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Sample records for adolescent male athletes

  1. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future. PMID:27646623

  2. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  3. Power output in the jump squat in adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Dayne, Andrea M; McBride, Jeffrey M; Nuzzo, James L; Triplett, N Travis; Skinner, Jared; Burr, Alan

    2011-03-01

    The load that maximizes power output in the jump squat (JS) in college-aged athletic males has been reported to be 0% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat strength) or in other words body mass. No data exist concerning adolescent athletic males. In addition, strength levels have been theorized to possibly affect the load that maximizes power output in the JS. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the load that maximizes power output in the JS in adolescent athletic men, and concurrently describe their strength level and its effect on the load that maximizes power output. Eleven high-school male athletes were tested on 2 occasions, first determining their 1RM in the squat (1RM = 141.14 ± 28.08 kg; squat 1RM-to-body mass ratio = 1.76 ± 0.15) and then performing JS testing at loads equal to 0% (body mass), 20, 40, 60, and 80% of squat 1RM. Peak power (PP), peak force, peak velocity (PV), and peak displacement were measured at each load. Jump squat at the 0% load produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher PP, PV, and peak displacement in comparison with the 40, 60, and 80% loading conditions. It was concluded that the load that maximizes power output in the JS is 0% of 1RM in adolescent athletic men, the same as found in college-aged athletic men. In addition, strength level relative to body mass did not affect the load that maximized power output. Practically, when devising a training program to increase PP, it is important to include JSs at body mass along with traditional strength training at heavier loads to increase power output across the entire loading spectrum.

  4. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  5. Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F

    1995-02-01

    Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.

  6. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  7. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual.

  8. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  9. Bone health and the female athlete triad in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita

    2011-02-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.

  10. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  11. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  12. Echocardiographic characteristics of male athletes of different age

    PubMed Central

    Pavlik, G; Olexo, Z; Osvath, P; Sido, Z; Frenkl, R

    2001-01-01

    Two dimensionally guided M mode and Doppler echocardiographic data for 578 male subjects (106 non-athletic and 472 athletes) were analysed from two aspects: (a) in the young adult category (19–30 years of age), competitors in different groups of sports were studied; (b) in the different age groups (children, 10–14 years; adolescent juniors, 15–18 years; young adults, 19–30 years; adults, 31–44 years; older adults 45–60 years), data for athletes and non-athletes were compared. Morphological variables were related to body size by indices in which the exponents of the numerator and denominator were matched. Morphological signs of athletic heart were most consistently evident in the left ventricular muscle mass: in the young adult group, the highest values were seen in the endurance athletes, followed by the ball game players, sprinters/jumpers, and power athletes. A thicker muscular wall was the main reason for this hypertrophy. Internal diameter was only increased in the endurance athletes, and this increase was more evident in the younger groups. The E/A quotient (ratio of peak velocity during early and late diastole) indicated more effective diastolic function in the endurance athletes. The values for E/A quotient also suggested that regular physical activity at an older age may protect against age dependent impairment of diastolic function. Key Words: echocardiography; heart; athletic heart; age; male athletes PMID:11273969

  13. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in Korean athletic and non-athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hee; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kim, Gwi-Sun; Park, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Athletes generally desire changes in body composition in order to enhance their athletic performance. Often, athletes will practice chronic energy restrictions to attain body composition changes, altering their energy needs. Prediction of resting metabolic rates (RMR) is important in helping to determine an athlete's energy expenditure. This study compared measured RMR of athletic and non-athletic adolescents with predicted RMR from commonly used prediction equations to identify the most accurate equation applicable for adolescent athletes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 50 athletes (mean age of 16.6 ± 1.0 years, 30 males and 20 females) and 50 non-athletes (mean age of 16.5 ± 0.5 years, 30 males and 20 females) were enrolled in the study. The RMR of subjects was measured using indirect calorimetry. The accuracy of 11 RMR prediction equations was evaluated for bias, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Until more accurate prediction equations are developed, our findings recommend using the formulas by Cunningham (-29.8 kcal/day, limits of agreement -318.7 and +259.1 kcal/day) and Park (-0.842 kcal/day, limits of agreement -198.9 and +196.9 kcal/day) for prediction of RMR when studying male adolescent athletes. Among the new prediction formulas reviewed, the formula included in the fat-free mass as a variable [RMR = 730.4 + 15 × fat-free mass] is paramount when examining athletes. CONCLUSIONS The RMR prediction equation developed in this study is better in assessing the resting metabolic rate of Korean athletic adolescents. PMID:26244075

  14. Parallels with the Female Athlete Triad in Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Barrack, Michelle T; Nattiv, Aurelia; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Participation in sports offers many health benefits to athletes of both sexes. However, subsets of both female and male athletes are at increased risk of impaired bone health and bone stress injuries. The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is defined as the interrelationship of low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The Triad may result in health consequences, including bone stress injuries. Our review presents evidence that an analogous process may occur in male athletes. Our review of the available literature indicates that a subset of male athletes may experience adverse health issues that parallel those associated with the Triad, including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and low bone mineral density. Consequently, male athletes may be predisposed to developing bone stress injuries, and these injuries can be the first presenting feature of associated Triad conditions. We discuss the evidence for impaired nutrition, hormonal dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in a subset of male athletes, and how these health issues may parallel those of the Triad. With further research into the mechanisms and outcomes of these health concerns in active and athletic men, evidence-based guidelines can be developed that result in best practice.

  15. Managing the Training Load in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew

    2017-01-04

    While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training 'dose' that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical 'response' when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence based decisions is emphasized, while choosing the appropriate monitoring techniques is determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and to allow an opportunity for learning, reflection and the enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.

  16. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.

  17. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  18. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  19. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  20. Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

  1. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  2. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  3. Tendon Adaptation to Sport-specific Loading in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; John, M; Riegels, N; Mayer, F

    2016-02-01

    Tendon adaptation due to mechanical loading is controversially discussed. However, data concerning the development of tendon thickness in adolescent athletes is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in Achilles (AT) and patellar tendon (PT) thickness in adolescent athletes while considering age, gender and sport-specific loading. In 500 adolescent competitive athletes of 16 different sports and 40 recreational controls both ATs and PTs were sonographically measured. Subjects were divided into 2 age groups (< 13; ≥ 13 years) and 6 sport type categories (ball, combat, and water sports, combined disciplines, cycling, controls). In addition, 3 risk groups (low, moderate, high) were created according to the athlete's risk of developing tendinopathy. AT and PT thickness did not significantly differ between age groups (AT/PT:<13: 5.4±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm;≥13: 5.3±0.7 mm/3.6±0.5 mm). In both age groups males presented higher tendon thickness than females (p<0.001). AT thickness was highest in ball sports/cyclists and lowest in controls (p≤0.002). PT thickness was greatest in water sports and lowest in controls (p=0.02). High risk athletes presented slightly higher AT thickness compared to the low risk group (p=0.03). Increased AT and PT thickness in certain sport types compared to controls supports the hypothesis of structural tendon adaptation due to sport-specific loading.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-08-26

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  5. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  6. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance.

  7. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  8. Low-back pain in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Erkintalo, M; Salminen, J J; Kaprio, J

    1996-02-01

    In this 3-yr longitudinal study we investigated the occurrence of low-back pain and anatomic changes in the low back in relation to loading and injuries among 98 adolescents: 33 nonathletes (16 boys, 17 girls), 34 boy athletes (17 ice hockey, 17 soccer players), and 31 girl athletes (17 figure skaters, 14 gymnasts). During the 3-yr follow-up, low-back pain lasting longer than 1 wk was reported by 29 (45%; 95% CI, 32%-57%) athletes and by 6 (18%; 95% CI, 7%-35%) nonathletes (P = 0.0099). Acute back injury was reported by 17 of 19 subjects who also reported low-back pain (89%; 95% CI, 67%-99%) and by 2 of 63 of those without prolonged low-back pain (3%; 95% CI, 0%-11%) (P < 0.0001). Among 43 girls participating in baseline and follow-up MRI examinations of the lumbar spine, new MRI abnormalities were found in 6 of 8 reporting acute back injury (75%; 95% CI, 35%-97%) and in 8 of the remaining 35 girls (23%; 95% CI 10% to 40%) (P = 0.018). In conclusion, excessive loading that involves a risk for acute low-back injuries during the growth spurt is harmful to the lower back.

  9. Assessment and treatment of hip pain in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    Hip pain in the adolescent athlete is a common source of functional impairment and can limit athletic performance. In the past, many intra- and extra-articular hip abnormalities went unrecognized and were left untreated because of insufficient diagnostic imaging and limited surgical options. However, over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous expansion research, and the understanding of the etiology of hip pain among such athletes has grown. Improvements in imaging modalities and technical innovations have led to greater diagnostic insights and creative new treatment strategies. This article explores the etiology and treatment of hip pain in the adolescent athlete.

  10. An Educational Model To Enhance Sportsmanship of Male High School Athletes during Interscholastic Athletic Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisivoccia, Joseph Dominick

    A solution for high school male athletes who demonstrate unsportsmanlike behavior during competition is discussed. In recent years, there has been an increase in unsportsmanlike conduct among high school athletes, including the use of profanity and obscene gestures, public expressions of dissatisfaction, negative comments, incidents of vandalism,…

  11. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  12. The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

  13. Coaching Strategies for Helping Adolescent Athletes Cope with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to…

  14. Comparison of nutritional intake in US adolescent swimmers and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andy C; Ward, Kenneth D; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L; McClanahan, Barbara S; Vukadinovich, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis.

  15. Comparison of nutritional intake in US adolescent swimmers and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andy C.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L.; McClanahan, Barbara S.; Vukadinovich, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis. PMID:27672430

  16. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young male and female athletes: is the game to blame?

