of water and the pasture ecosystems further influence the morbidity of pastoralists. In the Sahel, the nutritional status of pastoralist children is seasonally better than that of settled children; but pastoralist women tend to have higher acute malnutrition rates. Pastoralist women are more vulnerable than men to exclusion from health services for different context-specific reasons. Evidence-based control measures can be assessed in cluster surveys with simultaneous assessments of health among people and livestock, where data on costs of disease and interventions are also collected. These provide important arguments for governmental and non-governmental agencies for intervention development. New, integrated One Health surveillance systems making use of mobile technology and taking into account local concepts and the experiences and priorities of pastoralist communities, combined with sound field data, are essential to develop and provide adapted human and animal health services that are inclusive for mobile pastoralist communities and allow them to maintain their mobile way of life.

  8. Are Canadian Adolescents Happy? A Gender-Based Analysis of a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert D.; Habibov, Nazim N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed data from a nationally representative survey of youth to study happiness amongst Canadian adolescents aged 12-17. Testing for differences in the level of happiness between female and male adolescents was conducted. Following this, multivariate analysis was employed to determine which factors were associated with…

  9. Adolescent Mental Health: Delinquency. Matrix No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan

    Research related to identification of delinquents, causes of delinquency, and effective intervention to stop delinquency is reviewed in this paper. In summary, the review indicates that adolescent problems appear to be concentrated among those disadvantaged in a variety of ways. Further, the reviewed literature indicates that biases in the justice…

  10. Injury prevention and the attainment of child and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Peden, Margie; Soori, Hamid; Bartolomeos, Kidist

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Urgent attention is required to tackle the problem of child and adolescent injury across the world. There have been considerable shifts in the epidemiological patterns of child deaths; while great progress has been made in preventing infectious diseases, the exposure of children and adolescents to the risks of injury appear to be increasing and will continue to do so in the future. The issue of injuries is too often absent from child and adolescent health agendas. In December 2008, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund published the World report on child injury prevention, calling global attention to the problem of child injuries. This article expands on the report’s arguments that child injuries must be integrated into child health initiatives and proposes initial steps for achieving this integration. PMID:19551258

  11. Electronic media, violence, and adolescents: an emerging public health problem.

    PubMed

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hertz, Marci Feldman

    2007-12-01

    Adolescents' access to and use of new media technology (e.g., cell phone, personal data assistant, computer for Internet access) are on the rise, and this explosion of technology brings with it potential benefits and risks. Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This special issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The articles in the Journal support the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional prevalence and etiological research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs.

  12. A mixed-method exploration of body image and sexual health among adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Impett, Emily A; Hirschman, Celeste; Bonem, Lathem

    2008-12-01

    This study uses a mixed-method approach to examine the relationship between body image and sexual health among adolescent boys. In Study 1, eight 12th-grade boys participated in semistructured interviews focusing on dating and sexuality. Qualitative analyses revealed several differences between boys who were satisfied with their bodies and boys who were not. Specifically, boys who were satisfied with their bodies indicated that they were clear about what they wanted sexually and were comfortable communicating those wants with partners. In contrast, boys with low body satisfaction were often unclear about their sexual choices and resisted talking about sexuality with partners. Study 2 examined these same themes using quantitative data from 149 boys from the 12th grade who completed surveys assessing body image, sexual experiences, and sexual attitudes. Body satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual agency and with clarity of personal sexual values. Implications for promoting adolescent sexual health are discussed.

  13. Association of school, family, and mental health characteristics with suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional research design, we investigated factors related to suicidal ideation in adolescents using data from the 2013 Online Survey of Youth Health Behavior in Korea. This self-report questionnaire was administered to 72,435 adolescents aged 13-18 years in middle and high school. School characteristics, family characteristics, and mental health variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression. Both suicidal ideation and behavior were more common in girls. Suicidal ideation was most common in 11th grade for boys and 8th grade for girls. Across the sample, in logistic regression, suicidal ideation was predicted by low socioeconomic status, high stress, inadequate sleep, substance use, alcohol use, and smoking. Living apart from family predicted suicidal ideation in boys but not in girls. Gender- and school-grade-specific intervention programs may be useful for reducing suicidal ideation in students.

  14. Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Adolescents in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Remez, Lisa; Woog, Vanessa; Mhloyi, Marvelous

    2014-01-01

    (1) As of 2011, 38% of young Zimbabwean women have had sex by age 18, as have 23% of young men; this difference has widened over time. Females now first have sex nearly two years sooner than males. (2) One-quarter of 15-19-year-old women have started childbearing; one-third of all births to adolescents are unplanned (wanted later or not at all). (3) Favorable trends of rising modern contraceptive use in urban areas were likely interrupted by the worst of the economic crisis in 2008. Use among married adolescents declined in urban areas (from 50% in 2006 to 29% in 2011), even as it rose in rural areas (from 30% to 37%). (4) Patterns in unmet need for contraception followed suit: In urban areas, the proportion of married adolescents who wanted to postpone childbearing but were not using a method rose between 2006 and 2011(from 14% to 28%); among their counterparts in rural areas, unmet need fell from 20% to 15% over this period. (5) Single, sexually active adolescents have by far the greatest unmet need--62% as of 2011, compared with 19% among their married counterparts. (6) Existing policies need clarification to assure that no adolescent is illegally denied services because of age. Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health programs should be prioritized so today’s HIV-positive adolescents, many of whom have been infected since birth, do not transmit the virus to yet another generation.

  15. Linkages between mental health need and help-seeking behavior among adolescents: Moderating role of ethnicity and cultural values

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sisi; Nguyen, Hannah; Weiss, Bahr; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk of developing of emotional and behavioral mental health problems increases markedly during adolescence. Despite this increasing need, most adolescents, particularly ethnic minority youth, do not seek professional help. Informed by conceptual models of health behavior, the current study examined how cultural values are related to help-seeking among adolescents from two distinct racial/ethnic groups. In a prospective survey design, 169 10th and 11th grade Vietnamese American and European American youth reported on their mental health need, as measured by emotional/behavioral mental health symptoms and stressful life events, with participants reporting on their help-seeking behavior at 6-month follow-up assessments. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that mental health need interacted with cultural values and ethnicity to predict help-seeking behavior. Specifically, associations between symptoms and stressful life events, and help-seeking behavior were smaller among Vietnamese American adolescents, and among adolescents with strong family obligation values. These results underscore the complex sociocultural factors influencing adolescents’ help-seeking behavior, which have important implications for engaging youth in needed mental health care. PMID:26376178

  16. Peer Victimization and Mental Health during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe recent research on peer victimization and its mental health consequences during early adolescence. They begin with a working definition of peer victimization that distinguishes it from lethal school violence and from simple conflict between peers. They then present a psychosocial profile of youth who are…

  17. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  18. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  19. Acculturation and Health Locus of Control among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    1998-01-01

    Health locus of control was investigated across culture of origin (Mexicanism), mainstream culture (Americanism), and bicultural linguistic-acculturation domains among 424 Mexican-American adolescents. Belief in powerful others' external control was the strongest explanation of locus of control in the culture-of-origin domain; internal control was…

  20. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  1. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  2. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  3. Prerequisites for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon; Belfer, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of the mental and physical health of children and adolescents the world over reflects: the genomes they inherit (and the modifications those genes undergo in utero); the pregnancies that led to their births, whether their mothers survive those pregnancies, and whether their births were welcome; the parents, the neighbors, and the…

  4. Vitamin D and mental health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Ring, Stefanie; Hahn, Denise; Kanal, Özlem; Öztürk, Dana; Hebebrand, Johannes; Libuda, Lars

    2017-02-08

    While vitamin D is known to be relevant for bone health, evidence has recently accumulated for an impact on mental health. To identify the potential benefits and limitations of vitamin D for mental health, an understanding of the physiology of vitamin D, the cut-off values for vitamin D deficiency and the current status of therapeutic trials is paramount. Results of a systematic PUBMED search highlight the association of vitamin D levels and mental health conditions. Here, we focus on children and adolescents studies as well as randomized controlled trials on depression in adults. 41 child and adolescent studies were identified including only 1 randomized controlled and 7 non-controlled supplementation trials. Overall, results from 25 cross-sectional studies as well as from 8 longitudinal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. Findings from supplementation trials seem to support this hypothesis. However, randomized controlled trials in adults revealed conflicting results. Randomized controlled trials in childhood and adolescents are urgently needed to support the potential of vitamin D as a complementary therapeutic option in mental disorders. Study designs should consider methodological challenges, e.g., hypovitaminosis D at baseline, appropriate supplementation doses, sufficient intervention periods, an adequate power, clinically validated diagnostic instruments, and homogenous, well-defined risk groups.

