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Sample records for adolescent male athletes

  1. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.

  2. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  3. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089

  4. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  5. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  6. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

  7. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  8. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  9. The adolescent. Athletics and development.

    PubMed

    Masland, R P

    1983-01-01

    An appreciation of adolescent growth and development is essential to the understanding of problems faced by the adolescent athlete. Early adolescence (ages 10-15 years) can be characterized as the body period. Physical growth is genetically determined and can be influenced by disease, injury, and nutrition. Early maturers are subject to adult expectations which may lead to either failure or excessive acclaim. Middle adolescence (ages 15-18 years) is the sexuality period, with special emphasis on gender identity. Friendships are critical, and athletics can be a focal point for showing love and affection without social fear. Late adolescence (ages 18-22 years) is the separation period. Young people with athletic skills leave home to face greater athletic and academic pressure and competition in college. Adjustment to this final adolescent period is achieved through learning to lose as well as win with grace and dignity. PMID:6833060

  10. Bone Health in Adolescent Athletes with a Focus on Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and life-long fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences later in life, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical time for bone acquisition. This review discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, physical activity effects, and nutritional contributions are presented, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. The Female Athlete Triad (the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) is an important issue for adolescent, athletic women, and is therefore reviewed, including prevention and treatment strategies. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed. PMID:21378496

  11. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in Korean athletic and non-athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hee; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kim, Gwi-Sun; Park, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Athletes generally desire changes in body composition in order to enhance their athletic performance. Often, athletes will practice chronic energy restrictions to attain body composition changes, altering their energy needs. Prediction of resting metabolic rates (RMR) is important in helping to determine an athlete's energy expenditure. This study compared measured RMR of athletic and non-athletic adolescents with predicted RMR from commonly used prediction equations to identify the most accurate equation applicable for adolescent athletes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 50 athletes (mean age of 16.6 ± 1.0 years, 30 males and 20 females) and 50 non-athletes (mean age of 16.5 ± 0.5 years, 30 males and 20 females) were enrolled in the study. The RMR of subjects was measured using indirect calorimetry. The accuracy of 11 RMR prediction equations was evaluated for bias, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Until more accurate prediction equations are developed, our findings recommend using the formulas by Cunningham (-29.8 kcal/day, limits of agreement -318.7 and +259.1 kcal/day) and Park (-0.842 kcal/day, limits of agreement -198.9 and +196.9 kcal/day) for prediction of RMR when studying male adolescent athletes. Among the new prediction formulas reviewed, the formula included in the fat-free mass as a variable [RMR = 730.4 + 15 × fat-free mass] is paramount when examining athletes. CONCLUSIONS The RMR prediction equation developed in this study is better in assessing the resting metabolic rate of Korean athletic adolescents. PMID:26244075

  12. Adolescent Athletic Injuries: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    White, G. N.

    1986-01-01

    Adolescents are becoming involved in athletic activities at an ever-increasing rate, with the result that more adolescents are presenting to the family physician with athletic injuries. The most frequent type of sports injury involves the soft tissues. This paper discusses the diagnosis and management of soft-tissue injuries and identifies some of the behavioural characteristics of the injured adolescent athlete. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21267223

  13. Low back pain in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians must have knowledge of the growth and development of the adolescent spine and the subsequent injury patterns and other spinal conditions common in the adolescent athlete. The management and treatment of spinal injuries in adolescent athletes require a coordinated effort between the clinician, patients, parents/guardians, coaches, therapists, and athletic trainers. Treatment should not only help alleviate the current symptoms but also address flexibility and muscle imbalances to prevent future injuries by recognizing and addressing risk factors. Return to sport should be a gradual process once the pain has resolved and the athlete has regained full strength. PMID:25442158

  14. Eating disorders in the male athlete.

    PubMed

    Baum, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders do occur in male athletes. They are less prominent than in female athletes, and therefore in danger of being missed. The high-risk sports fall into the same categories as with females: aesthetic sports, sports in which low body fat is advantageous, such as cross-country and marathon running, and sports in which there is a need to "make weight", including wrestling and horse racing. Athletic involvement may foster the development of an eating disorder. Some male athletes, in their preoccupation with body image, will abuse anabolic steroids. While sports participation may contribute to the aetiology of an eating disorder, the converse is also true. Exercise may be used as therapy for some cases of eating disorder. In order to adequately treat eating disorders in the male athlete, it is first essential to identify cases. Psychoeducation of athletes, their families, coaches and trainers is an important first step. Counselling an athlete to pursue a sport appropriate to his body type, or to leave his sport behind altogether (an unpopular recommendation from a coach's perspective) can be important to treatment. Treatment of co-morbid psychiatric conditions is essential. Treatment can be structured using a biopsychosocial approach, and all appropriate modalities of therapy, including individual, family and group, as well as psychopharmacotherapy, where appropriate, should be applied. PMID:16445307

  15. Anthropometric characteristics of young Turkish male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla; Ozener, Bariş; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-12-01

    Comparative reports on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes are certainly important in modern sports and have long been studied by sports scientists. Studies on Turkish athletes however, are limited. In the present study physical characteristics of athletes active in various sports (American football, basketball, volleyball and football) were observed and compared to each other and to those of non-athlete individuals. 153 volunteer male subjects participated in the study. All of the athletes were licensed members of teams in inter-university leagues. All subjects were given information about the objectives of the study and were advised of the manner with which the anthropometric measurements would be obtained. In addition to 17 anthropometric values, body mass index (BMI) and somatotype components were calculated and evaluated. Length, breadth, and girth values were evaluated by ANCOVA and height and weight were used as co-variate factors. The other variables were evaluated by metric and non-metric ANOVA. The results of the study indicate that basketball and volleyball players were characteristic with their longer lower limb length; American football players were with their wider biiliac breadth and higher girth values; and football players with their small structure. It was also observed that Turkish athletes have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy values when compared to athletes from other countries. PMID:20102048

  16. Cardiovascular health in former elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J K; Kujala, U M; Sarna, S; Karanko, H; Puukka, P J; Jula, A M

    2016-05-01

    To increase our knowledge on the effects of previous and current physical activity on cardiovascular health, we studied a group of Finnish male former elite athletes (endurance, n = 49; power, n = 50) and their 49 age and area-matched controls, aged 64-89 years. Body mass index (BMI), fasting serum glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and ultrasonography of cardiac and carotid artery structure and function were measured. Former endurance athletes smoked less, had lower prevalence of hypertension, and had higher intensity and volume of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) than the controls. No difference was detected in cardiac or carotid artery structure and function between these groups. Former athletes performing high-intensity LTPA were slightly younger (possible selection bias), had lower BMI and waist circumference, lower use of antihypertensives, lower prevalence of diabetes, lower pulse wave velocity, and higher carotid artery elasticity than former athletes not performing high-intensity LTPA. In conclusion, former athletes had a higher intensity and volume of LTPA than the controls. Athletes performing vigorous LTPA had more elastic arteries than athletes performing moderately or no LTPA. Vigorous LTPA through the whole lifetime associates with good cardiovascular health, although the previous medical history may play an important role. PMID:25919653

  17. Rotator cuff injuries in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Arkader, Alexandre; Wells, Lawrence M; Ganley, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    The cause of rotator cuff injuries in the young athlete has been described as an overuse injury related to internal impingement. Abduction coupled with external rotation is believed to impinge on the rotator cuff, specifically the supraspinatus, and lead to undersurface tears that can progress to full-thickness tears. This impingement is believed to be worsened with increased range of motion and instability in overhead athletes. A retrospective review of seven patients diagnosed with rotator cuff injuries was performed to better understand this shoulder injury pattern. The type of sport played, a history of trauma, diagnosis, treatment method, and outcome were noted. Six patients were male and one was a female. Baseball was the primary sport for four patients, basketball for one, gymnastics for one, and wrestling for one. The following injury patterns were observed: two patients tore their subscapularis tendon, two sustained avulsion fractures of their lesser tuberosity, one tore his rotator interval, one tore his supraspinatus, and one avulsed his greater tuberosity. Only four patients recalled a specific traumatic event. Three patients were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, three with miniopen repair, and one was treated with rehabilitation. Six of the seven patients returned to their preinjury level of sport after treatment. Rotator cuff tears are rare in the adolescent age group. The injury patterns suggest that acute trauma likely accounts for many rotator cuff tears and their equivalents in the young patient. Adolescents with rotator cuff tears reliably return to sports after treatment. The possibility of rotator cuff tears in skeletally immature athletes should be considered. The prognosis is very good once this injury is identified and treated. PMID:22668571

  18. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events. PMID:22185072

  19. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  20. Features of Posttraumatic Distress Among Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine features of posttraumatic distress related to sport injury among healthy and injured adolescent athletes. Design and Setting: Healthy athletes with and without a prior injury history were screened before their competitive season, and injured and matched control athletes were surveyed at 1 week postinjury. Subjects: We screened 283 athletes during the preseason and categorized them by injury history (n = 43) and no injury history (n = 240) groups. Twenty-four athletes (12 injured, 12 matched uninjured controls) were included in the postinjury analysis. Measurements: The Impact of Events Scale, a 15-item self-report questionnaire, was used to measure athletes' frequency of experiencing intrusive thoughts and engaging in avoidance behavior regarding athletic injury. Results: Athletes with a recent injury history exhibited a greater frequency of intrusive thoughts and avoidance behavior than did those without a recent injury history. Although postinjury findings did not reach statistical significance, injured athletes' scores increased by 35% to 49% from preinjury to postinjury, whereas only minimal changes (<1%) occurred in the control group. Conclusions: Younger athletes may be particularly sensitive to injury-related stimuli, which may result in heightened injury-related distress. PMID:12937529

  1. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  2. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  3. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role. PMID:22830488

  4. Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

  5. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  6. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  7. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  8. Tendon Adaptation to Sport-specific Loading in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; John, M; Riegels, N; Mayer, F

    2016-02-01

    Tendon adaptation due to mechanical loading is controversially discussed. However, data concerning the development of tendon thickness in adolescent athletes is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in Achilles (AT) and patellar tendon (PT) thickness in adolescent athletes while considering age, gender and sport-specific loading. In 500 adolescent competitive athletes of 16 different sports and 40 recreational controls both ATs and PTs were sonographically measured. Subjects were divided into 2 age groups (< 13; ≥ 13 years) and 6 sport type categories (ball, combat, and water sports, combined disciplines, cycling, controls). In addition, 3 risk groups (low, moderate, high) were created according to the athlete's risk of developing tendinopathy. AT and PT thickness did not significantly differ between age groups (AT/PT:<13: 5.4±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm;≥13: 5.3±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm). In both age groups males presented higher tendon thickness than females (p<0.001). AT thickness was highest in ball sports/cyclists and lowest in controls (p≤0.002). PT thickness was greatest in water sports and lowest in controls (p=0.02). High risk athletes presented slightly higher AT thickness compared to the low risk group (p=0.03). Increased AT and PT thickness in certain sport types compared to controls supports the hypothesis of structural tendon adaptation due to sport-specific loading. PMID:26509367

  9. Drugs of abuse and the adolescent athlete

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Doping with endocrine drugs is quite prevalent in amateur and professional athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has a list of banned drugs for athletes who compete and a strategy to detect such drugs. Some are relatively easy, anabolic steroids and erythropoietin, and others more difficult, human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The use of such compounds is likely less in adolescent athletes, but the detection that much more difficult given that the baseline secretion of the endogenous hormone is shifting during pubertal development with the greatest rise in testosterone in boys occuring about the time of peak height velocity and maximal secretion of hGH and IGF-I. This review notes the rationale, physiology, performance enhancement, adverse events and the detection of doping with insulin, rhGH, rhIGF-I, erythropoietin, and anabolic-androgenic steroids. PMID:20167068

  10. Rhabdomyolysis in adolescent athletes: review of cases.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Kevin; Gregory, Andrew; Desai, Neerav; Diamond, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria and ranges in severity from asymptomatic to life threatening with acute kidney failure. While a common condition in adult populations, it is understudied in pediatrics and the majority of adolescent cases are likely exercise-induced, caused by strenuous exercise in athletes. Recently, in our pediatric sports medicine practice, we have seen numerous cases of late adolescent high school athletes who present with severe muscle pain and were found to have elevated creatine kinase levels. The cases review potential contributing factors including characteristics of the workout, use of supplements, caffeine, medication, and metabolic or genetic predisposition. Treatment for exercised-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely requires more than rehydration. Return to play should be progressive, individualized, and include acclimatization and monitoring of hydration status, though guidelines require further review. PMID:27031535

  11. Two types of laminolysis in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi; Sakai, Toshinori; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Yasui, Natsuo; Dezawa, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Bony defects in the spine are divided into three main types: spondylolysis, pediculolysis, and laminolysis. Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-known stress fracture that occurs frequently in adolescent athletes. Pediculolysis means stress fracture of the pedicle, which sometimes occurs subsequent to unilateral spondylolysis. Laminolysis is a rarely reported stress fracture similar to spondylolysis and pediculolysis that sometimes causes low back pain (LBP). However, its pathomechanism has not been elucidated. Recently, we encountered four adolescent athletes with symptomatic laminolysis. Mean age was 15.8 (range 15-17) years. All subjects reported severe LBP exacerbated by extension of the lumbar spine, and radiology revealed two types of laminolysis: hemilaminar type and intralaminar type. To elucidate the mechanisms of each type, we reviewed a biomechanical study, and found that the hemilaminar type was thought to be subsequent to contralateral spondylolysis, while the intralaminar type might be a result of a stress fracture due to repetitive extension loading. PMID:22815057

  12. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  13. HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION AND ADOLESCENT SUICIDE: A Nationwide US Study.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Don; Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Barnes, Grace M

    2005-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents aged 15-24, with males incurring higher rates of completion than females. This study used hierarchical logistic regression analysis to test whether athletic participation was associated with lower rates of suicidal ideation and behavior among a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 US public and private high school students. Net of the effects of age, race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and urbanicity, high school athletic participation was significantly associated with reduced odds of considering suicide among both females and males, and reduced odds of planning a suicide attempt among females only. Though the results point to favorable health outcomes for athletes, athletic participation was also associated with higher rates of injury to male athletes who actually attempted suicide. PMID:18846245

  14. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance. PMID:27111401

  15. Motivational Cluster Profiles of Adolescent Athletes: An Examination of Differences in Physical-Self Perception

    PubMed Central

    Çağlar, Emine; Aşçı, F. Hülya

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to identify motivational profiles of adolescent athletes using cluster analysis in non-Western culture. A second purpose was to examine relationships between physical self-perception differences of adolescent athletes and motivational profiles. One hundred and thirty six male (Mage = 17.46, SD = 1.25 years) and 80 female adolescent athletes (Mage = 17.61, SD = 1.19 years) from a variety of team sports including basketball, soccer, volleyball, and handball volunteered to participate in this study. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) were administered to all participants. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a four-cluster solution for this sample: amotivated, low motivated, moderate motivated, and highly motivated. A 4 x 5 (Cluster x PSPP Subscales) MANOVA revealed no significant main effect of motivational clusters on physical self-perception levels (p > 0.05). As a result, findings of the present study showed that motivational types of the adolescent athletes constituted four different motivational clusters. Highly and moderate motivated athletes consistently scored higher than amotivated athletes on the perceived sport competence, physical condition, and physical self-worth subscales of PSPP. This study identified motivational profiles of competitive youth-sport participants. Key points Highly motivated athletes have a tendency to perceive themselves competent in psychomotor domains as compared to the amotivated athletes As the athletes feel more competent in psychomotor domain, they are more intrinsically motivated. The information about motivational profiles of adolescent athletes could be used for developing strategies and interventions designed to improve the strength and quality of sport participants’ motivation. PMID:24149690

  16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in athletes: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Kenanidis, Eustathios I; Potoupnis, Michael E; Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Sayegh, Fares E; Kapetanos, George A

    2010-06-01

    The potential relationship between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and sports is rather vague. Sports have often been considered to be a causative factor of, or a treatment option for the former, particularly among adolescent athletes who are engaged in certain athletic activities. The highly repetitive nature of sports, amenorrhea, exercise-related exerted stress on the immature spine of professional adolescent athletes, and the joint laxity that may coexist during adolescence, have also been associated with an increased incidence of AIS. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential connection between sports and AIS by reviewing the existing literature. PMID:20631476

  17. An Educational Model To Enhance Sportsmanship of Male High School Athletes during Interscholastic Athletic Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisivoccia, Joseph Dominick

    A solution for high school male athletes who demonstrate unsportsmanlike behavior during competition is discussed. In recent years, there has been an increase in unsportsmanlike conduct among high school athletes, including the use of profanity and obscene gestures, public expressions of dissatisfaction, negative comments, incidents of vandalism,…

  18. Sudden Heart Death More Common in Male Minority Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159606.html Sudden Heart Death More Common in Male Minority Athletes Inherited condition ... found that about one-third of sudden cardiac deaths were caused by the heart condition hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ...

  19. Sudden Heart Death More Common in Male Minority Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159606.html Sudden Heart Death More Common in Male Minority Athletes Inherited condition ... found that about one-third of sudden cardiac deaths were caused by the heart condition hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ...

  20. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. An understanding of elite athletes' MIP characteristics is needed to guide sport-specific inspiratory muscle training programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and better understand the MIP characteristics of elite athletes from a variety of sports. A total of 301 Japanese elite male athletes participated in this study. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Athletes with higher body mass tended to have stronger MIP values, in absolute terms. In relative terms, however, athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have stronger MIP values. Our findings suggest that athletes could benefit from prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training or warm-ups. PMID:27181330

  1. Clinical examination, spondylolysis and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Sundell, C-G; Jonsson, H; Ådin, L; Larsén, K H

    2013-03-01

    Symptomatic spondylolysis is a stress reaction caused by microtrauma during physical exercise, an imaging diagnostic subgroup of Adolescent Low Back Pain (ALBP), found in adolescent athletes. Early diagnosis increases the possibility of healing. Thus, it is important to divide ALBP into subgroups. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical tests that can distinguish symptomatic spondylolysis from other forms of ALBP in order to facilitate early referral for diagnostic imaging. The investigation subjects were a prospective case series with a control group, 25 subjects with ALBP and 13 subjects that had no history of LBP. The 2 groups were examined using the same clinical protocol. MRI of the whole lumbar spine was performed in both the case and control groups and CT investigations of the L4 and L5 vertebrae were performed in the case group. Significant differences between the 2 groups were found in 8 of our clinical tests. No clinical test, alone or in combination, could distinguish between spondylolysis and other forms of ALBP. As 88% of the subjects in the case group had MRI findings and almost 50% had spondylolysis, MRI should be performed at an early age in young athletes with ALBP. PMID:23027361

  2. Prevalence of low back pain in adolescent athletes - an epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C P; Zwingenberger, S; Walther, A; Reuter, U; Kasten, P; Seifert, J; Günther, K-P; Stiehler, M

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom in the populations of western countries, and adolescent athletes seem to be prone to LBP. The main objective of this study was to analyze the point (LBP within the last 48 h), 1-year (LBP within the last 12 months) and lifetime (LBP within the entire life) prevalence rates of LBP in adolescent athletes participating in various sports. We also assessed the characteristics of LBP and its association with potential risk factors. To this end, 272 competitive adolescent athletes involved in 31 different sports (158 males, 113 females, 15.4 ± 2.0 years, body mass index [BMI] 20.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-month prospective clinical trial that included a questionnaire and physical examination. We found a point prevalence of 14%, a 1-year prevalence of 57%, and a lifetime prevalence of 66% for LBP. The mean age of first appearance of LBP was 13.1 ± 2.0 years. The lifetime prevalence was significantly higher in volleyball than in biathletes (74.3 vs. 45.7%, p = 0.015). Our findings confirm that LBP is a common symptom in adolescent athletes; LBP prevalence correlates with sports participation and individual competitive level. Adolescent athletes with LBP should receive a thorough diagnostic work-up and adapt training and technique correspondingly when indicated. PMID:24424960

  3. Stance limb kinetics of older male athletes endurance running performance.

    PubMed

    Diss, Ceri; Gittoes, Marianne J; Tong, Richard; Kerwin, David G

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the age-based, lower limb kinetics of running performances of endurance athletes. Six running trials were performed by 24 male athletes, who were distinguished by three age groupings (S35: 26-32 years, M50: 50-54 years, M60+: 60-68 years). Lower limb coordinate and ground reaction force data were collected using a nine camera infra-red system synchronised with a force plate. A slower anteroposterior (M ± SD S35 = 4.13 ± 0.54 m/s: M60+ = 3.34 ± 0.40 m/s, p < 0.05) running velocity was associated with significant (p < 0.05) decreases in step length and discrete vertical ground contact force between M60+and S35 athletes. The M60+athletes simultaneously generated a 32% and 42% reduction (p < 0.05) in ankle joint moment when compared to the M50 and S35 athletes and 72% (p < 0.05) reduction in knee joint stiffness when compared to S35 athletes. Age-based declines in running performance were associated with reduced stance phase force tolerance and generation that may be accounted for due to an inhibited force-velocity muscular function of the lower limb. Joint-specific coaching strategies customised to athlete age are warranted to maintain/enhance athletes' dynamic performance. PMID:26208084

  4. Coaching Strategies for Helping Adolescent Athletes Cope with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to…

  5. Disordered eating in male athletes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, James; Woodman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the propensity for male athletes to exhibit symptoms of disordered eating. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined overall effect size, individual effect sizes for specific sport types, standard of athletic competition and diagnostic tools from 31 studies. When all studies were considered as a homogeneous group, male athletes did not have symptoms of disordered eating that were significantly different from non-athletic controls. However, significant moderator effects emerged for sport type and measurement: (a) wrestling reported a greater incidence of disordered eating; and (b) studies that reported data from the Eating Attitudes Test yielded a significantly greater incidence of disordered eating in male athletes compared to non-athletes. Although some sports seem to present a higher risk of disordered eating compared to others, the effects are weak and heterogeneous. We make suggestions for the development of the research area, which has been severely hampered by the diagnostic tools that have been available for the study of men. PMID:25916949

  6. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  7. Faculty Perceptions of Division I Male Student-Athletes: The Relationship between Student-Athlete Contact, Athletic Department Involvement, and Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…

  8. Diagnostic Problem Solving in Male Collegiate Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Fredrick A.; Mensch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Knowledge and experience may be important factors for understanding expertise based upon a clinician's ability to select and execute an appropriate response as a clinician during injury evaluation. Objective: To describe how collegiate male certified athletic trainers represent injury-evaluation domain knowledge during a situational interview using a think-aloud protocol. Design: Qualitative. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and II colleges in National Athletic Trainers' Association District 3. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 20 male certified athletic trainers (n = 10 with less than 2 years of experience in the college setting and n = 10 with at least 10 years of experience in the college setting) participated in the study. Data Collection and Analysis: We collected data using a situational interview and questionnaire. Data were transcribed, reduced to meaningful units, and analyzed using verbal analysis procedures. Member checks, triangulation of data, field journaling, and peer-debriefing techniques were used to ensure trustworthiness of the data. Knowledge concepts were enumerated to describe differences between experts and novices. Results: Compared with novices, experts had more knowledge concepts of patient history and predictions and fewer concepts of situation appraisal. Conclusions: Expertise in athletic training shares traits with other areas in health care. Athletic training education and professional development may benefit from our understanding which cognitive processes differentiate expert practice. Future investigators should attempt to describe other settings and study diagnostic problem solving in a natural environment. PMID:24972043

  9. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  10. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

  11. Shoulder and elbow injuries in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Krabak, Brian J; Alexander, Eric; Henning, Troy

    2008-05-01

    The shoulder and elbow represent two of the most commonly injured joints in the adolescent population. Specific injuries vary by sport and can involve various structures, depending on the mechanism of injury. Unlike the adult shoulder, the immature skeletal structure of the adolescent athlete can lead to several unique injuries. By understanding the special demands placed on the immature shoulder, the sports physician can more effectively treat the resultant injury. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of unique injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the adolescent athlete. PMID:18395648

  12. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  13. Adolescent Educational Expectations and High School Interscholastic Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehberg, Richard A.; Schafer, Walter E.

    Data from 785 male seniors from 6 urban Pennsylvania high schools are used to evaluate the relationship between post high school educational expectations and participation or non-participation in interscholastic athletic activities. A zero-order gamma of .28 indicates that educational expectations and athletic participation are positively…

  14. Surgical Treatment of Clavicle Fractures in the Adolescent Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Fanter, Nathan J.; Kenny, Ryan M.; Baker, Champ L.; Baker, Champ L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Current literature has clearly shown that the indications for surgical treatment of clavicle fractures in adults are expanding. Although clavicle fractures in children and adolescents have traditionally been treated nonoperatively, surgical treatment of displaced clavicle fractures may be indicated for adolescent athletes. Evidence Acquisition: A review of relevant articles published between 1970 and 2013 was completed using MEDLINE and the terms clavicle fracture and adolescent athlete. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Excellent outcomes and rapid return to competition can be achieved with surgical management of displaced clavicle fractures in the adolescent athlete with high functional demands similar to those of their adult counterparts. Complications include hardware irritation, screw loosening, pin migration, peri-incisional numbness, and refracture. Athletes and families must be counseled regarding complications and potential need for secondary surgery to remove hardware. Conclusion: The adolescent athlete with a displaced, shortened, or comminuted clavicle fracture presents a unique, controversial dilemma for the surgeon. Earlier return to competition can be achieved with surgical management to restore length and alignment and may prevent malunion, nonunion, and poor outcomes. PMID:25984259

  15. Prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendinopathy and their association to intratendinous changes in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Baur, H; Hirschmüller, A; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; Mayer, F

    2015-06-01

    Achilles (AT) and patellar tendons (PT) are commonly affected by tendinopathy in adult athletes but prevalence of symptoms and morphological changes in adolescents is unclear. The study aimed to determine prevalence of tendinopathy and intratendinous changes in ATs and PTs of adolescent athletes. A total of 760 adolescent athletes (13.0 ± 1.9 years; 160 ± 13 cm; 50 ± 14 kg) were examined. History, local clinical examination, and longitudinal Doppler ultrasound analysis for both ATs and PTs were performed including identification of intratendinous echoic changes and vascularization. Diagnosis of tendinopathy was complied clinically in case of positive history of tendon pain and tendon pain on palpation. Achilles tendinopathy was diagnosed in 1.8% and patellar tendinopathy in 5.8%. Vascularizations were visible in 3.0% of ATs and 11.4% of PTs, hypoechogenicities in 0.7% and 3.2% as well as hyperechogenicities in 0% and 0.3%, respectively. Vascularizations and hypoechogenicities were statistically significantly more often in males than in females (P ≤ 0.02). Subjects with patellar tendinopathy had higher prevalence of structural intratendinous changes than those without PT symptoms (P ≤ 0.001). In adolescent athletes, patellar tendinopathy is three times more frequent compared with Achilles tendinopathy. Longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate physiological or pathological origin of vascularizations and its predictive value in development of tendinopathy. PMID:25212527

  16. Self-Esteem of Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Annette L.

    While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…

  17. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  18. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  19. Adolescent aesthetic athletes: a group at risk for eating pathology?