    PubMed

    Harmer, P A

    2010-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by young athletes has been a primary concern of sports governing bodies because of the implications for unfair advantage in performance and the potential for adverse side effects. Research over several decades indicated a lifetime prevalence of AAS use for adolescent males of 4-6% and for females of 1.5-3%, indicating a problem involving millions of athletes and a potential epidemic of AAS-related pathologies. However, recent studies have questioned the presumption that participation in organised sport is the primary risk factor for AAS use in adolescents as well as the extant estimates of the magnitude of the problem. Increasing evidence indicates that AAS use is associated with non-athletes and is linked to a broader syndrome of problem behaviours rather than efforts to achieve sporting success, and that sports participation may be protective against AAS use. Moreover, employing lifetime prevalence to gauge AAS use limits accurate evaluation of the personal and public health risk as the majority of respondents are not habitual users. Previous studies may have also inflated prevalence values through ambiguously worded survey questions and other design flaws, and few data are available on actual dosages. Prevention efforts need to be focused beyond organised sport and target the general adolescent population rather than athletes and should be founded on interventions with demonstrated efficacy for delinquent, antisocial and self-destructive behaviours rather than the ethical imperative of fair play.

  17. Psychosocial predictors of drive for muscularity in male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Galli, Nick; Petrie, Trent; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy; Carter, Jennifer E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous relation of general and sport-specific pressures about body weight and shape, negative affect, and body satisfaction to drive for muscularity (DM) in male collegiate athletes. Participants were 183 male athletes who were drawn from three NCAA Division I institutions and represented 17 different sports. As hypothesized, after controlling for BMI and sport type, sport-specific pressures, negative affect, and body satisfaction were significant predictors, and accounted for 15-34% of the variance in muscularity-oriented body image and muscularity behaviors; general pressures however were not significantly related. These findings offer insight into the personal and social antecedents of DM in male athletes, and serve as a starting point for future research on DM in this population.

  18. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  19. Faculty Perceptions of Division I Male Student-Athletes: The Relationship between Student-Athlete Contact, Athletic Department Involvement, and Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…

  20. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  1. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Pratt, M

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between lower-extremity strength and flexibility and maturational status as measured by Tanner staging (TS) was assessed in 84 male high school athletes. The sum of one-repetition maximum lifts for knee extension and flexion was determined and flexibility was measured with the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance sit-and-reach test. Chronologic age, body weight, and percent fat were also recorded. Strength and flexibility were compared for each maturational and chronologic age category. Maturational age was better correlated with strength and flexibility than was chronologic age. All correlations were significant. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of TS and age with strength and flexibility. Tanner staging had greater predictive value than age for strength and flexibility. After adjusting for age, the relationship between TS and strength remained significant.

  2. Adolescent Male Attitudes about Singing in Choir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adolescent males to enroll in school choir as an elective class and to assess their attitudes about singing in general, self-concept of their own voices, and perception of others' view of adolescent males' participation in choir. Data were obtained from 101 adolescent males…

  3. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.

  4. Prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendinopathy and their association to intratendinous changes in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassel, M; Baur, H; Hirschmüller, A; Carlsohn, A; Fröhlich, K; Mayer, F

    2015-06-01

    Achilles (AT) and patellar tendons (PT) are commonly affected by tendinopathy in adult athletes but prevalence of symptoms and morphological changes in adolescents is unclear. The study aimed to determine prevalence of tendinopathy and intratendinous changes in ATs and PTs of adolescent athletes. A total of 760 adolescent athletes (13.0 ± 1.9 years; 160 ± 13 cm; 50 ± 14 kg) were examined. History, local clinical examination, and longitudinal Doppler ultrasound analysis for both ATs and PTs were performed including identification of intratendinous echoic changes and vascularization. Diagnosis of tendinopathy was complied clinically in case of positive history of tendon pain and tendon pain on palpation. Achilles tendinopathy was diagnosed in 1.8% and patellar tendinopathy in 5.8%. Vascularizations were visible in 3.0% of ATs and 11.4% of PTs, hypoechogenicities in 0.7% and 3.2% as well as hyperechogenicities in 0% and 0.3%, respectively. Vascularizations and hypoechogenicities were statistically significantly more often in males than in females (P ≤ 0.02). Subjects with patellar tendinopathy had higher prevalence of structural intratendinous changes than those without PT symptoms (P ≤ 0.001). In adolescent athletes, patellar tendinopathy is three times more frequent compared with Achilles tendinopathy. Longitudinal studies are necessary to investigate physiological or pathological origin of vascularizations and its predictive value in development of tendinopathy.

  5. The impact of exercise training on basal BDNF in athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise training on basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in athletic adolescents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two male adolescents participated in this study. The subjects were divided into a control group (n=9) and trained group (n=13). The trained group comprised table tennis athletes with more than 3 years of training who regularly exercised 18 hours per week. [Results] The results of this study show the trained group had significantly lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than the control group. Further, platelet levels were significantly higher in the trained group than in the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the groups in serum nerve growth factor level or physical characteristics (body weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose). [Conclusion] This study showed that the basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor level of well-trained athletic adolescents was lower than that of the control group. Further research with a larger sample size is required to confirm the finding that lower basal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are associated with long-term habitual exercise in athletic adolescents. PMID:27942121

  6. Gratitude and Adolescent Athletes' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…

  7. Osteoporotic fracture in an elite male Kenyan athlete.

    PubMed

    Pollock, N; Hamilton, B

    2008-12-01

    An elite Kenyan runner presented with a tibial fracture sustained during an international cross-country race. There was no clear history of symptoms suggestive of preceding overload and no radiological features of stress fracture. He was found to have sustained an osteoporotic, insufficiency fracture. There are no previous case reports of an osteoporotic fracture in a male athlete. Possible aetiologies and directions for future investigation are presented.

  8. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  9. Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Galli, Nick; A Petrie, Trent; Greenleaf, Christy; J Reel, Justine; E Carter, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (Mage=20.29, SD=1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes.

  10. Ephedra Use in a Select Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    P. Schaefer, Michael; Smith, Jay; L. Dahm, Diane; C. Sorenson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process). Seven of 311 (2.3%) respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3%) knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five) than girls (two). Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements. Key Points Ephedra is an herbal stimulant used as an ergogenic aide. Adolescent ephedra users most commonly obtain it from their friends. Adolescent athletes are likely to take ephedra unknowningly. PMID:24353458

  11. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  12. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  13. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  14. The Impact of an Intensive Learning Program (ILP) on Black Male Football Student-Athlete Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIll, Emmett L., Jr.; Farrington, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate degree is critical to a student-athlete's transition into life after sports; however, Black male student-athletes are not seizing the opportunities associated with college graduation. Black male student athletes' graduation rates are consistently and substantially lower than those of their White male student-athlete counterparts.…

  15. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  16. Peri-epiphyseal and Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Frush, Todd J.; Lindenfeld, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system in immature athletes are commonly seen in medical practice. Evidence Acquisition: An analysis of published clinical, outcome, and biomechanical studies of adolescent epiphyseal and overuse injuries was performed through 2008 to increase recognition and provide treatment recommendations. Results: Adolescent athletes can sustain physeal and bony stress injuries. Recovery and return to play occur more swiftly if such injuries are diagnosed early and immobilized until the patient is pain-free, typically about 4 weeks for apophyseal and epiphyseal overuse injuries. Certain epiphyseal injuries have prolonged symptoms with delayed treatment, including those involving the bones in the hand, elbow, and foot. If such injuries are missed, prolonged healing and significant restrictions in athletic pursuits may occur. Conclusion: Some of these injuries are common to all weightbearing sports and are therefore widely recognized. Several are common in gymnastics but are rarely seen in other athletes. Early recognition and treatment of these conditions lead to quicker recovery and so may prevent season-ending, even career-ending, events from occurring. PMID:23015873

  17. African American Male Student-Athletes: Career Maturity Differences at High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Investigates career maturity differences among 133 African American male high school student-athletes. Findings revealed no significant differences between student-athletes and their nonathlete peers on the career maturity attitude and competence variables. Findings further indicated that 94% of student-athletes as compared to 72% of nonathletes…

  18. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  19. Postactivation potentiation enhances upper- and lower-body athletic performance in collegiate male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Evetovich, Tammy K; Conley, Donovan S; McCawley, Paul F

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postactivation potentiation (PAP)-inducing activities in 4 separate studies examining vertical (VJP) and horizontal (HJP) jump performance, shot put performance (SPP), and sprint performance (SP), in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Study 1: 12 male (mean ± SD; age = 20.2 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; weight = 73.3 ± 6.43 kg) and 8 female (age = 20.1 ± 1.0 years; height = 169.6 ± 5.5 cm; weight = 59.8 ± 7.6 kg) track athletes participated in HJP and VJP testing before and after performing a parallel back squat (PBS) at 85% 1 repetition maximum (RM). Study 2: 10 (6 men and 4 women) shot put throwers (age = 20.6 ± 0.7 years; height = 182.1 ± 9.8 cm; weight = 102.8 ± 23.6 kg) participated in SPP testing for control (C), 3RM bench press, and 3RM PBS protocols. Study 3: 7 football players (age = 20.4 ± 1.6 years; weight = 87.8 ± 8.3 kg; height = 184.3 ± 7.2 cm) participated in SP testing before (PBS1) and after (PBS2) performing a 3RM PBS. Study 4: 11 football players (age = 20.3 ± 1.8 years; height = 180.6 ± 7.5 cm; weight = 86.1 ± 12.8 kg) participated in VJP testing for C and 3RM PBS protocols. Results of study 1: There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in VJP (PRE = 61.9 ± 12.3 cm; POST = 63.6 ± 11.6 cm) and HJP (PRE = 93.7 ± 11.0 cm; POST = 95.9 ± 11.5 cm). Study 2: SPP after PBS (11.67 ± 1.92 m) was not different vs. C (11.77 ± 1.81), but bench press (11.91 ± 1.81 m) was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) than both PBS and C. Study 3: SP time was significantly lower for PBS2 (4.6014 ± 0.17995 seconds) vs. PB1 (4.6557 ± 0.19603 seconds). Study 4: There was no difference in VJP for C (68.35 ± 2.16 cm) vs. PBS (68.12 ± 2.51 cm). Our data show that a 3RM PBS resulted in significant improvements in VJP, HJP, SPP, and SP in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II male and female athletes. Strength and conditioning practitioners

  20. An athletic adolescent girl with proteinuria and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dante, Siddhartha; Glunz, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    An 18-year-old athletic adolescent presents with hypertension found during a routine screening. Her prior history includes familial hyperlipidemia. Hypertension in the adolescent is classified based on percentiles for age, sex, and height. The most common secondary cause of hypertension in the pediatric and adolescent patient is renal disease. This patient was found to have nephrotic syndrome and because of her age, a renal biopsy was required to make the diagnosis and to direct subsequent treatment plans. She was diagnosed with C3 glomerulopathy, which is the result of dysregulation and uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway; new therapies are emerging for this disease. In this case, we review the diagnosis and initial assessment of hypertension in the pediatric patient, and the causes of nephrotic syndrome with a focus on C3 glomerulopathy.