  5. Adolescents Initiating Cannabis Use: Cultural Opposition or Poor Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Willy

    1990-01-01

    Investigated possible links between normative and political opposition, mental health, and the use of cannabis in prospective longitudinal study of Norwegian adolescents (n=1,311). Findings indicated that the group that experimented with cannabis was mainly characterized by political and normative "oppositional" engagement, but heavy…

  6. Enhancing Health Literacy through Accessing Health Information, Products, and Services: An Exercise for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.; Wantz, Molly S.

    2007-01-01

    The second National Health Education Standard states the importance of student demonstration of the ability to access valid health information and services. The teaching technique presented in this article provides an opportunity for children and adolescents to develop their health literacy and advocacy skills by contributing to a class resource…

  7. Adolescent Health Care in School-Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…

  8. School-Based Cardiovascular Health Promotion: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes objectives of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health multisite intervention study which develops behavioral school health education plans. It targets third through fifth graders, stressing cardiovascular health behaviors (e.g., eating habits, physical activity, and smoking). Curricula, school environmental change, and…

  9. The Stability of Political Attitudes and Behaviors across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Comparison of Survey Data on Adolescents and Young Adults in Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Wilkenfeld, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of adolescents' political attitudes and behaviors into adulthood is a perennial concern in research on developmental psychology. While some authors claim that adolescents' attitudinal patterns will remain relatively stable throughout the life cycle, others argue that the answers of adolescents in political surveys have but a…

  10. The effect of noncognitive traits on health behaviours in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendolia, Silvia; Walker, Ian

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between personality traits and health behaviours in adolescence using a large and recent cohort study. In particular, we investigate the impact of locus of control, self-esteem and work ethics at ages 15-16 years on the incidence of health behaviours such as alcohol consumption, cannabis and other drug use, unprotected and early sexual activity and sports and physical activity. We use matching methods to control for a very rich set of adolescent and family characteristics, and we find that personality traits do affect health behaviours. In particular, individuals with external locus of control, low self-esteem or with low levels of work ethics seem more likely in engage in risky health behaviours.

  11. Implications of Type 2 Diabetes on Adolescent Reproductive Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Julie S.; Arslanian, Silva; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Copeland, Valire Carr; Doswell, Willa; Herman, William; Lain, Kristine; Mansfield, Joan; Murray, Pamela J.; White, Neil; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article was to summarize scientific knowledge from an expert panel on reproductive health among adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Using a mental model approach, a panel of experts—representing perspectives on diabetes, adolescents, preconception counseling, and reproductive health—was convened to discuss reproductive health issues for female adolescents with T2D. Results Several critical issues emerged. Compared with adolescents with type 1 diabetes, (1) adolescents with T2D may perceive their disease as less severe and have less experience managing it, putting them at risk for complications; (2) T2D is more prevalent among African Americans, who may be less trusting of the medical establishment; (3) T2D is associated with obesity, and it is often difficult to change one’s lifestyle within family environments practicing sedentary and dietary behaviors leading to obesity; (4) teens with T2D could be more fertile, because obesity is related to earlier puberty; (5) although obese teens with T2D have a higher risk of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is associated with infertility, treatment with metformin can increase fertility; and (6) women with type 2 diabetes are routinely transferred to insulin before or during pregnancy to allow more intensive management. Conclusions Findings from the expert panel provide compelling reasons to provide early, developmentally appropriate, culturally sensitive preconception counseling for teens with T2D. PMID:20944055

  12. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  13. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group. Methods Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients’ clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease. Results A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors. PMID:24460738

  14. Recent Injury and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Parsons, John T.; Sauers, Eric L.; Snyder, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a global concept that takes into account the physical, psychological, and social domains of health. Determining the extent to which injury affects HRQOL is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice, enabling comparisons of clinical outcomes across different conditions in diverse patient groups. Objective: To examine the extent to which a self-reported recent injury affected HRQOL in adolescent athletes using 2 generic patient self-report scales. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High school classrooms and athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of uninjured (n  =  160) and injured (n  =  45) adolescent athletes. Intervention(s): The independent variable was injury status: uninjured versus injured. All participants completed a self-administered brief health status questionnaire and the Short Form–36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in a counterbalanced manner. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables included 8 subscale and 2 composite scores of the SF-36 and 5 subscale scores and 1 global score of the PODCI. Group differences were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test (P ≤ .05) and reported as median and interquartile range. Results: On the SF-36, the injured group demonstrated lower scores (P < .008) for physical functioning, limitations due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social functioning, and the physical composite. On the PODCI, the injured group reported lower scores (P < .01) on the pain and comfort subscale and the global score. Conclusions: Adolescent athletes with self-reported injuries demonstrated lower HRQOL than their uninjured peers. As expected, recent injury affected physical functioning and pain. Social functioning (on the SF-36) and global HRQOL (on the PODCI) also decreased, suggesting that injuries affected areas beyond the expected physical

  15. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  16. Doing things together: adolescent health and family rituals

    PubMed Central

    Compan, E; Moreno, J; Ruiz, M; Pascual, E

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: (1) To describe the union and life cycle of family rituals, such as specific habits of sharing daily meals, special events or other family activities, and (2) to analyse the relation between the practice of family rituals and the use by adolescents of mental health related ambulatory care services. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: A public mental health care outpatient clinic, secondary educational centres and Alicante University (School of Social Workers and Nursing School) in Spain. Participants: A total of 282 living at home youngsters were included in the study. The case group, n=82, was sequential and consecutively drawn from the first consultation in a public mental health outpatient clinic attending a downtown area of Alicante. The comparison group (n=213) was made up of a conglomerate from various educational centres in the same metropolitan area. Main results: There was a significant difference (p=0.027) between the frequencies with which parents ate together with their offspring in the two study groups. The families of the adolescents comparison group significantly (p=0.00007) shared more family celebrations than the case group—also, the extended family was included more frequently. Moreover, differences between both groups were found in other activities and situations—adolescents in the case group reported carrying out less family activities than the adolescents in the comparison group (p=0.00001). The lower level of satisfaction in the adolescent's perception of family function led to a higher probability of presenting mental health complaints (p=0.00001). Conclusions: The youngsters with mental health complaints ate less frequently with both parents than the youngsters in the comparison group. They also shared less activities and practised less family rituals—union and life cycle—than the families of the youngsters in the comparison group, and showed a lower level of satisfaction in perceived family function. PMID

  17. Your Health, an Intervention at Senior Vocational Schools to Promote Adolescents' Health and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Heydelberg, Jurriën; van 't Klooster, Els; van Baar, Cathelijn; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the appreciation, application and effects of an intervention (Your Health), in which adolescents received a consultation with the school nurse. A cluster randomized controlled trial with an intervention and control group (care-as-usual) was conducted among first-grade senior vocational students. Adolescents (n = 418) completed…

  18. [Acknowledgement and satisfaction survey on mental health].

    PubMed

    Pedraza, María S; Noriega, Nicolás H

    2015-01-01

    Knowing patients opinion about mental healthcare services is highly important in clinical daily work settings, especially in the interior regions of the country. Since information on the subject is very scarce, gathering further data would be helpful to design active policies in this field. With this aim in mind, a work team composed of a Psychologist and an Immunologist of the city of Villa Marí in Córdoba, Argentina, conducted a survey to enquire about the population's knowledge regarding mental health care services and their degree of satisfaction. This survey was done using a database from a healthcare consultancy, and data collection was carried out by means of electronic mails, which contained mostly closed questions. Two conclusions were drawn as relevant information; the first one was that only 1% of the subjects answered the survey, which would reveal little interest in it. The second conclusion was that, in spite of the investigators assumptions, most of the population surveyed (over 50%), had thorough knowledge of the use of mental healthcare services.