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793

  20. Common medial elbow injuries in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Ian; Schorpion, Melissa; Ganley, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been increased year-round sports participation among children and adolescents with limited to no rest periods. This has led to increases in pediatric repetitive stress injuries, once considered a rarity. Whether in the throwing athlete or in the athlete that experiences repetitive axial loading; increased medial tension and overload syndromes can lead to stress reactions and fractures. This occurs in the developing athlete due to the bone being weaker than the surrounding tendons and ligaments. The medial elbow is a high stress area and is susceptible to many conditions including apophysitis , avulsion fractures and ulnar collateral ligament disruption. Valgus stress can cause injury to the medial elbow which can lead to increased lateral compression, Panner's disease and osteochondral lesions of the capitellum and olecranon. The purpose of this manuscript is to review common elbow disorders in the adolescent population, outline management and highlight important features of rehabilitation. PMID:25840494

  1. Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Galli, Nick; A Petrie, Trent; Greenleaf, Christy; J Reel, Justine; E Carter, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (Mage=20.29, SD=1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes. PMID:25238289

  2. Contribution of Athletic Identity to Child and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl B.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Zhang, Hong; Coleman, Karen J.; Chang, Shine

    2009-01-01

    Background Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people’s time and effort in various activities. Purpose This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation. Methods Students in Grades 4–5 (n=391, mean age 9.9 years, range 8–13 years, collected in 2003) and Grades 7–8 (n=948, mean age 13.6 years, range 11–15 years, collected in 2002 and 2006) completed the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire, which measures self-perceptions of athletic appearance; competence; importance of physical activity and sports; and encouragement for activity from parents, teachers, and friends. Hierarchic multiple regression analyses in 2008 assessed the effects of athletic identity, race/ethnicity group, gender, and overweight status on 7-day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and organized sport team participation in each age group. Results In children and adolescents, the global score of athletic identity was independently, positively related to MVPA (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) and team participation (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively), after controlling for demographic variables. More variance in MVPA was explained in children (23%) than in adolescents (5%), in contrast to team sports (5% in children, 15% in adolescents). In the subscale analyses, positive relationships for appearance, competence, importance, and parental encouragement persisted independent of demographic factors. Conclusions Results support the role of athletic self-concept in promoting physical activity and organized sport participation in children and adolescents. PMID:19595559

  3. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S; Sahi, T; Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J

    1993-02-01

    Reliable data are scanty on the incidence of chronic diseases and life expectancy (LE) of highly trained athletes. We therefore studied Finnish male world class athletes to estimate the LE of athletes. Finnish team members in the Olympic games, World or European championships or intercountry competitions during 1920-1965 in track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting were included (N = 2613 men). The reference cohort, 1712 men, was selected from the Finnish Defence Forces conscription register matched on age and area of residence. All referents were classified completely healthy at the time of induction to military service. The stratified Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to estimate the life expectancies and the mortality odds ratios (OR) and their confidence limits. The mean LE adjusted for occupational group, marital status, and the age at entry to the cohort (and its 95% confidence limits) was in endurance sports (long distance running and cross-country skiing) 75.6 (73.6, 77.5) yr; in team games (soccer, ice hockey, basketball, as well as jumpers and short-distance runners from track and field (73.9 (72.7, 75.1) yr; in power sports (boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and throwers from field athletics) 71.5 (70.4, 72.2) yr; and in the reference group 69.9 (69.0, 70.9) yr. The increased mean life expectancies were mainly explained by decreased cardiovascular mortality (endurance sports mortality odds ratio OR = 0.49 (95% CL 0.26, 0.93), team sports OR = 0.61 (0.41, 0.92) compared with referents). For maximum life span no differences between the groups were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450727

  4. Weight cycling in adolescent Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Rahman, Alima; De Ciantis, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight reduction cycles are used by weight classed athletes in Taekwondo to make a weight category. Tension, dizziness, headaches, and confusion have been associated with rapid weight loss (RWL). There is a lack of research in weight cycling and its benefits among Taekwondo athletes. Purpose To investigate the rate of weight cycling in Junior Taekwondo athletes and its effect on performance. Methods Athletes were weighed prior to competition, then again before their first match. Body mass difference in relation to winning was compared. Results A significant increase from weigh-in to pre-match measurements was consistently found in both genders with no significant difference between them. Winners had a mean body mass gain (1.02 kg) which was non-significantly less than the non-winners (1.09 kg). Conclusions RWL practices do not define which athlete will perform better. Negative effects of weight cycling coupled with RWL has unclear performance benefits which indicates a need for further research. PMID:22131569

  5. Additional Post-Concussion Impact Exposure May Affect Recovery in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Virginia K; Pratson, Lincoln; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gioia, Gerard A

    2016-04-15

    Repeat concussion has been associated with risk for prolonged and pronounced clinical recovery in athletes. In this study of adolescent athletes, we examined whether an additional head impact within 24 h of a sports-related concussion (SRC) is associated with higher symptom burden and prolonged clinical recovery compared with a single-injury group. Forty-two student-athletes (52% male, mean age = 14.9 years) diagnosed with an SRC in a concussion clinic were selected for this study: (1) 21 athletes who sustained an additional significant head impact within 24 h of the initial injury (additional-impact group); (2) 21 single-injury athletes, age and gender matched, who sustained only one discrete concussive blow to the head (single-injury group). Groups did not differ on initial injury characteristics or pre-injury risk factors. The effect of injury status (single- vs. additional-impact) was examined on athlete- and parent-reported symptom burden (at first clinic visit) and length of recovery (LOR). Higher symptom burden was reported by the athletes and parents in the additional-impact group at the time of first visit. The additional-impact group also had a significantly longer LOR compared with the single-injury group. These findings provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating evidence for the importance of immediate removal from play following an SRC to protect athletes from re-injury, which may worsen symptoms and prolong recovery. The retrospective study design from a specialized clinical sample points to the need for future prospective studies of the relationship between single- and additional-impact injuries on symptom burden and LOR. PMID:26421452

  6. Ephedra Use in a Select Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    P. Schaefer, Michael; Smith, Jay; L. Dahm, Diane; C. Sorenson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process). Seven of 311 (2.3%) respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3%) knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five) than girls (two). Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements. Key Points Ephedra is an herbal stimulant used as an ergogenic aide. Adolescent ephedra users most commonly obtain it from their friends. Adolescent athletes are likely to take ephedra unknowningly. PMID:24353458

  7. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction. PMID:3822631

  8. The Athletic Trainer's Role in Modifying Nutritional Behaviors of Adolescent Athletes: Putting Theory into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Robert M.; Katra, Jane E.; Geertsen, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional practices influence athletic performance and recovery from injury. The athletic trainer is ideally positioned to effect dietary changes with adolescent athletes—a group at high-risk for nutritional imbalances. Research shows that young adults generally do not change dietary practices when given factual nutrition and health information. This article provides a variety of behavior change strategies, based on models derived from health education and health psychology, which are likely to influence dietary choices. Promoting self-efficacy by enhancing perception of choice and control, peer modeling, cooperative support networks, goal-setting techniques, and behavioral self-monitoring may provide the motivational framework necessary to enhance dietary compliance. Dietary behavior change techniques are a valuable part of an athletic trainer's resources. PMID:16558172

  9. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad. PMID:26252427

  10. Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Justine M; Petrie, Trent A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors in male collegiate athletes. Male collegiate athletes (N = 732) from the across the U.S. completed questionnaires online. Results suggested that (a) most eating disturbances occur at the subclinical level, (b) exercising and dieting were the most commonly used weight control practices, and (c) athletes who participate in weight class sports are more likely to be classified as symptomatic and engage in pathogenic eating and weight control behaviors compared to endurance sport or ball game athletes. Implications for professionals working with athletes and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23767673

  11. Rehabilitation programs and prevention strategies in adolescent throwing athletes.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Edward G; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    A specific and early diagnosis must be made in the injured skeletally immature throwing athlete. A well-outlined program of rest, rehabilitation, and proper throwing techniques should be implemented and continued. Overuse injuries are preventable when biomechanics are sound and pitch counts are done with the limits enforced. Guidelines for inning limits, number of pitches, rest intervals, and throwing programs should be followed for adolescent pitchers because adolescents differ from adults. Information is included for specifications of the ball and helmet, as well as chest protective equipment. The goal should be for the Little League players to have fun and be injury free as they are competing, which gives them the best experience and allows continuation of athletic activities for a lifetime. PMID:12690839

  12. Cortical desmoids in adolescent top-level athletes

    PubMed Central

    Biedert, Roland M; Gal, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Two adolescent, highly active athletes are presented with unspecific symptoms of anterior knee pain. Conventional radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a suspicious but pathognomonic cortical irregularity of the dorsal, medial femoral condyle. Cortical desmoid is one of the most common incidental osseous findings on conventional radiographs and MRI of the knee. It often needs no follow-up examination in asymptomatic patients. Malignancy needs however to be ruled out. PMID:25992301

  13. Recovery of Psychological Readiness May Differ Between Genders Following ACL Reconstruction in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Kostyun, Regina; Iannicelli, Julie P.; Kostyun, Kyle J.; Solomito, Matthew; Nissen, Carl W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a traumatic and emotional event for adolescent athletes. Preparation to return to play (RTP) and the potential risk of re-injury are often equally as emotional as the injury, and have been identified as possible limiting factors to a successful rehabilitation and RTP. In order to create a comprehensive rehabilitation model, further understanding of psychological readiness following surgical intervention is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical outcomes of subjective knee function and psychological readiness differ between genders following ACL reconstruction surgery in adolescent athletes, and if higher knee function and physiological readiness was associated with an earlier to RTP. Methods: Athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery and were successfully returned back to unrestricted sport were included in the analysis. At approximately six months post surgery, knee function was assessed using the validated International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Form, and psychological readiness was assessed using the validated ACL-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI) scale. Formal clearance to resume unrestricted sport was obtained from clinic notes. A T-test was used to determine if demographics, IKDC and ACL-RSI scores between genders. A mixed effects random intercept regression model was used to determine the association of time to RTP with IKDC and ACL-RSI scores. Results: A total of 45 adolescent athletes (23 females) were included in this analysis. No significant differences were found between males and females for age (16.2±1.5 years, 16.3±2.2 years) and average time to RTP (7.3±2.0 months, 7.3±1.8 months). No significant differences in IKDC scores were found between males and females (88±10%, 87±10%). A trend was identified that males demonstrated higher ACL-RSI scores at six month post surgery than females (81±14%, 72±17%, p = 0.063). In females

  14. Injuries about the hip in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, David; Mariscalco, Michael; Goodwin, Ryan C

    2011-03-01

    Athletic injuries in or around the hip in the adolescent athlete encompass possible causes such as a single, traumatic event to those of repetitive microtrauma. The injuries may involve the bone or the soft tissues, with former involving the epiphysis, apophysis, metaphysis, or diaphysis, whereas the latter includes muscles and tendons. With the improvements in surgical technique and instrumentation for hip arthroscopy and the development of magnetic resonance arthrography, clinicians have been able to diagnose and treat labral tears, hip instability, snapping hip, loose bodies, chondral injuries, and femoroacetabular impingement. The clinician needs to consider acquired conditions that may have coincidentally become apparent as a result of the adolescent's participation in an organized sports program. These include slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, and pathologic lesions and fractures. This study reviews the more common acute and chronic overuse injuries in or around the hip in the adolescent athlete and discusses hip injury prevention in this active patient population. PMID:21293240

  15. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  16. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  17. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  18. Somatotypes of Male Whitewater Canoe Athletes of the Turkish National Canoe Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedat, Ayan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the somatotype characteristics of male whitewater canoe athletes of the Turkish National Canoe Team. 10 male whitewater canoe athletes from the Turkish National Canoe Team voluntarily participated in the study during the national team camp in Rize in 2011. The age, height, weight, skinfold thickness, circumference,…

  19. Promoting the Academic Engagement and Success of Black Male Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…

  20. [A pilot study on adolescents of both sexes. Correlation between phenotype, athletic performances and family history to type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Pomara, F; Grosso, F; Basile, D; Polizzi, V; Marcianò, C; Adamo, V; De Vita, A; Petrucci, M

    2010-10-01

    The authors have studied the influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on the physical phenotype of 47 health adolescents. In both sexes groups with positive family history (FH+) had the highest values of stature and body weight (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), waist circumference (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), and wrist circumference (P=0.05 for males, not significant for females). Considering athletic performance, FH+ males showed a significant higher performance in power exercises than FH- males; no significant differences were found between FH+ and FH- female groups. The study confirms that family history of type 2 diabetes can induce in both sexes precocious phenotype and athletic performances linked-related variations; larger studies are necessary to confirm these data and to verify preventive interventions promoting significant life-style changes. PMID:20940677

  1. Factorial and construct validity of the athletic identity questionnaire for adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research describes the development of a measure of the general attribute of "athletic" in adolescents, encompassing exercise, sport, and physical activity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults, the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for adolescents assesses four dimensio...

  2. Adaptation and validation of the athletic identity questionnaire-adolescent for use with children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses...

  3. The Impact of an Intensive Learning Program (ILP) on Black Male Football Student-Athlete Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIll, Emmett L., Jr.; Farrington, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate degree is critical to a student-athlete's transition into life after sports; however, Black male student-athletes are not seizing the opportunities associated with college graduation. Black male student athletes' graduation rates are consistently and substantially lower than those of their White male student-athlete…

  4. [Banned performance enhancing ergogenic aids in children and adolescent athletes].

    PubMed

    Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2007-10-01

    Ergogenic aids (from the Greek, ergon, meaning work) are ingested to enhance energy utilization in athletes. In recent years there has been an increase in youth participating in competitive sports and, as a consequence, a concomitant increase in the usage of performance enhancing substances. Ergogenic aid usage could influence, or its efficiency could be influenced, during this period of rapid growth and sexual maturation, and by the marked hormonal fluctuations. Ephedra alkaloids; pain relief medications, diuretics, anabolic steroids and protein hormones are among the ergogenic aids used by young athletes. While there is no scientific evidence to support the usage of these agents for enhancing performance in children and adolescents, using supra-physiological doses may be associated with undesired side effects. PMID:17990397

  5. Do big athletes have big hearts? Impact of extreme anthropometry upon cardiac hypertrophy in professional male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Riding, Nathan R; Salah, Othman; Sharma, Sanjay; Carré, François; O'Hanlon, Rory; George, Keith P; Hamilton, Bruce; Chalabi, Hakim; Whyte, Gregory P; Wilson, Mathew G

    2012-01-01

    Aim Differentiating physiological cardiac hypertrophy from pathology is challenging when the athlete presents with extreme anthropometry. While upper normal limits exist for maximal left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (14 mm) and LV internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd, 65 mm), it is unknown if these limits are applicable to athletes with a body surface area (BSA) >2.3 m2. Purpose To investigate cardiac structure in professional male athletes with a BSA>2.3 m2, and to assess the validity of established upper normal limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Methods 836 asymptomatic athletes without a family history of sudden death underwent ECG and echocardiographic screening. Athletes were grouped according to BSA (Group 1, BSA>2.3 m2, n=100; Group 2, 2–2.29 m2, n=244; Group 3, <1.99 m2, n=492). Results There was strong linear relationship between BSA and LV dimensions; yet no athlete with a normal ECG presented a maximal wall thickness and LVIDd greater than 13 and 65 mm, respectively. In Group 3 athletes, Black African ethnicity was associated with larger cardiac dimensions than either Caucasian or West Asian ethnicity. Three athletes were diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy (0.4% prevalence); with two athletes presenting a maximal wall thickness >13 mm, but in combination with an abnormal ECG suspicious of an inherited cardiac disease. Conclusion Regardless of extreme anthropometry, established upper limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy of 14 mm for maximal wall thickness and 65 mm for LVIDd are clinically appropriate for all athletes. However, the abnormal ECG is key to diagnosis and guides follow-up, particularly when cardiac dimensions are within accepted limits. PMID:23097487

  6. The Use of Nutritional Supplements Among Male Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamreza; Hariri, Mitra; Bahreynian, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ehsani, Simin; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Rezai, Parva; Khorvash, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: The consumption of nutritional supplements is high in various sports, whereas, there are not enough documents supporting the beneficial effects of supplements in athletes. In addition, there is no information about taking supplements by Iranian students who participate in sports. Therefore, the goals of this study were to assess the type and prevalence of supplement use, the frequency of use, and relationships between consumption and age, body mass index, training load and type of sport. Methods: One hundred ninety two male students from “Isfahan University of Medical Sciences” participated in this study, voluntarily. A questionnaire that included questions about type and effects of supplements, recommendation resources, place of obtaining, and type of sports were sent to students. Descriptive data were calculated as frequencies (%). Chi-square (χ2) analysis was used to analyze the correlation between supplement use and the study variables. Results: Forty-five percent of respondents used some forms of supplements. Supplement users consumed 14 different supplements and each used as many as 1.8 ± 1.2 various supplements during the past six months. Multivitamins (64%) and vitamin C (42%) were the most popular supplements. Students, who participated in individual sports, were more likely to consume dietary supplements (P < 0.05) and ergogenic aids (P < 0.01), but team sports athletes, took more recovery nutrients (P < 0.01). Fifty seven point five percent of student bought their products from pharmacies, 40% from “sport supplements stores” and 2.5% from their friends. Conclusions: It can be concluded that less than half of these students consumed supplements and their information resources were inappropriate. PMID:23717774

  7. Race, Interest Convergence, and Transfer Outcomes for Black Male Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2009-01-01

    Although much of the existing literature on black male student athletes in Division I sports programs at four-year institutions explores the social construction of their athletic identities, their lived experiences with racial stereotyping and low expectations, and one specific outcome variable (bachelor's degree completion), these topics remain…

  8. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A E

    1984-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa or bulimia in adolescent males occurs ten times less frequently than in adolescent females. When they occur, however, they can be clearly identified and differentiated from disorders also associated with weight loss such as swallowing phobias. Early diagnosis and treatment leads to improved outcome. While the formal psychopathology of male anorectics is similar to that of females, there is often a different motivation for the initial weight loss in males. They are more often concerned with attaining an idealized male body and avoiding teasing or criticism about their appearance. When males become ill, they tend to develop the full anorectic syndrome or not to become ill at all. Recognition of the special needs of adolescent males for individualized treatment increases the change of optimal outcome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the teenage male should be seen as an ineffective method of dealing with developmental crises by gaining a sense of effectiveness and control through weight reduction and food restriction. Treatment seeks to improve quickly the starvation-related aspects of the illness while attempting to find more appropriate methods of dealing with the life crises prompting the illness. The real goal of treatment is to make the anorectic or bulimic illness unnecessary by encouraging the patient to continue the work of individuation and separation so that challenges in development and problems in living are resolved in a direct rather than an indirect way through an eating disorder. PMID:6596548

  9. Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Wuestenfeld, Jan C; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and variable bronchoconstriction, and is one of the most common diseases in childhood and adolescence. Exercise-induced asthma-like symptoms and asthma are also frequently seen in highly trained athletes. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are found in 8%-10% of healthy school-aged children and in 35% of children with asthma. Highly increased ventilation, inhalation of cold, dry air and air pollutants (eg, chlorine) are thought to be important triggers for EIA and EIB. EIA is often experienced concurrently with vocal cord dysfunction, which needs to be considered during the differential diagnosis. The pharmacological treatment of EIA is similar to the treatment of asthma in nonexercising adolescents. The therapy is based on anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, inhaled glucocorticosteroids) and bronchodilators (eg, β2-agonists). The treatment of EIB is comparable to the treatment of EIA and leukotriene modifiers offer a new and promising treatment option, particularly in EIB. Generally, athletes may not use β2-agonists according to the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). However, the WADA list contains specific β2-agonistic substances that are permitted to be used by inhalation. PMID:24379703

  10. Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Wuestenfeld, Jan C; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and variable bronchoconstriction, and is one of the most common diseases in childhood and adolescence. Exercise-induced asthma-like symptoms and asthma are also frequently seen in highly trained athletes. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are found in 8%–10% of healthy school-aged children and in 35% of children with asthma. Highly increased ventilation, inhalation of cold, dry air and air pollutants (eg, chlorine) are thought to be important triggers for EIA and EIB. EIA is often experienced concurrently with vocal cord dysfunction, which needs to be considered during the differential diagnosis. The pharmacological treatment of EIA is similar to the treatment of asthma in nonexercising adolescents. The therapy is based on anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, inhaled glucocorticosteroids) and bronchodilators (eg, β2-agonists). The treatment of EIB is comparable to the treatment of EIA and leukotriene modifiers offer a new and promising treatment option, particularly in EIB. Generally, athletes may not use β2-agonists according to the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). However, the WADA list contains specific β2-agonistic substances that are permitted to be used by inhalation. PMID:24379703

  11. The Relationship between Regular Sports Participation and Vigilance in Male and Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873

  12. "Athleticated" versus Educated: A Qualitative Investigation of Campus Perceptions, Recruiting and African American Male Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative investigation of student narratives (N=167) about the contemporary issue of recruiting high-profile African American male student-athletes. Participants were asked to view a scene on recruiting from the film, "The Program" (1994). Participants were then presented with questions regarding a…

  13. Academic and Career Advancement for Black Male Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ashley R.; Hawkins, Billy J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the structural arrangements and challenges many Black male athletes encounter as a result of their use of sport for upward social mobility. Recommendations to enhance their preparation and advancement are provided.

  14. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  15. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

  16. New ultrasonography-based method for predicting total skeletal muscle mass in male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yoko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Taki, Chinami; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Homma, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed 1) to assess whether a prediction model for whole body skeletal muscle mass that is based on a sedentary population is applicable to young male athletes, and 2) to develop a new skeletal muscle mass prediction model for young male athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The skeletal muscle mass of 61 male athletes was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and estimated using a previous prediction model (Sanada et al., 2006) with B-mode ultrasonography. The prediction model was not suitable for young male athletes, as a significant difference was observed between the means of the estimated and MRI-measured skeletal muscle mass. Next, the same subjects were randomly assigned to a development or validation group, and a new model specifically relevant to young male athletes was developed based on MRI and ultrasound data obtained from the development group. [Results] A strong correlation was observed between the skeletal muscle mass estimated by the new model and the MRI-measured skeletal muscle mass (r=0.96) in the validation group, without significant difference between their means. No bias was found in the new model using Bland-Altman analysis (r=−0.25). [Conclusion] These results validate the new model and suggest that ultrasonography is a reliable method for measuring skeletal muscle mass in young male athletes. PMID:27313370

  17. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  18. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  19. REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

  20. Reliability of the one-repetition-maximum power clean test in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Herman, Robert E; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D

    2012-02-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 years, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had >1 year of training experience in weightlifting exercises performed a 1RM power clean on 2 nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for 1 repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1RM measures in trials 1 and 2 (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland-Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1RM between trials 1 and 2. The typical error to be expected between 1RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg, and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period, and the testing protocol was well tolerated by all the subjects. These findings indicate that 1RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified

  1. Effective Strategies for Academic Success among African American Male Student Athletes from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marisha R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contributing factors for academic success among African American male student athletes from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Life narrative analysis was used in this qualitative study. The researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews with 7 African American males who attended college on athletic…

  2. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  3. Influence of Ghrelin and Adipocytokines on Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Female Athletes with Amenorrhea and Eumenorrheic Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotrophin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. PMID:20956863

  4. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  5. Intimidation and Violence by Males in High School Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Edgar W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines verbal and physical intimidation and physical violence in high school athletics by program and sport. Antecedents were identified via principal component analysis, including contextual setting, attitude, pressure, and coaching. Coaching was the only significant overall predictor and only significant predictor of verbal intimidation in…

  6. Functional movement screen differences between male and female secondary school athletes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton E; Neumann, Matthew L; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2015-04-01

    The functional movement screen (FMS) is commonly used to assess movement capacity and determine injury risk. Evidence suggests that athletes who score 14 points or less on the FMS are at increased risk for injury, but differences between males and females have been minimally studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in FMS scores of secondary school athletes. Using a cross-sectional study design, 60 healthy secondary school athletes performed the FMS, which is composed of 7 functional movement tasks (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability) and 3 clearance screens. Dependent variables were FMS total composite score and individual task scores; secondary analyses were performed using total research score and individual task research scores when indicated. Lower scores indicated functional movement deficits and increased injury risk. Healthy secondary school female athletes scored lower on the total composite (p = 0.004) than healthy secondary school male athletes. Females also scored lower on the following individual FMS tasks: inline lunge (p < 0.04) and trunk stability push-up (p = 0.001). Healthy secondary school female athletes scored 14 or less on the FMS total composite score and significantly lower in general compared with healthy secondary school male athletes, which suggests these female athletes may be at higher risk for injury. Factors that may contribute to increased injury risk include deficits in mobility, core stabilization, and coordinated movement patterns. Clinicians should be aware of possible sex differences when using the FMS and developing injury prevention programs. PMID:25330082

  7. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  8. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  9. Influence of ghrelin and adipocytokines on bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes with amenorrhea and eumenorrheic athletes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight-bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and nonathletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotropin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. PMID:20956863

  10. Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Bartolomé J.; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  11. Prediction of sport adherence through the influence of autonomy-supportive coaching among spanish adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Bartolomé J; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key pointsImportance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes.Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation.Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  12. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; p<0.001 vs. 128.81±20.84 resp. 147.52±27.72; p<0.001). An increase in endostatin levels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groups<0.001). The extent of endostatin increase was comparable in both groups and sexes and varied between 23-27%. Significance was obscured when the performance was entered as covariate. Acutely induced physical strain leads to an increase in endostatin levels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25009962

  13. Lift Ev'ry Voice: The Resounding Experiences of Black Male Student-Athletes at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Black male student-athletes are entering the California community college (CCC) system at an unprecedented rate. CCCs have become a repository for Black males that have aspirations of competing in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I member institutions. This historically disenfranchised subgroup of students is required…

  14. An Examination of the Dual Model of Perfectionism and Adolescent Athlete Burnout: A Short-Term Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The dual model of perfectionism (Slade and Owens, Behav Modificat 22(3):372-390, 1998) is adopted to examine the influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on adolescent athlete burnout in Taiwan. Participants were 188 high school adolescent student-athletes (M = 16.48, SD = 0.59). They were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of…