  1. Adaptation and validation of the athletic identity questionnaire-adolescent for use with children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses...

  2. Somatotypes of Male Whitewater Canoe Athletes of the Turkish National Canoe Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedat, Ayan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the somatotype characteristics of male whitewater canoe athletes of the Turkish National Canoe Team. 10 male whitewater canoe athletes from the Turkish National Canoe Team voluntarily participated in the study during the national team camp in Rize in 2011. The age, height, weight, skinfold thickness, circumference,…

  3. Promoting the Academic Engagement and Success of Black Male Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…

  4. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  5. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  6. Gender-Equitable Attitudes, Bystander Behavior, and Recent Abuse Perpetration Against Heterosexual Dating Partners of Male High School Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tancredi, Daniel J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Decker, Michele R.; Austin, S. Bryn; McCormick, Marie C.; Virata, Maria Catrina; Miller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the relationship between gender attitudes, identified as a critical component of violence prevention, and abuse toward dating partners among adolescent male athletes. Methods. Our sample comprised 1699 athletes from 16 high schools in northern California who were surveyed between December 2009 and October 2010 in the larger Coaching Boys Into Men trial. We used logistic regression to assess the association between gender-equitable attitudes, bystander behavior, and recent abuse incidents. Results. Athletes with more gender-equitable attitudes and greater intention to intervene were less likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28, 0.46; and AOR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.48, 0.75, respectively) and athletes who engaged in negative bystander behavior were more likely (AOR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.35) to perpetrate abuse against their female dating partners. Conclusions. Despite the shift among bystander intervention programs toward gender neutrality, our findings suggest a strong association between gender attitudes and dating violence. Programs designed for adolescents should include discussion of gender attitudes and target bystander behavior, because these components may operate on related but distinct pathways to reduce abuse. PMID:23947324

  7. Do big athletes have big hearts? Impact of extreme anthropometry upon cardiac hypertrophy in professional male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Riding, Nathan R; Salah, Othman; Sharma, Sanjay; Carré, François; O'Hanlon, Rory; George, Keith P; Hamilton, Bruce; Chalabi, Hakim; Whyte, Gregory P; Wilson, Mathew G

    2012-01-01

    Aim Differentiating physiological cardiac hypertrophy from pathology is challenging when the athlete presents with extreme anthropometry. While upper normal limits exist for maximal left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (14 mm) and LV internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd, 65 mm), it is unknown if these limits are applicable to athletes with a body surface area (BSA) >2.3 m2. Purpose To investigate cardiac structure in professional male athletes with a BSA>2.3 m2, and to assess the validity of established upper normal limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Methods 836 asymptomatic athletes without a family history of sudden death underwent ECG and echocardiographic screening. Athletes were grouped according to BSA (Group 1, BSA>2.3 m2, n=100; Group 2, 2–2.29 m2, n=244; Group 3, <1.99 m2, n=492). Results There was strong linear relationship between BSA and LV dimensions; yet no athlete with a normal ECG presented a maximal wall thickness and LVIDd greater than 13 and 65 mm, respectively. In Group 3 athletes, Black African ethnicity was associated with larger cardiac dimensions than either Caucasian or West Asian ethnicity. Three athletes were diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy (0.4% prevalence); with two athletes presenting a maximal wall thickness >13 mm, but in combination with an abnormal ECG suspicious of an inherited cardiac disease. Conclusion Regardless of extreme anthropometry, established upper limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy of 14 mm for maximal wall thickness and 65 mm for LVIDd are clinically appropriate for all athletes. However, the abnormal ECG is key to diagnosis and guides follow-up, particularly when cardiac dimensions are within accepted limits. PMID:23097487

  8. Effects of High-Velocity Resistance Training on Athletic Performance in Prepuberal Male Soccer Athletes.

    PubMed

    Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés; Granacher, Urs

    2016-12-01

    Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Hammami, M, Hachana, Y, and Granacher, U. Effects of high-velocity resistance training on athletic performance in prepuberal male soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3290-3297, 2016-The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 12-week in-season low-to-moderate load high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) in addition to soccer training as compared with soccer training only on proxies of athletic performance in prepubertal soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players performed 2 different protocols: (a) regular soccer training with 5 sessions per week (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years) and (b) regular soccer training with 3 sessions per week and HVRT with 2 sessions per week (n = 13; age = 12.8 ± 0.2 years). The outcome measures included tests for the assessment of muscle strength (e.g., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat tests), jump ability (e.g., countermovement jump, squat jump [SJ], standing long jump [SLJ], and multiple 5-bound tests [MB5s]), linear speed (e.g., 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint tests), and change of direction (e.g., T-test and Illinois change of direction test). Results revealed significant group × test interactions for the SJ test (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.59) and the SLJ test (p < 0.01, d = 0.83). Post hoc tests illustrated significant pre-post changes in the HVRT group (SJ: [INCREMENT]22%, p < 0.001, d = 1.26; SLJ: [INCREMENT]15%, p < 0.001, d = 1.30) but not in the control group. In addition, tendencies toward significant interaction effects were found for the 1RM half-squat (p = 0.08, d = 0.54) and the 10-m sprint test (p = 0.06, d = 0.57). Significant pre-post changes were found for both parameters in the HVRT group only (1RM: [INCREMENT]25%, p < 0.001, d = 1.23; 10-m sprint: [INCREMENT]7%, p < 0.0001, d = 1.47). In summary, in-season low-to-moderate load HVRT conducted in combination with regular soccer training is a safe and feasible intervention that has positive effects on maximal strength

  9. Consistency of Self-Reported Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Iverson, Grant L; Silverberg, Noah D; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Maxwell, Bruce; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-01-15

    Relying on self-reported concussion injury history is common in both clinical care and research. However, young athletes may not provide consistent medical information. To date, little is known about the reliability of self-reported concussion history in high school students. This study examined whether student athletes reported their lifetime history of concussions consistently over time. Self-reported concussion history was examined in 4792 student athletes (ages 13-18) from Maine who completed a preseason health survey on two occasions (median re-test interval = 23.7 months; standard deviation = 7.3; interquartile range = 12.4-24.5). Consistency of self-reported concussion history was determined by differences in the number of concussions reported during the second survey. Inconsistent concussion history was defined primarily by a decrease in the number of lifetime concussions reported at the second testing, compared with at the first testing. The majority of the sample (80.3%) reported no change in the number of concussions between the two baseline assessments. A minority (15.9%; n = 763) reported more concussions during the second assessment. Only 3.8% (n = 181) of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories, defined as fewer concussions at the second assessment. Boys provided inconsistent concussion histories a little more frequently, compared with girls (5.3% and 2.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, athletes with self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provided inconsistent concussion histories somewhat more frequently, compared with those without ADHD (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Of the athletes with inconsistent concussion histories, greater degree of inconsistency was associated with a greater number of concussions initially reported at baseline (rs = 0.54; p < 0.001). Only a small proportion of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories. Male

  10. Kinanthropometric attributes of young male combat sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Catikkas, Fatih; Kurt, Cem; Atalag, Ozan

    2013-12-01

    Although there are enough studies concerning the kinanthropometric attributes of players of sports such as football, basketball, or volleyball in Turkey, there are not enough studies on the same for combat sports. Hence, our aim is to assess the kinanthropometric attributes of different combat sports like karate, taekwondo, judo and kickboxing. The present study included 48 national level male athletes from four different combat sports (age, 20.3 (3.19) years; number of years playing the sport, 8.33 (4.59); height, 174.3 (7.15) cm; weight, 67.35 (10.55 kg). Skinfold thickness was measured with a skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd., UK), and Yuhazs formula was used to calculate the body fat percentage. Somatotype assessment was carried out with a computer program (Sweat Technology Trial Version, South Australia). Width measurements were obtained with a slide caliper (HLT-100, Holtain Ltd.), and girth measurements were obtained with a non-flexible tape measure. The data obtained were analyzed with the computer program SPSS 17.0 in terms of the SD. The findings were as follows: body mass index (BMI), 22.00 (2.66) kg/m2; body fat percentage, 12.20% (3.07%); endomorphic component, 2.9 (1.30); mesomorphic component, 4.25 (1.30); and ectomorphic component, 3.10 (1.30). The cormic index was 51.99% (1.88%); Monourier index, 92.39% (4.47%); Acromio-iliac index, 60.87% (6.61%); Martine index, 6.29% (0.70%); Biacromial index, 22.58% (0.99%); and hip index, 13.91% (0.86%). The mesomorphic component was found to be dominant in our study. Although BMIs were found to be normal, body fat percentages were low. According to body proportions, the athletes who participated in this study had wide shoulders, narrow hips, and medium-sized trunks.