  19. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  20. Investigating Sociodemographic Factors and HIV Risk Behaviors Associated With Social Networking Among Adolescents in Soweto, South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. Objective We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Conclusions Mobile phone–based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions. PMID:27683173

  1. The Influence of Health Behaviours in Childhood on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiuyun; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data. We applied negative binomial regression methods to examine the associations between health behaviours and ADHD. Of the 4875 students, 9.7% had one or more diagnoses of ADHD between the ages of 10/11 and 18 years. The number of primary diagnoses with ADHD was statistically significantly lower among students with better diet quality, higher levels of physical activity, and those that spent less time playing computers and video games (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that health promotion programs aiming to improve children’s diets and active lifestyles may also reduce the public health burden of ADHD. PMID:27918425

  2. Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: evaluation based on public health

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina Vieira; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003). Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system. PMID:25769190

  3. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  4. Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baroun, Khader A

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.

  5. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  6. Early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace

    2017-02-01

    A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls.

  7. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  8. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  9. The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health.

  10. Health Care Resources and Mental Health Service Use Among Suicidal Adolescents.

    PubMed

    LeCloux, Mary; Maramaldi, Peter; Thomas, Kristie; Wharff, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Developing policies and interventions that increase rates of mental health service use for suicidal adolescents is crucial for suicide prevention. Data from a sample of suicidal youth (n = 1356) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were analyzed to examine whether type of insurance, receipt of routine medical care, and access to school-based mental health treatment predicted mental health service use cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Rates of mental health service use were low in cross-sectional analyses at all three waves (∼11%-30%), despite the fact that respondents were at high risk for suicide attempts and depression. With demographic factors and symptom severity controlled, only receipt of a routine physical predicted an increased likelihood of mental health service use at wave I and in longitudinal analyses. Implications discussed include the utility of universal suicide screenings and integrated behavioral health care as potential intervention strategies for this population.

  11. Health information needs of d/Deaf adolescent females: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chad E; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among adolescents, reliable information devoted specifically to d/Deaf adolescents who communicate primarily in ASL is rare. D/deaf adolescent females face numerous challenges accessing web-based health information to enhance their decision making about important health issues such as body image, physical activity and nutrition, puberty, and relationships. A strong need exists for interdisciplinary professionals to investigate the health interests and online health information-seeking behaviors of this group in order to effectively plan, implement, and evaluate a web-based health repository that delivers content in ASL. This Call to Action represents a first step in addressing that need.

  12. Adolescent care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202

  13. Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Adolescents from the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Dghaim, Rania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of air quality in relation to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, wheeze, and dry cough among adolescents from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods. A survey was administered on 6,363 adolescents from 9 UAE regions. Data consists of demographic, socioeconomic, residential, and behavioural variables, such as location of residence, residing near industry/gas stations/dumpsites/construction sites, residing near overhead power line/plants, exposure to tobacco, residential exposure, ethnicity, concern over air pollution, smoking, and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine significant predictors of respiratory health. Results. Asthma prevalence was 12.3%, followed by chronic bronchitis (1.8%) and emphysema (0.5%). Overall 12.2% reported wheeze and 34.8% reported a dry nocturnal cough in the past year. Multivariate analyses suggest that sex is a significant predictor of asthma and dry cough. Exposure to tobacco and arts/crafts/ceramics/stain is significant predictor of respiratory health. Tobacco smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes/glue/correctors/car exhaust/burning black ants are significant predictors of wheeze and dry cough. Conclusions. This study suggests that exposure to air quality and behavioral factors such as smoking and purposely smelling gasoline fumes, glue, correctors, car exhaust, or burning black ants are significant predictors of respiratory health among UAE adolescents. PMID:26074980

  14. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  15. Adolescent males' abortion attitudes: data from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Marsiglio, W; Shehan, C L

    1993-01-01

    Roughly 13% of a nationally representative sample of 1,880 15-19-year-old males approve of abortion in each of eight circumstances presented to them, while about 4% disapprove in every instance. The proportions agreeing that abortion is acceptable range as high as 85-90% if the pregnancy endangers the woman's health or results from rape. Any type of religious affiliation, especially religious fundamentalism, is related to weaker support for abortion; an even stronger correlate of abortion attitudes is the importance of religion to the respondent. Abortion attitudes vary little by race after other social background factors are controlled. Those with more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and those who perceive that they would be upset if they became a father in the immediate future are particularly likely to express acceptance of abortion. Roughly 61% of adolescent males do not feel that it would be all right for a woman to have an abortion if her partner objects, indicating a possible "gender conflict of interest" over the abortion issue.

  16. Menstrual Health and the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Arslanian, Silva

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has become a major public health concern against the backdrop of increasing rates of obesity. Insulin resistance plays a pivotal role as the underlying pathophysiological linchpin of the various components of the syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is well recognized in adults, and there is convincing evidence that it starts in childhood, with progressive clustering of the various components over time and tracking through adulthood. Adult women and adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome compared with the general population. Several anthropometric (obesity, particularly abdominal obesity), metabolic (insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia) and hormonal (low IGFBP1, IGFBP2 and low sex hormone binding globulin) features of adolescents with PCOS are also features of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance, believed to be a key pathogenic factor in both PCOS and the metabolic syndrome, may be the thread that links the two conditions. Menstrual health in adolescents could be viewed as yet another component in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome. Careful assessment of menstrual history and appropriate laboratory work-up could reveal the presence of PCOS in obese at-risk adolescent girls with a family history of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18574212

  17. Rural Adolescent Health: The Importance of Prevention Services in the Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…

  18. Is low health literacy associated with overweight and obesity in adolescents: an epidemiology study in a 12–16 years old population, Nanning, China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is considered an epidemic in both developed and developing world by the WHO. There has been little study on the relationship between health literacy and body weight among adolescents. This epidemiological study aims to investigate the association between low health literacy and overweight and obesity among a population of Chinese adolescents aged 12–16 years in the city of Nanning, China in 2012. Methods This study was a population-based cross-sectional health survey utilising a two-stage random cluster sampling design. The sample consisted of high school students aged between 12–16 years with the total student population attending high schools in a large city as the sample frame. Health literacy was measured by the Chinese version of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy translated for and validated among Taiwanese adolescents. Overweight and obesity were assessed in accordance to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database of Body Mass Index classification methods. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling techniques with adjustment to the cluster sampling effect. Results A total of 1035 students responded to the survey providing usable information with 628 (48.1%) respondents classified as high, 558 (42.8%) moderate, and 119 (9.1%) low levels of health literacy. After adjusting for potential confounding factors and the cluster sampling effect, low health literacy was significantly associated with overweight and obesity (OR = 1.84, 95% C.I. = 1.13-2.99). Conclusion Results suggested that low health literacy level was associated with many aspects of adolescence health including their body weight. These results have public health implications on an important global problem of adolescence body weight. Enhancing the health literacy should be considered as part of the strategies in combating adolescence weight problem. PMID

  19. Primary health care use and health care accessibility among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Barakat-Haddad, C; Siddiqua, A

    2015-05-19

    This study examined primary health care use and accessibility among adolescents living in the United Arab Emirates. In a cross-sectional study, we collected health care use, sociodemographic and residential data for a sample of 6363 adolescents. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine predictors of health care use. The most-consulted health professionals were dentists or orthodontists, family doctors and eye specialists. Local adolescents were more likely to attend public clinics/hospitals than private facilities, while the opposite was true for expatriates. In the previous 12 months 22.6% of the participants had not obtained the health care they needed and 19.5% had not had a routine health check-up. Common reasons for not obtaining care were busy schedules, dislike/fear of doctors and long waiting times. Predictors of not obtaining needed care included nationality and income, while those for having a routine check-up were mother's education and car ownership. Improvements to the health care sector may increase health care accessibility among adolescents.

  20. Neuroscience of child and adolescent health development.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Sung, Connie

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in technology and neuroscience have increased our understanding of human neurodevelopment. In particular, research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to a biopsychosocial perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces and environments shape neurobiology. This article summarizes selected results from recent investigations of neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics, which demonstrate complex interaction between genes, epigenetic processes, and environmental experience that confers neural growth into adulthood. Counseling psychologists working with children and adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work so that they can provide developmentally appropriate counseling services. Social cognitive theory and resilience theory are introduced to illustrate how counseling psychologists can incorporate neuroscience research findings in a counseling context and hypotheses are proposed for future counseling psychology research.