  15. Persistent tight hamstrings following conservative treatment for apophyseal ring fracture in adolescent athletes: critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Kitagawa, Yasuhiro; Dezawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Apophyseal ring fracture is a unique disease in children and adolescents. Its clinical features include low back pain, sciatica, paravertebral muscle spasm and tenderness, restricted back motion, neurological symptoms, and tight hamstrings. For all athletes, body flexibility is one of the most important factors for better performance. Therefore, persistent tight hamstrings has a negative influence on athletic performance. In this report, we present two adolescent athletes with apophyseal ring fracture treated successfully by conservative treatment for severe low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, despite having persistent tight hamstrings for more than one year. Unlike herniated nucleus pulposus, bony fragments in the spinal canal never disappear. Although conservative treatment can alleviate LBP and leg pain, surgical removal of fragments is considered when symptoms such as tight hamstrings and restricted lumbar motion due to canal stenosis are found, particularly in athletes. PMID:25264071

  16. Relation of motivational climate and fear of failure in Taiwanese adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between motivational climate and fear of failure in sport was examined. 176 adolescent athletes were recruited (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.3). Athletes completed the Chinese Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Results indicated a performance climate was positively related to the fear of failure, while a mastery climate was not. PMID:19610494

  17. Title IX: Parity of Coaches' Salaries for Male and Female Athletic Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A study by the National Education Association (NEA) of the existing literature, teacher opinion polls, federal legislation and regulations, state salary schedules, and collective bargaining agreements revealed important information concerning the differences in salaries in the late 1970s for coaches of male and female athletic teams in the public…

  18. Working with Male Athletes: The Experiences of U.S. Female Head Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Abrell, Lura; Wilson, Matthew J.; Lape, Jennifer; Halbrook, Meghan; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, men have dominated the athletic arena; as a result, the number of women in sport management positions has been limited (Cashmore, 2000; Coakley, 2010). Even rarer is the opportunity for female coaches to coach male sport teams. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women who have coached male…

  19. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  20. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324

  1. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement. PMID:25387042

  2. Osteoarthritis of weight bearing joints of lower limbs in former élite male athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, U. M.; Kaprio, J.; Sarna, S.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the cumulative 21 year incidence of admission to hospital for osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, and ankle in former élite athletes and control subjects. DESIGN--National population based study. SETTING--Finland. SUBJECTS--2049 male athletes who had represented Finland in international events during 1920-65 and 1403 controls who had been classified healthy at the age of 20. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hospital admissions for osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, and ankle joints identified from the national hospital discharge registry between 1970 and 1990. RESULTS--Athletes doing endurance sports, mixed sports, and power sports all had higher incidences of admission to hospital for osteoarthritis than controls. Age adjusted odds ratios compared with controls were 1.73 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 3.01, P = 0.063) in endurance, 1.90 (1.24 to 2.92, P = 0.003) in mixed sports athletes, and 2.17 (1.41 to 3.32, P = 0.0003) in power sports athletes. The mean age at first admission to hospital was higher in endurance athletes (70.6) than in other groups (58.2 in mixed sports, 61.9 in power sports, and 61.2 in controls). Among the 2046 respondents to a questionnaire in 1985, the odds ratios for admission to hospital were similar in all three groups after adjusting for age, occupation, and body mass index at 20 (2.37, 2.42, 2.68). CONCLUSIONS--Athletes from all types of competitive sports are at slightly increased risk of requiring hospital care because of osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, or ankle. Mixed sports and power sports lead to increased admissions for premature osteoarthritis, but in endurance athletes the admissions are at an older age. PMID:8111258

  3. Force-production asymmetry in male and female athletes of differing strength levels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christopher A; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus; Stone, Michael H

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the existence of bilateral strength and force-production asymmetry and evaluate possible differences based on sex, as well as strength level. Asymmetry was assessed during weight-distribution (WtD) testing, unloaded and lightly loaded static- (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ) testing, and isometric midthigh-pull (IMTP) strength testing. Subjects included 63 athletes (31 male, 32 female) for WtD, SJ, and CMJ tests, while 129 athletes (64 male, 65 female) participated in IMTP testing. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine possible differences in asymmetry magnitude between males and females, as well as between strong and weak athletes. Cohen d effect-size (ES) estimates were also used to estimate difference magnitudes. Statistically different asymmetry levels with moderate to strong ESs were seen between males and females in WtD, 0-kg SJ (peak force [PF]), 20-kg SJ (peak power [PP]), 0-kg CMJ (PF, PP, net impulse), and 20-kg CMJ (PF), but no statistical differences were observed in IMTP variables. Dividing the sample into strong and weak groups produced statistically significant differences with strong ES estimates in IMTP PF and rate of force development, and many ESs in jump symmetry variables increased. The results of this investigation indicate that females may be more prone to producing forces asymmetrically than males during WtD and jumping tasks. Similarly, weaker athletes displayed more asymmetry than stronger athletes. This may indicate that absolute strength may play a larger role in influencing asymmetry magnitude than sex. PMID:25394294

  4. Transition-Marking Behaviors of Adolescent Males at First Intercourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…

  5. Masculinity Ideology: Its Impact on Adolescent Males' Heterosexual Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines impact of masculine ideology on adolescents' heterosexuality relationships, using national survey data for 1,069 adolescent males. Authors demonstrate how acceptance of "traditional male role attitudes" is related to a less intimate relationship with a partner when sex first occurs, an adversarial view of close relationships with women,…

  6. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  7. Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M., Ed.; Kiselica, Mark S., Ed.

    This book serves as both a scholarly and practical guide for teachers, school psychologists, and parents on helping boys and adolescent males grow up. It provides practitioners with a comprehensive handbook on understanding and responding to the developmental, cultural, and special concerns of boys and adolescent males. It attempts to provide…

  8. Physical self-concept and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors in French athlete and non-athlete adolescent girls: direct and indirect relations.

    PubMed

    Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Stephan, Yannick

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect associations between physical self-subdomains, physical self-worth, global self-worth, and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors among French non-elite athlete and non-athlete adolescent girls. A sample of adolescent girls including 50 ballet dancers, 41 basketball players, and 47 non-athletes was used in this study. Data obtained from the ballet dancer and basketball player subsamples revealed significant, sample-specific as well as common, direct relations between global and physical self-perceptions and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors, as well as significant indirect relations (via global self-worth and physical self-worth) between specific physical self-perceptions and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. In contrast, no association was found between global and physical self-perceptions in the sample of non-athlete adolescent girls. PMID:22622324

  9. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key points Greater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes. Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes. Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit. PMID

  10. Development of burnout perceptions during adolescence among high-level athletes: a developmental and gendered perspective.

    PubMed

    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine; Guillet-Descas, Emma; Gaudreau, Patrick; Chanal, Julien

    2015-08-01

    This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of athlete burnout perceptions, (b) the gender differences on these trajectories, and (c) the interactions in the developmental trajectories of the three burnout dimensions. A five-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 895 athletes (47.6% female; Mage = .67). Results of multilevel growth models revealed that during adolescence, "reduced sense of accomplishment" linearly decreased and was higher for girls than boys. Moreover, "emotional/physical exhaustion" increased then decreased, and seemed to have been attenuated at time points in which athletes also had higher levels of "sport devaluation." Finally, "sport devaluation" increased over time with higher increases for girls than boys. Results of our study depicted the general and the gendered shape of the trajectory of burnout perceptions during adolescence, and underlined the advantages of considering the multifaceted nature of burnout to enable a deeper examination of the within-person synergies in the development of the three dimensions. PMID:26442773

  11. Male Student-Athlete Perceptions of University Academic Staff Expectations: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions, Value and Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeck, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…

  12. Between a Ball and a Harsh Place: A Study of Black Male Community College Student-Athletes and Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined to what extent differences exist in pre-college characteristics and academic performance between Black male student-athletes and their student-athlete peers. Method: Data provided by the Florida Department of Education's PK-20 Education Data Warehouse (EDW) were analyzed as a function of group membership (gender and…

  13. Sports and Athletics: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues in sports and athletics for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The listings are drawn from the National Resource Library of the National Center for Youth with Disabilities, which includes journals, books, and non-published materials. The section on bibliographic…

  14. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  15. Racial/ethnic, gender, and BMI differences in athletic identity in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in athletic self-concept, a hypothesized mediator of physical activity and sedentary behavior, by gender, racial/ethnic, and overweight status in elementary and middle school children. Children (Grades 4-5, n=936) and adolescents (Grades 7-8, n=1...

  16. Adolescent Siblings' Daily Discussions: Connections to Perceived Academic, Athletic, and Peer Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Winzeler, Abby

    2007-01-01

    First- and second-born adolescent siblings from 21 families completed a daily diary on each of 7 days. The frequency and content of siblings' conversations are described and the relationship between the content of siblings' discussion and their perceived academic, athletic, and peer competency is explored. Siblings most often talked about…

  17. The management of sport-related concussion: considerations for male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Crutcher, Bryan; Burkhart, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Sport-related concussion continues to be a centerpiece of attention in the field of sports medicine. The benefit to using neurocognitive testing when managing concussion will be documented in this review. In addition to providing critical objective information on the neurocognitive status of the concussed athlete, research data will be provided on the pre- and post-concussion neurocognitive profiles of concussed male and female athletes. Specifically, an overview of research will be presented on the epidemiology of male and female concussion rates, as well as concussion outcomes including symptoms and cognitive function post-injury. Finally, a clinician's perspective on managing sports-related concussion will be presented focusing on three factors regarding sex differences: risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. PMID:24323339

  18. Sex Objects, Athletes, and Sexy Athletes: How Media Representations of Women Athletes Can Impact Adolescent Girls and College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the large body of research examining the negative effects of idealized media images on girls' and women's body image, little research has investigated whether media images can positively impact body concept among females. Using a between-participants experimental design, this study examined how images of performance athletes,…

  19. Erotic transference in the male adolescent-female analyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Gabbard, G O

    1995-01-01

    Erotic transference involving female analysts and adult male patients has received increased attention in the past ten years. Absent from the literature, however, are any clinical reports concerning erotic transferences of adolescent male patients with female therapists. This paper presents a fragment of a treatment involving an adolescent male patient who developed an erotic transference. The vicissitudes of the transference, as well as his relationship to his mother and father, are discussed from the perspective of developmental conflicts and tasks of adolescence. The countertransference dimensions of this particular gender constellation are also examined from the standpoint of intrapsychic and cultural factors. PMID:7480402

  20. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  1. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. PMID:25963103

  2. Toward an integrative model of doping use: an empirical study with adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Barkoukis, Vassileios; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2015-02-01

    The present study assessed adolescent athletes' intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use. PMID:25730890

  3. COMPARISON OF DYNAMIC BALANCE IN ADOLESCENT MALE SOCCER PLAYERS FROM RWANDA AND THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Queen, Robin M.; Beckman, Brian; Kiesel, Kyle B.; Plisky, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Dynamic balance is an important component of motor skill development. Poor dynamic balance has previously been associated with sport related injury. However, the vast majority of dynamic balance studies as they relate to sport injury have occurred in developed North American or European countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare dynamic balance in adolescent male soccer players from Rwanda to a matched group from the United States. Methods: Twenty‐six adolescent male soccer players from Rwanda and 26 age‐ and gender‐matched control subjects from the United States were screened using the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test during their pre‐participation physical. Reach asymmetry (cm) between limbs was examined for all reach directions. In addition, reach distance in each direction (normalized to limb length, %LL) and the composite reach score (also normalized to %LL) were examined. Dependent samples t‐tests were performed with significant differences identified at p<0.05. Results: Twenty‐six male soccer players from Rwanda (R) were matched to twenty‐six male soccer players from the United States (US). The Rwandan soccer players performed better in the anterior (R: 83.9 ± 3.2 %LL; US: 76.5 ± 6.6 %LL, p<0.01), posterolateral (R: 114.4 ± 8.3 %LL ; US: 106.5 ± 8.2 %LL, p<0.01) and composite (R: 105.6 ± 1.3 %LL; US: 97.8 ± 6.2 %LL, p<0.01) reach scores. No significant differences between groups were observed for reach asymmetry. Conclusions: Adolescent soccer players from Rwanda exhibit superior performance on a standardized dynamic balance test as comparison to similar athletes from the United States. The examination of movement abilities of athletes from countries of various origins may allow for a greater understanding of the range of true normative values for dynamic balance. Levels of Evidence: 3b PMID:24377061

  4. Individual and relational risk factors for the development of eating disorders in adolescent aesthetic athletes and general adolescents.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Rita; Narciso, Isabel; Alarcão, Madalena

    2013-12-01

    This study compared potential risk and protective factors, levels of disordered eating (DE), and their relationship among young aesthetic athletes (elite and non-elite) and controls (N = 725; 62.5 % females; mean age = 15.3, SD = 2.1). The participants completed self-report measures (McKnight Risk Factor Survey-IV, Contour Drawing Rating Scale and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire). Female elite athletes showed a greater risk of developing eating disorders than non-elite athletes and controls, with no difference between the three groups of males. Multiple group analyses revealed important differences in DE predictors. Although social pressure is the strongest DE predictor in non-elite athletes and controls, in elite athletes, the strongest DE predictor is body image dissatisfaction. Parental influences, rather than self-esteem, are predictors of DE in elite athletes, unlike the other two groups. These results show that the risk and protective factors involved in the development of DE are not universally valid. The results highlight the importance of studying specific characteristics associated with DE in aesthetic athletes. Some implications for ED risk assessment and prevention are discussed. PMID:23943379

  5. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  6. The Racial Identity Development of Male Student-Athletes when Blacks Are the Majority and Whites Are the Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were used in the present study to explore the racial identity development of Black male and White male student-athletes on a predominantly Black, Division IA football team at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Findings indicate that the Black male football players demonstrated positive indicators of Black racial identity. The…

  7. Athletic Cardiac Adaptation in Males Is a Consequence of Elevated Myocyte Mass

    PubMed Central

    McDiarmid, Adam K.; Swoboda, Peter P.; Erhayiem, Bara; Lancaster, Rosalind E.; Lyall, Gemma K.; Broadbent, David A.; Dobson, Laura E.; Musa, Tarique A.; Ripley, David P.; Garg, Pankaj; Greenwood, John P.; Ferguson, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Background— Cardiac remodeling occurs in response to regular athletic training, and the degree of remodeling is associated with fitness. Understanding the myocardial structural changes in athlete’s heart is important to develop tools that differentiate athletic from cardiomyopathic change. We hypothesized that athletic left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of increased myocardial cellular rather than extracellular mass as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Methods and Results— Forty-five males (30 athletes and 15 sedentary age-matched healthy controls) underwent comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies, including native and postcontrast T1 mapping for extracellular volume calculation. In addition, the 30 athletes performed a maximal exercise test to assess aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold. Participants were grouped by athleticism: untrained, low performance, and high performance (O2max <60 or>60 mL/kg per min, respectively). In athletes, indexed cellular mass was greater in high- than low-performance athletes 60.7±7.5 versus 48.6±6.3 g/m2; P<0.001), whereas extracellular mass was constant (16.3±2.2 versus 15.3±2.2 g/m2; P=0.20). Indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume and mass correlated with O2max (r=0.45, P=0.01; r=0.55, P=0.002) and differed significantly by group (P=0.01; P<0.001, respectively). Extracellular volume had an inverse correlation with O2max (r=−0.53, P=0.003 and left ventricular mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Conclusions— Increasing left ventricular mass in athlete’s heart occurs because of an expansion of the cellular compartment while the extracellular volume becomes relatively smaller: a difference which becomes more marked as left ventricular mass increases. Athletic remodeling, both on a macroscopic and cellular level, is associated with the degree of an individual’s fitness. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance ECV quantification may have a future role in differentiating athlete

  8. Former male elite athletes have better metabolic health in late life than their controls.

    PubMed

    Laine, M K; Eriksson, J G; Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Loo, B-M; Sundvall, J; Bäckmand, H M; Peltonen, M; Jula, A; Sarna, S

    2016-03-01

    Elite-class athletes have longer life expectancy and lower risk for chronic noncommunicable diseases possibly because of physically active and healthier lifestyle. In this study, we assessed former male Finnish elite-class athletes' (n = 392) and their matched controls' (n = 207) body composition, and risk for the metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in later life. Compared with the controls, the former athletes had lower body fat percentage (24.8% vs 26.0%, P = 0.021), lower risk for MS [odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.81], and NAFLD (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88). High volume of current leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was associated with lower body fat percentage (P for trend < 0.001). When current volume of LTPA increased 1 MET h/week, the risk of MS and NAFLD decreased (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99 and OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.98, respectively). Although a career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood may help to protect from developing metabolic syndrome, present exercise levels and volume of LTPA seem equally important as well. PMID:25758211

  9. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  10. Total haemoglobin mass and red blood cell profile in endurance-trained and non-endurance-trained adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Gert; Bärtsch, Peter; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate differences in total haemoglobin mass (tHb mass) and in red blood cell profile between elite endurance-trained (END) and non-endurance-trained (nEND) male and female adolescent athletes, tHb mass (CO rebreathing) and specific variables of red blood cell profile (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, erythrocyte indices) were determined in 59 elite junior athletes (29 END, 30 nEND). We hypothesized that at the age of 15-17 years, regular endurance training might induce a significant increase in tHb mass and changes in red blood cell profile. Therefore, all parameters were again determined after 6, 12 and 18 months in a subset of 27 subjects (17 END, 10 nEND). In END, tHb mass related to body weight was ~15% greater than in nEND (11.2 ± 1.6  vs. 9.7 ± 1.3 g kg(-1), P < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were observed for the red blood cell profile. In both groups, tHb mass related to body weight and the variables of red blood cell profile had not changed significantly after 6, 12 and 18 months of regular training. In conclusion, in elite junior athletes, differences in tHb mass between END and nEND were similar, however, smaller compared with previously in adult athletes reported values. At the age of 15-17 years, 18 months of regular training did not induce significant changes in tHb mass beyond alterations explained by physical growth and also variables of red blood cell profile did not change significantly. PMID:21431423

  11. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies. PMID:21912293

  12. Influences of weight loss on monocytes and T-cell subpopulations in male judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Katsuji; Suzuki, Natsumi; Masuchi, Katsuyuki; Okada, Hirotaka; Akimoto, Takayuki; Mesaki, Noboru; Kono, Ichiro; Akama, Takao

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss effects on immune function in judo athletes. Six elite male Japanese judo athletes (20.3 ± 0.4 years) were enrolled in this study. They completed usual weight loss programs during 2 weeks preceding an actual competition. Subjects noted the appearance of upper-respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms during the study period. Blood samples were obtained at 40 (baseline period: BL) and 3 (weight loss period: WL) days before and 1 day after the competition (AC). The CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56CD3, CD28CD4, CD28CD8, and Toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) CD14 cells were counted by using flow cytometer analysis. The 6 subjects reported 1 headache, 3 runny nose conditions, and 1 coughing instance during the WL. The CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD28CD4 cell counts were significantly lower at WL than at BL (p ≤ 0.05); they reverted to the baseline value at AC. The TLR-4CD14 cells were significantly fewer at WL (p ≤ 0.05); they remained fewer than they had been at BL, even at AC. These results suggest that 2 weeks of weight loss before a competition can impair cell-mediated immune function and induce high susceptibility to URTI in judo athletes. Coaches, support staff, and athletes should monitor athletes' weight loss, hydration status, appearance of URTI symptoms, and immunocompetence such as lymphocytes and monocytes to prevent the physical condition from becoming worse. PMID:21499138

  13. Adolescent Athletes and the Demand and Supply of Drugs to Improve Their Performance

    PubMed Central

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the ‘profiles’ of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key Points This study confirms the existence of a ‘black market’ for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions. This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its ‘suppliers’, the two main sources being friends and parents. PMID:24453531

  14. Dietary intakes and food use of groups of elite Australian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Gollan, R A; Read, R S

    1991-12-01

    The present study conducted dietary surveys of four groups of Australian male athletes: triathletes, marathon runners, Australian Rules football players, and Olympic weightlifters. Their training diets were assessed via a 7-day food record from which mean daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients were estimated. The data were compared between groups as well as to recommendations in the literature for athlete nutrition. Results showed major differences between groups. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy intake was greater for triathletes and marathon runners than for the other two groups. There was no difference between all four groups in the total amount of fat consumed, yet its contribution to total energy intake was significantly lower for triathletes and marathon runners. The football players and weightlifters consumed a similar fat:energy ratio as the typical Australian diet. Furthermore, the micronutrient density of the football players' diets was significantly lower than that of the other groups. PMID:1844570

  15. Exercise Fatigue in Adolescents: Diagnosis of Athlete Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Chronic fatigue, declining performance, and mental lassitude, all symptoms of athlete burnout syndrome, require a comprehensive diagnostic approach. Many factors which can interfere with normal exercise capacity are easily treatable so a careful search is important. Three case studies are presented. (Author/MT)

  16. Contributions of athletic identity to child and adolescent physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people's time and effort in various activities. This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation...

  17. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  18. Homosexuality, Counseling, and the Adolescent Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Ellen R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Authors report relatively high incidence of homosexuality among adolescents. They review various attitudes, theories and methods to treat homosexuality. Counselor should be aware of his/her own attitudes and reactions towards homosexuality and should be ready to discuss it in a direct, nonthreatened and open manner with adolescents and other…

  19. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-01-01

    For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles. PMID:24600271

  20. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  1. Correlates of Male Adolescents Carrying Handguns among Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Oh, Su Min

    2001-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 were used to examine factors, such as family and neighborhood environment, associated with carrying a handgun among adolescent males. As expected, results indicated males were more likely than their peers to carry handguns if they engaged in other problematic behaviors, had witnessed someone…

  2. Adolescent Males in Dance: A Closer Look at Their Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zihao

    2011-01-01

    The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…

  3. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  4. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  5. Basal Metabolic Rate of Adolescent Modern Pentathlon Athletes: Agreement between Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations and the Correlation with Body Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Luiz Lannes; Fonseca, Sidnei; Castro, Natalia Gomes Casanova de Oliveira e; dos Passos, Renata Baratta; Porto, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The accurate estimative of energy needs is crucial for an optimal physical performance among athletes and the basal metabolic rate (BMR) equations often are not well adjusted for adolescent athletes requiring the use of specific methods, such as the golden standard indirect calorimetry (IC). Therefore, we had the aim to analyse the agreement between the BMR of adolescents pentathletes measured by IC and estimated by commonly used predictive equations. Methods Twenty-eight athletes (17 males and 11 females) were evaluated for BMR, using IC and the predictive equations Harris and Benedict (HB), Cunningham (CUN), Henry and Rees (HR) and FAO/WHO/UNU (FAO). Body composition was obtained using DXA and sexual maturity data were retrieved through validated questionnaires. The correlations among anthropometric variables an IC were analysed by T-student test and ICC, while the agreement between IC and the predictive equations was analysed according to Bland and Altman and by survival-agreement plotting. Results The whole sample average BMR measured by IC was significantly different from the estimated by FAO (p<0.05). Adjusting data by gender FAO and HR equations were statistically different from IC (p <0.05) among males, while female differed only for the HR equation (p <0.05). Conclusion The FAO equation underestimated athletes’ BMR when compared with IC (T Test). When compared to the golden standard IC, using Bland and Altman, ICC and Survival-Agreement, the equations underestimated the energy needs of adolescent pentathlon athletes up to 300kcal/day. Therefore, they should be used with caution when estimating individual energy requirements in such populations. PMID:26569101

  6. Single-leg postural stability deficits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R; Micheli, Lyle J; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postural stability of pediatric and adolescent athletes without anterior cruciate ligament injury with those who underwent anterior cruciate reconstruction (ACLR). Postural stability ratings derived from a video-force plate system during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System were collected from pediatric and adolescent athletes who underwent ACLR (N=24; mean 1.2 years after surgery) and from uninjured controls (N=479). The postural control rating was calculated as the mean of the displacement and variance of the torso and center of pressure data, normalized on a scale from 0 to 100. A higher rating indicates greater postural stability. Participants who underwent ACLR showed lower postural stability ratings during single-leg stance compared with uninjured controls (40.0 vs. 48.7; P=0.037). ACLR is associated with deficits in postural stability. PMID:26863483

  7. The Relationship between Selected Motor Ability Determinants and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescent Athletes from Various Sport.