  11. Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained height (3.4 ± 4.6 cm and 5.9 ± 6.6 cm respectively) and weight (5.6 ± 3.5 kg and 8.7 ± 5.5 kg respectively), whereas percent body fat remained unchanged in both girls and boys (around 17.0% and 8.5% respectively). Mean protein intake of around 1.5 g · kg⁻¹ body weight was within recommendations on each occasion for both sexes. Carbohydrate intakes between 5 and 7 g · kg⁻¹ body weight support a training programme of moderate intensity. Total and saturated fat intakes were high at the start of the study (girls: 31.8 ± 3.5% and 12.2 ± 2.0% of energy intake; boys: 30.3 ± 4.6% and 12.0 ± 1.9% of energy intake) and it appeared to be difficult to achieve and maintain lower intakes. Consistent low fluid intakes around 40 ml · kg⁻¹ body weight were observed. General non-stringent advice for improvement of the diet resulted in significant favourable changes only for the consumption of wholegrain bread, vegetables, and soft drinks. Dietary habits of adolescent sprint athletes are not always according to guidelines and are relatively stable but repeated advice can induce moderate improvements.

  12. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK ENDURANCE PLANK TESTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE TESTS IN ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players. Study design Cross sectional study design. Methods Fifty-five adolescent male soccer players performed prone and side plank tests and seven performance tests: the Cooper test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the step 50 agility test, a 30-m sprint test, a vertical countermovement jump, a standing five-step jump, and a rebound jump. The relationships between each individual plank test, the combined score of both plank tests, and performance tests were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The combined score of plank tests was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r = 0.710, p < 0.001), and was moderately correlated with the Cooper test (r = 0.567, p < 0.001). Poor correlation was observed between the prone plank test and step 50 agility test (r = -0.436, p = 0.001) and no significant correlations were observed between plank tests and jump performance tests. Conclusions The results suggest that trunk endurance plank tests are positively correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the Cooper test, and the step 50 agility test. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27757284

  14. The relationship of symptoms and neurocognitive performance to perceived recovery from sports-related concussion among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Natalie K; Lovell, Mark R; Kegel, Nathan E; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Sports medicine practitioners often consider athletes' self-reports of recovery for the management of concussion, and it is not clear which factors (i.e., neurocognitive performance and symptoms) athletes consider when forming perceptions of recovery from concussion. The current study assessed the relationship of perceptions of recovery to neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery and to symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). A total of 101 concussed athletes (62 males, 39 females) aged 12 to 18 years old were included in the study (M(age) = 14.75, SD = 1.76). Athletes were asked to rate their "percent back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery) at the time of evaluation. A multiple regression for neurocognitive performance and symptoms revealed a significant model that accounted for 58% of the variance in perceptions of recovery. Adolescent athletes base their perceptions primarily on somatic symptoms (e.g., headache, nausea, vomiting, etc.), and these perceptions may be incongruent with objective neurocognitive measures. Athletes' tendency to overlook several factors when forming their perceptions of recovery should caution the sports medicine practitioner from relying on self-reported symptoms as their primary criterion for return-to-play decisions. These data further support the need for valid and reliable measures for concussion management.

  15. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.

  16. Academic and Career Advancement for Black Male Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ashley R.; Hawkins, Billy J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the structural arrangements and challenges many Black male athletes encounter as a result of their use of sport for upward social mobility. Recommendations to enhance their preparation and advancement are provided.

  17. Beliefs and social norms about ephedra onset and perceived addiction among college male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Adams, Lamar F; Barnes, Joshua B; Hines, Larissa A; Jones, Dallese E; Krebs, Kandi M A; Kelder, Steve H

    2005-01-01

    In Spring 2003, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with ephedra initiation and perceived addiction to the drug among 43 primarily minority athletes, attending a historically Black university in the southwestern region of the United States, who self-identified as past users. In general, participants stated that their second ephedra use event occurred on the same day as or the day after initiation. The majority of participants perceived that addiction was established by routine and eccentric behavior. Male athletes stated they used ephedra for improved athletic performance while females stated they used the drug for weight loss. Male participants stated it is difficult to quit ephedra use because of the resulting decrease in athletic performance, sickness, and weight gain. Female athletes were more concerned with their appearance. These findings are important in determining the early extent to which addiction is self-identified.

  18. New ultrasonography-based method for predicting total skeletal muscle mass in male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yoko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Taki, Chinami; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Homma, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed 1) to assess whether a prediction model for whole body skeletal muscle mass that is based on a sedentary population is applicable to young male athletes, and 2) to develop a new skeletal muscle mass prediction model for young male athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The skeletal muscle mass of 61 male athletes was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and estimated using a previous prediction model (Sanada et al., 2006) with B-mode ultrasonography. The prediction model was not suitable for young male athletes, as a significant difference was observed between the means of the estimated and MRI-measured skeletal muscle mass. Next, the same subjects were randomly assigned to a development or validation group, and a new model specifically relevant to young male athletes was developed based on MRI and ultrasound data obtained from the development group. [Results] A strong correlation was observed between the skeletal muscle mass estimated by the new model and the MRI-measured skeletal muscle mass (r=0.96) in the validation group, without significant difference between their means. No bias was found in the new model using Bland-Altman analysis (r=−0.25). [Conclusion] These results validate the new model and suggest that ultrasonography is a reliable method for measuring skeletal muscle mass in young male athletes. PMID:27313370

  19. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  20. Skill deficits and male adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R

    1984-03-01

    The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.

  1. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  2. Parent Perceptions of Their Adolescent Athlete's Concussion: A Preliminary Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Natalie; Henry, Luke C; French, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Parent reports of their adolescent athletes' recovery from concussion are often considered by clinicians, but limited research has explored the factors (i.e., athletes' symptoms and neurocognitive performance) predicting parents' perceptions of athletes' recovery and how these factors relate to previous research on athletes' self-perceptions of recovery. The current study included 67 athletes aged 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.67) who were evaluated for a sports-related concussion within 6 months postinjury and were accompanied by a parent to their evaluation. Athletes and parents were asked to rate athletes' percent "back to normal" (i.e., perception of recovery), and athletes completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing and symptom reports on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Results of a multiple regression for athletes' total symptom score and neurocognitive performance (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visuomotor Speed, and Reaction Time) was significant and accounted for 47.9% of the variance in parents' perceptions of recovery with total symptoms as the only significant predictor. A stepwise regression for symptom clusters (somatic, cognitive, sleep, and neuropsychiatric) demonstrated that somatic complaints were the most predictive of parents' perceptions. Parents' and athletes' perceptions are predicted by athletes' somatic symptoms, rather than athletes' performance on objective assessments.

  3. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings.

  4. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  5. RELIABILITY OF THE ONE REPETITION-MAXIMUM POWER CLEAN TEST IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; McFarland, James E.; Herman, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the one repetition maximum (1 RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 yrs, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had more than 1 year of training experience with weightlifting exercises performed a 1 RM power clean on two nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for one repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures ANOVA, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1 RM measures on trial 1 and trial 2 (r=0.98, p<0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1 RM between trial 1 and trial 2. The typical error to be expected between 1 RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period and the testing protocol was well-tolerated by all subjects. These findings indicate that 1 RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified instruction

  6. Reliability of the one-repetition-maximum power clean test in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Herman, Robert E; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D

    2012-02-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 years, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had >1 year of training experience in weightlifting exercises performed a 1RM power clean on 2 nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for 1 repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1RM measures in trials 1 and 2 (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) with no significant difference in power clean performance between trials (70.6 ± 19.8 vs. 69.8 ± 19.8 kg). Bland-Altman plots confirmed no systematic shift in 1RM between trials 1 and 2. The typical error to be expected between 1RM power clean trials is 2.9 kg, and a change of at least 8.0 kg is indicated to determine a real change in lifting performance between tests in young lifters. No injuries occurred during the study period, and the testing protocol was well tolerated by all the subjects. These findings indicate that 1RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified

  7. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  8. Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Chan, D K; Lonsdale, C; Fung, H H

    2012-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the relative impact of social influences initiated by coach, parents, and peers on children and adolescent athletes' motivational patterns, involving self-rated effort, enjoyment, competence, and competitive trait anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 408 youth swimmers (aged 9-18 years). Results of multi-group structural equation modeling analyses generally showed that compared with athletes in the other age group, the social influence from mother was stronger in childhood (mean age=10.87 years; SD=1.00), and that from peers was greater in adolescence (mean age=16.32 years; SD=1.15). The social influence from coach was more influential for athletes' effort and enjoyment in childhood, and competence in adolescence. We concluded that age appeared to moderate the impact of social influence from significant others on young athletes' sport experiences.

  9. Effective Strategies for Academic Success among African American Male Student Athletes from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marisha R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contributing factors for academic success among African American male student athletes from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Life narrative analysis was used in this qualitative study. The researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews with 7 African American males who attended college on athletic…

  10. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  11. Muscle and tendon adaptation in adolescent athletes: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G N; Arampatzis, A

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that a non-uniform adaptation of muscle and tendon in young athletes results in increased tendon stress during mid-adolescence. The present longitudinal study investigated the development of the morphological and mechanical properties of muscle and tendon of volleyball athletes in a time period of 2 years from mid-adolescence to late adolescence. Eighteen elite volleyball athletes participated in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-dynamometry sessions to determine quadriceps femoris muscle strength, vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius morphology, and patellar tendon mechanical and morphological properties in mid-adolescence (16 ± 1 years) and late adolescence (18 ± 1 years). Muscle strength, anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), and volume showed significant (P < 0.05) but moderate increases of 13%, 6%, and 6%, respectively. The increase of patellar tendon CSA (P < 0.05) was substantially greater (27%) and went in line with increased stiffness (P < 0.05; 25%) and reduced stress (P < 0.05; 9%). During late adolescence, a pronounced hypertrophy of the patellar tendon led to a mechanical strengthening of the tendon in relation to the functional and morphological development of the muscle. These adaptive processes may compensate the unfavorable relation of muscle strength and tendon loading capacity in mid-adolescence and might have implications on athletic performance and tendon injury risk.