  1. "They said "be careful'": sexual health communication sources and messages for adolescent girls living with perintally-acquired HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Green, Shana M; Sharma, Vinita; Mellins, Claude A

    2017-03-12

    Due to advances in highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), children "who perinatally acquired HIV infection" (PHIV+) in the United States have been reaching adolescence and adulthood in large numbers. As youth PHIV + become sexually active it is important to understand their sources of sexual health information and the messages communicated by those sources to safeguard their sexual health and that of their partners. This paper explores sexual health communication for adolescent girls PHIV + in comparison to adolescent girls who were exposed but did not acquire HIV perinatally (PHIV-) to understand how HIV infection influences the sexual health communication needs of the former. A convenience sample size of 30 (20 PHIV + and 10 PHIV-, mean age 14.5) girls completed survey and participated in a 45-90 min developmentally appropriate semi-structured interview. The interviews aimed to elicit the girls' sources of sexual health communication, the sexual health messages they receive, their comfort or discomfort with these communications, and to determine how their sexual health communication experiences differ from those of their PHIV- peers. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analyzed for themes related to sexual health communication sources, sexual health communication messages and comfort/discomfort with sexual health communication sources. Our findings suggest that girls PHIV + do not differ significantly from Girls PHIV- in their sources of sexual health information, yet girls PHIV + are most comfortable receiving sexual health information from their health providers, whereas for girls PHIV, the comfort is higher with caregivers. However, the messages Girls PHIV + reported receiving from their providers and caregivers were vague. Both providers and caregivers of Girls PHIV + are uniquely positioned to provide information to adolescents about sexuality and responsible sex decision-making. Some caregivers and providers

  2. Bit by Bit: Using Design-Based Research to Improve the Health Literacy of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    St. Jean, Beth; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Kodama, Christie; Follman, Rebecca; Casciotti, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a low health literacy level has been found to be among the most powerful predictors of poor health outcomes, there is very little research focused on assessing and improving the health literacy skills of adolescents, particularly those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The vast majority of existing research focuses solely on reading comprehension, despite the fact that health literacy is actually a multifaceted concept, which entails many different types of skills. Objective The aim of this paper is to first mine existing literature to identify the many different skills that have been posited to constitute health literacy, and then, using this collection of skills as an overarching structure, to highlight the challenges that disadvantaged youth participating in our HackHealth after-school program encounter as they identify and articulate their health-related information needs, search for health-related information online, assess the relevance and credibility of this information, and manage and make use of it. Methods We utilized the design-based research method to design, implement, and revise our HackHealth program. To collect data regarding HackHealth participants’ health literacy skills and associated challenges, we used a variety of methods, including participant observation, surveys, interviews, focus groups, and logging of Web browser activities. We also collected data through specialized instructional activities and data collection forms that we developed for this purpose. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analyze this data, as well as all of the artifacts that each student produced, including their final projects. Results We identified the various challenges that the 30 HackHealth participants faced in completing various health-related information activities during the course of the program. Based on these findings, we describe important implications for working with youth from socioeconomically

  3. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  4. MOTHERS’ UNION HISTORIES AND THE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS BORN TO UNMARRIED MOTHERS

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristi; Sassler, Sharon; Frech, Adrianne; Addo, Fenaba; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing becomes a dominant pathway to family formation, understanding its long-term consequences for children’s well-being is increasingly important. Analysis of linked mother-child data from the NLSY79 indicates a negative association of having been born to a never-married mother with adolescent self-assessed health, but not with depressive symptoms. We also consider the role of mothers’ subsequent union histories in shaping the adolescent health outcomes of youth born to unmarried mothers. With two exceptions, unmarried mothers’ subsequent unions appear to have little consequence for the health of their offspring during adolescence. Adolescents whose mothers subsequently married and remained with their biological fathers reported better health, yet adolescents whose mothers continuously cohabited with the biological father without subsequent marriage reported worse adolescent mental health when compared with adolescents whose mothers remained continually unpartnered. PMID:23956357

  5. Health and Well-Being in Adolescent Survivors of Early Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study1

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Ann C.; Brand, Sarah; Ness, Kirsten K; Li, Zhenghong; Mitby, Pauline A.; Riley, Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the growing number of childhood cancer survivors in the United States, it is important to assess the well-being of these individuals, particularly during the transitional phase of adolescence. Data about adolescent survivors’ overall health and quality of life will help identify survivor subgroups most in need of targeted attention to successfully transition to adulthood. Participants and Methods This ancillary study to the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) focused on children 15–19 years of age who had been diagnosed with cancer before the age of 4 years. A cohort of siblings of pediatric cancer survivors of the same ages served as a comparison sample. Adolescent health was assessed using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) survey. Results The teen survey was sent to 444 survivor teens and 189 siblings. Of these 307(69%) survivors and 97 (51%) siblings completed and returned the survey. Overall health profiles of siblings and survivors were similar. Among survivors, females scored significantly below males on Satisfaction, Discomfort, and Disorders domains. Survivors diagnosed with CNS tumors scored less favorably than leukemia survivors in the global domains of Satisfaction and Disorders. Conclusion In general, adolescent survivors fare favorably compared to healthy siblings. However, identification of the subset of pediatric cancer survivors who are more vulnerable to medical and psychosocial disorders in adolescence provides the opportunity for design and implementation of intervention strategies that may improve quality of life. PMID:24123762

  6. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers.

  7. Health effects of media on children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Youth spend an average of >7 hours/day using media, and the vast majority of them have access to a bedroom television, computer, the Internet, a video-game console, and a cell phone. In this article we review the most recent research on the effects of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness. However, recent evidence raises concerns about media's effects on aggression, sexual behavior, substance use, disordered eating, and academic difficulties. We provide recommendations for parents, practitioners, the media, and policy makers, among others, for ways to increase the benefits and reduce the harm that media can have for the developing child and for adolescents.

  8. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Stephanie; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data was obtained from an adult and adolescent in each household using a confidential questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Adolescent nutritional status was evaluated using multinomial regression analysis considering distal and proximal influences. The prevalence of overweight and thinness among the sample of 1,030 adolescents was 21.9% and 4.6%, respectively. Although variables from all blocks remained in the final model, head of household education level, family habits and family nutritional status were shown to strongly influence adolescent nutritional status. New approaches to public health are needed which focus on raising awareness and promoting health education targeting teenagers and their social context.

  9. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2

  10. School-Based Health Care State Policy Survey. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) surveys state public health and Medicaid offices every three years to assess state-level public policies and activities that promote the growth and sustainability of school-based health services. The FY2011 survey found 18 states (see map below) reporting investments explicitly dedicated…

  11. Adolescent Homosexual Behavior and the Health Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye

    1980-01-01

    Approaches for teaching about homosexuality as part of the school health curriculum are offered. Suggestions include discussion of popular values and stereotypes, teaching by example, and teaching through role playing. (JMF)

  12. Perceived body size versus healthy body size and physical activity among adolescents - Results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Zeev, Aviva; Dunsky, Ayelet; Goldbourt, Uri; Shimony, Tal; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Netz, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether body perception (BP) and body satisfaction (BS) among adolescents correspond with healthy body size criteria as recommended by various world health authorities, and assessed the relationships between BP and BS and physical activity (PA) among adolescents. Participants included 6274 Israeli boys and girls from grades 7-12 who took part in the first Israeli Health and Nutrition Youth survey. Data regarding their BP and BS, body mass index (BMI) and PA were gathered. Among the overweight and obese participants, 66.4% and 40.6% of the boys, respectively, and 46.7% and 26.1% of the girls, respectively, perceived their body shape and size as satisfactory (OK). Another important finding was that overweight and obese girls were three times more active than underweight girls, and the highest per cent of active boys appeared among the overweight boys or those who perceived themselves as fat. Regression analyses revealed that BMI, gender and age accounted for 29.8% of the variance in participants' BP; BMI, gender and age accounted for 22.1% of BS variance, and PA was not related to either BP or BS. In conclusion, adolescents do not perceive their body according to healthy body size criteria recommended by various world health authorities. In addition, PA as a variable does not explain body image. Therefore, increasing body awareness seems to be a fundamental step in programs that aim to reduce obesity.

  13. Data mining analysis of factors influencing children's blood pressure in a nation-wide health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiewicz, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2009-06-01

    Blood pressure in childhood and adolescents is important indicator of good health and strong predictor of BP in adulthood. Genetic susceptibility, environmental and socioeconomic factors are related both with life style, obesity and cardiovascular risk including elevated BP. Increased body mass index is strictly correlated with BP, and obesity and overweight is main intermediate phenotype of childhood hypertension. However, despite current obesity epidemic available data do not fully support the hypothesis that it has resulted in increase of BP in children. We analysed data obtained from 7591 children participating in nation-wide health survey using data mining methodology. Results reveal relationships of obesity and high blood pressure with school environment characteristics.