    PubMed

    Maćkala, Krzysztof; Michalski, Ryszard; Stodólka, Jacek; Rausavljević, Nikola; Čoh, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between speed, lower extremities explosive power, simple, and complex responses in adolescent athletes from various disciplines. Thirty nine athletes of 16.5 years old, N = 13 sprinters and jumpers, N = 13 soccer players, and N = 13 judokas participated in the experiment. Pearson correlations, a one-way ANOVA and an independent t-test for establishing differences between those three groups of athletes was applied. Additionally the Ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis also was applied. The strong correlation occurred between complex responses and speed; 20 m from standing and 20 m flying start (r = 0.62 and r = 0.65 respectively). In other cases, no strong association was found. The substantial differences between groups occurred in the 20 m run from flying start (t = 5.92) and standing triple jump (t = 4.16). The study indicates that adolescent athletes may need to be assessed differently to a certain extent, including sport specialization. PMID:26434022

  8. The Effect of Hand Dimensions, Hand Shape and Some Anthropometric Characteristics on Handgrip Strength in Male Grip Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=−0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with

  9. The effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=-0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with

  10. Using hegemonic masculinity to explain gay male attraction to muscular and athletic men.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews relevant research on male homosexual attraction. Utilizing masculinity as its theoretical frame, the authors use childhood experiences with both fathers and peers, the gay community's inculcation of heteronormative ideologies, and the gay media's adherence to masculine prototypes, to provide causal explanations for the appeal of muscular, lean, and athletic physiques. While the authors acknowledge that not all individuals within the gay community look toward muscularity and athleticism as the primary components of attractiveness, it nonetheless remains important to examine the theoretical perspectives that may explain the appeal of this specific aesthetic. PMID:21294030

  11. Hormonal and Physiological Adaptations to High-Intensity Interval Training in Professional Male Canoe Polo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali

    2016-03-01

    Sheykhlouvand, M, Khalili, E, Agha-Alinejad, H, and Gharaat, M. Hormonal and physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval training in professional male canoe polo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 859-866, 2016-This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic

  12. Sleep and circadian rhythms in children and adolescents: relevance for athletic performance of young people.

    PubMed

    Carskadon, Mary A

    2005-04-01

    The amount and timing of sleep play significant roles in forming a solid foundation for competitive performance in young athletes. As children mature into and through adolescence, their need for sleep does not decline substantially, although the opportunity to sleep is limited by lifestyle choices, academic and practice schedules, and compelling changes in the biological processes. The biological changes include a more "permissive" pace for the accumulation of sleep pressure across the day in older adolescents and a longer day length in the more mature. These factors all favor later bedtimes and rising times as children pass into adolescence, and a concomitant delay in the optimal timing for waking activities. Among the important threats to athletic performance are insufficient sleep during training and competition and poor appreciation for the best time of day for competitive activities. The specific consequences of these issues for individual athletes are not clear, though when considering young people as a group, support for adequate sleep is a rational intervention to maximize performance. PMID:15892926

  13. Spectral Parameters of HRV In Yoga Practitioners, Athletes And Sedentary Males.

    PubMed

    Peter, Rosemary; Sood, Sushma; Dhawan, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle. The study was carried out in the departments of physiology at MAMC Agroha, Hisar and Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. The study group comprised of 1200 healthy male volunteers of 16 to 55 years of age. The study group was divided into four age groups: Group A of age 16 to 25 years; Group B of age 26 to 35 years; Group C of age 36 to 45 years and Group D of age 46 to 55 years. All age groups were further divided into three categories i.e athlete (runner), yoga (yoga practitioners) and sedentary in which individuals with sedentary life style were included. The basal recording of ECG in lead II was done for 5 minutes. The Polyrite-D ECG data was used for analysis of heart rate variability by frequency domain method. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. HF component in normalized unit was found significantly high in age group B and C in yoga practitioners and athletes as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D significantly high in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. Significantly decreased LF/HF ratio was found in age group B and C in yoga and athlete subjects as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. This indicates that

  14. The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

  15. Cold applications for recovery in adolescent athletes: a systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew; Cardinale, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Recovery and regeneration modalities have been developed empirically over the years to help and support training programmes aimed at maximizing athletic performance. Professional athletes undergo numerous training sessions, characterized by differing modalities of varying volumes and intensities, with the aim of physiological adaptation leading to improved performance. Scientific support to athletes focuses on improving the chances of a training programme producing the largest adaptive response. In competition it is mainly targeted at maximizing the chances of optimal performance and recovery when high performance levels are required repeatedly in quick succession (e.g. heats/finals). In recent years, a lot of emphasis has been put on recovery modalities. In particular, emphasis has been placed on the need to reduce the delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) typically evident following training and competitive activities inducing a certain degree of muscle damage. One of the most used recovery modalities consists of cold-water immersion and/or ice/cold applications to muscles affected by DOMS. While the scientific literature has provided a rationale for such modalities to reduce pain in athletes and recreationally active adults, it is doubtful if this rationale is appropriate to aid training with adolescent athletes. In particular, since these methods have been suggested to potentially impair the muscle remodeling process leading to muscle hypertrophy. While this debate is still active in the literature, many coaches adopt such practices in youth populations, simply transferring what they see in elite sportspeople directly; without questioning the rationale, safety or effectiveness as well as the potential for such activity to reduce the adaptive potential of skeletal muscle remodeling in adolescent athletes. The aim of this review was to assess the current knowledge base on the use of ice/cold applications for recovery purposes in adolescent athletes in order to

  16. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  17. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  18. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943

  19. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  20. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination. PMID:25663251

  1. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p < 0.001) but not for the control group (p = 0.817). In addition, as compared to the control, athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes. PMID:26459346

  2. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels. PMID:23798586

  3. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  4. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  5. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299

  6. Sclerostin and Pref-1 have differential effects on bone mineral density and strength parameters in adolescent athletes compared with non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Pierce, Lisa; Guereca, Gabriela; Bouxsein, Mary; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Exercise activity is common in female adolescents, however, excessive exercise can have detrimental effects on bone mineral density (BMD). Mechanisms underlying this decrease in bone mass are not well understood. We investigated the effects of sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of bone formation via WNT signaling inhibition, and pre-adipocyte factor (Pref)-1, a suppressor of osteoblast differentiation, on BMD, bone turnover markers and bone strength in adolescent athletes. Methods We studied 50 adolescents between 15-21 years of age: 17 amenorrheic athletes (AA), 17 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 16 nonathletic controls (NA). We measured spine and hip BMD by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and estimated failure load and stiffness at the distal radius and tibia using micro-finite element analysis. We also measured fasting sclerostin, Pref-1, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) levels. Results Sclerostin levels were higher in AA and EA compared with NA (AA: 0.42 ± 0.15 ng/mL, EA: 0.44 ± 0.09 ng/mL, NA: 0.33 ± 0.14 ng/mL; p=0.047). In EA, sclerostin was positively associated with lumbar spine (LS) BMD and its Z-score (R=0.52, p=0.03 and R=0.55, p=0.02, respectively) whereas in NA, sclerostin was inversely associated with LS BMD (R=−0.61, p=0.01). Pref-1 levels were similar in all three groups and there were significant inverse associations between Pref-1, BMD and estimated bone strength in NA. Conclusions Sclerostin and Pref-1 may have differential effects on bone in adolescent athletes compared to non-athletes. PMID:23579340

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORE ENDURANCE AND BACK DYSFUNCTION IN COLLEGIATE MALE ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT NONSPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity and sports can be associated with low back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between core stability and nonspecific low back pain (LBP) among athletes. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between core endurance and back dysfunction in collegiate male athletes with and without nonspecific LBP. Methods Fifty-five male collegiate athletes from a variety of sports were recruited for this study. Their mean age was 21.50 ± (2.54) years, mean weight was 70.96 ± (5.33) kg., and mean height was 174.38 ± (4.37) cm. Thirty athletes with non-specific LBP and twenty five healthy athletes were assessed using McGill's anterior, posterior, and left and right plank core endurance tests (seconds) and for dysfunction using the Micheli functional scale (MFS). Pearson's product moment correlations examined the relationships between core endurance and MFS. Results There were significant differences regarding the measured core endurance tests between the healthy athletes group and the nonspecific LBP group (p < 0.05). Additionally, good negative (r = −0.794) and moderate negative (r = −0.541) correlations were found between MFS and trunk extensor and flexor endurance tests, respectively in the group with nonspecific LBP. Conclusion The results of this study imply that poor core endurance is likely associated with nonspecific LBP in collegiate athletes. Injury risk reduction and back management programs for the athletic population should include strategies that emphasize endurance of the core muscles especially the trunk extensors and flexors. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:27274419

  8. Adolescent male with anorexia nervosa: a case report from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This is the first reported case of an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa in Iraq. This disorder is believed to be rare in males across cultures and uncommon for both genders in Arab countries. The patient met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. He was hospitalized and received medical and psychiatric treatment at local facilities as discussed below and responded well to treatment. PMID:22280999

  9. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  10. Understanding the Role of Athletics and Resiliency in the Persistence and Success of African American Males in a Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Melinda Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the part athletics and resiliency played in degree completion of African American males. Specifically, it investigated three at-risk African American males and the dynamics of athletic participation and resiliency in their degree completion. In view of the fact that many African American students begin their higher…

  11. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  12. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  13. Editorial Commentary: Does Fatigue Alter Pitching Mechanics in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Over the course of 90 pitches to simulate an adolescent male pitching in a baseball game, there is an increase in fatigue and pain, a decrease in velocity, and some changes indicative of lower extremity fatigue without any change in upper extremity kinematics. PMID:27151449

  14. The Reading Life Histories of Three Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Billye J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the reading lives of three adolescent male students who struggle in reading. The three students identified for this study are students who failed to meet the academic criteria for promotion from grade eight to grade nine as defined by the 2011 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAKS) and were placed in grade nine by a school…

  15. OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF ADOLESCENT MALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It has recently been reported that adult physical activity was associated with environmental features. The aim of this study was to determine whether environmental features were associated with physical activity among male adolescents. Methods: Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts ...

  16. Treasured Possessions and Their Meanings in Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamptner, N. Laura

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes treasured possessions and their meanings in adolescence, including their relation to those treasured during early life and their relation to self-identity. Subjects were 14- to 18-year-old high school students (n=249). Results showed that males' most treasured possessions embodied enjoyment and instrumental meanings, whereas females'…

  17. Enhancing the Cultural Identity of Early Adolescent Male African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Christopher K.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    This paper reports on the development of a school-based Afrocentric intervention for middle school male adolescents who are at risk for academic failure or underachievement. The intervention combined the principles of the rites of passage movement within African American communities and current thinking on the process of second culture acquisition…

  18. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  19. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  20. Turn the Wheel: Integral School Counseling for Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, David

    2003-01-01

    This article formulates an overarching, inclusive model of integral counseling that enables school counselors to help male adolescents challenge the norm of conventional masculinity. The model draws from 3 areas: transpersonal counseling, holistic education, and mindful social action. The aim is to move the students' level of self-development and…

  1. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  2. Chest Pain in Adolescent Japanese Male Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin K.; Naheed, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Acute chest pain with very elevated troponin level and abnormal EKG in adult population is considered sine qua non to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) unless proved otherwise. Similar presentation in adolescent population is seen less often but raises suspicion for ACS. Most common etiology for chest pain with cardiac enzyme elevation in adolescent population is usually viral myopericarditis. The adolescent population presenting with chest pain and elevated cardiac enzymes should be carefully evaluated for ACS and other etiologies including myocarditis, myopericarditis, pulmonary embolism, acute rheumatic fever, and trauma. We report one Japanese adolescent male with mycoplasma pneumoniae myocarditis who presented to the ER with chest pain, elevated cardiac enzymes, and abnormal EKG. PMID:25202456

  3. Gradual and rapid weight loss: effects on nutrition and performance in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, G M; Koskinen, R; Laakso, J; Rankinen, T; Ruokonen, I

    1993-03-01

    We studied seven male wrestlers and three judo athletes (weight 55-93 kg) during two weight reductions. In the "gradual" procedure (GP), a 5.0 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) weight loss was achieved in 3 weeks by energy restriction. In the "rapid" procedure (RP), 6.0 +/- 0.6% of body weight was lost in 2.4 days by fluid and diet restriction and forced sweating, and followed by a 5-h "loading" (food and drinks ad libitum). The net weight loss after GP and loading was 2.7 +/- 0.5%. Protein intakes (4-d food records) during GP and RP were 71 +/- 16 and RP 56 +/- 17 g.d-1, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were 239 +/- 56 (GP) and 182 +/- 55 g.d-1 (RP). During GP and RP, mean thiamin, magnesium, and zinc intakes were at or below the respective recommendation. Thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron, and zinc status, assessed from blood chemistry, remained stable during both procedures. Changes in vitamin B6 indicator (E-ASTAC) and S-magnesium concentration were different (P < 0.01) between the procedures, suggesting negative trends during GP. Sprint (30-m run) and anaerobic (1-min Wingate test) performance was similar throughout the study. Following GP, vertical jump height with extra load increased by 6-8% (P < 0.01). Jumping results were not affected by RP. Hence, < or = 5% loss in body weight by either method did not impair experienced athletes' performance. PMID:8455453

  4. Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…

  5. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  6. African-American Male Student-Athletes in Division I Collegiate Sports: Expectations and Aspirations for Undergraduate Degree Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Seanan

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative case study explored undergraduate degree attainment by African American males in football and basketball at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Southwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants at the institution to uncover experiences that helped or…

  7. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  8. BONY AVULSION INJURY OF THE PECTORALIS MAJOR IN A 19 YEAR-OLD MALE JUDO ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Westrick, Richard B.; Owens, Brett D.; Johnson, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Bony avulsion of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare but potentially devastating injury for athletes. Pectoralis major rupture typically occurs in 20 to 39 year‐old males. The shoulder region is one of the most frequently injured areas in Judo athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe diagnosis and treatment following a pectoralis major bony avulsion due to an atypical mechanism of injury in a young Judo athlete. Case Description: A 19‐year‐old military cadet and competitive judo athlete reported to a direct‐access sports physical therapy clinic 7 weeks after incurring a shoulder injury during a judo match. He complained of shoulder pain and weakness with the inability to perform pushups. He presented with horizontal adduction weakness and visible discontinuity of the pectoralis muscle with resisted adduction. Outcomes: Radiographs demonstrated a bony avulsion of the pectoralis major from its humeral attachment. The patient underwent surgical repair of the lesion the next week and was able to resume most military cadet activities within 5 months post‐operation. Discussion: Bony avulsions are exceptionally rare injuries, and are even more uncommon in athletes under the age of 20. It is important for clinicians to perform a thorough history and physical examination in order to avoid missing this diagnosis. Surgery is likely the best option for a young athletic population; while conservative management may be optimal for the older, inactive population. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:24377072

  9. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  10. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  11. Consequences of single sport specialization in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Mia; Parikh, Shital N; Pandya, Nirav K

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric and adolescent sports participation has increased with a concomitant increase in injuries. Sports have transitioned from recreational to deliberate, structured activities wherein success is determined by achievement of 'elite' status. This has led to specialization in a single sport with intensive, repetitive activity at younger ages causing physical and emotional consequences, particularly true for the growing athlete who is particularly susceptible to injury. Clinicians caring for this population must understand the epidemiology of youth sports specialization, the unique physiology/structure of this age group, and the potential physical and emotional consequences. PMID:25771319

  12. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items. PMID:12493093

  13. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  14. Hypopituitarism After Multiple Concussions: A Retrospective Case Study in an Adolescent Male

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jeffrey C; Alderman, Mark; Stred, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development of hypopituitarism in an adolescent athlete after multiple concussions and to raise awareness among sports medicine clinicians concerning the growing concern of hypopituitarism in concussion injury surveillance and management. Background: A 14-year-old, previously healthy male athlete suffered 4 head traumas over a 4-month period. The first 3 traumas were considered by the athlete to be minor and were not reported to medical personnel. The fourth trauma was a medically diagnosed concussion suffered during soccer play. Over the next year, the patient noted a decline in strength and conditioning and a failure to grow. Differential Diagnosis: After physical examination and a full battery of endocrine tests, the patient, then 16.5 years old, was diagnosed with hypopituitarism. Follow-up interviews provided evidence that at least 2 of the 3 head injuries suffered before the last concussion could also be considered concussions, which may have contributed to the severity of the last head injury. Treatment: The patient is currently being treated with physiologic replacement hormones (growth hormone, cortisol, and thyroxine), with resumption of linear growth and strength. He is progressing well. Uniqueness: In the past few years in the medical literature, increased attention has been drawn to the occult occurrence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury in adults. Initial reports indicate that children are also at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hypopituitarism after mild traumatic brain injury in the sports medicine literature. Conclusions: Symptoms of hypopituitarism are often masked by trauma and postconcussion symptoms and may not appear until months or years after the trauma incident, which can lead to significant delay in proper diagnosis and treatment. We urge greater vigilance by, and training of, sports medicine clinicians toward the goal of recognizing the possibility of pituitary disorders

  15. Sex steroid and growth hormone supplementation to enhance performance in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D

    2000-08-01

    Ergogenic aids are taken to enhance energy utilization by producing more, controlling its use, or increasing mechanical efficiency. Most athletes are looking toward enhancing performance by proper training modalities and methods; however, some look to the biochemical route for a "quick fix." Thus, the use of chemical agents is on the rise. Herein is provided information on the anabolic-androgenic agents androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, and the "parent" compound, testosterone. The former two, at best, have equivocal activity, but testosterone is both anabolic and androgenic in doses that adolescents might receive. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 are anabolic, nonandrogenic compounds with undoubted effects on the lean body mass compartment. Both are expensive, not readily available, and subject to the art of counterfeiting. Thus, very few data are available in non-growth hormone-deficient adolescents. The discussion of these agents ends with issues of fairness, ethics, and the message we attempt to project to our teenagers, whether athletes or not. PMID:10943821

  16. Adolescent Male Peer Sexual Abuse: An Issue Often Neglected

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, Girish H.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease. PMID:24379502

  17. The Eating Disorders Examination in Adolescent Males with Anorexia Nervosa: How Does It Compare to Adolescent Females?

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, Alison M.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka; Doyle, Peter; Le Grange, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to explore the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) for adolescent males with eating disorders (EDs) compared with adolescent females with EDs. Method Data were collected from 48 males and matched on percent median body weight (MBW) and age to 48 females at two sites. Results Adolescent males with anorexia nervosa-type presentation scored significantly lower than matched females on Shape Concern, Weight Concern, and Global score. They also scored lower on a number of individual items. Discussion The EDE has clinical utility with adolescent males with anorexic-type presentation although males’ scoring ranges are consistently lower than those from adolescent females with similar clinical presentations. Males scored significantly lower on a number of items representing core symptoms such as desire to lose weight. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the experience of adolescent males with EDs, particularly in relation to the nature of shape concern. PMID:22170022

  18. Height-based Indices of Pubertal Timing in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khairullah, Ammar; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D.; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    It is important to account for timing of puberty when studying the adolescent brain and cognition. The use of classical methods for assessing pubertal status may not be feasible in some studies, especially in male adolescents. Using data from a sample of 478 males from a longitudinal birth cohort, we describe the calculations of three independent height-based markers of pubertal timing: Age at Peak Height Velocity (APHV), Height Difference in Standard Deviations (HDSDS), and Percent Achieved of Adult Stature (PAAS). These markers correlate well with each other. In a separate cross-sectional study, we show that the PAAS marker correlates well with testosterone levels and self-reported pubertal-stage scores. We conclude by discussing key considerations for investigators when drawing upon these methods of assessing pubertal timing. PMID:26052478

  19. Stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1987-06-01

    During the 14-year period of 1971-1985, 368 stress fractures in 324 athletes were treated. The series contained 268 fractures in males and 100 fractures in females; 32 fractures occurred in children (less than 16 years), 117 in adolescents (16-19 years), and 219 in adults. Forty-six fractures were incurred by athletes at an international level, 274 by athletes at a national or district level and 48 by recreational athletes. Of the total cases, 72% occurred to runners and a further 12% to athletes in other sports after running exercises. The distribution of the stress fractures by site was: tibia 182, metatarsal bones 73, fibula 44, big toe sesamoid bones 15, femoral shaft 14, femoral neck 9, tarsal navicular 9, pelvis 7, olecranon 5 and other bones 10. Of the total fractures, 342 were treated conservatively and 26 fractures required surgical treatment. The operative indication was dislocation in 5 cases and delayed union/nonunion in 21 cases. The sites most often affected by delayed union were: anterior midtibia, sesamoid bones of the big toe, base of the fifth metatarsal, olecranon, and tarsal navicular. The athletes at an international level experienced the greatest risk of multiple separate fractures, protracted healing, or fractures requiring surgery. PMID:3623785

  20. Aluba and "High" Culture: Adolescent Male Peer Culture in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bih, Herng-Dar; Huang, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    Aluba is a campus activity popular among adolescent males in Taiwan in which four boys lift up another boy by his arms and legs and make a show of pushing or rubbing his genitals against a pole-shaped object. The "alubaee", nearly always a willing participant, is expected to put up a show of resistance for the satisfaction of all involved. It is a…

  1. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  2. Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of Japanese male athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, although the incidence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) is still low compared with that in Europe and the United States, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased over the last 15 years,. In both Japanese and Caucasian populations it has been reported that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness protects against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no reports focused specifically on athletes that investigate whether high cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can prevent disease later in life. We examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese athletes using a cohort study. Methods The cardiorespiratory fitness of male alumni of the physical education department of Juntendo University, as measured by stored data of a 1,500-m endurance run in college (1971–1991) was compared with their incidence of type 2 diabetes as determined by follow-up questionnaires (2007–2009). This study used Cox’s proportional hazards models and adjusted for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports club participation at college age. Results We collected data on cardiorespiratory fitness at college age and medical history survey data during 2007–2009 from 570 male alumni. The median follow-up period was 26 years (IQR: 23–29 years), and 22 men had developed type 2 diabetes. An inverse relationship was observed between incidence of type 2 diabetes and level of cardiorespiratory fitness at time of college after adjustment for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports participation. The adjusted hazards ratio and 95% CI by category (low, medium, and high) were 1.00 (reference), 0.40 (0.14–1.13) and 0.26 (0.07–1.00) (p = 0.03 for trend). Conclusions A high level of cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can help prevent type 2 diabetes later in life. PMID:24885699

  4. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  5. Identifying New Sources of African American Male Pre-Service Teachers: Creating a Path from Student-Athlete to Student-Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, David A.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Lewis, Chance W.; Bonner, Fred A., II; Rutledge, Michael; Watson, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the experiences of one African American former college athlete and two athletic department academic advisors at a BCS Division University in the Southern Region of the United States, Given the catastrophic shortage of African American male K-12 teachers, the participants of this study were interviewed to…

  6. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  7. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  8. Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans in a 13-year-old male athlete: A case report

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Kevin; Kim, Peter; Murnaghan, M. Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the clinical management of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee and highlight the importance of a timely diagnosis to optimize the time needed for less invasive, non-operative therapy. Clinical Features: A 13-year-old provincial level male soccer player presenting with recurrent anterior knee pain despite ongoing manual therapy. Intervention and Outcome: A multidisciplinary, non-operative treatment approach was utilized to promote natural healing of the osteochondral lesion. The plan of management consisted of patient education, activity modification, manual therapy, passive modalities and rehabilitation, while being overseen by an orthopaedic surgeon. Conclusions: Considering the serious consequences of misdiagnosing osteochondritis dissecans, such as the potential for future joint instability and accelerated joint degeneration, a high degree of suspicion should be considered with young individuals presenting with nonspecific, recurrent knee pain. A narrative review of the literature is provided to allow practitioners to apply current best practices to appropriately manage juvenile OCD and become more cognizant of the common knee differential diagnoses in the young athletic population. PMID:25550663

  9. Division I Men's Basketball Scholarship: The Challenges of Being a Black Male Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The Qualitative research will explore issues that interface particularly with Black student- athletes on Division 1 basketball scholarships regarding academic readiness, academic support, family support and how the experience of a Division 1 scholarship impacted their lives. The population of Black student-athletes that the focus of the research…

  10. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism across Three Groups of Elite Male European Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A.; Lekontsev, Evgeny V.; Kulikov, Leonid M.; Birk, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.48; P = 0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.07–3.31; P = 0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a “world-class” competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.08–12.94; P = 0.038) compared with those of a lower (“national”) competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance. PMID:22916217

  11. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-01-01

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  12. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity. PMID:26132259

  13. High prevalence of arrhythmias in elderly male athletes with a lifelong history of regular strenuous exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Urstad, K; Bouvier, F; Saltin, B; Jensen-Urstad, M

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To characterise cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac autonomic function in 11 elderly men (mean (SD) age 73.2 (2.8) years) with a lifelong history of regular very strenuous exercise. A control group of 12 healthy sedentary or moderately physically active men (74.5 (2.7) years) was also studied.
Design—48 hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were recorded. Cardiac autonomic function was estimated from power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise testing was 2.91 (0.52) l (41 (7) ml/kg).
Results—Nine of 11 athletes had complex ventricular arrhythmias compared with five of 12 controls. Seven athletes but none of the controls had episodes of heart rate below 40 beats/min and two athletes had RR intervals longer than two seconds. Heart rate variability in the athletes was higher than in the controls. 
Conclusions—Elderly athletes with a lifelong training history seem to have more complex arrhythmias and profound bradyarrhythmias than do healthy elderly controls, which may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. In contrast, the age related decrease in heart rate variability seems to be retarded, which has a positive prognostic value and may decrease the risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

 Keywords: arrhythmias;  heart rate variability;  athletes;  exercise;  elderly men PMID:9538309

  14. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  15. Vitamin D status and musculoskeletal health in adolescent male ballet dancers a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ducher, Gaele; Kukuljan, S; Hill, B; Garnham, A P; Nowson, C A; Kimlin, M G; Cook, J

    2011-09-01

    Adequate vitamin D levels during growth are critical to ensuring optimal bone development. Vitamin D synthesis requires sun exposure; thus, athletes engaged in indoor activities such as ballet dancing may be at relatively high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low vitamin D levels in young male ballet dancers and its impact on musculoskeletal health. Eighteen male ballet dancers, aged 10 to 19 years and training for at least 6 hours per week, were recruited from the Australian Ballet School, Melbourne, Australia. Serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH were measured in winter (July) from a non-fasting blood sample. Pubertal stage was determined using self-assessed Tanner criteria. Body composition and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body and lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Injury history and physical activity levels were assessed by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 16 participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels ranged from 20.8 to 94.3 nmol/L, with a group mean of 50.5 nmol/L. Two participants (12.5%) showed vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D level < 25 nmol/L], seven dancers (44%) had vitamin D insufficiency (25 to 50 nmol/L), and the remaining seven dancers (44%) had normal levels (> 50 nmol/L). No relationship was found between vitamin D status, PTH levels, body composition, and aBMD. The most commonly reported injuries were muscle tears and back pain. The average number of injuries reported by each dancer was 1.9 ± 0.4 (range: 0 to 5). There was no difference in the frequency of reported injuries between subjects with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (2.1 ± 0.6 injuries) and those with normal vitamin D levels (1.4 ± 0.6 injuries). This pilot study showed that more than half of highly-trained young male ballet dancers presented with low levels of vitamin D in winter. Further investigations in larger samples of adolescent athletes are needed

  16. Delinquency in Male Adolescents: The Role of Alexithymia and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Gregoire

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…

  17. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280

  18. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  19. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  20. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  1. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ≤2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes. PMID:25724537

  2. Family ecology and HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between family ecology and HIV sexual risk behavior among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males. Family, psychosocial, and HIV risk factors were assessed in 171 African American and 187 Puerto Rican adolescent males. Findings suggest that family ecology, culture, and gender role variables may differentially affect HIV sexual risk behaviors within these groups. PMID:15792069

  3. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  4. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  5. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2013-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. PMID:23730121

  6. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:23446953

  7. Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Li, Xiaoqi; Lin, Xiaodi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Ott, Summer; Biekman, Brian; Hunter, Jill V; Dash, Pramod K; Taylor, Brian A; Levin, Harvey S

    2016-01-01

    Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity (FC) would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN) (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex) 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n = 13) and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 13). The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the PCC and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN). Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately 1 week and 1 month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at 1 month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent 1-month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play. PMID:27504104

  8. Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Lin, Xiaodi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Ott, Summer; Biekman, Brian; Hunter, Jill V.; Dash, Pramod K.; Taylor, Brian A.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity (FC) would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN) (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex) 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n = 13) and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 13). The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the PCC and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN). Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately 1 week and 1 month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at 1 month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent 1-month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play. PMID:27504104

  9. Immunoendocrine responses of male spinal cord injured athletes to 1-hour self-paced exercise: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allgrove, Judith E; Chapman, Mark; Christides, Tatiana; Smith, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a 1 h, self-paced handcycling time trial on blood leukocytes, mucosal immunity, and markers of stress in paraplegic athletes. Nine male paraplegic athletes (spinal injury level thoracic 4-lumbar 2) performed 1 h of handcycling exercise on a standard 400 m athletics track. Heart rate (HR) was measured continuously during exercise, and a retrospective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained immediately after. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected immediately before exercise (Pre-Ex), after exercise (End-Ex), and 1 h postexercise (1-h Post). The athletes completed mean +/- standard error of mean 22.4 +/- 1.1 km cycling at HR 165 +/- 2 beats/min, RPE 15 +/- 1, and blood lactate 7.9 +/- 2.5 mmol/L. Total leukocytes increased 72% and neutrophils increased 74% End-Ex; both remained elevated at 1-h Post (both p < 0.05). Lymphocytes increased 53% and natural killer cells increased 175% End-Ex (both p < 0.05), but returned to near baseline levels 1-h Post. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed End-Ex in alpha-amylase activity (p < 0.05), which returned to baseline at 1-h Post, but there was no significant change in saliva flow rate, salivary immunoglobulin A, or cortisol. These data confirm that 1 h of handcycling exercise elevated circulating leukocytes but had a minimal effect on mucosal immunity. These changes appear to be associated with alpha-amylase rather than cortisol. PMID:23299262