  12. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport. PMID:27486418

  13. The Experience of Depression during the Careers of Elite Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Steve; Hannigan, Barbara; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The topic of depression during the career of elite male athletes has been the subject of much public interest and attention in recent years. Despite numerous debates and personal disclosures within the media, there is a dearth of published research directly exploring the phenomenon. This study sought to explore how elite male athletes experience depression during their sporting careers. Eight former/current elite male athletes who had previously publically self-identified as having experienced depression while participating in sport were recruited for this study. A qualitative methodology was employed and each participant was interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis which was conducted using descriptive and interpretive thematic analysis uncovered three domains: (1) The emergence of depression, (2) The manifestation of symptoms of depression, and (3) Adaptive and Maladaptive proceesses of recovery. Findings from the current study reveal the nature of how male athletes experience, express, and respond to depression during their careers. Additionally, this is influenced by a myriad of factors embedded in the masculine elite sport environment. Implications are discussed particularly in relation to atypical expressions of depression not necessarily reflected on or in standard diagnostic criteria. Future research is encouraged to examine in depth moderating factors (e.g., athletic sense of identity and masculine elite sport environments) for the relationship between depression and participation in elite sport.

  14. Excellence beyond Athletics: Best Practices for Enhancing Black Male Student Athletes' Educational Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions in the United States, including member institutions of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), are charged with the responsibility of cultivating positive learning environments where all students have an opportunity to excel regardless of their demographic backgrounds (e.g., race, socioeconomic status,…

  15. Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Bartolomé J.; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key points Importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. PMID:24149380

  16. An Examination of the Dual Model of Perfectionism and Adolescent Athlete Burnout: A Short-Term Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The dual model of perfectionism (Slade and Owens, Behav Modificat 22(3):372-390, 1998) is adopted to examine the influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on adolescent athlete burnout in Taiwan. Participants were 188 high school adolescent student-athletes (M = 16.48, SD = 0.59). They were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of…

  17. Bone properties in child and adolescent male hockey and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Braid, Sarah; Moore, Michael; Yao, Matthew; Sullivan, Phil; Klentrou, Nota

    2010-07-01

    Children and adolescents who train extensively in high-impact, weight-bearing activities have enhanced bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone strength, as reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Sunlight Omniscence), of child (10-12 yrs old) and adolescent (14-16 yrs old) male soccer and hockey players in comparison with age-matched controls. The groups included 30 child (CH) and 31 adolescent (AH) hockey players, 26 child (CS) and 30 adolescent (AS) soccer players, as well as 34 child (CC) and 31 adolescent (AC) healthy, non-athletic, age-matched controls. All athletes trained at an elite level year-round, with no difference in training volume between groups. Ultrasound speed of sound (SOS) was measured at the distal-radius and mid-tibia. In both age groups, hockey players were the heaviest and had the highest fat-free mass. No differences were found among groups in total energy intake, calcium or vitamin D intake. Radial and tibial SOS increased with age. Hockey players had higher radial SOS in both age groups (children: CH:3763+/-74, CS:3736+/-77, CC:3721+/-88 m/s; adolescents: AH:3809+/-105, AS:3767+/-85, AC:3760+/-94 m/s). Tibial SOS was higher in soccer players compared with controls. In spite of the higher body mass and fat-free mass in hockey players, their tibial SOS was similar to the non-athletes in both age groups. These findings support previous suggestions of sport-specific effects on bone strength. However, they need to be corroborated with longitudinal or prospective intervention studies.

  18. Relation of motivational climate and fear of failure in Taiwanese adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between motivational climate and fear of failure in sport was examined. 176 adolescent athletes were recruited (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.3). Athletes completed the Chinese Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Results indicated a performance climate was positively related to the fear of failure, while a mastery climate was not.

  19. Survival estimates for elite male and female Olympic athletes and tennis championship competitors.

    PubMed

    Coate, D; Sun, R

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report survival estimates for male and female Olympic medal winners and for male and female finalists at the British and U S national tennis championships. We find a consistent longevity advantage of Olympic medal-winning female athletes over Olympic medal-winning male athletes competing separately in the same events since 1900 and for female finalists over male finalists competing separately in the finals of the national tennis championships of Britain and of the United States since the 1880s. This is the case for sample mean comparisons, for Kaplan-Meier survival function estimates, including life expectancy, and for Cox proportional hazard estimates, which show statistically significant lower hazard rates for women with birth year and other variables constant. The female longevity advantage over males is similar in the early period samples (birth years before 1920) and in the full period samples, and is 5-7 years.

  20. Anaerobic characteristics in male children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inbar, O; Bar-Or, O

    1986-06-01

    Only sparse information has been published on the effects of growth, development, and maturation on the ability to perform high intensity, short-term "anaerobic" tasks. Cross-sectional studies on Italian, African, British, and American females and males have indicated an age-related progression in the performance of the Margaria step-running test. Children had a distinctly lower mechanical power output than adolescents and young adults, both in absolute terms and when divided by body weight, or by fat-free mass. Data are presented on some 300 10- to 45-yr-old Israeli males who performed the Wingate anaerobic test by cycling or by arm cranking. Both the peak power at any 5-s period and the mean power throughout the test were lowest in the children, whether expressed in absolute power units or corrected for body weight. Performance progressed with age and reached the highest values at the end of the third decade for cycling and at the end of the second decade for arm cranking. This pattern is unlike that described for maximal O2 uptake per kg body weight which, in males, remains virtually unchanged from childhood to young adulthood. In females, maximal O2 uptake per kg is even higher in children than among adolescents or adults. Biochemical correlates of such a low anaerobic performance in children are their lower maximal lactate concentration in muscle and blood, lower rate of anaerobic glycolysis, and lower levels of acidosis at maximal exercise. The mechanisms for the relatively deficient anaerobic characteristics of children are not clear.

  1. Dietary, serum and urine ascorbic acid status in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Rokitzki, L; Hinkel, S; Klemp, C; Cufi, D; Keul, J

    1994-10-01

    The ascorbic acid (AA)-status of 14 marathon runners, 12 soccer players, 9 wrestlers, 9 basketball players and 16 controls was determined. A 7-day food weighed record was kept to quantify the AA-intake. In addition, the AA-serum concentrations and urinary ascorbate excretion were measured. The AA-intake of all 44 athletes (median, 26th-75th percentile) was 180.7 (188-239) mg/d, the serum concentration 70.6 (65.7-80.2 mumol/l) and the urine ascorbate excretion 1531 (391-2934) mumol/g creatine. No significant differences could be observed between the various sport groups, or between the sport groups and controls with respect to absolute (mg/d) and relative (mg/g body weight) AA-intake, serum and urine concentrations. Only a few of the athletes had AA-intake below the RDA or serum- or urine levels smaller than the decision limit. The absolute AA-intake (n = 44) from the 7-day record (r = 0.49, p < 0.0009) and the AA-intake on the last day (1-day) prior to urine collection (r = 0.90, p < 0.0000) correlate moderately/strongly with the urinary excretion. Between AA-intake (7-day) and serum concentration there is a correlation of r = 0.59, p < 0.0000. The AA-status of highly trained athletes does not differ significantly from the control group in spite of intensive daily training. Thus, AA-supplementation beyond the normal daily intake does not appear necessary.

  2. Lift Ev'ry Voice: The Resounding Experiences of Black Male Student-Athletes at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Black male student-athletes are entering the California community college (CCC) system at an unprecedented rate. CCCs have become a repository for Black males that have aspirations of competing in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I member institutions. This historically disenfranchised subgroup of students is required…

  3. Dietary acid-base balance in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(-)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(-) (-8 to -10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(-). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup.

  4. Male student-athletes and violence against women: a survey of campus judicial affairs offices.

    PubMed

    Crosset, T W; Ptacek, J; Mcdonald, M A; Benedict, J R

    1996-06-01

    This study examines the institutional dimensions of violence against women through an analysis of officially reported incidents of violence against women. The data included records from 10 judicial affairs offices over a 3-year period from 1991-93. The findings reveal that male college student-athletes, compared to the rest of the male student population, are responsible for more than their share of the reported battering and sexual assault complaints to judicial affairs offices on the campuses of 10 Division I institutions. However, it needs to be emphasized that it is uncertain whether the association between athletic affiliation and violence against women is casual or the result of behavior only indirectly related to sport. These findings relate to other research because they are based on official reports and they strengthen previous works on athletes and violence against women that center on single institutions.