  14. Health Promotion for Adolescent Childhood Leukemia Survivors: Building on Prevention Science and eHealth

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253

  15. A health survey of toll booth workers

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, P.; Orris, P.; Buckley, L. )

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory and other health problems in a cohort of highway toll booth workers was surveyed by mailed questionnaire. In a low proportion of respondents (43.2%), a high prevalence of central nervous system complaints (headaches, irritability, or anxiety, and unusual tiredness), mucous membrane irritation (eye irritation, nasal congestion, and dry throat), and musculoskeletal problems (joint and back pains) was found. We believe these symptoms are reflective of the acute irritant and central nervous system effects of exposure to motor vehicle exhaust. The musculoskeletal complaints are likely the result of bending, reaching, and leaning out of the toll booth. The need for in-depth evaluation of the ventilation systems and the ergonomic and job stressors of work at toll booths is suggested by these results.

  16. Widening the aim of health promotion to include the most disadvantaged: vulnerable adolescents and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-06-01

    Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health promotion. Drawing on a review of literature on health promotion for marginalized and out-of-school adolescents, this paper highlights some urgent areas of focus for researchers and policy makers addressing adolescent health. Social determinants of health affecting marginalized adolescents identified by the review were education, gender, identity, homelessness, poverty, family structure, culture, religion and perceived racism, yet there is little solid evidence as to how to best address these factors. More systematic research, evaluation and global debate about long-term solutions to chronic poverty, lack of education and social marginalization are needed to break the cycle of ill health among vulnerable adolescents.

  17. Pakistan: moving ahead. NGOs pilot adolescent reproductive health projects.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    In a study focusing on the views of Pakistani adolescent girls on contraception and family planning reveals that the majority of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 years have no knowledge of contraceptives. Many favor immediate pregnancy right after marriage. Only 4.8% of the total adolescent population opted to delay pregnancy and 1.5% expressed a desire to gain access to family planning aids to limit number of births. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have responded to this adolescent reproductive health problem. Activities such as the Girl Child Programme, the Youth Project, and training in skills development concerned with the issue are being piloted by NGOs. In addition, non-formal education programs by the NGOs and community-based organizations have been initiated in response to the need for appropriate family life, adolescence and population education. Moreover, significant changes have been observed, brought about mainly by cultural and socioeconomic changes. Among these are the rise in the age at marriage from 16.9 to 21 years and a discernable career orientation of the education pursued by some women.

  18. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...

  19. Limitations of the current world health organization growth references for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Moreno, Luis A; Caballero, Benjamin; Cole, Tim J

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of the growth references developed by the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) based on national survey data collected in the 1960s and 1970s. These references are known as the WHO or NCHS/WHO growth references. Over the past three decades, the WHO or NCHS/WHO growth references have played an important role internationally in the assessment of child and adolescent growth and nutritional status. However, the references have a number of weaknesses. The limitations of the infant portion of the references were thoroughly assessed in WHO's effort to develop a new international growth reference for infants and preschool children. The present report discusses the limitations of the NCHS/WHO references for school-aged children and adolescents, including a number of conceptual, methodological, and practical problems. The global obesity epidemic poses another challenge that the NCHS/WHO reference cannot appropriately meet. There is a need for a single international reference to assess the nutritional status and growth of school-aged children and adolescents across different countries.

  20. A review of national health surveys in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Rakhi; Pandey, Anamika; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-04-01

    Several rounds of national health surveys have generated a vast amount of data in India since 1992. We describe and compare the key health information gathered, assess the availability of health data in the public domain, and review publications resulting from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the District Level Household Survey (DLHS) and the Annual Health Survey (AHS). We highlight issues that need attention to improve the usefulness of the surveys in monitoring changing trends in India's disease burden: (i) inadequate coverage of noncommunicable diseases, injuries and some major communicable diseases; (ii) modest comparability between surveys on the key themes of child and maternal mortality and immunization to understand trends over time; (iii) short time intervals between the most recent survey rounds; and (iv) delays in making individual-level data available for analysis in the public domain. We identified 337 publications using NFHS data, in contrast only 48 and three publications were using data from the DLHS and AHS respectively. As national surveys are resource-intensive, it would be prudent to maximize their benefits. We suggest that India plan for a single major national health survey at five-year intervals in consultation with key stakeholders. This could cover additional major causes of the disease burden and their risk factors, as well as causes of death and adult mortality rate estimation. If done in a standardized manner, such a survey would provide useable and timely data to inform health interventions and facilitate assessment of their impact on population health.

  1. Development and organization of child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane; Lowes, Lesley

    Against the backdrop of involving children and families in their own care and the clear need to protect their interest, this article will consider care within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). Following a brief overview of the incidence and prevalence of mental health problems, the development and organization of CAMHS will be explored, giving consideration to some of the literature that discusses the effectiveness of services. A review of the literature revealed that, while there is some evidence of how children feel about the services they receive, there is not currently a significant amount of literature available. Nevertheless, these views are of value in relation to the development of service provision.

  2. Multiple types of child maltreatment and adolescent mental health in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Michael P; Le, Anh Vu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment (MTM), potentially confounding factors and associations with depression, anxiety and self-esteem among adolescents in Viet Nam. Methods In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2591 students (aged 12–18 years; 52.1% female) from randomly-selected classes in eight secondary schools in urban (Hanoi) and rural (Hai Duong) areas of northern Viet Nam (response rate, 94.7%). Sequential multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the relative influence of individual, family and social characteristics and of eight types of maltreatment, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse and physical or emotional neglect, on adolescent mental health. Findings Females reported more neglect and emotional abuse, whereas males reported more physical abuse, but no statistically significant difference was found between genders in the prevalence of sexual abuse. Adolescents were classified as having nil (32.6%), one (25.9%), two (20.7%), three (14.5%) or all four (6.3%) maltreatment types. Linear bivariate associations between MTM and depression, anxiety and low self-esteem were observed. After controlling for demographic and family factors, MTM showed significant independent effects. The proportions of the variance explained by the models ranged from 21% to 28%. Conclusion The combined influence of adverse individual and family background factors and of child maltreatment upon mental health in adolescents in Viet Nam is consistent with research in non-Asian countries. Emotional abuse was strongly associated with each health indicator. In Asian communities where child abuse is often construed as severe physical violence, it is important to emphasize the equally pernicious effects of emotional maltreatment. PMID:20428350

  3. Society for Adolescent Medicine Position Paper on Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Emans, S J; Brown, R T; Davis, A; Felice, M; Hein, K

    1991-12-01

    This article is a revision of a 1983 position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine with inclusion of the newest medical advances in research on adolescent sexuality; i.e., contraceptive compliance, promotion of behavior change, relationships of ethnicity and pregnancy, and male reproductive health. The issues for the 1990's will be sexually transmitted diseases' morbidity and mortality. Topics identified are sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy, care of the pregnant teen, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, the male adolescent, sexual abuse in adolescents, gay and lesbian youth, interventions, reproductive health care of adolescents with disabilities and chronic illnesses, and training of primary care physicians. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has focused attention on the reproductive behavior of males. Sexual activity varies by racial/ethnic group. Interventions to delay sexual initiation needs to be examined, although condom use has increased among 17-19 year olds from 21% to 58% in metropolitan areas. However condom use is lowest among the group of men at highest risk of STDs: those who had ever used drugs, those who had ever had sex with a prostitute, and those that had 5 or more partners/year. Male beliefs about contraception have been infrequently examined. There are misconceptions about heterosexual transmission of HIV. Better screening is needed for STD detection. Fathers are more involved in prenatal care and postnatal intervention programs. 7% of children have been subjected to nonvoluntary sexual intercourse between the ages of 18-21. ; i.e., 12.7% of white women, 9% of black women, 1.9% of white males, and 6.1% of black males. Risk factors for white women were living apart form parents at 16 years, poverty, physical and emotional limitations, parental alcohol and smoking and drug use. Sexual assault was associated with hitchhiking and alcohol and drug use in 1 study cited. Physicians need to be sensitive to this issue and probe for