  10. Risperidone-associated ejaculatory and urinary dysfunction in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Martin; Gerstner, Sandra; Schmidt, Martin H

    2003-01-01

    We report two male adolescents who developed partial or complete retrograde ejaculation during risperidone treatment. Additionally, one patient complained of bladder outflow obstruction, and the other reported a reduced ejaculatory volume and decreased viscosity of semen. On rechallenge with risperidone, patient A showed a prompt recurrence of the ejaculatory dysfunction. The side effects were highly disturbing and led to reduced treatment compliance in both patients. The impact of risperidone, a strong alpha(1)-receptor antagonist, on the adrenergic system might induce retrograde ejaculation by altering the sympathetic tonus, allowing semen to pass retrogradely into the bladder during ejaculation. The reduced ejaculatory volume may be caused by risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Clinicians should regularly inquire about sexual dysfunction and symptoms suggestive of hyperprolactinemia before starting risperidone treatment and regularly thereafter. PMID:12804132

  11. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:23242708

  12. Females prefer athletes, males fear the disadvantaged: different signals used in female choice and male competition have varied consequences

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robbie S.; Condon, Catriona H.; David, Gwendolyn; FitzGibbon, Sean; Niehaus, Amanda C.; Pratt, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly assumed cost for exaggerated male ornamentation is increased predation pressure owing to decreased locomotor performance or increased conspicuousness to predators. Despite its intuitive basis, the locomotor costs of male ornamentation are not well established. We tested the hypothesis that multiple male signals that are used independently during female choice and male competition could lead to varied locomotor costs. Multiple signals with varied costs could provide a more detailed indicator of overall male quality, as only the highest-quality individuals could support all costs. To test this idea, we investigated the burst locomotor consequences of multiple ornaments for males of the pacific blue-eye (Pseudomugil signifer). We evaluated five competing models relating body size, ornament size and performance traits to field measures of dominance and attractiveness. Non-propulsive male fin ornaments used during male competition were different from those used in female choice. First dorsal fin length was the most important predictor of male attractiveness, while dominance was only associated with anal fin length. Furthermore, first dorsal fin length was positively correlated with swim speed, while anal fin length was negatively associated with speed. Our study shows that multiple male signals that are used independently during male competition and female choice also differ in their associated costs. This provides a mechanism for understanding why locomotor costs for exaggerated male ornamentation are not often empirically demonstrated. PMID:20181563

  13. Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey B; Grenier, Michelle; Edwards, Nicholas M; Madsen, Nicolas L; Czosek, Richard J; Spar, David S; Barnes, Allison; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Knilans, Timothy K

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sport. Screening young athletes for high-risk cardiac defects is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in an adolescent population. Adolescent athletes were recruited from local schools and/or sports teams. Each subject underwent a history and/or physical examination, an electrocardiography (ECG), and a limited echocardiography (ECHO). The primary outcome measure was identification of cardiac abnormalities associated with an elevated risk for sudden death. We secondarily identified cardiac abnormalities not typically associated with a short-term risk of sudden death. A total of 659 adolescent athletes were evaluated; 64% men. Five subjects had cardiac findings associated with an elevated risk for sudden death: prolonged QTc >500 ms (n = 2) and type I Brugada pattern (n = 1), identified with ECG; dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1) and significant aortic root dilation; and z-score = +5.5 (n = 1). History and physical examination alone identified 76 (11.5%) subjects with any cardiac findings. ECG identified 76 (11.5%) subjects in which a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. Left ventricular mass was normal by ECHO in all but 1 patient with LVH on ECG. ECHO identified 34 (5.1%) subjects in whom a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. In conclusion, physical examination alone was ineffective in identification of subjects at elevated risk for SCDY. Screening ECHO identified patients with underlying cardiac disease not associated with immediate risk for SCDY. Cost of comprehensive cardiac screening is high. PMID:25307198

  14. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended. PMID:19570279

  16. What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

  17. Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .

    PubMed

    Beamon, Krystal K

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills. PMID:21174872

  18. Crash injury risk behavior in adolescent latino males: the power of friends and relational connections.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB. PMID:22105382

  19. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  20. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  1. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tsun; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV],) were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A), with refractive error and corrected with (Group B) and without eyeglasses (Group C). Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm) between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s) using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse) to 10 (best) using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C) were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021). PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044). There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups. PMID:26632127

  2. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  3. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  4. TEST‐RETEST CONSISTENCY OF A POSTURAL SWAY ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL FOR ADOLESCENT ATHLETES MEASURED WITH A FORCE PLATE

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Hugentobler, Jason A.; Kurowski, Brad G.; Myer, Gregory D.; Riley, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Postural control assessments can provide a powerful means of detecting concussion‐related neurophysiological abnormalities and are considered an important part of the concussion management processes. Studies with college athletes indicate that postural sway analyzed using complexity metrics may provide a sensitive and novel way to detect post‐concussion postural control impairments. The purpose of this study was to determine if a postural sway assessment protocol (PSAP) measured using a force plate system can serve as a reliable assessment tool for adolescent athletes. Methods: The short‐term and long‐term test‐retest reliability of the PSAP was examined in a group of adolescent female athletes under eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Detrended fluctuation analysis was used to evaluate the complexity of the times series data (i.e., degree of self‐similarity across time scales). Conventional measures of standard deviation and total path length (distance traveled by the center‐of‐pressure) were also assessed. Results: The complexity and conventional measures generally demonstrated good reliability coefficients for short‐term and long‐term test‐retest reliability with both eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Intra‐class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) values ranged from .38‐.90 The highest ICC values corresponded with the short‐term reliability for the eyes open condition, while the lower ICC values corresponded with the long‐term reliability for the eyes closed condition. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the PSAP demonstrated good short‐term and long‐term test‐retest reliability. In addition, no evidence of learning effects was elicited through this study. Future studies should further explore the validity and feasibility of the use of this protocol for different age groups, different types of athletes, and longitudinal evaluations of post‐concussion impairments. Clinical Relevance: This

  5. Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for VO2max Relative to Fat Free Mass

    PubMed Central

    MAGEEAN, AMANDA L.; ALEXANDER, RYAN P.; MIER, CONSTANCE M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in repeated sprint exercise (RSE) performance among male and female athletes matched for VO2max relative to FFM (VO2max FFM). Thirty nine male and female college athletes performed a graded exercise test for VO2max and hydrostatic weighing to determine FFM. From the results, 11 pairs of males and females matched for VO2max FFM (mean ± SD; 58.3 ± 4.3 and 58.9 ± 4.6 ml·kg FFM−1·min−1; men and women, respectively) were identified. On a separate day, matched participants performed a RSE protocol that consisted of five 6-sec cycle sprints with 30-sec recovery periods, followed by 5-min active recovery and a 30-sec all-out sprint. Repeated 6-sec sprint performance did not differ between men and women; both maintained power output (PO) until sprint 4. POFFM (W·kg−1 FFM) did not differ between men and women during the five sprints. During the 30-sec sprint, men achieved a lower peak POFFM than women (11.7 ± 1.5 vs 13.2 ± 1.2); however, the decline in POFFM over 30 sec was greater in women. VO2 (ml·kg FFM−1·min−1) was lower in men during recovery (24.4 ± 3.8 vs 28.7 ± 5.7) and at the beginning (29.2 ± 4.0 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and end (49.4 ± 5.0 vs 52.3 ± 4.0). of the 30-sec sprint. These data indicate that men and women with similar aerobic capacities do not respond differently to short repeated sprints but may differ in their ability to recover and perform sprints of longer duration. PMID:27182366

  6. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  7. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Magal, Meir; Cain, Rebekah J; Long, Josh C; Thomas, Kathleen S

    2015-03-01

    Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p < 0.05). A-two-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed a non-significant time or treatment effect for USG or body mass but did demonstrate a significant USG interaction. In addition, an independent t-test examining absolute changes in USG demonstrated a significant difference between groups in which the EXP group improved hydration status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body

  8. Morphologic Features of the "Athlete's Heart" in Children: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing the cardiac features of athletically trained children bears importance for health care providers and exercise physiologists alike. This literature review reveals that ventricular enlargement and/or hypertrophy are commonly observed in studies of pre- and early-adolescent endurance athletes, yet the magnitude of these features is less than that described in adult athletes. Moreover, the upper range of values in child athletes is sufficiently small that clinical confusion with findings mimicking those in individuals with heart disease should not be expected to occur. In contrast to sex differences in the "athlete's heart" in adults, cardiac structural findings in child athletes are similar in males and females. The extent that cardiac features observed in trained child athletes reflect a response to training or are influenced by genetic preselection remains uncertain. PMID:26694944

  9. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth incarcerated for serious offenses. We examined several risk factors for substance use and delinquency (i.e., early and frequent substance use, prior history of arrests, school expulsion, Black ethnicity), as well as the association between aggression and polysubstance use. Methods Data were collected via questionnaires from 373 serious male juvenile offenders upon intake into a secure locked facility. Youth were on average 16 years old, and minority youth were overrepresented (28.1% Black, 53.1% Latino). Poisson regressions were used to assess the associations between the risk factors, aggression, and polysubstance use. Results Consistent with the literature, Black youth reported less polysubstance use and later age of drug use onset than White and Latino youth. Findings suggest that Latino juvenile offenders and those with an early and problematic pattern of substance use are at heightened risk for polysubstance use. Aggression was not significantly related to polysubstance use, over and above the risk factors. Conclusions Given that Latino youth experience low rates of treatment for substance use, the development of culturally-sensitive interventions for these youth is needed. Interventions should also be multifaceted to address the multitude of risk factors associated with polysubstance use among juvenile offenders. PMID:26997851

  10. PTSD in asylum-seeking male adolescents from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul; Dobrowolski, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    This study concerned the mental health of Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in the United Kingdom (UK). Afghans are the largest group of children seeking asylum in the UK, yet evidence concerning their mental health is limited. This study presents an estimate of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within this group and describes its associations with the cumulative effect of premigration traumatic events, immigration/asylum status, and social care living arrangements. Male adolescents (N = 222) aged 13-18 years completed validated self-report screening measures for traumatic experiences and likely PTSD. One-third (34.3%) scored above a selected cutoff, suggesting that they are likely to have PTSD. A higher incidence of premigration traumatic events was associated with greater PTSD symptomatology. Children living in semi-independent care arrangements were more likely to report increased PTSD symptoms when compared to their peers in foster care. A substantial majority in this study did not score above the cutoff, raising the possibility of notable levels of resilience. Future research should consider approaching mental health issues from a resilience perspective to further the understanding of protective mechanisms for this at-risk population. PMID:23070950

  11. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  12. The Loss and Search for the Puer, A Consideration of Inferiority Feelings in Certain Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    A sense of inferiority in adolescent males can result from a split senex-puer archetype, a Jungian construct focused on the individual's identification with and/or repression of psychic age and youth. Adolescents experience healing of the split senex-puer archetype to the degrees to which they involve themselves in the eros and power of their life…

  13. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  14. Comparison of Language Skills of Adjudicated and Nonadjudicated Adolescent Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Debra J.; Dagenais, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to determine whether there were any differences or similarities in the basic cognitive and language skills of 4 groups of adolescents: adjudicated (a judge's decision to establish responsibility for a delinquent act) and nonadjudicated male and females. Method: The 4 groups of adolescents were 18 adjudicated females,…

  15. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…

  16. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  17. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning and Executive Function: Exploring the Relationships in a Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effeney, Gerard; Carroll, Annemaree; Bahr, Nan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between SRL and EF in a sample of 254 school-aged adolescent males. Two hypotheses were tested: that self-reported measures of SRL and EF are closely related and that as different aspects of EF mature during adolescence, the corresponding components of SRL should also improve, leading to an age-related…

  19. Residential Wilderness Programs: The Role of Social Support in Influencing Self-Evaluations of Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the aspects of a residential wilderness experience that informed self-evaluations in male adolescents, ages 12-16. To assess change in self-evaluations and program factors associated with change, qualitative interviews were conducted with adolescents upon entry to the program and four months later. Participants'…

  20. A critique of adolescent pregnancy prevention research: the invisible white male.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V F

    1991-01-01

    This study examined sex and race bias in recently published research on adolescent pregnancy prevention. Descriptive statistics from 71 citations showed that of 33 articles that focused on a single sex, only one was on males (inner city, presumably minority). Of the remaining articles, the majority either did not differentiate between the sexes or provided only minimal data on sex differences. The consequences of research that ignores or minimizes the male contribution to the adolescent pregnancy problem are discussed. PMID:2048476

  1. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1, 5.4±3.0 MJ. day−1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in was explained by sex (partial R2 = 54.7%) and body mass index (partial R2 = 15.9%). Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success. PMID:23805234

  2. Plasma catecholamine and serum testosterone responses to four units of resistance exercise in young and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Pullinen, T; Mero, A; MacDonald, E; Pakarinen, A; Komi, P V

    1998-04-01

    The plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentration responses of seven young male athletes [15 (SD 1) years] and seven adult male athletes [25 (SD 6) years] were investigated together with the serum testosterone (Tes) concentration responses in four different half-squatting exercises. The loads, number of repetitions, exercise intensity and recovery between the sets were manipulated such that different types of metabolic demand could be expected. However, the amount of work done was kept equal in each kind of exercise. After the most exhausting unit of exercise (E3; two sets of 30 repetitions with 50% of 1 repetition maximum and with 2-min recovery between the sets) the plasma NA concentration was significantly lower in the younger than in the adult subjects [15.7 (SD 7.8) vs 32.7 (SD 13.2) nmol x l(-1), P < 0.05], while the A concentrations were similar. In the other three exercises no differences in the plasma catecholamine concentration responses among the groups were observed. The postexercise Tes concentrations, however, were significantly lower in the younger than in the adult subjects in every exercise unit. No correlations between the plasma catecholamine and serum Tes concentration responses were observed in any of the exercise units in either group. The results of the present study may suggest reduced sympathetic nervous activity in the younger subjects compared to the adults in response to exhausting resistance exercise. The results may also suggest that the catecholamines were less involved in eliciting an increase in Tes secretion in these resistance exercises. PMID:9562291

  3. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sommerfield, Lesley M; McAnulty, Steven R; McBride, Jeffrey M; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Austin, Melanie D; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D; Calhoun, Mason C; Young, Juliane O; Haines, Traci L; Utter, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition. PMID:26694503

  4. Voluntary fluid intake, hydration status, and aerobic performance of adolescent athletes in the heat.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2010-12-01

    We determined whether beverage flavoring and composition would stimulate voluntary drink intake, prevent dehydration, and maintain exercise performance in heat-acclimated adolescent males running in the heat. Eight adolescent (age, 13.7 ± 1.1 years) runners (peak oxygen uptake, 59.5 ± 4.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) underwent at least four 80-min exercise heat-acclimation sessions before completing 3 experimental sessions. All sessions were performed at 30 °C and 60%-65% relative humidity. Each experimental session consisted of five 15-min treadmill runs at a speed eliciting 65% peak oxygen uptake, with a 5 min rest prior to each run. Ten minutes after the final run, a time to exhaustion test was performed at a speed eliciting 90% peak oxygen uptake. Counterbalanced experimental sessions were identical, except for fluid intake, which consisted of tap water (W), flavored water (FW), and FW with 6% carbohydrate and 18 mmol·L-1 NaCl (CNa) consumed ad libitum. Fluid intake and body weight were monitored to calculate dehydration. Voluntary fluid intake was similar to fluid losses in W (1032 ± 130 vs. 1340 ± 246 g), FW (1086 ± 86 vs. 1451 ± 253 g), and CNa (1259 ± 119 vs. 1358 ± 234 g). As a result, significant dehydration was avoided in all trials (-0.45% ± 0.68% body weight in W, -0.66% ± 0.50% body weight in FW, and -0.13% ± 0.71% body weight in CNa). Core temperature increased by ~1 °C during exercise, but was not different between trials. Time to exhaustion was not different between trials and averaged 8.8 ± 1.7 min. Under exercise conditions more closely reflecting real-life situations, heat-acclimatized adolescent male runners can appropriately gauge fluid intake regardless of the type of beverage made available, resulting in consistency in exercise performance. PMID:21164555

  5. Awareness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among Adolescent African American Males Who Have Sex with Males: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Martin, Nicolle; Orish, Verner N; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2015-09-01

    African American adolescent males who have sex with males (MSMs) have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that has been directly linked to lack of access to primary care providers and reluctance to disclose their sexuality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STD with more than 40 different serotypes and can lead to anal/genital warts as well as oral and genital cancers. The HPV vaccine if taken prior to an adolescent becoming sexually active serves a prophylactic function. The HPV vaccine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for girls and boys; however, HPV vaccination rates among adolescents within different minority and underserved communities have been disappointing even though these groups are disproportionately infected with the HPV virus and certain male-specific cancers. Little is known about the uptake of the vaccine among African American MSMs and thus the aim of this study. This qualitative study is based on the health belief model and assessed participants' level of awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-related illnesses among 24 African American male adolescents between 16 and 18 years old who self identify as MSMs. As part of a larger study, two focus groups were conducted for African American MSMs. Participants failed to understand their potential risk for HPV given the higher rates of STD infection experienced by MSMs. They expressed very little knowledge of the HPV vaccine and are also not aware of the complications of HPV virus infection. However, they were very eager to know more about the virus and the vaccine. This study demonstrates the need for the development of health communication intervention and more research targeting African American MSMs and also the need for policy change towards making the HPV vaccine routine for males especially adolescents at no cost. PMID:26863459

  6. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Magal, Meir; Cain, Rebekah J.; Long, Josh C.; Thomas, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p < 0.05). A-two-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed a non-significant time or treatment effect for USG or body mass but did demonstrate a significant USG interaction. In addition, an independent t-test examining absolute changes in USG demonstrated a significant difference between groups in which the EXP group improved hydration status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body

  7. Women in Athletic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

  8. Peer passenger influences on male adolescent drivers’ visual scanning behavior during simulated driving

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Anuj K.; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C. Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Shope, Jean T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a higher likelihood of crashes and fatalities when an adolescent drives with peer passengers, especially for male drivers and male passengers. Simulated driving of male adolescent drivers with male peer passengers was studied to examine passenger influences on distraction and inattention. Methods Male adolescents drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator with a male confederate who posed either as a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Drivers’ eye-movements were recorded. The visual scanning behavior of the drivers was compared when driving alone versus when driving with a passenger, and when driving with a risk-accepting versus a risk-averse passenger. Results The visual scanning of a driver significantly narrowed horizontally and vertically when driving with a peer passenger. There were no significant differences in the times the drivers’ eyes were off the forward roadway when driving with a passenger versus when driving alone. Some significant correlations were found between personality characteristics and the outcome measures. Conclusions The presence of a male peer passenger was associated with a reduction in the visual scanning range of male adolescent drivers. This reduction could be a result of potential cognitive load imposed on the driver due to the presence of a passenger and the real or perceived normative influences or expectations from the passenger. Implications and contribution The presence of male peer passengers was associated with deficient visual scanning in male adolescent drivers. Such reduced scanning behavior is evident in drivers with high cognitive load. Further investigation of passenger influences on adolescent drivers should include examination of distraction and inattention aspects of passenger influence. PMID:24759440

  9. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  10. CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF AN ISOLATED GRADE III LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY IN AN ADOLESCENT MULTI-SPORT ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, M. Alex; Budich, Justin M.; Eckenrode, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case report Background Isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament knee injuries are an uncommon traumatic injury with little guidance available in the literature for conservative management and prognosis for return to sport. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical decision-making in both differential diagnosis and physical therapy management of an isolated grade III lateral collateral ligament sprain in an adolescent multi-sport high school athlete. Case Description A 16 year-old male, high school, multi-sport athlete (cross country, wrestling, track and field) sustained a traumatic knee injury during a wrestling match when his involved lower extremity was forcefully externally rotated by his opponent. Initial clinical presentation revealed pain and increased laxity with varus stress testing of the left knee, which was subsequently identified via MRI as a complete lateral collateral ligament rupture (grade III). A conservative physical therapy program was developed targeting the active and neuromuscular subsystems, theorized to compensate for the lack of an intact lateral collateral ligament. Outcomes The subject attended 18 visits of physical therapy over a period of 12 weeks. His rehabilitation program focused on functional strengthening of the posterolateral corner, enhancement of neuromuscular control, and graded progression to sports specific drills. Return to play decisions were based on a combination of lower extremity functional performance measures, condition specific outcome measures and subjective performance on sports specific tasks. At discharge from physical therapy, he reported 0/10 pain, scored a 76/80 on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and was able to return to competitive track and field events. Discussion Few descriptions in the literature exist for the conservative management of isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament injuries. A program of selective functional strengthening

  11. Television Viewing and Adolescents' Beliefs about Male-Female Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Kim Walsh; Brown, Jane D.

    Drawing on a social cognitive understanding of the relationship between television and viewers which suggests that adolescents will seek media content consistent with their already developed notions about the sexes, a study surveyed 1,613 adolescents (aged 12 to 17). Respondents were drawn from 10 standard metropolitan statistical areas that are…

  12. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  13. "You're So Gay!:" Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…

  14. Talk Is Cheap: Exploring Alternative Strategies for Counseling Gifted Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Meredith Greene

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent gifted males behave, develop, and learn differently than their female peers. While there are many similarities between the genders, the unique socialization processes, typical characteristics, and common experiences of gifted males are important for school counselors and teachers of gifted boys to recognize and understand. Counselors…

  15. Adolescent Boys' Intentions of Seeking Help from Male Friends and Female Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…

  16. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  17. Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

  18. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  19. Family Structure and Psychosocial Correlates among Urban African-American Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency, well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 adolescent black males. The only difference found was that subjects living in single-mother households reported more parental support than those from other family structures. Data on father/male role model relationships challenged…

  20. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…

  1. The relationship between stress and body satisfaction in female and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844

  2. Can Persistence Hunting Signal Male Quality? A Test Considering Digit Ratio in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Longman, Daniel; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Stock, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. ‘Having’ theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, ‘getting’ theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D) was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km), representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001) and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02). Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness. PMID:25853679

  3. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Longman, Daniel; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D) was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km), representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001) and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02). Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness. PMID:25853679

  4. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infections in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Laura Patricia; Bernstein, David I; Callahan, S. Todd; Ferreira, Jennifer; Gorgone Simone, Gina A.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Although the seroprevalence of CMV and associated exposure and behavioral risk factors have been reported in adolescent females, limited data exists in males. Method Serum was obtained from males (aged 12–17 years) from 6/2006 – 7/2007 in Cincinnati, OH, Galveston, TX, and Nashville, TN and tested for CMV IgG antibody using a commercial assay. Participants completed a computer assisted screening interview to assess seven risk categories. Results A total of 397 adolescent males were screened and 165 (47%) were seropositive. African American race, older age, and exposure to children ≤3 years of age in the home were significant predictors of CMV infection in the univariate analysis. Hispanic ethnicity, group living situations, saliva sharing behaviors, and intimate sexual contact were not associated with CMV infection. However, among those with a history of sexual contact, the number of life time partners was associated with CMV. In the final multivariate model, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher in African American subjects (OR 1.99 (95% CI [1.27, 2.95]) and subjects >14 years of age (OR 1.1 (95%CI [1.00, 1.28]. With each additional risk factor, males had a 1.6x increased risk of CMV. Conclusions This study indicates that CMV infections are common in adolescent males, increase with age, and are associated with African American race. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at both adolescent males and females. Summary This study indicates CMV infections are common in adolescent males, increase with age, and are associated with African Americans. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at adolescent males and females. PMID:20936976

  5. Autonomic Responses of Male Adolescents Exhibiting Refractory Behaviour in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John G. V.; Maliphant, Rodney

    1971-01-01

    Adolescent boys, judged by the majority of their teachers to be refractory (unmanagable in behavior), were found to have significantly lower base heart-rates than their matched controls in three experimental situations. (Author/WY)

  6. Creating lasting attitude and behavior change in fraternity members and male student athletes: the qualitative impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program.

    PubMed

    Foubert, John D; Perry, Bradford C

    2007-01-01

    Fraternity members and male student athletes responded to open-ended questions assessing the impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program. All participants reported either lasting attitude or behavior changes; most reported both. Participants reported increased understanding of how rape might feel and attributed this change to seeing a videotape describing a male-on-male rape situation. Participants refrained from telling jokes about rape and reported feeling more effective when helping survivors seeking assistance. These behavior changes were attributed to the videotape and to a section of the program encouraging participants to confront rape jokes and challenge sexist behaviors. PMID:17179405

  7. Heat illness. Fluid and electrolyte issues for pediatric and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Squire, D L

    1990-10-01

    The primary mechanism for maintaining normal body temperature during physical exercise in the heat is the evaporation of sweat. With profuse sweating, water loss far exceeds electrolyte loss. Rigorous exercise in the heat places the athlete at risk for thermoregulatory dysfunction from dehydration. Because children are inherently less efficient thermoregulators than adults, they are at even greater risk for heat illness. The three primary syndromes of heat illness are heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Treatment of heat illness is based on reduction of body temperature and rehydration. Heat stroke is a true medical emergency with a high mortality rate; immediate reduction of body temperature is critical to the survival of these patients. Prevention of heat illness is based on reducing known risk factors. Physical activity should be modified in the face of high ambient temperature and humidity. The athlete should begin exercise well hydrated; frequent consumption of cold water during exercise decreases likelihood of significant dehydration. After exercise, the athlete should continue drinking to replace fluid losses. Clothing should be lightweight; the more skin exposed, the greater the available evaporative surface. A preseason conditioning program, when combined with an 8- to 14-day period of acclimatization, further reduces the risk of heat injury. Although athletes engaged in endurance sports may benefit from drinking carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing solutions, for the majority of young athletes, cold water remains the preferred choice for fluid replacement during exercise. The relatively greater body surface area of young athletes also places them at risk for hypothermia. Special attention should be given when these athletes are competing under cold environmental conditions. PMID:2216556

  8. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    g·dL-1, p < 0.05), suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05) and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1) after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball). Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes. Key points Grape extract consumption improves the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in sportsmen. Grape extract consumption enhances physical performance in one category of sportsmen (Handball). The performance enhancement might be caused by the protective action of grape extract during physical exercise. PMID:24150013

  9. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Males Who Have Been Sexually Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisso, Cynthia V.; And Others

    While female victims of sexual abuse have received increased attention, male victims continue to be overlooked. Recognition of effects of sexual abuse has been an important step in increasing identification of and treatment for victims of abuse. To assess the characteristics of male victims, sexually abused male (N=13) and female (N=16)…

  10. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... pediatricians and adolescent medicine specialists, sports medicine doctors, nutritionists and dietitians, and mental health specialists can all ... granola bars, and fruit. Visit a dietitian or nutritionist who works with teen athletes. He or she ...