  5. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  6. Heart rate recovery after submaximal exercise in four different recovery protocols in male athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Barak, Otto F; Ovcin, Zoran B; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Lozanov-Crvenkovic, Zagorka; Brodie, David A; Grujic, Nikola G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different recovery protocols on heart rate recovery (HRR) trend through fitted heart rate (HR) decay curves were assessed. Twenty one trained male athletes and 19 sedentary male students performed a submaximal cycle exercise test on four occasions followed by 5 min: 1) inactive recovery in the upright seated position, 2) active (cycling) recovery in the upright seated position, 3) supine position, and 4) supine position with elevated legs. The HRR was assessed as the difference between the peak exercise HR and the HR recorded following 60 seconds of recovery (HRR60). Additionally the time constant decay was obtained by fitting the 5 minute post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential curve. Within- subject differences of HRR60 for all recovery protocols in both groups were significant (p < 0. 001) except for the two supine positions (p > 0.05). Values of HRR60 were larger in the group of athletes for all conditions (p < 0.001). The time constant of HR decay showed within-subject differences for all recovery conditions in both groups (p < 0.01) except for the two supine positions (p > 0.05). Between group difference was found for active recovery in the seated position and the supine position with elevated legs (p < 0.05). We conclude that the supine position with or without elevated legs accelerated HRR compared with the two seated positions. Active recovery in the seated upright position was associated with slower HRR compared with inactive recovery in the same position. The HRR in athletes was accelerated in the supine position with elevated legs and with active recovery in the seated position compared with non-athletes. Key pointsIn order to return to a pre-exercise value following exercise, heart rate (HR) is mediated by changes in the autonomic nervous system but the underlying mechanisms governing these changes are not well understood.Even though HRR is slower with active recovery, lactate elimination after high intensity exercise might be

  7. Heart Rate Recovery after Submaximal Exercise in Four Different Recovery Protocols in Male Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Otto F.; Ovcin, Zoran B.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.; Lozanov-Crvenkovic, Zagorka; Brodie, David A.; Grujic, Nikola G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different recovery protocols on heart rate recovery (HRR) trend through fitted heart rate (HR) decay curves were assessed. Twenty one trained male athletes and 19 sedentary male students performed a submaximal cycle exercise test on four occasions followed by 5 min: 1) inactive recovery in the upright seated position, 2) active (cycling) recovery in the upright seated position, 3) supine position, and 4) supine position with elevated legs. The HRR was assessed as the difference between the peak exercise HR and the HR recorded following 60 seconds of recovery (HRR60). Additionally the time constant decay was obtained by fitting the 5 minute post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential curve. Within- subject differences of HRR60 for all recovery protocols in both groups were significant (p < 0. 001) except for the two supine positions (p > 0.05). Values of HRR60 were larger in the group of athletes for all conditions (p < 0.001). The time constant of HR decay showed within-subject differences for all recovery conditions in both groups (p < 0.01) except for the two supine positions (p > 0.05). Between group difference was found for active recovery in the seated position and the supine position with elevated legs (p < 0.05). We conclude that the supine position with or without elevated legs accelerated HRR compared with the two seated positions. Active recovery in the seated upright position was associated with slower HRR compared with inactive recovery in the same position. The HRR in athletes was accelerated in the supine position with elevated legs and with active recovery in the seated position compared with non-athletes. Key points In order to return to a pre-exercise value following exercise, heart rate (HR) is mediated by changes in the autonomic nervous system but the underlying mechanisms governing these changes are not well understood. Even though HRR is slower with active recovery, lactate elimination after high intensity exercise might be

  8. Title IX: Parity of Coaches' Salaries for Male and Female Athletic Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A study by the National Education Association (NEA) of the existing literature, teacher opinion polls, federal legislation and regulations, state salary schedules, and collective bargaining agreements revealed important information concerning the differences in salaries in the late 1970s for coaches of male and female athletic teams in the public…

  9. Understanding Racism through the Eyes of African American Male Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, John N.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized critical race theory (CRT) as an epistemological framework and theoretical tool for understanding African American male student-athletes' perceptions of racism and the potential impact racism might have on their educational experiences and overall development. This qualitative case study included a single focus group and…

  10. Working with Male Athletes: The Experiences of U.S. Female Head Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Abrell, Lura; Wilson, Matthew J.; Lape, Jennifer; Halbrook, Meghan; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, men have dominated the athletic arena; as a result, the number of women in sport management positions has been limited (Cashmore, 2000; Coakley, 2010). Even rarer is the opportunity for female coaches to coach male sport teams. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women who have coached male…

  11. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  12. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes.

  13. Stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome in Japanese adolescent athletes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese adolescent athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Osaka, Japan. Participants A school-based survey on menstruation and school life was conducted using a sample of 1818 Japanese female students who belonged to two public high schools in Japan. Among them, we recruited 394 athletes who had regular menstrual cycles (25–38 days) and completed a questionnaire about their premenstrual symptoms and their competitive career. Main outcome measure Premenstrual symptoms and the occurrence of stress fracture. Results The prevalences of moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD were 8.9% and 1.3%, respectively, which were the same as in collegiate athletes in a previous study. Premenstrual symptoms disturbed ‘Work efficiency or productivity, home responsibilities’, ‘Relationships with coworkers or family’ and ‘Athletic performance in training or competition’ more severely than menstrual pain (p=0.031, p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). 66 athletes (16.8%) reported having experienced a stress fracture. The severity of ‘Overeating or food cravings’, ‘Physical symptoms’ and ‘Performance in training or competition’ in athletes with previous stress fractures were much higher than in those without a history of stress fractures (p=0.015, p=0.008 and p=0.006, respectively). In terms of premenstrual symptoms, ‘Physical symptoms’ was associated with an increased risk of stress fractures in athletes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62). Conclusions The results from this study indicated that premenstrual symptoms may affect athletic performance and has the risk of stress fractures in adolescent athletes. PMID:27798029

  14. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key points Greater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes. Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes. Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit. PMID

  15. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R L; Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key pointsGreater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes.Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes.Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit.

  16. A Qualitative Study of Male Student-Athletes and Coaches Attitudes towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The success of a team relies as much on the relationship between coaches and players as it does on athletic skill. Coaches, at times, become surrogate parental figures in the lives of their athletes and teammates become siblings who all work together towards a common goal. Athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I…

  17. Racial/ethnic, gender, and BMI differences in athletic identity in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in athletic self-concept, a hypothesized mediator of physical activity and sedentary behavior, by gender, racial/ethnic, and overweight status in elementary and middle school children. Children (Grades 4-5, n=936) and adolescents (Grades 7-8, n=1...

  18. Sports and Athletics: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on issues in sports and athletics for adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The listings are drawn from the National Resource Library of the National Center for Youth with Disabilities, which includes journals, books, and non-published materials. The section on bibliographic…

  19. Adolescent Siblings' Daily Discussions: Connections to Perceived Academic, Athletic, and Peer Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Winzeler, Abby

    2007-01-01

    First- and second-born adolescent siblings from 21 families completed a daily diary on each of 7 days. The frequency and content of siblings' conversations are described and the relationship between the content of siblings' discussion and their perceived academic, athletic, and peer competency is explored. Siblings most often talked about…

  20. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  1. Back pain in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Haus, Brian M; Micheli, Lyle J

    2012-07-01

    Clinicians taking care of athletes are likely to see many young patients complaining of back pain. The young athlete places significant repetitive stresses across the growing thoracolumbar spine, which can cause acute and overuse injuries that are unique to this age and patient population. Fortunately, by using a careful and systematic approach, with a sport-specific history, careful physical exam, and proper imaging, most problems can be properly identified. Although it is important to always remember that rare and more serious problems such as a neoplasm or infection maybe a source of pain in the athletic patient, most problems are benign and can be treated conservatively. Accurate diagnosis and management of back pain not only can prevent long-term deformity and disability, but it can also allow young athletes to return to doing what they love to do most: play sports.

  2. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  3. Comparison of Upper Extremity Physical Characteristics Between Adolescent Competitive Swimmers and Nonoverhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Laudner, Kevin; Berkoff, David J.; Kucera, Kristen L.; Yu, Bing; Myers, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Context Alterations to upper extremity physical characteristics of competitive swimmers (posture, range of motion [ROM], and subacromial-space distance) are commonly attributed to cumulative training load during a swimmer's competitive career. However, this accepted clinical belief has not been established in the literature. It is important to understand whether alterations in posture and associated physical characteristics occur as a result of sport training or factors other than swimming participation to better understand injury risk and possible interventions. Objective To compare posture, subacromial-space distance, and glenohumeral external-rotation, internal-rotation, and horizontal-adduction ROM between adolescent competitive swimmers and nonoverhead athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local swimming pools and high school athletic training rooms. Patients or Other Participants Forty-four competitive adolescent swimmers and 31 nonoverhead athletes who were not currently experiencing any elbow, shoulder, neck, or back pain that limited their sport activity. Intervention(s) Posture, subacromial-space distance, and glenohumeral ROM were measured using photography, diagnostic ultrasound, and a digital inclinometer, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s) Forward shoulder posture, forward head posture, normalized subacromial-space distance, internal-rotation ROM, and external-rotation ROM. Results No clinically significant differences existed between swimmers and nonoverhead athletes for posture, normalized subacromial-space distance, or external- or internal-rotation ROM. Swimmers presented with less horizontal-adduction ROM than nonoverhead athletes. Conclusions Factors other than swimming participation, such as school and technology use, play important roles in the adaptation of physical characteristics in adolescents. Adolescents, regardless of swimming participation, presented with postural deviations. It is important to consider factors other than

  4. Plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper are associated in elite female and male judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; de Oliveira-Junior, Astrogildo Vianna; Portella, Emilson Souza; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper levels and their relationship in trained female and male judo athletes (n = 10 women; n = 8 men). Blood samples were obtained 24 h after training to measure plasma zinc, copper, and leptin levels. Subjects presented similar values to age (22 +/- 2 years old), body mass index (24 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), plasma zinc (17.2 +/- 2 micromol/L), copper (12.5 +/- 2 micromol/L), and leptin (5.6 +/- 1.3 microg/L). However, height, total body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and sum of ten-skinfold thickness were higher in male than female. Plasma leptin was associated with sum of ten skinfolds in male (r = 0.91; p < 0.001) and female athletes (r = 0.84; p < 0.003). Plasma zinc was associated with leptin in males (r = 0.82; p < 0.05) while copper was associated with plasma leptin in females (r = 0.66; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that young judo athletes lost sex-related differences in leptin levels. Plasma zinc, plasma copper, and energy homeostasis may be involved in regulation of plasma leptin.