  4. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  5. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  6. Adolescent tobacco use and its determinants: evidence from Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh 2007.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H

    2015-03-01

    Adolescent tobacco use (ATU) is on the rise worldwide and the problem is particularly severe in developing countries. Based on nationally representative data, this study aims to investigate the association between ATU and its possible correlates for Bangladesh, where the prevalence rate of ATU is high. The data set is extracted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Bangladesh conducted in 2007. The survey collected information from a total of 3113 students from 52 schools, with a response rate of 100% at the school level, while a response rate of 88.9% was achieved from the students. Students covered in the survey were in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10, with age ranging from 11 to 17 years. The prevalence rate of ATU at the time of the survey was 8.4%, while 35.6% of the students had used at least a type of tobacco products before. Logistic regressions were used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) in favor of ATU for each of the possible determinants and the confidence intervals (CIs) of these ratios. Use of tobacco among friends (OR = 3.46; CI = 2.37-5.05), the experience of seeing others smoking at home (OR = 2.10; CI = 1.36-3.22) or other places (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.02-2.57), receiving pocket money (OR = 7.6; CI = 4.59-13.28), receiving free tobacco from vendors (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.44-3.78), and exposure to advertisements and promotions of tobacco products (OR = 1.83; CI = 1.23-2.79) were associated with a higher likelihood of ATU. Increased awareness of health hazards of tobacco use through education in schools helped mitigate the problem of ATU. The findings of this study have ramifications for tobacco control prevention strategies in Bangladesh.

  7. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  8. Adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia: contested values and policy inaction.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; McDonald, Peter

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the changing social and political context of adolescent sexual and reproductive health policy in Indonesia. We describe how, in 2001, Indonesia was on the brink of implementing an adolescent reproductive health policy that was consistent with international agreements to which the Indonesian government was a party. Although the health of young Indonesians was known to be at risk, the opportunity for reform passed quickly with the emergence of a new competing force, Middle Eastern fundamentalist Islam. Faced with the risk of regional separatism and competing politico-religious influences, the Indonesian government retreated to the safety of inaction in this area of policy. In the absence of a supportive and committed political environment that reinforces policy specifically targeted to young people's reproductive health, extremist approaches that involve considerable health risk prevailed. The sexual and reproductive values and behaviors that are emerging among single young people in contemporary Indonesia are conditioned by a political context that allows the conflicting forces of traditional Indonesian values, Westernization, and the strong emerging force of fundamentalist Islam to compete for the allegiance of young people.

  9. Turbulent times: effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Hair, Elizabeth; Zuckerman, Barry

    2013-10-01

    Turbulent social environments are associated with health and developmental risk, yet mechanisms have been understudied. Guided by a life course framework and stress theory, this study examined the association between turbulent life transitions (including frequent residential mobility, school transitions, family structure disruptions, and homelessness) and exposure to violence during adolescence and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors in young adulthood. Participants (n = 4834) from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort were followed prospectively from age 12-14 years for 10 years. We used structural equation models to investigate pathways between turbulence and cumulative exposure to violence (CEV), and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors, while accounting for early life socio-demographics, family processes, and individual characteristics. Results indicated that turbulence index was associated with cumulative exposure to violence in adolescence. Both turbulence index and cumulative exposure to violence were positively associated with higher health risk behavior, poorer mental health, and inversely associated with high school completion. These findings highlight the importance of considering the cumulative impact of turbulent and adverse social environments when developing interventions to optimize health and developmental trajectory for adolescents transitioning into adulthood.

  10. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  11. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  12. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  13. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  14. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Health-Promoting Behaviors of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…

  15. Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

  16. Adolescent Mental Health: Selected Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection, April 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    Items in this annotated bibliography deal with the mental health of adolescents and include materials for adolescents, parents, health educators, and health professionals. Resources cited include 11 videotapes and 64 publications dealing with the following topics: (1) teenage suicide; (2) mental illness in the family; (3) coping; (4) teenage…

  17. Adolescent Health: Present Status and Its Related Programmes in India. Are We in the Right Direction?

    PubMed Central

    Sivagurunathan, C; Umadevi, R.; Rama, R.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of rapid growth and development during which physical, physiological and behavioural changes occur. They constitute more than 1.2 billion worldwide, and about 21% of Indian population. Morbidity and mortality occurring in this age group is mostly due to preventable causes. Young and growing children have poor knowledge and lack of awareness about physical and psychological changes that occurs during adolescence and the ill health affecting them. Existing Adolescent health programmes focus on rendering services like immunization, health education for sexual and reproductive health, nutritional education and supplementation, anemia control measures and counseling. Adolescent health programmes are fragmentary at present and there is no comprehensive programme addressing all the needs of adolescents. Access and availability of health care services are severely limited. Lack of accurate information, absence of proper guidance, parent’s ignorance, lack of skills and insufficient services from health care delivery system are the major barriers. Interventions should focus on providing psychological and mental health services and behaviour change communication towards leading a healthy lifestyle, restricting advertisement related to junk food products, awareness creation about reproductive and sexual health, educating parents to prevent early marriage, teenage pregnancy and to counsel their children on nutrition and reproductive health. Universal coverage of Adolescent friendly clinics is highly recommended. To be cost effective, all health services addressing adolescent should come under single programme. This review is intended to create awareness among the stakeholders about the importance of strengthening adolescent health services in order to meet their felt needs. PMID:25964884

  18. Online, Tuned In, Turned On: Multimedia Approaches to Fostering Critical Media Health Literacy for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The commercial media is an influential sociocultural force and transmitter of health information especially for adolescents. Instruction in critical media health literacy, a combination of concepts from critical health literacy and critical media literacy, is a potentially effective means of raising adolescents' awareness about commercial media…

  19. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  20. The Potential of School-Linked Centers To Promote Adolescent Health and Development. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    The future of school-linked adolescent health centers cannot be determined without further evaluation. The recent development of school-linked health centers stems from concerns about the special health needs of adolescents. Currently there are 125 school-based and school-linked centers in operation. Characteristics include the following: (1) most…

  1. [A survey on the use of contraceptives by adolescents].

    PubMed

    Requillart, M A

    1983-01-01

    263 females aged 14-17 were surveyed in 1980 in Lille and Tourcoing, France, in family planning centers offering free confidential contraceptive consultations to adolescents, in order to assess their level of contraceptive usage. 56% were 17 and 11% were under 16. 97% were French and 88% were students. 7% worked and 5% were unemployed. Compared to the general population, the middle class overrepresented and the lower class was underrepresented. The average age of 1st intercourse was 15.6 years and varied by the educational level of the respondents and the occupations of their fathers. 1 of the 263 reported having had a child and 7 had had abortions; 5 had used no contraception and 2 had forgotten to take pills. 55% stated they wanted to marry in the future and 34% wanted to live with a man outside marriage. The less educated tended to favor marriage or the single state more than the others. 81% of those who reported themselves to be very religious or of average religiousness wanted to marry. 1/2 of all respondents wanted 2 children, 15% wanted 3 or more and 11% wanted one. 40 of the 263 respondents had never received any information about contraception; 105 had learned about it from the mass media, 62 from their families, 149 from friends, school, or workplaces; and 82 from specialists. Fewer than 10% had never had sexual relations and were seeking contraception in anticipation of future relations. Slightly over 30% stated they had used contraception since their 1st relations, and about 40% said their 1st use of contraception occurred after their 1st relations. Use of contraception at 1st intercourse was more likely the higher the age at which it occurred. Over 80% began using contraception as a conscious personal decision because of the risk of pregnancy, 15% because of pressure from the partner, and 3% because of parental pressure. 35% chose a method themselves, 43% chose with the partner's help, 21% with a friend's help, 6% with a parent, and 2% with a physician

  2. Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633

  3. "Peers, parents and phones"--Swedish adolescents and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.