  11. Attitudes toward women and rape among male adolescents convicted of sexual versus nonsexual crimes.

    PubMed

    Epps, K J; Haworth, R; Swaffer, T

    1993-09-01

    Adolescence is an important period in the development of adult sexual offending against women, yet it has received little attention in research on attitudes toward women and rape. The present study used the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and Burt's (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (BRMAS) to compare the attitudes of 31 male adolescents convicted of sexual assaults on women (rape, attempted rape, indecent assault) with the attitudes of 27 male adolescents convicted of nonsexual violent crimes. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups on either measure. Furthermore, a more traditional, conservative attitude toward women, as measured on the AWS, did not significantly correlate with the endorsement of rape myths as measured on the BRMAS. The findings are discussed with reference to the validity and reliability of these measures when used with adolescents. PMID:8271228

  12. Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Tergerson, Jennifer L; King, Keith A

    2002-11-01

    A four-page survey was administered to 535 adolescents at two single-sex (one male, one female) high schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. More specifically, the survey assessed perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to exercising. Results indicated that the most helpful cue to physical activity for both female and male students was "having a friend to exercise with." The most commonly reported benefit of exercising among females was "to stay in shape," whereas the most commonly reported benefit to exercising among males was "to become strong." Among females, the most common barrier to exercising was "having no time to exercise," whereas males were most likely to report "wanting to do other things with my time." Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differed significantly based on gender. Recommendations on specific strategies to increasing male and female adolescent physical activity levels are offered. PMID:12557633

  13. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Adam W.; Kushner, Adam M.; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key points Specific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential. Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates. The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT

  14. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  15. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  16. Heel pain due to psoriatic arthritis in a 50 year old recreational male athlete: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yedon, Dominique Forand; Howitt, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Heel pain is a common presentation in a sports injury practice, with a list of common differentials including achilles tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis. However, seronegative arthritis can also cause enthesopathies that produce heel pain and should be considered in a differential diagnosis list. In this case, a 50 year old recreationally active male presented with non-traumatic insidious heel pain and without history of any skin conditions or any other symptoms of seronegative spondyloarthritis. Clinical suspicion led to laboratory testing and radiographs/bone scan which yielded the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:22131565

  17. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  18. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23398892

  19. The effect of a self-monitored relaxation breathing exercise on male adolescent aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of this study was single-subject with multiple baselines across 6 subjects on 2 behavioral measures. The setting was a residential juvenile justice program for male adolescents, and the treatment was a relaxation breathing exercise. The results of the study were mixed, with improvement on both behavioral measures in 2 of the 6 participants. PMID:18689102

  20. The development of male prostitution activity among gay and bisexual adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coleman, E

    1989-01-01

    The current research literature regarding male-juvenile prostitution activity is reviewed. An attempt is made to develop some theoretical understanding of the development of this activity among gay and bisexual adolescents. A predisposition, resulting from faulty psychosexual and psychosocial development, appears to make these boys vulnerable to the situational variables that they encounter. More severe disruptions in psychosexual and psychosocial development seem to result in more destructive and non-ego-enhancing prostitution activities. A clinical case study is presented which illustrates the development of this activity. Recommendations are made to help reduce the amount of self-destructive prostitution activity among male adolescents. PMID:2760444

  1. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  2. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  3. Interaction Patterns in Families of Normal and Aggressive Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Deborah E.

    The interpersonal conditions which may maintain a child's aggression in the family were investigated by observing immediate, ongoing interactions in families of normal and aggressive adolescent sons. Normal-son families (N=6) and aggressive-son families (N=6) were videotaped engaging in a 50-minute discussion of questionnaire items designed to…

  4. Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Females and Males: Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…

  5. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective: This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Offending for Male Adolescents Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…

  7. Athletic coaches as violence prevention advocates.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Stetkevich, Nicholas; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is a significant public health problem. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based ARA prevention program that trains coaches to deliver violence prevention messages to male athletes. Assessing acceptability and impact of CBIM on coaches may inform prevention efforts that involve these important adults in health promotion among youth. As part of a two-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial of CBIM in 16 high schools in Northern California, coaches completed baseline and postseason surveys (n = 176) to assess their attitudes and confidence delivering the program. Coaches in the intervention arm also participated in interviews (n = 36) that explored program acceptability, feasibility, and impact. Relative to controls, intervention coaches showed increases in confidence intervening when witnessing abusive behaviors among their athletes, greater bystander intervention, and greater frequency of violence-related discussions with athletes and other coaches. Coaches reported the program was easy to implement and valuable for their athletes. Findings illustrate the value of exploring attitudinal and behavioral changes among ARA prevention implementers, and suggest that coaches can gain confidence and enact behaviors to discourage ARA among male athletes. Coaches found the program to be feasible and valuable, which suggests potential for long-term uptake and sustainability. PMID:25015237

  8. Alterations in resting-state brain networks in concussed adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Borich, Michael; Babul, Aliya-Nur; Yuan, Po Hsiang; Boyd, Lara; Virji-Babul, Naznin

    2015-02-15

    Sports-related concussion in adolescents is a major public health issue; however, little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain connectivity. We evaluated connectivity of resting-state brain networks to determine whether alterations in specific networks distinguish adolescents with sports-related concussion from a group of healthy, active control adolescents. Twelve adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of subacute concussion and ten healthy adolescents matched for age, gender, and physical activity completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Functional connectivity of resting-state brain networks was evaluated in both groups using probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA). Altered functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in adolescents with concussion. Specifically, we noted: a) alterations within the default mode network; b) increased connectivity in the right frontal pole in the executive function network; and c) increased connectivity in the left frontal operculum cortex associated with the ventral attention network. This preliminary report shows that whole-brain functional connectivity is altered in networks related to cognition and attention in adolescents in the subacute phase following sports-related concussion. This first report in adolescents should be used to inform future studies in larger cohorts of adolescents with sports-related concussion. Increased knowledge of these changes may lead to improvements in clinical management and help to develop rehabilitation programs. PMID:25010041

  9. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  10. Anorexia Nervosa: A Misdiagnosis of the Adolescent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…

  11. Psychological Distress for African-American Adolescent Males: Exposure to Community Violence and Social Support as Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Robinson, W. LaVome; Shah, Seema; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined exposure to community violence and depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a non-random sample of low-income, African-American male adolescents. The moderating effect of social support on these relationships was also examined. Seventy-seven African-American adolescent males were recruited from an…

  12. A Pilot Study of Coping Processes Utilized by African-American Male Adolescents Living in Violent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Elizabeth

    This paper is a preliminary report on a study that explored the ways in which African American male adolescents cope with the interpersonal assaultive violence that takes place in their urban communities. Participants were 27 African American male adolescents, aged 13-19, who live in and/or spend the majority of their non-school hours interacting…

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Adolescents' Commitment to Athletics and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Alfred-Liro, Corinne J.; Hruda, Ludmila Z.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Patrick, Helen; Ruan, Allison M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors that influence adolescents' commitments to extracurricular activities over time. Found that psychological factors of perceived competence and peer relationships, as well as contextual factors of perceived challenge, cost, benefits, and emerging identity, were decisive in adolescents' choice to remain involved in activities or…

  14. Disordered Eating and Weight Control among Adolescent Female Athletes and Performance Squad Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents and individuals participating in activities that emphasize body shape and control have been identified as risk groups for eating disorders. A study sought to determine whether certain groups of adolescent females are more vulnerable to disordered eating patterns or usage of pathogenic weight control techniques. Involvement in organized…

  15. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  16. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  17. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  18. The Experience of Male Adolescent Refugees during Their Transfer and Adaptation to a UK Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the…

  19. Self-Efficacy in African American Adolescent Males Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von

    2009-01-01

    African American adolescent males are one of our nation's most vulnerable populations. They lag behind their female counterparts in education, labor market participation, and career development. Several studies have found self-efficacy (e.g., an individual's beliefs in their capabilities to produce a desired result) improves the life chances for…

  20. Contraceptive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Black Adolescent Males Attending a Predominantly Black University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaire responses of 107 Black adolescent male college students indicated that, while 85 percent used some contraceptive method, most subjects had less knowledge regarding the effectiveness of certain contraceptive methods, suggesting a need for more in-depth sex education programs. (CB)

  1. Neighborhood, Family, and Work: Influences on the Premarital Behaviors of Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Leighton; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of national survey data suggests that level of sexual activity and likelihood of paternity among adolescent males are related to personal financial resources and employment but also to neighborhood unemployment. Discusses associations of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and paternity with personal and neighborhood race/ethnicity,…

  2. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  3. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  4. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  5. The Reproduction of Family Life: Perspectives of Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Capitalist, patriarchal, and sexist social structures and values affect how working class adolescents plan to allocate responsibility for domestic labor. Interviews with 83 Canadian male and female high school students revealed that they anticipate choosing patterns of domestic labor which perpetuate women's subordinate roles at home and work. (AM)

  6. Bullying Victimisation and Social Support of Adolescent Male Dance Students: An Analysis of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This analysis (n?=?33), drawn from the findings of the author's larger mixed method research study, investigated bullying and harassment of adolescent male students (ages 13-18) pursuing dance study at the pre-professional level in the United States. Procedures for this analysis included review of primary and secondary sources from the…

  7. The Adolescent Male Prostitute and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, A. R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescent male prostitutes have variable backgrounds; blend of different psychological, behavioral, social, and economic factors. Study of these factors forms basis for understanding potential risks they may be exposed to, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reported high incidence…

  8. Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2009-01-01

    Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

  9. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  10. Self-Esteem and Achievement of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howerton, D. Lynn; And Others

    The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of at-risk adolescent black males was studied for 42 students in grades 6, 7, and 8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to provide global measures of self-esteem. School grades and scores from the Stanford Achievement Test battery were used to measure academic…

  11. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  12. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  13. Adolescent Males, Impulsive/Aggressive Behavior, and Alcohol Abuse: Biological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matykiewicz, Lynn; La Grange, Linda; Reyes, Edward; Vance, Peter; Wang, Mu

    1997-01-01

    Compared adjudicated male adolescents (N=37) to middle school students on measures of glucose nadir and urinary 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), a serotonin metabolite. Results show that adjudicated youth had significantly lower levels of both substances, supporting previous studies linking low glucose and 5-HIAA levels to impulsivity,…

  14. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  15. Aberrant Paralimbic Gray Matter in Incarcerated Male Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain structure and psychopathic traits in maximum-security incarcerated male adolescents, and to examine whether the associations between brain volumes in paralimbic and limbic regions and psychopathic traits observed in incarcerated adult men extend to an independent sample of incarcerated male…

  16. Spiritual Identity in Israeli Religious Male Adolescents: Observations and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2002-01-01

    Based on Herbert's (1987) theory of ego identity development and on interviews of hundreds of Israeli religious male adolescents and young adults who were raised and educated in religious society and later left the fold, this article presents a model of development of religious identity. Three levels of religious identity development--healthy,…

  17. An Empirical "Real World" Comparison of Two Treatments with Aggressive Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.; Matteson, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compares the efficacy of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT), an advanced form of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy based on Beck's theory of modes, and standard Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for adolescent males in residential treatment. The results showed MDT was superior to CBT in reducing both physical and sexual aggression and…

  18. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  19. Factors that Adolescent Males Take into Account in Decisions about an Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…

  20. Bilateral parotid enlargement as a presenting feature of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, J. A.; Fortune, F.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male is reported. The clinical presentation was one of painless parotid swelling of 3 years duration with marked weight loss and underlying metabolic alkalosis. The diagnostic significance of parotid salivary gland swellings is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8140014

  1. Developing Argument Skills in Severely Disadvantaged Adolescent Males in a Residential Correctional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fuccio, MaryAnne; Kuhn, Deanna; Udell, Wadiya; Callender, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the intervention designed by Kuhn and Udell (2003) to develop argument skills could be implemented productively among adolescent males in a residential juvenile detention facility--boys who were educationally disengaged and severely disadvantaged academically as well as socially. Compared to a control group from the same…

  2. Reading Problems, Attentional Deficits, and Current Mental Health Status in Adjudicated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…

  3. A Psychometric Analysis of Aggression and Conflict-Resolution Behavior in Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Sherle L.; Flint, Charley

    1988-01-01

    Tested effectiveness of Conflict Tactics Scales and adaption of Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive inner-city black adolescent males. Subjects (N=83) were classified as either institutionalized aggressive, noninstitutionalized aggressive, or noninstitutionalized nonaggressive. Results indicated…

  4. A Handbook for a Small Halfway House for the Male Adolescent-Adult Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Russell W.; Melanphy, Robert F.

    Presented are guidelines on planning and establishing a small, residential halfway house for the male adolescent/adult retardate in which mental health and use of the halfway house to replace institutionalization of selected retardates are emphasized. The halfway house is explained to be planned on premises of community participation and program…

  5. The Effects of Traditional Family Values on the Coming Out Process of Gay Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Muzzonigro, Peter Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Findings from 27 gay male adolescents revealed that most respondents reported feeling different from other boys as children. Average age of first crush on another boy was 12.7 years; average age for realizing they were gay was 12.5 years. Traditional family values played greater role in predicting coming out experiences than did race. (Author/NB)

  6. Another Beautiful Mind: A Case Study of the Recovery of an Adolescent Male from a TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Bonnie Bell; Spencer, Vicky G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a descriptive, explanatory case study of an adolescent male survivor of a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The subject was a 17 year, 6 month old student enrolled in the twelfth grade at a highly selective science and technology governor's high school in the suburbs of a major metropolitan area. This…

  7. Delinquency in male adolescents: the role of alexithymia and family structure.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Grégoire

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) (alexithymia), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS) (anxiety), the Liste d'Adjectifs Bipolaires et en Echelles de Likert (LABEL) (personality-Big Five) and demographic data. Findings revealed that the adolescents of the offender group scored high on alexithymia and that proportion of disrupted family structure in the offender group is higher than in the control group. Logistic regressions confirmed that alexithymia and family structure are the strongest discriminatory factors for juvenile delinquency. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:16182361

  8. The approach to elbow pain in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Sommer; Sgromolo, Nicole; Atanda, Alfred

    2014-02-01

    Elbow pain in pediatric throwing athletes can be very concerning and challenging to diagnose. Diagnosis involves determining whether the injury is chronic or acute in nature and the anatomical location of the pain. Physicians should be aware of the sport-specific forces that predispose athletes with immature skeletons to injury and should be familiar with the common presentations of these injuries. In order to narrow the diagnosis, physicians should gather a detailed history of how and when the pain occurred in addition to performing a thorough physical exam that includes tests, such as the modified milking maneuver and the moving valgus stress test. Appropriate imaging helps physicians to confirm the diagnosis and elucidates any associated pathology in patients. In most cases, the treatment given to patients is conservative and involves rest, ice, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain, and an appropriate physical therapy regimen with a progressive return to play when symptoms have resolved. When patients fail to respond to conservative treatment, surgical intervention may be needed. Knowing when to refer patients for orthopedic evaluation helps athletes return to play quickly and safely. PMID:24565822

  9. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent. PMID:24041313

  10. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  11. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants. PMID:25212095

  12. Factors Associated With Being Pleased With a Female Partner Pregnancy Among Sexually Active U.S. Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a major U.S. public health problem. Little is known about pregnancy attitudes in U.S. adolescent males. The study objective was to identify factors from different domains that are associated with sexually active U.S. adolescent males who would be pleased with a female partner pregnancy (hereafter known as pleased with a pregnancy). The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of those 15 to 44 years old. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed of the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to examine factors associated with being pleased with a pregnancy among sexually active U.S. males. Among the 1,445 sexually active U.S. adolescent males surveyed, 25% would be pleased with a pregnancy. In bivariate analyses, ever being suspended from school, having sporadic health insurance, age, and ever HIV tested were significantly associated with being pleased with a pregnancy. In final multivariable analyses, sporadic insurance was associated with almost triple the odds, and being older and ever HIV tested with double the odds of being pleased with a pregnancy. Higher educational attainment for both adolescent males and adolescent males' fathers was associated with reduced odds of a being pleased with a pregnancy. One quarter of sexually active U.S. adolescent males would be pleased with a pregnancy. Adolescent males who have been sporadically insured, are older, and ever HIV tested have higher odds of being pleased with a pregnancy. Targeting these adolescent males for more focused pregnancy-prevention counseling may prove useful in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. PMID:25563382

  13. Color Vision Deficiency and Functional Disorders Among Israeli Male Adolescents Between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Berger, Assaf; Findler, Michael; Maymon, Dror; Korach, Tzfanya; Yativ, Oshrat Fono; Gronovich, Yoav; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-09-01

    Color vision deficiency has been associated with educational difficulties among male children, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association of color vision deficiency with functional conditions, including ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis and somatoform disorders, in a large population of male adolescents. We included all Israeli male adolescents that underwent medical and cognitive examinations during conscription between the years 2007 and 2013. The prevalence of ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was compared to a control group. The study included 305 964 males aging 17 ± 0.6, of which 7584 (2.5%) had color vision deficiency. Using a multivariable analysis, the probability for irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was increased by 1.41, 1.94, and 3.87, respectively (P < .05). No significant association was found between ADHD and color vision deficiency. Color vision abnormalities are associated with functional disorders in male adolescents, including irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders. PMID:27280722

  14. Range Is Everything! Success with the Adolescent Male Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Wayman, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The changing male voice has long been a challenge, not only for students but also for directors who need to find just the right music to help students feel most successful. This article presents the key elements for success in selecting boys' literature: (1) Know the students' voices; (2) Range is everything; (3) Avoid pitches below A for tenors;…

  15. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  16. Resiliency in Adolescent Males in a Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Baartman, Jyl; Buboltz, Michelle; Sonnichsen, Kim; Solomon, Rebekka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to establish the existing positive factors in the lives of 18 juvenile males living in a low-security correctional facility in order to determine approaches which foster resiliency. Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, an approach to understanding human development within the context of the…

  17. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Adam W; Kushner, Adam M; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key pointsSpecific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential.Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates.The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT) including

  18. Prevalence of Obesity Among Male Adolescents in Arar Saudi Arabia: Future Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alenazi, Shehab A; Koura, Hala M; Zaki, Sherif M; Mohamed, Ayman H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity in adolescence is crucial as it represents an important stage in human life. Dietary habits are greatly associated with lifestyle. Many reports suggested direct relationship between adolescent fatness and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which will be found in young adult population. Aim: Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among male adolescents in Arar city, Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimated the future risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in this age‐group and its possible correlation to different lifestyles and dietary habits. Results: A total of 523 male students with a mean age of 16.7 ± 0.9 years participated in the current study in which 30.4% of those students were obese and 17.2% were overweight. A direct relationship was found between body weight and different dietary and lifestyle habits. The risk of CVD based on waist height ratio (WHtR) was found in 33.5% of participants (30.4% obese, 2.1% overweight and 1% normal weight); moreover, the risk of CVD was strongly related to different dietary and lifestyle habits. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity were high among adolescent male students in Arar, who became susceptible to the risk of CVD. Arar showed the highest rate of obesity all over KSA. Both obesity and risk of CVD were strongly related to bad dietary habits and lifestyle. PMID:26170543

  19. Think manager--think male in adolescents and its relation to sexism and emotions in leadership.

    PubMed

    García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents. PMID:24230951

  20. Examining Struggling Male Adolescent Readers' Responses to Graphic Novels: A Multiple Case Study of Four, Eighth-Grade Males in a Graphic Novel Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen W.

    2010-01-01

    Although graphic novels are an increasingly popular literary format, there is currently little empirical research that documents their use with struggling male adolescent readers in school settings. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the ways in which four struggling, eighth-grade, male readers responded to graphic novels…

  1. Secondary school athletes: a study of mouthguards.

    PubMed Central

    Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of mouthguard awareness and use, as well as the amount and type of oro-facial trauma associated with and without mouthguard wear in adolescent Nigerian athletes. A 13-item self-completion questionnaire was completed and returned by 1,127 secondary school athletes (completion rate of 93.9%) comprising 683 (60.6%) males and 444 (39.4%) females ranging in age from 12- to 19 years (mean age 15.18+/-2.97 SD). The athletes were randomly drawn from 23 secondary schools located in different parts of Ibadan city in Nigeria. Sixty-five-and-a-third percent of the athletes professed awareness of the need for mouthguards for sports, but only 19.6% claimed usage of the device. Thirty-four-and-a-half percent of the athletes reported having sustained one form of oro-facial injury or the other previously. The prevalence of oro-facial injuries was significantly lower while wearing a mouthguard (p<0.05), and most of the injuries occurred during contact sports. The study supports the need for the enforcement of mandatory mouthguard use in contact sports. Images Figure 1 PMID:14977285

  2. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy - Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) Upon Behaviorally Challenged Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of a sub-sample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Results Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. Conclusion The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult to manage aggressive behaviors. PMID:21501287

  3. Effect of attending to a ball during a side-cut maneuver on lower extremity biomechanics in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fedie, Rebecca; Carlstedt, Kristen; Willson, John D; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    Many sports associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury require athletes attend to a ball during participation. We investigated effects of attending to a ball on lower extremity mechanics during a side-cut maneuver and if these effects are consistent for males and females. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and joint moments were measured during side-cut maneuvers in 19 male and 19 female National Collegiate Athletic Association division III basketball players. Participants also experienced two side-cut conditions that required attention to a ball. Our results did not indicate that the effect of attention varies with gender. However, during side-cut conditions while attending to a ball, internal knee adductor moment was 20% greater (p = 0.03) and peak knee flexion angle was 4 degrees larger (p < 0.01). Females demonstrated 5 degrees less hip flexion (p = 0.046), 12 degrees less knee flexion (p < 0.01), and 4 degrees more knee abduction (p = 0.026) at initial contact during all side-cut conditions than males. Attention to a ball may affect lower extremity mechanics relevant to ACL injury. The validity of laboratory studies of lower extremity mechanics for sports that include attention to a ball may be increased if participants are required to attend to a ball during the task. PMID:21162362

  4. Risperidone Induced Pisa Syndrome in a Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğulları; Yıldırım, Veli; Okuyaz, Çetin; Toros, Fevziye

    2016-01-01

    Pisa syndrome, a rare dystonic reaction resulting from prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medications, is characterized by persistent dystonia of trunk muscles and abnormal posture. It is called Pisa syndrome, because the abnormal posture resembles the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Different from other types of dystonic reactions, Pisa syndrome is more prevalent in females and in older patients with organic brain changes. A 15-year-old male patient with mental retardation was admitted to pediatric neurology clinic for the complaint of abnormal posturing. He had been taking only risperidone for the last four years. Over the last month, the patient gradually developed tonic flexion of trunk and head toward left and was diagnosed with Pisa syndrome. In this paper, we aimed to discuss the association between risperidone use and Pisa syndrome in light of the available literature. PMID:26792048

  5. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  6. Evaluation and Management of Patellar Instability in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Khormaee, Sariah; Kramer, Dennis E.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The rising popularity and intensity of youth sports has increased the incidence of patellar dislocation. These sports-related injuries may be associated with significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Treatment requires understanding and attention to the unique challenges in the skeletally immature patient. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches spanning 1970-2013. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Although nonoperative approaches are most often suitable for first-time patellar dislocations, surgical treatment is recommended for acute fixation of displaced osteochondral fractures sustained during primary instability and for patellar realignment in the setting of recurrent instability. While a variety of procedures can prevent recurrence, the risk of complications is not minimal. Conclusion: Patellar stabilization and realignment procedures in skeletally immature patients with recurrent patellar dislocation can effectively treat patellar instability without untoward effects on growth if careful surgical planning incorporates protection of growth parameters in the skeletally immature athlete. PMID:25984256

  7. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  8. Family structure and psychosocial correlates among urban African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M A; Salem, D A; Maton, K I

    1995-12-01

    Substance use and delinquency, psychological well-being, and social support were compared across 5 family constellations among 254 urban African-American adolescent males. Single-mother, stepparent, both parents, mother with extended family, and extended family only households were studied. The only differences found were that youth living in single-mother households reported more parental support than other youth. Relationships with father and male role models were also studied and related to several psychosocial outcomes. The results challenge the assumptions that single African-American mothers are alone in providing support to their sons and that fathers' absence results in no significant relationship. PMID:8556888

  9. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in an Adolescent Male Presenting as Ureteral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Christopher D.; McAlvany, Kelly L.; Zingula, Shannon N.; Kramer, Stephen A.; Granberg, Candace F.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoma may affect the ureter in cases of retroperitoneal involvement. We present a case of an adolescent male found to have non-Hodgkin lymphoma initially presenting as ureteral stricture evident on imaging. He was treated and responded to multiagent chemotherapy with resolution of both the lymphoma and the ureteral stricture. Although rare, non-Hodgkin lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with noncalculous, idiopathic ureteral strictures. PMID:25093138

  10. A Qualitative Description of Self-Regulatory Behaviors of Male Expert and Novice Athletic Trainers in Collegiate Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardin, Fredrick A.; Middlemas, David A.; Mensch, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Understanding the transition from a novice to an expert has the potential to provide valuable information for young professionals and athletic training educators to aid in the development of tools necessary for lifetime professional learning. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the self-regulated learning…

  11. Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program by Fraternity Men and Male Student Athletes: Powerful Effects and Implications for Changing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Cowell, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to determine fraternity men and student athletes' perceptions of a commonly used rape-prevention program. Participants saw "The Men's Program" and then participated in 60-90 minute focus groups assessing whether their attitudes and behavior would change, what about the program led to that change, and…

  12. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence. PMID:25514334

  13. Age-concordant and age-discordant sexual behavior among gay and bisexual male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W; Fernández, M Isabel; Jamil, Omar B

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females are higher for those with older male sexual partners. Yet, little empirical research has been conducted with male adolescents who engage in sexual activity with older men. In this article, we summarize in a number of ways the range of sexual activity reported by an ethnically diverse sample of 200 gay and bisexual male youth (15-22 years old) in Chicago and Miami. A general pattern of progression from oral sex with men to both receptive and insertive anal sex with men appeared to characterize the sample during their adolescence. Further, there appeared to be a high degree of "versatile" positioning among the sexually active gay and bisexual young men, in both age-discrepant and age-concordant dyads. Risk analysis revealed having primarily age-concordant partners to be a significant predictor of sexual risk behavior. HIV risk among young gay and bisexual men engaging in sexual activity with older men may occur not only within a distinct biological context from their heterosexual counterparts, but also in a social context that may not as rigidly bound to traditional assumptions about age, gender, and power. The significant associations among participants with partners who were the same age and the risk behavior measures in this analysis have implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21290255