  5. Between a Ball and a Harsh Place: A Study of Black Male Community College Student-Athletes and Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined to what extent differences exist in pre-college characteristics and academic performance between Black male student-athletes and their student-athlete peers. Method: Data provided by the Florida Department of Education's PK-20 Education Data Warehouse (EDW) were analyzed as a function of group membership (gender and…

  6. Male Student-Athlete Perceptions of University Academic Staff Expectations: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions, Value and Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeck, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…

  7. An Anti-Deficit Perspective on Black Male Student Athletes' Educational Experiences at a Historically Black College/University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify key institutional characteristics and practices at a historically black college/university (HBCU) that contributed to positive educational experiences for black male student athletes. This mixed methods exploratory study involved the use of a 79-item Student Athlete College Experiences Questionnaire…

  8. Sex Objects, Athletes, and Sexy Athletes: How Media Representations of Women Athletes Can Impact Adolescent Girls and College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the large body of research examining the negative effects of idealized media images on girls' and women's body image, little research has investigated whether media images can positively impact body concept among females. Using a between-participants experimental design, this study examined how images of performance athletes,…

  9. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  10. Comparing Postoperative Pain Experiences of the Adolescent and Adult Athlete After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, William D.; Reardon, Gerald; Coady, Catherine; Sullivan, Michael J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine age-related differences in pain, catastrophizing, and affective distress (depression and anxiety) after athletic injury and knee surgery. Design and Setting: Participants were assessed with measures of pain intensity, pain-related catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety symptoms at 24 hours after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Subjects: Twenty patients (10 adolescents, 10 adults) with an acute complete tear of the ACL. Measurements: Pain was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), catastrophizing with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety with the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). Results: At 24 hours postsurgery, adolescents reported greater pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety than adults. Ancillary analyses showed that helplessness and rumination were significant contributors to the differences in catastrophizing. Further, an analysis of covariance showed that controlling for the effects of catastrophizing, the adolescent and adult differences in pain scores were reduced to a null effect. Conclusions: After ACL surgery, athletic adolescents and adults differed significantly in pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety. Catastrophizing seemed to be a particularly strong factor in postoperative pain differences between adolescents and adults, with clinical-management implications. These data indicate the need for continued research into specific pain- and age-related factors during the acute postoperative period for athletes undergoing ACL surgery. PMID:12937527

  11. Toward an integrative model of doping use: an empirical study with adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Barkoukis, Vassileios; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2015-02-01

    The present study assessed adolescent athletes' intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Body Change Strategies among Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors predicting body change strategies to increase weight and muscle mass among adolescent males over an 8-month period. Results for 435 adolescent boys show that extreme body change strategies are predicted by the adoption of more normative body change strategies at an earlier time, and that body change strategies are affected by…

  13. Assessment of isokinetic muscle function in Korea male volleyball athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2016-01-01

    Volleyball players performed numerous repetitions of spike actions, which uses and requires strong and explosive force, and control of the muscles of the shoulder, lower back, and legs. Muscle imbalance is one of the main causes of sport injuries. The purpose of this study was to assess isokinetic muscle functions in male volleyball players. We thus aim to accurately evaluate their muscle functions, and identify the best training strategy to achieve optimal muscle strength balance in future training programs. The participants in this study consisted of 14 male volleyball players. Muscle strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle strength was evaluated in terms of peak torque and average power, calculated from five repeated measurements at an angular speed of 60°/sec. Three players who were left attackers showed shoulder imbalance, four players showed trunk joint imbalance, nine players had knee joint of extension/flexion imbalance and four players showed left/right imbalance. The results showed that the number of volleyball players with differences between the strength of the bilateral knee muscles, and between the strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles was higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the shoulder internal and external rotation muscles, and higher than the number of players with differences between the strength of the lower back extension and flexion muscles. PMID:27807521

  14. Prediction of Vertical Jump Height from Anthropometric Factors in Male and Female Martial Arts Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Methods: Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m2. Waist–hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Results: Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P < 0.001). The effect of gender is significant (P < 0.001): on average, males jumped 26% higher than females did. Conclusion: Vertical jump height of martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power. PMID:23785254

  15. Haematological and iron-related parameters of male endurance and strength trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1993-01-01

    To obtain more information on the effects of long-lasting endurance and strength training on the constituents of the blood, several haematological and iron-related parameters were measured at rest in 39 male athletes from the Polish team who participated in the Olympics in Seoul in 1988. The athletes were divided into two groups: endurance-trained subjects (group E, cyclists, canoeists and rowers; n = 22) and strength-trained subjects (group S, wrestlers and judo; n = 17). The control group was composed of untrained male subjects (n = 48). Blood samples were taken from an antecubital vein with the subject at rest for determinations of haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte (RBC) and reticulocyte count, plasma free haemoglobin concentration, haptoglobin concentration, serum iron, transferrin concentration and ferritin concentrations ([Ferr]); red blood cells were used for estimation of glutamato-oxalate transaminase (GOT) activity and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration ([FEP]). The mean [Hb], PVC, RBC measured in the E athletes were significantly lower than in the control group but were comparable to those obtained in the S atheletes. There were no significantly differences in the haematological indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean copuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] between the groups of atheletes and the control group. A significant increase in reticulocytosis and GOT activity was observed in the endurance-trained athletes. No impairment of erythropoiesis was observed as indicated by several sensitive markers of haemoglobin formation (FEP, MCV and inspection of blood smears) in the athletes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes.

  17. Comparison of male and female junior athletes' self-perceptions and body image.

    PubMed

    Daley, A J; Hunter, B

    2001-12-01

    Few studies have examined sex differences in body perceptions in sports where the pressure to display a certain physique is reduced. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in physical self-perceptions and body image in junior athletes who are involved in sprint kayaking, a sport where a low body weight is relatively unimportant. 12 male and 13 female members (aged 13-17 yr.) of the British Canoe Union Junior Development Squad for sprint-kayak racing completed the Physical Self-perception Profile for Children and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that girls reported significandy higher Sports Competence and lower Appearance Orientation scores than boys. This study has raised a number of issues surrounding the physical self-perceptions and body image of junior athletes involved in a power- and strength-based sport. It seems that male athletes may also experience pressures to conform to a male version of a 'beautiful body'.

  18. Recent Injury and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Bay, R. Curtis; Parsons, John T.; Sauers, Eric L.; Snyder, Alison R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a global concept that takes into account the physical, psychological, and social domains of health. Determining the extent to which injury affects HRQOL is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice, enabling comparisons of clinical outcomes across different conditions in diverse patient groups. Objective: To examine the extent to which a self-reported recent injury affected HRQOL in adolescent athletes using 2 generic patient self-report scales. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High school classrooms and athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of uninjured (n  =  160) and injured (n  =  45) adolescent athletes. Intervention(s): The independent variable was injury status: uninjured versus injured. All participants completed a self-administered brief health status questionnaire and the Short Form–36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in a counterbalanced manner. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables included 8 subscale and 2 composite scores of the SF-36 and 5 subscale scores and 1 global score of the PODCI. Group differences were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test (P ≤ .05) and reported as median and interquartile range. Results: On the SF-36, the injured group demonstrated lower scores (P < .008) for physical functioning, limitations due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social functioning, and the physical composite. On the PODCI, the injured group reported lower scores (P < .01) on the pain and comfort subscale and the global score. Conclusions: Adolescent athletes with self-reported injuries demonstrated lower HRQOL than their uninjured peers. As expected, recent injury affected physical functioning and pain. Social functioning (on the SF-36) and global HRQOL (on the PODCI) also decreased, suggesting that injuries affected areas beyond the expected physical

  19. Common injuries of the foot and ankle in the child and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Ramirez-Del Toro, Jose A

    2008-05-01

    A myriad problems in the foot and ankle are specific to child and adolescent athletes. The anatomy of young athletes with respect to the presence of a growth plate makes their injury patterns different from those seen in adults. The main general injury patterns seen in the feet and ankles of children are related to growth and development or occur from overuse syndromes or acute trauma. In this article we outline in an anatomically oriented manner most of the common problems in this population.

  20. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  1. Athletic Cardiac Adaptation in Males Is a Consequence of Elevated Myocyte Mass

    PubMed Central

    McDiarmid, Adam K.; Swoboda, Peter P.; Erhayiem, Bara; Lancaster, Rosalind E.; Lyall, Gemma K.; Broadbent, David A.; Dobson, Laura E.; Musa, Tarique A.; Ripley, David P.; Garg, Pankaj; Greenwood, John P.; Ferguson, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Background— Cardiac remodeling occurs in response to regular athletic training, and the degree of remodeling is associated with fitness. Understanding the myocardial structural changes in athlete’s heart is important to develop tools that differentiate athletic from cardiomyopathic change. We hypothesized that athletic left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of increased myocardial cellular rather than extracellular mass as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Methods and Results— Forty-five males (30 athletes and 15 sedentary age-matched healthy controls) underwent comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies, including native and postcontrast T1 mapping for extracellular volume calculation. In addition, the 30 athletes performed a maximal exercise test to assess aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold. Participants were grouped by athleticism: untrained, low performance, and high performance (O2max <60 or>60 mL/kg per min, respectively). In athletes, indexed cellular mass was greater in high- than low-performance athletes 60.7±7.5 versus 48.6±6.3 g/m2; P<0.001), whereas extracellular mass was constant (16.3±2.2 versus 15.3±2.2 g/m2; P=0.20). Indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume and mass correlated with O2max (r=0.45, P=0.01; r=0.55, P=0.002) and differed significantly by group (P=0.01; P<0.001, respectively). Extracellular volume had an inverse correlation with O2max (r=−0.53, P=0.003 and left ventricular mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Conclusions— Increasing left ventricular mass in athlete’s heart occurs because of an expansion of the cellular compartment while the extracellular volume becomes relatively smaller: a difference which becomes more marked as left ventricular mass increases. Athletic remodeling, both on a macroscopic and cellular level, is associated with the degree of an individual’s fitness. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance ECV quantification may have a future role in differentiating athlete

  2. Adolescent athletes and the demand and supply of drugs to improve their performance.

    PubMed

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the 'profiles' of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key PointsThis study confirms the existence of a 'black market' for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions.This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its 'suppliers', the two main sources being friends and parents.