  4. Risky Driving, Mental Health, and Health-Compromising Behaviors: Risk Clustering in Late Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717

  5. Marketing HPV vaccine: implications for adolescent health and medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sheila M; Rothman, David J

    2009-08-19

    The new vaccine against 4 types of human papillomavirus (HPV), Gardasil, like other immunizations appears to be a cost-effective intervention with the potential to enhance both adolescent health and the quality of their adult lives. However, the messages and the methods by which the vaccine was marketed present important challenges to physician practice and medical professionalism. By making the vaccine's target disease cervical cancer, the sexual transmission of HPV was minimized, the threat of cervical cancer to adolescents was maximized, and the subpopulations most at risk practically ignored. The vaccine manufacturer also provided educational grants to professional medical associations (PMAs) concerned with adolescent and women's health and oncology. The funding encouraged many PMAs to create educational programs and product-specific speakers' bureaus to promote vaccine use. However, much of the material did not address the full complexity of the issues surrounding the vaccine and did not provide balanced recommendations on risks and benefits. As important and appropriate as it is for PMAs to advocate for vaccination as a public good, their recommendations must be consistent with appropriate and cost-effective use.

  6. Altruistic reasoning in adolescent-parent dyads considering participation in a hypothetical sexual health clinical trial for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2016-04-01

    Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.

  7. Adolescent mental health, behavior problems, and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.

  8. Evaluation of a reproductive health program to support married adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Erulkar, Annabel; Tamrat, Tigest

    2014-06-01

    Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and gender through girls' groups. The husbands' program focused on non-violence, support to families, and reproductive health. Population-based surveys were undertaken among married girls, at midterm and end line. Outcomes of interest were husbands' assistance with domestic work, accompaniment to the clinic, family planning use, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), and domestic violence. Overall, 1,010 married girls were interviewed. Participation in the girls' groups was associated with improvements in help with domestic work, accompaniment to the clinic, family planning and VCT. Further improvements were recorded when both partners participated. For example, participating girls were nearly 8 times more likely to receive VCT (OR 7.7) than nonparticipants, and more than 18 times more likely if both partners participated (OR 18.3). While these results are promising, there were indications of selectivity bias that could have contributed to the positive results. Programs engaging both wives and husbands can result in incremental improvements to the health and well-being of girls married early.

  9. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.

  10. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.

  11. Inclusiveness: a mental health strategy for preventing future mental health problems among adolescents orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G; Mokomane, Z

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise an argument that inclusiveness will lessen the pain of losing a parent among adolescents orphaned by AIDS and as a result, prevent future mental health problems that may occur because of inappropriate grieving and maladaptive coping strategies. Participation of adolescents orphaned by AIDS in decisions pertaining to their parents' illnesses and funeral arrangements, for example, may shorten the grieving process and allow for closure. The paper draws data from focus group discussions that were held with 15 adolescents orphaned by AIDS in urban South Africa. The focus group discussions that were structured around four themes: grieving patterns; coping strategies; experience with loss; and expectations. The results of the study demonstrate inclusiveness as an overarching factor in the healing process. The concept is thus a strong recommendation for mental health practice and further study.

  12. Engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal mental health intervention study: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa Dawn; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Derrick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about recruiting and retaining adolescent mothers in research studies. Investigators who study adolescent mothers have been guided by trial and error, clinical experience, qualitative inquiry, literature of special populations, or the advice of stakeholders. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned in engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal community-based mental health intervention study. Audio-recorded data that describes the circumstances of five adolescent mothers lost to attrition were extracted from a longitudinal mental health intervention study. Adolescent mothers described a chaotic home environment with multiple demands, family conflict, health issues, limited access to a telephone, transportation, financial, and social support. Utilizing a multidisciplinary community advisory group, dedicated telephone, and free electronic media may assist in overcoming modifiable barriers to recruitment and retention of adolescent mothers. Exploring a waiver of informed consent and the engagement of mothers of adolescents in research are indicated.

  13. Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N = 141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries.

  14. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  15. Multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later mental health disorders: a population-based registry study of Norwegian youth: the NAAHS cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eckhoff, Christian; Straume, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and mental health disorders in young adulthood. Design and setting Data were obtained from a linkage between the Norwegian Patient Registry (2008–2012) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey conducted among 10th grade students in North Norway (2003–2005). Participants In total, 3987 (68%) of all 5877 invited participants consented to the registry linkage. Outcome measures Mental healthcare use and disorders from age 18–20 to 23–25 years (5 years). Methods Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association with later mental healthcare use and disorders. Results Multisite adolescent musculoskeletal pain was significantly associated with an increase in mental healthcare use and mental health disorders in young adulthood. The relationship was stronger for anxiety and mood disorders, in both genders. Overall, the association between musculoskeletal pain and later mental health problems was attenuated after controlling for adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems, not by physical or sedentary activity. This could be due to confounding or mediation. However, when examining different mental health disorders, we found musculoskeletal pain to be significantly associated with anxiety disorders, and showing a strong trend in mood disorders, when adjusted for the adolescent factors. Conclusions Physicians should be aware that multisite adolescent pain is associated with mental health problems in adolescence, and that these adolescents are at increased risk of mental health disorders in young adulthood. As youth troubled by mental health problems commonly present physical symptoms it is important to examine for psychosocial problems in order to offer early interventions. PMID:28188150

  16. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  17. Rights-based services for adolescents living with HIV: adolescent self-efficacy and implications for health systems in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Teltschik, Anja; Ram, Mala; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Bajpai, Divya; Mutali, Beatrice

    2013-05-01

    A rights-based approach in HIV service delivery for adults is increasingly taking root in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of greater availability of antiretroviral therapy. Yet there has been comparatively little progress in strengthening a rights-based approach to adolescent HIV services, which we learned during a qualitative study in 2010 among 111 adolescents living with HIV, 21 parents and 38 health providers in three districts in Zambia. Adolescents in the study expressed a range of information and support needs and wanted locally relevant interventions to meet those needs. They wanted greater access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health information, information on how to protect themselves, privacy and confidentiality in service sites, skills training so as to be able to earn money, and better control over disclosure of their HIV status to others. Both health workers and parents acknowledged that information and services needed to be improved to meet those needs far better. This paper provides examples of successful programmes in Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Botswana and South Africa and calls for adolescent services to be linked to both paediatric and adult services, peer networks to be established to increase adolescents' ability to collectively voice their concerns and support each other, interventions supporting adolescents' control over self-disclosure, and lastly that adolescent health should become a training specialty in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Peter V

    2008-10-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.

  19. How Adolescent Subjective Health and Satisfaction with Weight and Body Shape Are Related to Participation in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Dyremyhr, Åse Eriksen; Diaz, Esperanza; Meland, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical exercise has positive effects on health. However, its associations with self-rated health and body image, which are important predictors for adolescents' wellbeing and later morbidity, are complex. Methods. Cross-sectional survey among 2527 Norwegian adolescents. We examined the relations between self-reported gender, body size, amount and type of exercise and measures of self-rated health, drive for thinness, and desire to change body, with binary logistic regression analyses. Results. Girls and overweight students reported to a greater extent than their peers impaired self-rated health, weight concerns, and desire to change their body. Increasing amount of time spent on sports was related to improved self-rated health in a dose-response manner. Both girls and boys who engaged in individual sports with an advantage of leanness, but only girls engaged in team sports, reported an increased desire to change the body. However, weight concern was not related to amount or type of sports. Conclusions. Physical exercise is positively related to self-reported health but has negative associations with body image for many adolescents. Health promotion efforts should consider this paradox and stimulate physical activity and sports along with body acceptance. PMID:25013414

  20. Adolescents’ Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents’ views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. Results A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for “safe” resources. Discussion Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents’ preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. Translation to Health Education Practice Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents’ views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  1. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) sibling pairs data.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the United States in 1994-1995 who have been followed for 15 years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with four in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including sibling pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community.

  2. Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2013-09-01

    Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China.

  3. Division of Adolescent and School Health School Health Programs, 2008. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Six priority health risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems in the United States. These behaviors are often established during childhood and adolescence. They include tobacco use; unhealthy dietary behaviors; inadequate physical activity; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that may result…

  4. Survey on Continuing Education Needs for Health Professionals: Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    The report documents the results of a 1967 survey of health professionals in the four-State Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) Mountain States Regional Medical Program (MS/RMP). Addressed to health professionals in each of the four States--Idaho, Montana, Nevada, and Wyoming--the survey focuses primarily on the…

  5. HARRISBURG TRI-COUNTY HEALTH MANPOWER SURVEY REPORT. PRELIMINARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RATNER, MURIEL

    THE HARRISBURG AREA COMMUNITY COLLEGE COOPERATED WITH TWO HOSPITALS IN A SURVEY OF THE AREA'S NEEDS FOR HEALTH TECHNICIANS. DATA, COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS OF DOCTORS AND DENTISTS AND BY INTERVIEWS WITH ADMINISTRATORS OF HOSPITALS, NURSING HOMES AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, INDICATED THAT (1) A 60-PERCENT INCREASE IN HEALTH MNAPOWER…

  6. Worksite Health Promotion Activities. 1992 National Survey. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    The survey reported in this document examined worksite health promotion and disease prevention activities in 1,507 private worksites in the United States. Specificlly, the survey assessed policies, practices, services, facilities, information, and activities sponsored by employers to improve the health of their employees, and assessed health…

  7. Urban Lit and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Survey of African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors.