  14. Negotiating dominant masculinity ideology: strategies used by gay, bisexual and questioning male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bianca D M; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15-23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents' management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs. PMID:20082238

  15. Lower lateral orbitofrontal cortex density associated with more frequent exposure to television and movie violence in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J; Openshaw, Anne E; Zamboni, Giovanna; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens' Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density--a possible risk factor for altered socioemotional functioning. PMID:20472220

  16. The Acute Effect of Methylphenidate in Brazilian Male Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…

  17. Toward a More Anatomically Complete Model of Literacy Instruction: A Focus on African American Male Adolescents and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Alfred Tatum argues that the current framing of the adolescent literacy crisis fails to take into account the in-school and out-of-school challenges confronting many African American male adolescents today, particularly those growing up in high-poverty communities. Using the metaphor of literacy instruction as a human body, he…

  18. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  19. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis mimicking infective endocarditis in an adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Varnier, Giulia Camilla; Sebire, Neil; Christov, Georgi; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare but serious small vessel vasculitis with heterogeneous clinical presentation ranging from mainly localised disease with a chronic course, to a florid, acute small vessel vasculitic form characterised by severe pulmonary haemorrhage and/or rapidly progressive vasculitis or other severe systemic vasculitic manifestations. Cardiac involvement is, however, uncommon in the paediatric population. We report a case of a 16-year-old male who presented with peripheral gangrene and vegetation with unusual location on the supporting apparatus of the tricuspid valve, initially considered to have infective endocarditis but ultimately diagnosed with GPA. We provide an overview of the limited literature relating to cardiac involvement in GPA, and the diagnostic challenge relating to infective endocarditis in this context, especially focusing on the interpretation of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and the characteristic clinical features to identify in order to promptly recognise GPA, since timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for this potentially life-threatening condition. PMID:27370964

  20. Adolescent males involved in pregnancy: associations of forced sexual contact and risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pierre, N; Shrier, L A; Emans, S J; DuRant, R H

    1998-12-01

    The hypothesis that adolescent males who cause a pregnancy are more likely to have been victims of forced sexual contact and to have engaged in health risk and problem behaviors in the recent past than their sexually active counterparts who have not been involved in a pregnancy was investigated through use of a subset of data from the Massachusetts (US) 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 99 (12%) of the 824 sexually active male survey respondents reported having caused a pregnancy. A history of forced sexual contact was reported by 8.1%. Among those acknowledging forced sexual conduct, 36.4% had caused a pregnancy; of those without such a history, only 9.4% were involved in a pregnancy (p 0.00001). In addition, males who were involved in a pregnancy reported a greater likelihood of engaging in 16 health risk and problem behaviors in the previous 1, 3, and 12 months than those not involved in a pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 5 significant, independent predictors of having impregnated a female adolescent: number of sex partners in the previous 3 months (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.65); history of forced sexual contact (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.79-7.09); carrying weapons on school property (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.64); cigarettes smoked/day (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.38); and condom nonuse at last intercourse (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.06-3.02). This model correctly classified 89.9% of sexually active male students who had been involved in a pregnancy. These findings suggest a need to screen sexually active males for these risk factors, especially a history of forced sexual contact, as part of interventions aimed at preventing adolescent pregnancy. PMID:9870330

  1. Injuries to the Young Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  2. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student’s t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs’ muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353

  3. The reliability and validity of the psychopathy checklist: youth version (PCL:YV) in nonincarcerated adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Cyterski, Trina D; Steuerwald, Brian L; Neumann, Craig S; Walker-Matthews, Susan

    2002-03-01

    Current knowledge about the validity of the psychopathy syndrome in youth is limited largely to studies relying on parent-teacher rating scales or slight modifications of adult measures. Recently, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was designed for use with adolescents. However, most studies that have used this measure examined incarcerated males and addressed only validity criteria related to antisocial behavior. We investigated the generality and construct validity of the psychopathy syndrome in an adolescent sample by assessing 115 adolescent males on probation with the PCL:YV. Reliability of measurement was high. PCL:YV ratings predicted not only antisocial behaviour but also other indices of childhood psychopathology, interpersonal behaviors associated with adult psychopathy, and a lack of attachment to parents. These findings suggest that the PCL:YV identifies a syndrome in adolescence consistent with theory and research on adult males. PMID:11911052

  4. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    PubMed

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide. PMID:24338268

  5. Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics. PMID:26078419

  6. Social categorization, self-esteem, and the estimated musical preferences of male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, M; North, A C; Hargreaves, D J

    2001-10-01

    The authors investigated the intergroup processes of male adolescents within the context of social identity theory (SIT; H. Tajfel, 1978; H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1979). The participants were English male adolescents (age = 14-15 years). They estimated in-group and out-group musical preferences and evaluated the in-group and out-group along a series of scales. The results showed in-group favoritism effects along the musical preference and evaluative dimensions. The participants reported greater liking for the in-group. Compared with the out-group, they associated the in-group more with positively stereotyped music and less with negatively stereotyped music. Compared with the out-group, they rated the in-group as more fun, more masculine, more sporty, less boring, less snobbish, and less weird. The participants with lower levels of self-esteem showed greater differentiation between groups and greater derogation of the out-group. The results supported the predictions of SIT and demonstrated the applicability of SIT for the study of adolescent behavior. PMID:11758036

  7. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  8. Moderators of the Dynamic Link between Alcohol Use and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one’s own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129

  9. Short photoperiod condition increases susceptibility to stress in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Li-Jing; Yuan, Ming; Li, Su-Xia; Yue, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ju-Lian; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The seasonality of depressive symptoms is prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms that underlie such susceptibility to seasonal influences on mood disorders are unclear. We examined the effects of a short photoperiod condition on the susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable mild stress (SCUS) and rhythmic alterations of plasma corticosterone (CORT), melatonin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in adolescent male rats. Compared with the 12h/12h light/dark photoperiod control (CON) rats, the 8h/16h photoperiod SCUS rats exhibited significant anhedonia, a core symptom of human depression, together with a blunted diurnal rhythm and elevation of 24h CORT, melatonin, and NPY levels. The 8h/16h photoperiod condition also blunted the rhythmicity of CORT, caused a phase inversion of melatonin, and caused a phase delay of NPY compared with 12h/12h CON rats. Such abnormalities of plasma CORT, NPY, and melatonin might cause adolescent individuals to present higher stress reactivity and greater vulnerability to stress over their lifetimes. The present study provides evidence of the susceptibility to the seasonality of stress-related disorders in adolescence. PMID:26655789

  10. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444

  11. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetime stress, current episodic stress, and daily hassles. Morning and afternoon cortisol samples were collected to examine whether the relationship between stress and treatment outcome depended on the youth’s biological stress levels. Regression analyses indicated that awakening cortisol levels moderated the relationship between daily hassles and externalizing behaviors at post-treatment. More specifically, higher levels of daily hassles predicted worse outcomes only among adolescents with high levels of morning cortisol. In addition, lifetime stressors and afternoon measures of cortisol interacted to predict changes in caretaker reports of externalizing problems and youth arrests following treatment; lifetime stressors were positively associated with externalizing behavior when adolescents had low levels of afternoon cortisol. Implications for theory and future directions for evidence-based treatment are discussed. PMID:22350278

  12. Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129

  13. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period. PMID:18222445

  14. Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g., socially facilitating) and a decreased sensitivity to adverse (e.g., socially inhibitory) effects of ethanol. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-pubertally GX, sham (SH)-operated, or non-manipulated (NM) at postnatal day (P) 25. During the late adolescent transition into adulthood (P48 - baseline day), rats were given a saline injection, placed alone into a familiar test apparatus for 30min and then exposed for 10min to an unfamiliar partner of the same age and sex. On the following day (P49), similar testing occurred after administration of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25g/kg ethanol. At baseline, GX males and females displayed higher levels of social activity (especially adolescent-typical play and contact behavior) than SH and NM animals, with GX females displaying greater social activity than GX males. Neither males nor females demonstrated social facilitation at lower ethanol doses, regardless of hormonal status. Whereas the social inhibitory effects of higher doses of ethanol were similar across groups among females, SH males were less sensitive than both GX and NM males to ethanol-induced social inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced ethanol intake in GX males is not related to alterations in sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects. GX, however, results in retention of adolescent-typical social behaviors, with older GX adolescent rats resembling early adolescents in exhibiting elevated social activity-particularly play and contact behavior. PMID:24816080

  15. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is

  16. Processes and Factors Underlying Adolescent Males' Attitudes and Decision-Making in Relation to an Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, John T.; Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined adolescent males' decision-making when confronted with a hypothetical unplanned pregnancy in a sexual partner. An innovative methodology, involving a computerized simulation game was utilized with 386 Australian males (mean age of 15 years). Data were gathered from responses made during the simulation, and questionnaires…

  17. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  18. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  19. Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

  20. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females

    PubMed Central

    Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655

  1. A case of severe anal injury in an adolescent male due to bestial sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Roger O

    2009-10-01

    This report delineates a case of anal injury in a 12-year-old boy who gave a detailed history of bestial behavior with a male bulldog. The child described how he had seen this behavior modeled on the internet and subsequently initiated contact with his own dog, causing the dog to penetrate him anally. This type of juvenile bestial behavior with injury has only been reported once previously in the medical literature. Zoophilia, along with a number of other paraphilias, frequently has its onset in the adolescent age group. Adolescents evidencing paraphilic behaviors require thorough psychological evaluation. Spontaneous sexual assault of a human by a canine has never been described in the human or veterinary medical literature, nor is such a thing likely. A clinician involved in evaluating serious ano-genital injury in a child reportedly due to spontaneous canine sexual assault must consider other possible traumatic etiologies including sexual abuse. Investigation in any such case is essential. PMID:19733331

  2. Male Adolescent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eme, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, one-third of male adolescents in treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD) also have an Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This strongly suggests that ADHD is a major risk factor for the development of SUD which practitioners must address if they are to provide adequate treatment for adolescents with SUD/ADHD. This paper supports a causal role for ADHD in the development of SUD and examines the developmental mechanisms whereby ADHD increases risk for SUD. These mechanisms include increased risk for conduct disorder, academic failure, deviant peer affiliation, engaging in risk behaviors, and self-medication. Assessment and treatment recommendations for those comorbid for SUD/ADHD are provided. PMID:25969828

  3. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed. PMID:23350537

  4. Intersession and Intrasession Reliability and Validity of the My Jump App for Measuring Different Jump Actions in Trained Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Fuentes, Francisco; Gallardo-Fuentes, Jorge; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas, Rodrigo; Banzer, Winfried; Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-07-01

    Gallardo-Fuentes, F, Gallardo-Fuentes, J, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Martínez, C, Caniuqueo, A, Cañas, R, Banzer, W, Loturco, I, Nakamura, FY, and Izquierdo, M. Intersession and intrasession reliability and validity of the My Jump app for measuring different jump actions in trained male and female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2049-2056, 2016-The purpose of this study was to analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of the iPhone app named My Jump for measuring jump height in 40-cm drop jumps (DJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and squat jumps (SJs). To do this, 21 male and female athletes (age, 22.1 ± 3.6 years) completed 5 maximal DJs, CMJs, and SJs on 2 separate days, which were evaluated using a contact platform and the app My Jump, developed to calculate jump height from flight time using the high-speed video recording facility on the iPhone. A total of 630 jumps were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (r), Cronbach's alpha (α), and coefficient of variation (CV). There was almost perfect agreement between the measurement instruments for all jump height values (ICC = 0.97-0.99), with no differences between the instruments (p > 0.05; mean difference of 0.2 cm). Almost perfect correlation was observed between the measurement instruments for SJs, CMJs, and DJs (r = 0.96-0.99). My Jump showed very good within-subject reliability (α = 0.94-0.99; CV = 3.8-7.6) and interday reliability (r = 0.86-0.95) for SJs, CMJs, and DJs in all subjects. Therefore, the iPhone app named My Jump provides reliable intersession and intrasession data, as well as valid measurements for maximal jump height during fast (i.e., DJs) and slow (i.e., CMJs) stretch-shortening cycle muscle actions, and during concentric-only explosive muscle actions (i.e., SJs), in both male and female athletes in comparison with a professional contact platform. PMID:27328276

  5. "Mad Scared" versus "I Was Sad": Emotional expression and response in urban adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Reigeluth, Christopher S; Pollastri, Alisha R; Cardemil, Esteban V; Addis, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    Decades of masculinity research have concluded that society places higher demands on males to adhere to norms for low emotional expression; yet, countless studies find that emotional expression is integral to well-being. Unfortunately, this contradiction places boys and men in a tenuous position as they must navigate a bombardment of societal messages about the importance of emotional stoicism and invincibility. For urban adolescents, the situation is more complicated as they encounter environmental stressors that place greater emphasis on projecting a tough façade. Thus, our primary aim was to assess to what degree dyads of close adolescent male friends from urban, low-income neighborhoods are able to engage in emotional expression and response and to explore some of the underlying mechanisms and interpersonal processes. Qualitative findings from our sample suggest that urban boys exhibit a wide range of behaviors when participating in dyadic emotional disclosure and response, including being highly emotionally expressive and supportive in the context of close male friendship. PMID:27124423

  6. Negotiating Dominant Masculinity Ideology: Strategies Used by Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bianca D. M.; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15–23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents’ management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs. PMID:20082238

  7. Male adolescent rites of passage: positive visions of multiple developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Pollack, William S

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the separation-based, stereotyped views of boys' developmental movement into adulthood, this paper will argue that there are more modern and relational models, as well as multiple pathways, for young males to journey through such rites of passage. Indeed, it will be suggested and supported by both qualitative and quantitative data that the more classic models depend on a "boy code" of traumatic separation from mother and the feminine, a process that is not only negative rather than positive in its developmental trajectory, but also likely to create a premature traumatic separation, leaving boys at risk for emotional maladjustment, everyday sadness, increased incidence of depression and the potential for violence toward the self, suicide, as well as violence toward others. More-positive visions and versions of male rites of passage will be posited and described. The definition of emotional "resilience" during this significant period will be re-addressed as one of "healthy vulnerability," sustained through connection to loving adults, rather than a classic belief in stoicism and release from relational ties. Attachment theory will be brought to bear and the desperate yearnings of adolescent males not only for connection to adult mentors, but also for non-romanticized friendships with adolescent females, will be discussed. Finally, the understanding and substitution of these new, more positive, developmental pathways will be linked to the prevention of violence. PMID:15817735

  8. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  9. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  10. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors. PMID:27337622

  11. Nicotine-induced plasma corticosterone is attenuated by social interactions in male and female adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, N S; Painter, M R; Thiel, K J; Peartree, N A; Cheung, T H C; Deviche, P; Adams, M; Alba, J; Neisewander, J L

    2011-11-01

    Most smokers begin smoking during adolescence, a period during which social reward is highly influential. Initial exposure to nicotine can produce anxiogenic effects that may be influenced by social context. This study examined play behavior and plasma corticosterone following nicotine administration (0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) in both male and female adolescent (PND39) Sprague-Dawley rats in either isolate or social contexts. In blood samples collected immediately following the 15-min test session, nicotine increased plasma corticosterone relative to saline in both male and female isolate rats, but failed to do so in both males and females placed together in same-sex pairs. Nicotine also attenuated several indices of play behavior including nape attacks, pins and social contact. In isolate rats, nicotine selectively increased locomotor activity in females; however, when administered to social pairs, nicotine decreased locomotion in both sexes. These findings suggest that the presence of a social partner may decrease the initial negative, stress-activating effects of nicotine, perhaps leading to increased nicotine reward. PMID:21782841

  12. Nicotine-induced plasma corticosterone is attenuated by social interactions in male and female adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Pentkowski, N.S.; Painter, M.R.; Thiel, K.J.; Peartree, N.A.; Cheung, T.H.C.; Deviche, P.; Adams, M.; Alba, J.; Neisewander, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Most smokers begin smoking during adolescence, a period during which social reward is highly influential. Initial exposure to nicotine can produce anxiogenic effects that may be influenced by social context. This study examined play behavior and plasma corticosterone following nicotine administration (0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) in both male and female adolescent (PND39) Sprague-Dawley rats in either isolate or social contexts. In blood samples collected immediately following the 15-min test session, nicotine increased plasma corticosterone relative to saline in both male and female isolate rats, but failed to do so in both males and females placed together in same-sex pairs. Nicotine also attenuated several indices of play behavior including nape attacks, pins and social contact. In isolate rats, nicotine selectively increased locomotor activity in females; however, when administered to social pairs, nicotine decreased locomotion in both sexes. These findings suggest that the presence of a social partner may decrease the initial negative, stress-activating effects of nicotine, perhaps leading to increased nicotine reward. PMID:21782841

  13. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. Objectives To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. Methods We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Results Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right>left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Conclusion Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches. PMID:26337200

  14. Psychological barriers to optimal insulin therapy: more concerns in adolescent females than males

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325

  15. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation. PMID:24809985

  16. Non-Violent Males in Violent Settings: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Prosocial Low-Income Adolescent Males in Two Chicago (USA) Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed factors associated with being non-violent and constructing a non-violent, prosocial masculine identity. Subjects were African-American and Hispanic adolescent males in two low-income Chicago neighborhoods. Found several factors associated with being non-violent, including the ability to draw lessons from past experiences and have a…

  17. Comparison of Effect of Regular Unstructured Physical Training and Athletic Level Training on Body Composition and Cardio Respiratory Fitness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; A, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12–17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student’s t–test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable

  18. Safety Profile of PrePex Male Circumcision Device and Client Satisfaction With Adolescent Males Aged 13–17 Years in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Tshimanga, Mafuta; Mugurungi, Owen; Mangwiro, Tonderayi; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Chatikobo, Pesanai; Gundidza, Patricia; Samkange, Christopher; Dhlamini, Roy; Murwira, Munyaradzi; Gwinji, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated in studies in Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, leading to the conditional prequalification of the device for use in adults. Because the majority of VMMC clients in the 14 priority countries are adolescents under 18 years, research to establish the safety and efficacy of the device for males <18 years is required. Methods: One-arm, prospective study included 402 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, using PrePex device between August 2013 and January 2014 at a VMMC centre in Harare. Endpoints are number and grade of adverse events associated with device circumcision, time to complete wound healing, client satisfaction with the procedure, and outcome. Results: The rate of medical ineligibility among adolescent males was high; 237/402 (35.9%) of study participants had to be excluded based on medical reasons. The severe/moderate adverse event rate was low at 2/402 (0.5%). No device displacements/self-removals were observed. Time to complete wound healing was shorter than in adults; 367/398 (92.2%) adolescents had completed wound healing by day 35, whereas 90% of adults had completed wound healing by day 56 as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall, adolescents were highly satisfied with the results of their circumcision. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the PrePex device can be safely used in adolescents aged 13–17 years. The significant proportion of males opting for surgical circumcision and the high medical ineligibility suggest that surgical circumcision needs to be provided alongside PrePex services in programs targeting young age groups. PMID:27331588

  19. Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. Results The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p < 0.0001; p = 0.04), with no differences between the volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p < 0.001; p = 0.006). However in both sports groups there weren’t any gender differences in either part of the test (p = 0.18; p = 0.056). Conclusions These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence. PMID:24447526

  20. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. PMID:27031317

  1. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  2. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  3. Spondyloptosis in athlete.

    PubMed

    Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu, Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent athletes are at greater risk of low back pain and structural spine injuries. Spondylolysis is responsible for the majority of back pain cases in young athletes, rarely occurring in adults. We report a case of a 13-year-old judo female athlete, who came to our service with 5 months of progressive low back pain during training which was initially attributed to mechanical causes, without any further investigation by imaging methods. At admission, the patient had lumbar deformity, antalgic posture and bilaterally positive unipodalic lumbar hyperextension maneuver. After a research which showed spondyloptosis, the patient underwent surgery. In this article, we discuss, based on this case report, the diagnostic approach to low back pain in young athletes, since the complaint of chronic back pain can be a marker of a structural lesion that may be permanent and bring irreversible functional loss. PMID:25054602

  4. Does adolescent bullying distinguish between male offending trajectories in late middle age?

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Connell, Nadine M; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Farrington, David P; Jennings, Wesley G

    2013-03-01

    The perpetration of bullying is a significant issue among researchers, policymakers, and the general public. Although researchers have examined the link between bullying and subsequent antisocial behavior, data and methodological limitations have hampered firm conclusions. This study uses longitudinal data from 411 males in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development from ages 8 to 56 in order to examine the relationship between adolescent bullying and distinct late middle adulthood trajectories of offending, in which different groups of males follow different offending pathways. Results show that self-reported bullying predicts only certain adult offending trajectories but that the effect becomes insignificant once controls are introduced for childhood risk factors, although this may be due to the small number of the most chronic offenders. Study implications and directions for future research are noted. PMID:23224995

  5. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  6. Effects of over-the-counter jaw-repositioning mouth guards on dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, strength, and power in college-aged male athletes.

    PubMed

    Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in muscular power and anaerobic performance have resulted from the use of jaw-repositioning mouth guards designed with advanced dental techniques. The high cost of such techniques has dissuaded the widespread use. Recently, more affordable, over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouth guards have become available. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on muscular power and strength performance in college-aged male athletes. It was hypothesized that similar to previous observations with advanced dentistry-designed mouth guards, OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards would impart positive effects on muscular power but not have any effect on muscular strength. Secondary objectives of this study included the examination of the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on other variables related to athletic performance. Male collegiate athletes (N = 20) participated in 4 separate testing sessions that consisted of assessment of muscular power, dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, and muscular strength. The 4 conditions, 1 per testing session, were assigned in a randomized order and consisted of a no-mouth guard control (CON), a placebo mouth guard, a self-adapted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (SA), and a custom-fitted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (CF). No significant differences were observed between conditions in muscular power (p = 0.78), dynamic balance (p = 0.99), agility (p = 0.22), or muscular strength (p = 0.47). The CF had significantly lower hip flexion than the CON (p = 0.014) and had significantly greater lumbar spine lateral flexion compared with the SA condition (p = 0.054). However, these flexibility differences lack practical relevance as the effect sizes remain very small (ES = -0.27 and -0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the jaw-repositioning technique used in the design of these OTC mouth guards did not affect performance. It is important to note that negative

  7. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  8. Single trial nicotine conditioned place preference in pre-adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander W; Konz, Nathan; Hirsch, Zahava; Weedon, Jeremy; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2014-10-01

    The mean age of first voluntary tobacco inhalation is 12.3 years (DiFranza et al., 2004). 60% of smokers start smoking before the age of 14 and 90% are dependent before reaching the age of 19. Females are typically more sensitive to nicotine than males yet few studies examine the effects of nicotine on the reward systems in pre-adolescent female subjects. This study utilized the single trial conditioned place preference (CPP) test in very young (postnatal day 25-27) rats of both sexes. Latent effects on anxiety and amphetamine response were determined 5 and 7 days following a second nicotine exposure. Results show that 0.05 mg/kg nicotine induced CPP in females following a single trial while both sexes showed CPP following the 0.5 mg/kg dose. Five days later, rats dosed with 0.05 mg/kg show increased time on the open arm of the elevated plus maze, an anxiolytic response. While baseline activity was increased in nicotine-exposed males 7 days following dosing, amphetamine response was not affected by the treatments in either sex. Therefore, our data suggest that young females are more sensitive to nicotine reward than males supporting a heightened sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in very young females. However, alterations in baseline activity were only seen in males suggesting that different components of the system are affected by nicotine in each sex. An anxiolytic response to nicotine 5 days after dosing may suggest that this very young age group is uniquely affected by this very low nicotine dose. Clearly, nicotine has substantial acute and lasting effects during pre-adolescence at doses substantially lower than seen at older ages as reported by others. These effects, which could potentially result from cigarette or e-cigarette smoking by 11-12 year old children , focus attention on the vulnerability of this age group to nicotine. PMID:25109273

  9. Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide.