  8. Health Related Quality of Life of Adolescents in Vietnam: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Adolescent Duke Health Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thi Xuan Hanh, Vo; Guillemin, Francis; Dinh Cong, Duong; Parkerson, George R., Jr.; Bach Thu, Pham; Tu Quynh, Pham; Briancon, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) of adolescents has been scarcely documented in a general population sample. The study was aimed at translating and adapting the Adolescent Duke Health Profile to Vietnamese, validating the questionnaire, determining reference value, and identifying determinants of poor QOL. Following a cross-cultural methodology, the…

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  10. The Relationship of Parental Mental Health and Dietary Pattern With Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068

  11. Risk indicators for poor oral health in adolescents born extremely preterm.

    PubMed

    Rythén, Marianne; Niklasson, Aimon; Hellström, Ann; Hakeberg, Magnus; Robertson, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Children born extremely preterm often suffer from medical complications that have been shown to affect their oral health as toddlers and school children.The aim of this study was to investigate oral health and possible risk indicators for poor oral health in adolescents born extremely preterm compared with a control group and relate the findings to medical diagnoses at the clinical examination. Also in the same groups, compare the frequency of mineralization disturbances and its relation to postnatal morbidity and treatments. The medical records postnatally,was noted in 45 extremely preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of <29 weeks, at 12 - 16 years of age and in age and gender matched fullterm controls with 37-43 weeks GA. A dental clinical examination was performed including a salivary examination. Medical diagnoses were noted at the time of the survey. Data from the patient dental records at 3, 6, and 9 years of age was compiled. The findings were related to gestational age, birth weight, neonatal and postnatal medical diagnoses treatments and medical diagnoses at the clinical examination. The result showed that the prevalence of plaque, gingivitis and the occurrence of Streptococcus mutans were higher among adolescents born extremely preterm compared to matched controls, and the saliva secretion was lower in the extremely preterm infants. The frequency of caries did not differ between the groups. Mineralization disturbances were more frequent in the primary dentition and more severe in the permanent dentition among the children born extremely preterm. No association between dental pathology, neonatal and postnatal morbidity and treatments was found. In conclusion, adolescents born extremely preterm have an increased number of risk indicators for a poorer oral outcome compared with the controls and more severe mineralization disturbances. These findings may imply an increased vulnerability for poorer oral health later in life.

  12. Hygiene behaviour of adolescents in the Pacific: associations with socio-demographic, health behaviour and school environment.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Phongsavan, P; Bauman, A E; Havea, D; Galea, G

    2006-01-01

    This study presents findings on health-related hygiene behaviours of 9,013 adolescents from Vanuatu, Tonga and Pohnpei in the Federal States of Micronesia as part of the Health Behaviour of Pacific Youth Life surveys. We examined the prevalence of and relationship between tooth brushing, hand washing before eating, hand washing after toileting and a range of psychosocial factors such as sociodemographic charac-teristics, health behaviour and school affiliation. The results showed that patterns of prevalence and relationships were consistent for all countries, with weaker associations observed in Pohnpei. In general, adolescents reported moderate levels of optimal hygiene practice. Girls reported significantly more frequent optimal hygiene practice than boys. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that frequent hygiene behaviours were significantly associated with gender, parental occupations and high levels of school affiliation. These findings suggest the need to consider psycho-social and economic factors when examining potential influences on hygiene behaviour to ensure effective interventions.

  13. Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre: a model for adolescent friendly HIV management and reproductive health for adolescents in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkala, Busisiwe; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Sekoane, Itumeleng; Sonqishe, Bulelwa; Gray, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre, an adolescent program specifically established to provide voluntary counseling and testing as well as management of HIV-positive young people in Soweto, South Africa. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis, using clinic records of young people accessing services from 2008 to 2012, was conducted. Of the 11,522 who tested, 7689 (67%) were females. The total number of HIV infections was 410, with an HIV prevalence of 3.6% (95% CI 3.2-3.9%). More females (332, 4% vs. 72, 2%; p < 0.0001) were HIV-infected than males. Of those testing HIV positive, 109 (26.5%) had a median CD4 cell count of 491 (IQR 345-686) cells/mm(3). Only 12/410 individuals (2.9%) were eligible for antiretroviral treatment and 10 (2.4%) of those successfully received treatment. The program observed that young people testing HIV positive would not return for follow up blood specimens or confirmatory results. Future programs should consider innovative ways of retaining adolescents in care to reduce potential HIV transmissions that could lead to deteriorating health.

  14. Efficiency of workplace surveys conducted by Finnish occupational health services.

    PubMed

    Savinainen, Minna; Oksa, Panu

    2011-07-01

    In Finland, workplace surveys are used to identify and assess health risks and problems caused by work and make suggestions for continuous improvement of the work environment. With the aid of the workplace survey, occupational health services can be tailored to a company. The aims of this study were to determine how occupational health professionals gather data via the workplace survey and the effect survey results have on companies. A total of 259 occupational health nurses and 108 occupational health physicians responded to the questionnaire: 84.2% were women and 15.8% were men. The mean age of the respondents was 48.8 years (range, 26 to 65 years). Usually occupational health nurses and foremen and sometimes occupational health physicians and occupational safety and health representatives initiate the workplace survey. More than 90% of the surveys were followed by action proposals, and about 50% of these were implemented. The proposals implemented most often concerned personal protective equipment and less often leadership. Survey respondents should have both the opportunity and the authority to affect resources, the work environment, work arrangements, and tools. Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital for cost-effectively solving today's complex problems at workplaces around the globe.

  15. Brief 73 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na

  16. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  17. Chronic family economic hardship, family processes and progression of mental and physical health symptoms in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-06-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health symptoms in adolescence. The present study investigates the influences of chronic family economic hardship on adolescents' multiple health problem symptoms (i.e., symptoms of anxiety, and depression and physical complaints) through parents' marital conflict, and supportive parenting; it also examines how there adolescents' health problems mutually influence one another throughout adolescence. We used Structural Equation Modeling to analyze data from a longitudinal sample of European American mothers, fathers, and target adolescents (N = 451, 53% female) to examine direct and indirect effects. Findings generally supported the hypothesized model. Chronic family economic hardship contributed to mental and physical health problems of adolescents. This influence largely was mediated through supportive parenting. Moreover, supportive parenting buffered marital conflict on depressive symptoms of adolescents. Also, there was a tendency for females to show more stable depressive symptoms than males. The study demonstrates key mediating pathways and additional moderating influences based on the family stress model and also highlights the importance of improving health resources for adolescents.

  18. Parental knowledge and adolescent adjustment: substance use and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia; Moreno, Carmen; Granado-Alcón, M Carmen; López, Ana

    2012-03-01

    This study analyses two models (maternal and paternal) in which parental care and sources of parental knowledge moderated the relationship between parents' knowledge about their adolescents' lives and adolescents' substance use and health-related quality of life. The sample was made up of 15942 Spanish adolescents who participated in the 2006 edition of Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study. Results showed that increased parents' knowledge about their adolescents' lives reduced adolescents' substance use and increased their quality of life. With respect to the moderation relationship, a limited effect was found. However, parental care and sources of parental knowledge used by both parents generally had main effects on adolescents' substance use and health-related quality of life, with care being the most relevant variable in the health-related quality of life, while knowledge was the most relevant one for substance use.

  19. Mental health care reforms in Latin America: child and adolescent mental health services in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Vargas Huicochea, Ingrid; Raviola, Giuseppe; Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-05-01

    This column provides an overview of child and adolescent mental health services in Mexico, where prevalence rates of mental disorders among young people are up to twice as high as U.S. and Canadian rates. The mental health care system in Mexico is underdeveloped and underfunded, and for the approximately 40% of the population with no insurance, access to and quality of care are particularly poor. This column offers policy recommendations aimed at better meeting the needs of this vulnerable population.

  20. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973