    PubMed

    Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Cockerham, William C; Frison, Sonja L

    2002-09-01

    African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been inconclusive and existing suicide interventions appear to have no effect on reducing this behavior among young African-Americans. This paper synthesizes classical (Durkheim, Suicide, 1979, Free Press, New York) and postmodern (Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992, Sage, London; Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1991) social theories in order to provide a more complete theoretical explanation for the increase in the suicide rate among adolescent African-American males. Postmodern society is typified by: (1) institutional deconstruction; (2) decreased collectivism; (3) increased normlessness and helplessness; and (4) exacerbated personal risk for stress. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that postmodernity characteristically loosens the bonds between the individual and society, thereby increasing vulnerability to depression, related pathologies (such as substance abuse), and suicide. African-Americans tend to be more affected/vulnerable because they are concentrated in resource-poor, low income areas, and institutions that provided social support (family, religious, community) and protected individuals from societal risk factors, have gradually been dissolving in postmodern societies. We argue that young African-American males of today are more exposed to stressors which increase psychological distress thus increasing depression and related pathological behaviors such as suicide. The main reason behind this increase is found in the inability of

  10. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  11. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity six months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity. PMID:20307112

  12. Predicting Aggression among Male Adolescents: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% signifi­cant level. Result:The three predictor variables of 1) attitude, 2) subjective norms, and 3) perceived behavioral control, accounted for 40% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression intention. Besides, intention accounted for 15% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression behavior. There was a sig­nificant correlation between drug abuse and alcohol consumption, have friend drug user, unprotect sex and parents divorced with aggression (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Designing intervention to reduction positive attitude and subjective norms toward aggressive behavior among adolescents could be usefulness result to aggression prevention. PMID:24688977

  13. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  14. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  15. Psychiatric disorders in property, violent, and versatile offending detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier; Vermeiren, Robert; Schuyten, Gilberte; Broekaert, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past year prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents and the relation between psychiatric disorders and type of offending. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) was administered in a sample (N = 245) of male detained adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Based on lifetime official criminal history, participants were classified into property, violent, and versatile subgroups. High rates of psychiatric disorders were found in all groups. In addition, property offenders reported significantly higher rates of depression, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders and comorbidity than violent and versatile offenders. Overall, versatile offenders did not differ from violent offenders, with the exception of more marijuana use disorder found in violent offenders. This study once more emphasizes that detained boys have substantial mental health needs, a finding that is generalizable across countries. In addition, the current study suggests that classifying detained juveniles by offense subgroups may carry clinical relevance. The long-term impact of these differences, and the possible effects of intervention, should be subject of further research. PMID:19290723

  16. Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Djurica, Dragana; Holt, Roberta R; Ren, Jingyan; Shindel, Alan W; Hackman, Robert M; Keen, Carl L

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) improves select markers of cardiovascular health in adults with cardiovascular risk factors; however, whether these improvements can be observed in at-risk adolescents is unknown. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study enrolled twenty-five overweight or obese males, aged 14-18 years, to consume 50 g of a FDSP or a control powder, daily for 1 week. Before and after each test period, measures of microvascular function, plasma nitrate/nitrite, platelet reactivity and blood lipids were collected at baseline and acutely 1 h after FDSP intake. Acute plasma nitrate/nitrite levels increased 1 h after consuming the FDSP during Study Visit 1 before daily FDSP intake (P<0·001) and during Study Visit 2 after 1 week of FDSP intake (P<0·001) compared with control powder intake. As a group, fasting nitrate/nitrite levels did not significantly change after 1 week of control or FDSP intake. However, for those individuals where fasting nitrate levels increased after short-term FDSP intake compared with controls, an increase in reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) was observed (P=0·014), whereas RHI was unchanged in those individuals who did not have a significant increase in nitrate (P=0·396). Taken together, these data support the concept that strawberries can provide vascular health benefits to heavier adolescent males. PMID:27464461

  17. Peer attitudes towards adolescent participants in male- and female-oriented sports.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others. PMID:16114591

  18. Comparison of esthetics perception and satisfaction of facial profile among male adolescents and adults with different profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Shafaee, Hooman; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate esthetics perception and satisfaction of the facial profile among Iranian male adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, male subjects referred to Orthodontic Department of Mashhad Dental School were enrolled (n = 84) and were divided into two groups: Adolescents (n = 39), and adults (n = 45). They were also assigned to straight, convex, or concave profile groups based on the facial profile angle (G-Sn-Pog’). An ideal silhouette of the lower facial profile was designed in Adobe® Photoshop® CS2 software (Kansas, USA). Then, eight other silhouettes representing different relations of the maxilla and mandible were constructed. Patients were asked to use numbers 1–10 to rank the facial profiles in the order of the attractiveness, and choose a silhouette that best closely resembled their own profile. Moreover, using a questionnaire patients were asked to rank their satisfaction with their profile, and asked to assign a number (1–5) to each question as follows; one represented the least satisfaction, while five reflected the highest satisfaction. Results: Adult and adolescent subjects with straight (adults: 12.0 ± 1.9, adolescents: 12.8 ± 1.05) and concave (adults: 10.0 ± 2.14, adolescents: 10.0 ± 2.08) profile showed the highest and the least satisfaction with their own profile, respectively. Both adult and adolescent group selected “retrognathic maxilla, prognathic mandible” as the least attractive profile. Overall, “straight” and “bimaxillary dentoalveolar retrusion” were chosen as the most attractive silhouettes in adolescent and adults, respectively. In comparison to a professional opinion (clinician ranking), 42.9% of adolescents and 22% of adults were able to correctly diagnose their own profiles type. Conclusion: Most of the male adolescents and especially adults diagnosis of their own profile differed with a professional assessment. PMID:27127750

  19. The Effect of Athletic Participation on the Academic Aspirations and Achievement of African American Males in a New York City High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, S. Kareem

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to determine the following: (1) whether African American students participating in sports on the high school varsity level hold and/or are being hurt by unrealistic athletic aspirations; and (2) how levels of athletic and academic aspirations affect future goals of African American student athletes. Finds no clear evidence of detrimental…

  20. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study. PMID:25241113

  1. The Social and Ecological Integration of Captive-Raised Adolescent Male African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a Wild Population

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Methodology/Principal Findings Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. Conclusions/Significance We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be explored further. PMID

  2. Gender and culture: reported problems, coping strategies and selected helpers of male and female adolescents in 17 countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J T; Baker, C E; Showalter, S M; Al-sarraf, Q; Atakan, S A; Borgen, W A; Guimaraes, I R; Giusti-ortiz, A L; Ishiyama, F I; Robertson, M

    1992-09-01

    This is the second report of a multinational project undertaken in 1988 by the International Round Table for the Advancement of Counseling that sought, among other things, to compare and contrast the reported problems, coping strategies, and help-seeking behavior of 2129 male and 2307 female adolescents from a total of three different socioeconomic backgrounds in each of 16 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan Kuwait, the Netherlands, the Philippines, China, Puerto Rico, Turkey, the US, and Venezuela) and from a "classless" background in Russia. The first report described the study and research methodology and cited preliminary findings that 1) problems and coping strategies tended to be universal and age-related; 2) impoverished subjects from Brazil, India, the Philippines, and Venezuela had more problems than any other adolescents; 3) problems were usually related to school, family, and identity rather than to sexuality; and 4) the most common coping strategy was individual problem-solving. This report compares male/female identification of up to three problems that cause worry, response to such problems, and help-seeking behavior. All adolescents cited problems in school, identity, and family. Males and females reported similar coping strategies and showed a strong dependence on individual coping strategies. Both males and females choose personal friends and family members as those most likely to help with problems. Males exhibited a higher percentage of problems related to school and a lower percentage of family problems. Russian adolescents reported more problems relating to altruism than any other group, especially males. These results imply that strong similarities exist for males and females, and the findings are worrisome in that problems related to sexuality were not cited. Counselors should expect the concerns of adolescents to be developmentally related and to overwhelm gender differences. PMID:12293037

  3. A Comparative Analysis Regarding Factors Related to 13- to 18-Year-Old African American Male Adolescents in Special Education and the Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Jonathan Lanier

    2013-01-01

    This study was focused on the identification of selected risk factors seemingly present among African American male adolescents 13 to 18 years old who were participants in special education programs at their schools. Many of these male adolescents were also found to participate in the juvenile justice system under what was characterized as…

  4. The timing of neuronal loss across adolescence in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Willing, J; Juraska, J M

    2015-08-20

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain maturation characterized by the reorganization of interacting neural networks. In particular the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region involved in executive function, undergoes synaptic and neuronal pruning during this time in both humans and rats. Our laboratory has previously shown that rats lose neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and there is an increase in white matter under the frontal cortex between adolescence and adulthood. Female rats lose more neurons during this period, and ovarian hormones may play a role as ovariectomy before adolescence prevents neuronal loss. However, little is known regarding the timing of neuroanatomical changes that occur between early adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we quantified the number of neurons and glia in the male and female mPFC at multiple time points from preadolescence through adulthood (postnatal days 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). Females, but not males, lost a significant number of neurons in the mPFC between days 35 and 45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. Counts of GABA immunoreactive cell bodies indicated that the neurons lost were not primarily GABAergic. These results suggest that in females, pubertal hormones may exert temporally specific changes in PFC anatomy. As expected, both males and females gained white matter under the PFC throughout adolescence, though these gains in females were diminished after day 35, but not in males. The differences in cell loss in males and females may lead to differential vulnerability to external influences and dysfunctions of the PFC that manifest in adolescence. PMID:26047728

  5. Early life overnutrition induced by litter size manipulation decreases social play behavior in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Laura O; Ferri, Bárbara G; de Sousa, Francielly A Lopes; Vilela, Fabiana C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of artificial litter size adjustment on offspring development. Social play behavior is important for neurobehavioral development and is impaired in several developmental psychiatric disorders. This study therefore investigated the effect of litter size on play behavior in adolescent rats. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of 3 pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors scored daily during the first week of lactation (PND2-8) revealed that arched nursing and pup licking behaviors were increased in dams with SLs versus those with NLs. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain and advanced development of physical landmarks and reflexes, possibly due to overnutrition. Social isolation lasting 3.5h prior to social play behavioral testing produced a higher frequency and duration of pouncing, pinning, sniffing, and grooming in both male and female offspring. However, male SL offspring exhibited a lower frequency of pouncing and pinning when compared with male NL offspring, while no litter size-dependent differences were observed in social behaviors unrelated to play (sniffing and grooming). These findings identify a possible sexually dimorphic influence of litter size in the development of social behavior. Given that social behaviors such as play behavior are vital for normal cognitive and social development, these findings have important implications for developmental and neuropsychiatric research. PMID:27469432

  6. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  7. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses. PMID:24726389

  8. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights. PMID:12413191

  9. A self-efficacy questionnaire regarding leisure time physical activity: Psychometric properties among Iranian male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shiri, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attention to different aspects of self-efficacy leads to actual evaluation of self-efficacy about physical activity. This study was carried out in order to design and determine psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire for evaluation of self-efficacy about leisure time physical activity (SELPA) among Iranian adolescent boys, with an emphasis on regulatory self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This descriptive–analytic study was conducted in 734 male adolescents aged 15–19 years in Isfahan. After item generation and item selection based on review of literature and other questionnaires, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were determined and items were modified employing the opinions of expert panel (N = 10). Comprehensibility of the questionnaire was determined by members of target group (N = 35). Exploratory factors analysis (EFA) was operated on sample 1 (N1 = 325) and confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) on sample 2 (N2 = 347). Reliability of SELPA was estimated via internal consistency method. Results: According to EFA, barrier self-efficacy and scheduling self-efficacy are the two main aspects of SELPA with the total variance of 65%. The suggested model was confirmed by CFA and all fitness indices of the corrected model were good. Cronbach's alpha was totally estimated as 0.89 and for barrier and scheduling self-efficacy, it was 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusions: The results provide some evidence for acceptable validity and reliability of SELPA in Iranian adolescent boys. However, further investigations, especially for evaluation of predictive power of the questionnaire, are necessary. PMID:26985219

  10. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  11. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J.; Abdulla, Zuhair I.; Lee, Ryan J.; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1–21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as persistent increases in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1–21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., “autoreceptor” doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  12. The effects of traditional family values on the coming out process of gay male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, B S; Muzzonigro, P G

    1993-01-01

    The development of a gay or lesbian identity (often referred to as the coming out process) has been widely studied in adults; however, few studies have examined the process in gay adolescents. Even among these studies, little research has investigated the effects of race or family values on the coming out process. A small sample of African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Eurasian, and Caucasian gay male adolescents participated in this survey study. Coming out was operationalized in three stages: sensitization; awareness with confusion, denial, guilt, and shame; and acceptance. The majority of respondents reported feeling different from other boys as children. The average age of first crush on another boy was 12.7 years; average age for realizing they were gay was 12.5 years. Most respondents reported feeling confused during their first awareness that they were gay. Denial of identity was a coping strategy for about half the sample. Traditional family values played a greater role in predicting coming out experiences than did race. Families were categorized as having high or low traditional values based upon (1) the importance of religion, (2) emphasis on marriage, (3) emphasis on having children, and (4) whether a non-English language was spoken in the home. Families with a strong emphasis on traditional values were perceived as less accepting of homosexuality than were the low traditional families. Those who work with adolescents need to be aware that some will recognize their sexual orientation as gay, lesbian, or bisexual during this time of their lives. These youth need support in the coming out process because they may encounter stigmatization and disapproval not only from the larger society, but also from their families, peers, and sometimes the gay community itself. PMID:8456611

  13. The Prevalence of Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescent Student Athletes From the State of Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry; Replogle, William; McIntyre, Louis; Igboechi, Oduche; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and hypertension in the United States. The prevalence of these diagnoses among individuals participating in school-sanctioned sports has not been clearly defined. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among student athletes and investigate associations between race, sex, type and number of sports played, and the prevalence of these diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Pre–sports participation medical examinations (N = 7705) performed between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed to identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated BP and examine relationships between the type of sports played, participation in multiple sports versus a single sport, and the athlete’s body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and BMI. The risk of obesity among single-sport athletes was more than 2-fold the risk (relative risk [RR], 2.13) compared with ≥3-sport athletes and 1.42 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.42). The prevalence of elevated BP was 21.2%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and elevated BP. The risk of elevated BP among single-sport athletes was 1.59 times greater (RR, 1.59) than ≥3-sport athletes and 1.30 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.30). Finally, obese students were 2.40 times more likely to have elevated BP compared with nonobese students (P < .001). Conclusion: The result of this study confirms the progressive nature of the obesity epidemic and identifies the contribution of obesity to the worsening cardiometabolic profiles in student athletes. The study also identifies that participation in multiple sports and running sports decreases

  14. Typologies of Violence Exposure and Cognitive Processing in Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Suzanne C.; Smith-Darden, Joanne; Ametrano, Rebecca M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated youth experience high rates of violence exposure (VE), cognitive processing (CP) deficits, and mental health (MH) problems. It is not clear whether VE combined with CP deficits are particularly salient risk factors for MH dysfunction. Male incarcerated youth offenders (n = 115) completed standardized self-reports of MH and VE. CP was measured with executive functioning tasks and academic assessments. Person-centered Ward’s Squared Euclidian Distance cluster analysis was used to examine unique patterns of CP and VE. Cluster analysis defined five distinct profiles of MH functioning, CP, and VE rates within incarcerated adolescents. Two groups, with high rates of VE and CP deficits, showed high rates of MH problems. Linear techniques may obscure important differences within this population. PMID:25104877

  15. Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Shi, Huqing; Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Yali; Ming, Qingsen; Gao, Yidian; Ma, Ren; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Alack of inhibition control has been found in subjects with conduct disorder (CD), but the underlying neuropathophysiology remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the different mechanism of inhibition control in adolescent-onset CD males (n = 29) and well-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 40) when performing a GoStop task by functional magnetic resonance images. Effective connectivity (EC) within the inhibition control network was analyzed using a stochastic dynamic causality model. We found that EC within the inhibition control network was significantly different in the CD group when compared to the HCs. Exploratory relationship analysis revealed significant negative associations between EC between the IFG and striatum and behavioral scale scores in the CD group. These results suggest for the first time that the failure of inhibition control in subjects with CD might be associated with aberrant connectivity of the frontal–basal ganglia pathways, especially between the IFG and striatum. PMID:26658732

  16. Reproducing normative and marginalized masculinities: adolescent male popularity and the outcast.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Debby A

    2005-09-01

    Every day, in professional work and in our personal lives, we reproduce by words and behaviors particular understandings of life and how it works. This includes understandings about what is 'normal' and 'not normal' masculinity and who are 'normal' and 'not normal' boys and men. Being marginalized or outcast from the norm is rarely a free choice. The language that constructs normal and abnormal is not innocent and does not simply arrive in our minds transparently reflected in our behavior or in our client advice or student education. Examining words and behaviors from adolescent boys and from media sources, this research explores the role of cultural discourses in producing normative and marginalized masculinities. It builds upon recent scholarship that questions cultural prescriptions for masculinity and traditional male norms. Feminist, poststructural, psychoanalytic discourse analysis and multiple methods were used to explore links between cultural discourses of masculinity and performativity of masculinity. Practices of heterosexuality, homophobia, athleticism, economic privilege, toughness, and violence provided pathways toward achieving and/or maintaining status as the hegemonic masculine norm in adolescence. 'Popularity' signified the norm and 'outcasts' from the norm signified marginalized masculinities. PMID:16083473

  17. [Male adolescence, hatred for foreigners and the self-repair function exemplified by juvenile right extremist skinheads].

    PubMed

    Streeck-Fischer, A

    1994-09-01

    Restructuring the personality, developing a new we-feeling, coping with drive thrusts and ego-syntonically reorganizing infantile conflicts are key developmental functions during adolescence. Some characteristics of male adolescence explain why especially male teen-agers are susceptible to joining right-wing extremist groups ready to use violence. The surroundings of right-wing extremist violence offers specific stabilizations which support the adolescent configuration of the enlarged self but as the same time they also lead to deformations of the personality. Establishing a greater self by ideology, self reparative transformation of self hatred to xenophobia, masking the personality and the regression of sexual desire to the desire of violence are consequences of processes of adaption and assimilation as described in cases of serious inner or outer threats. PMID:7991504

  18. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547

  19. Rite of Passage Programs as Effective Tools for Fostering Resilience among Low-Income African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Garrett, Michael T.; Conwill, William; Rivera, Edil Torres

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss effective rite of passage (ROP) programs as strength-based, culturally relevant interventions for African American male adolescents. They also highlight the ethnocultural strengths of this population from a resilience perspective and articulate academic and dispositional outcomes of ROP programs. Recommendations for practice…

  20. The Impacts of the Voice Change, Grade Level, and Experience on the Singing Self-Efficacy of Emerging Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe characteristics of the voice change in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade choir students using Cooksey's voice-change classification system and to determine if the singing self-efficacy of adolescent males is affected by the voice change, grade level, and experience. Participants (N = 80) consisted of…

  1. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  2. Brief cognitive behavioural therapy with male adolescent offenders in open custody or on probation: an evaluation of management of anger.

    PubMed

    Valliant, P M; Jensen, B; Raven-Brook, L

    1995-06-01

    A 6-wk. cognitive behavioural program administered to 24 adolescent male offenders assigned to open custody and 5 to probation showed no mean differences on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Significant correlations were found for the personality measures with pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. PMID:7568580

  3. Social Bonds and School Bullying: A Study of Macanese Male Adolescents on Bullying Perpetration and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background: School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences. Objective: Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study…

  4. Brief Report: An Examination of the Relationships between Parental Monitoring, Self-Esteem and Delinquency among Mexican American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Beutler, Larry E.; Ross, Sylvia An; Silver, N. Clayton

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general…

  5. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  6. Attitudinal and behavioral correlates of condom use in urban adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, R A; DuRant, R H; Gaillard, G L

    1992-03-01

    To determine correlates of condom use in adolescent males, we administered a sexual behavior questionnaire to 105 urban males attending a general adolescent clinic. The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.6 years, and all reported heterosexual activity during the prior 3 months. Condom use was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with perceived hassle of use (Spearman's rho = -0.40), perception of girlfriend's attitude toward condoms (rho = -0.36), self-confidence in correct use (rho = 0.26), younger age (rho = 0.25), reported degree of exposure to sexually transmitted disease (STD) education (rho = 0.23), perceived condom safety (rho = 0.23), and perceived risk of STD if not wearing a condom (rho = 0.21). Using stepwise multiple regression, four variables explained a significant amount of variation in condom use: perceived hassle of use, perceived girlfriend's attitude toward condom use, age, and self-confidence in correct use (adjusted R2 = 0.28, p less than 0.001). Intention to use free condoms was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with past use (rho = 0.63), girlfriend's attitude toward use (rho = -0.46), self-confidence in correct use (rho = 0.36), perceived hassle (rho = -0.31), and degree of exposure to STD education (rho = 0.25). Three variables in a regression model explained a significant amount of variation in intent to use free condoms: self-reported past use, girlfriend's attitude, and self-confidence in correct use (adjusted R2 = 0.51, p less than 0.001). PMID:1627581

  7. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    PubMed Central

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtained under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. Results Fifty males, aged 18-65 years (mean 39±16.03 years) volunteered to be part of this study. The mean reported age for the onset of puberty was 12.39 years (95% CI, 11.99-12.80 years), 13.59 years (95% CI, 13.05-14.12 years) for the first ejaculation, 12.56 years (95% CI, 11.80-13.32 years) for the start of masturbation, and 17.26 years (95% CI, 16.18-18.33 years) for the first experienced intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the cohort reached puberty by the age of 13.33, experienced masturbation by 14.5, first ejaculated by the age of 14.83, and had intercourse at age of 19.15 years. The first experienced ejaculation fell 1.5 years after the onset of puberty in 80% present of the cohort, and 84% starts masturbation 1.5 years after the onset of puberty. The mean response between the younger and the older subject was not statistical significance. Conclusions It is appropriate to consider a request for semen specimens by masturbation from teenagers at one year and six months after the onset of puberty; the onset age of puberty plus 1.5 years is an important predictor of ejaculation and sample collection for cryopreservation. PMID:26813354

  8. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Zhang, Jiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs) are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA) was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus), which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus), the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus), and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine), which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network) and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network). Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD. PMID:26713867

  9. Findings from the preparticipation athletic examination and athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Pendergrast, R A; Seymore, C; Gaillard, G; Donner, J

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the findings from a standardized preparticipation athletic examination, the sport played, and athletic injuries requiring treatment by a physician and/or requiring the athlete to miss one or more games. Of public high school students receiving a preparticipation athletic examination during the 1989-1990 academic year, 674 (56%) either completed a telephone interview or returned a mailed questionnaire at the end of the academic year. The sample consisted of 408 (60.5%) blacks and 243 (36.1%) whites; 470 (69.7%) of the subjects were males. The subjects ranged in age from 13 to 20 years (mean +/- SD, 16.1 +/- 1.2 years), and participated in at least 10 school sports. Injuries were reported by 29.5% of the athletes. The highest proportion of athletes injured occurred among male football (36.3%), female basketball (33.3%), male baseball (19.4%), male soccer (17.2%), and female track and field (15.8%) participants. Responses by the athletes and their parents on the standardized health history were significantly associated with injuries in several specific areas. Knee injuries were associated with previous knee injuries, knee surgery, and history of injuries requiring medical treatment. Ankle injuries were associated with previous ankle injuries and previous injuries requiring medical treatment. Both arm and other leg injuries were associated with previous fractures. Male athletes with either abnormal knee or ankle findings from the physical examination were more likely to injure the knee or ankle, respectively. However, the sensitivities and positive predictive values of these relationships are weak. These data suggest that the preparticipation athletic examination may not predict certain athletic injuries and that additional prevention efforts for specific body areas of injury are needed in certain sports. PMID:1736652

  10. [DIFFERENCES IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN ADOLESCENT MALE AND FEMALE RATS EXPOSED AS NEWBORNS TO INFLAMMATORY PAIN OR STRESS].

    PubMed

    Butkevich, I P; Mikhailenko, V A; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In adolescent rats (25-35-day-old) exposed as newborns (the first and repeatedly second days) to adverse impacts (inflammatory pain, stress of short-term maternal separation or their combination) sex dimorphism was revealed in pain behavior under conditions of similar peripheral inflammation. According to the priority data obtained, strengthening of pain-related response in the formalin test was found in males, whereas pain sensitivity in females was not changed, that is pain experienced by them as newborns did not affect the system reactivity to the same chemical irritant in the adolescent period. However, the rats of both sexes, who experienced short-term stress of maternal deprivation (60 min-during the first and the second days of life), displayed increased pain sensitivity in the formalin test. Combined effect of inflammatory pain and maternal deprivation in newborns did not alter pain sensitivity in both adolescent males and adolescent females. The male and female rats exposed as newborns to maternal deprivation displayed a decrease of the anxiety level in the elevated plus maze; the rats, exposed to each of the above-mentioned early impacts showed a decline of adaptive behavior in the forced swimming test; the males exposed to pain and combined impacts demonstrated impairment of spatial learning in Morris labyrinth. Thus, we pioneered in demonstrating sex differences in the effects of inflammatory pain in newborn pups on pain sensitivity in the formalin test in adolescent rats. Separation of the influence of early stress or pain was revealed in adolescent females in the formalin test: maternal deprivation induced hyperalgesia, whereas pain failed to change functional activity of the tonic nociceptive system. PMID:26547951

  11. Fertility as a Priority among At-Risk Adolescent Males Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Klosky, James L.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Russell, Kathryn M.; Foster, Rebecca H.; Sabbatini, Gina M.; Canavera, Kristin E.; Hodges, Jason R.; Schover, Leslie R.; McDermott, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Infertility is a frequent consequence of cancer therapy and is often associated with psychological distress. Although adult survivors prioritize fertility and parenthood, this issue remains unexplored among adolescent males. This study examined future fertility as a priority (relative to other life goals) at time of diagnosis for at-risk adolescents and their parents. Methods Newly diagnosed adolescent males (n=96; age=13.0-21.9 years) at increased risk for infertility secondary to cancer treatment prioritized eight life goals: to have school/work success, children, friends, wealth, health, a nice home, faith, and a romantic relationship. Patients' parents (fathers, n=30; mothers, n=61) rank-ordered the same priorities for their children. Results “Having children” was ranked as a “top 3” life goal among 43.8% of adolescents, 36.7% of fathers, and 21.3% of mothers. Fertility ranked 3rd among adolescents, 4th among fathers, and 5th among mothers. Future health was ranked the top priority across groups, distinct from all other goals (ps<.001), and fertility ranked higher than home ownership and wealth for all groups (ps<.001). For adolescents, low/moderate fertility risk perception was associated with higher fertility rankings than no/high risk perceptions (p=.01). Conclusions Good health is the most important life goal among adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer and their parents. In this relatively small sample, adolescents prioritized fertility as a top goal, parents also rated fertility as being more important than home ownership and financial wealth. Health care providers should communicate fertility risk and preservation options at diagnosis and facilitate timely discussion among families, who may differ in prioritization of future fertility. PMID:25082365

  12. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  13. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  14. Early Ethanol Consumption Predicts Relapse-Like Behavior in Adolescent Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; Kingsley, Megan A.; Rezvani, Amir H.; Propst, Kiayia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse disorders emerge over time with repeated consumption of ethanol, but not all ethanol drinkers develop these disorders. There are pre-existing characteristics that indicate which drinkers are most likely to abuse alcohol. Adolescence, novelty seeking, and high stress reactivity are among the characteristics of the most vulnerable individuals. In addition, an individual’s response to his or her first exposure to the drug influences future consumption. We assessed an array of behavioral and hormonal characteristics in adolescent (28-day-old) male rats before exposure to ethanol, and then determined which rats were most prone to high levels of alcohol drinking. Methods The assessments consisted of measures of anxiety (elevated plus maze), response to novelty (open field locomotion, novel object exploration), and circulating corticosterone levels after mild restraint and after the elevated plus maze task. After this test battery, the rats were placed in lickometer cages nightly (5 pm to 9 am) for evaluation of fluid consumption. Rats were first habituated to the cages with water in the lickometer bottles, and then given 10% (v/v) ethanol for 3 nights as the only available fluid. After this forced ethanol exposure, the rats were allowed to choose between 8% ethanol and water for 10 consecutive nights. After 2 nights of abstinence, the rats were again placed in the lickometer cages and given a choice between 8% ethanol and water to assess ethanol consumption in response to alcohol deprivation, a measure of relapse-like behavior. Results Ethanol consumption on the third day of forced consumption was significantly correlated with ethanol consumption on days 8 to 10 of the choice phase, which in turn was significantly correlated to relapse-like consumption. Preference for ethanol was also significantly correlated with early consumption. Novel object exploration, open field activity, open arm time in the elevated plus maze, initial water consumption

  15. Graduation Rates of Athletes Outpace Students at Large

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2007-01-01

    According to a report by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), scholarship athletes at Division I institutions continue to graduate at a rate higher than students over all. Among white male students, athletes graduated at a lower rate than their peers in the student body at large. In a handful of the biggest programs, athletes completed…

  16. Neurocognitive skills moderate urban male adolescents' responses to preventive intervention materials.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty

    2006-03-15

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials. PMID:16154296

  17. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599

  18. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  19. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  20. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E.; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors. PMID:22649147