  3. Adolescent Athletes and the Demand and Supply of Drugs to Improve Their Performance

    PubMed Central

    Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the ‘profiles’ of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key Points This study confirms the existence of a ‘black market’ for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions. This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its ‘suppliers’, the two main sources being friends and parents. PMID:24453531

  4. The Racial Identity Development of Male Student-Athletes when Blacks Are the Majority and Whites Are the Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were used in the present study to explore the racial identity development of Black male and White male student-athletes on a predominantly Black, Division IA football team at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Findings indicate that the Black male football players demonstrated positive indicators of Black racial identity. The…

  5. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies.

  6. Contributions of athletic identity to child and adolescent physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people's time and effort in various activities. This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation...

  7. Exercise Fatigue in Adolescents: Diagnosis of Athlete Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Chronic fatigue, declining performance, and mental lassitude, all symptoms of athlete burnout syndrome, require a comprehensive diagnostic approach. Many factors which can interfere with normal exercise capacity are easily treatable so a careful search is important. Three case studies are presented. (Author/MT)

  8. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  9. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Heikura, Ida Aliisa; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise Mary

    2017-03-24

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between sub-groups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x(2) when p<0.05. Nearly two-thirds of all athletes reported that they aim to eat more food on, or after, hard training days. Most athletes said they focus on adequate fueling (96%) and adequate CHO and protein (PRO) recovery (87%) around key sessions. Twenty-six percent of athletes (11% of middle vs 42% of long-distance athletes [x(2) (1, n=46) = 4.308, p=0.038, phi=0.3])) reported to undertake training in the fasted state, while 11% said they periodically restrict CHO intake, with 30% ingesting CHO during training sessions. Our findings show that elite endurance athletes appear to execute pre- and post-key session nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  10. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  11. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  12. Adolescent Males in Dance: A Closer Look at Their Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zihao

    2011-01-01

    The pronounced gender imbalance in dance has been the norm for some time. Some studies focus on established male dancers and others focus on aspects of physical education in dance. However, studies about adolescent male dance students (nonprofessional dancers in any form) who take dance classes in a high school setting are almost nonexistent.…

  13. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  14. Multiple factors explain injury risk in adolescent elite athletes: applying a biopsychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, Philip; Frohm, Anna; Kottorp, Anders; Fridén, Cecilia; Heijne, Annette

    2017-02-16

    Many risk factors for injury are presented in the literature, few of those are however consistent and the majority is associated with adult and not adolescent elite athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors for injury in adolescent elite athletes, by applying a biopsychosocial approach. A total of 496 adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), participating in 16 different sports, were monitored repeatedly over 52 weeks using a validated questionnaire about injuries, training exposure, sleep, stress, nutrition and competence-based self-esteem. Univariate and multiple cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors for first reported injury. The main finding was that an increase in training volume, training intensity and at the same time decreasing the sleep volume resulted in a higher risk for injury compared to no change in these variables (HR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45, p<0.01), which was the strongest risk factor identified. In addition, an increase by one score of competence-based self-esteem increased the hazard for injury with 1.02 (HR 95% CI, 1.00-1.04, p=0.01). Based on the multiple cox regression analysis, an athlete having the identified risk factors (Risk Index, competence-based self-esteem), with an average competence-based self-esteem score, had more than a threefold increased risk for injury (HR 3.35), compared to an athlete with a low competence-based self-esteem and no change in sleep or training volume.. Our findings confirm injury occurrence as a result of multiple risk factors interacting in complex ways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Beliefs about the causes of success in sports and susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    The present study set out to assess the impact of attributional beliefs about success on the susceptibility for doping use in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of 309 adolescent athletes participating in both team and individual sports. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires including Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire (BACSSQ), current and past doping use, and measures of attitudes, norms, situational temptation and social desirability. Variance reduction rate analysis revealed that social desirability did not act as a confounder in the relationship between doping susceptibility and its predictors. With regard to beliefs about the causes of success dimensions, only deception emerged as a significant predictor of doping use susceptibility over and above the effects of well-established social-cognitive predictors of doping intentions and use. These findings imply that beliefs about the causes of success in youth sports may comprise another dimension of risk factors for doping susceptibility and use.

  16. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction Speed Performance in Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    DosʼSantos, Thomas; Thomas, Christopher; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Dos'Santos, T, Thomas, C, Jones, PA, and Comfort, P. Mechanical determinants of faster change of direction speed performance in male athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 696-705, 2017-Mechanical variables during change of directions, for example, braking and propulsive forces, impulses, and ground contact times (GCT) have been identified as determinants of faster change of direction speed (CODS) performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical determinants of 180° CODS performance with mechanical characteristic comparisons between faster and slower performers; while exploring the role of the penultimate foot contact (PEN) during the change of direction. Forty multidirectional male athletes performed 6 modified 505 (mod505) trials (3 left and right), and ground reaction forces were collected across the PEN and final foot contact (FINAL) during the change of direction. Pearson's correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination were used to explore the relationship between mechanical variables and mod505 completion time. Independent T-tests and Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were conducted between faster (n = 10) and slower (n = 10) mod505 performers to explore differences in mechanical variables. Faster CODS performance was associated (p ≤ 0.05) with shorter GCTs (r = 0.701-0.757), greater horizontal propulsive forces (HPF) (r = -0.572 to -0.611), greater horizontal braking forces (HBF) in the PEN (r = -0.337), lower HBF ratios (r = -0.429), and lower FINAL vertical impact forces (VIF) (r = 0.449-0.559). Faster athletes demonstrated significantly (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 1.08-2.54) shorter FINAL GCTs, produced lower VIF, lower HBF ratios, and greater HPF in comparison to slower athletes. These findings suggest that different mechanical properties are required to produce faster CODS performance, with differences in mechanical properties observed between fast and slower performers. Furthermore, applying a greater proportion of braking force

  17. Factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in male and female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Hardy, Kristina K; Crosby, Ross D; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka

    2013-06-01

    The study explored the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among 1637 university students. Participants were divided into male (n=432) and female (n=544) competitive athletes, and male (n=229) and female (n=429) comparison groups comprised of individuals who had not engaged in competitive sports for at least one year. All groups were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the published factor structure in this population, and then exploratory FA (EFA). A three-factor solution was the best fit for three out of four groups, with a two-factor solution providing best fit for the male comparison group. The first factor for all groups resembled a combined Shape and Weight Concern subscale. The factor structure among male and female competitive athletes was remarkably similar; however, non-competitive athletic/low activity males appear qualitatively different from other groups.

  18. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Intake in Adolescent Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lárraga, Armando; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Use of alcohol and tobacco, the two most concurrently abused drugs, typically first occurs during adolescence. Yet, there have been no systematic analyses of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) interactions during adolescence. Recent animal studies report that kappa-opioid (KOR) receptor activation mediates age differences in drug reinforcement. Our hypothesis is that concurrent self-administration of EtOH and Nic will be greater in adolescent rats because of age differences in KOR function. Furthermore, exposure to alcohol and nicotine during adolescence has been reported to increase EtOH intake in adulthood. We performed a longitudinal animal study and hypothesized adolescent rats allowed to self-administer nicotine would drink more alcohol as adults. Methods: Adolescent, postnatal day (P)32, and adult (P90) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer EtOH, Nic, or a combination of both, EtOH+Nic, in an intravenous self-administration paradigm. The role of KOR was pharmacologically evaluated with the KOR antagonist, norbinaltorphamine (norBNI) and with the KOR agonist, U50,488H. Alcohol drinking was subsequently evaluated with male rats in a drinking in the dark (DID), 2-bottle choice test. Results: Concurrent Nic increased EtOH intake in adolescent males, but not in adults or females. Pharmacological blockade of KOR with norBNI robustly increased EtOH+Nic self-administration in adult male rats, but had no effect with female rats. Lastly, in our longitudinal study with male rats, we found prior self-administration of Nic or EtOH+Nic during adolescence increased subsequent oral EtOH intake, whereas prior self-administration of EtOH alone in adults increased subsequent EtOH drinking. Conclusions: There are major age- and sex-differences in the reinforcing effects of EtOH+Nic. Adolescent males are sensitive to the reinforcing interactions of the two drugs, whereas this effect is inhibited by KOR activation in male adults. Nicotine

  19. Basal Metabolic Rate of Adolescent Modern Pentathlon Athletes: Agreement between Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations and the Correlation with Body Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Luiz Lannes; Fonseca, Sidnei; Castro, Natalia Gomes Casanova de Oliveira e; dos Passos, Renata Baratta; Porto, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The accurate estimative of energy needs is crucial for an optimal physical performance among athletes and the basal metabolic rate (BMR) equations often are not well adjusted for adolescent athletes requiring the use of specific methods, such as the golden standard indirect calorimetry (IC). Therefore, we had the aim to analyse the agreement between the BMR of adolescents pentathletes measured by IC and estimated by commonly used predictive equations. Methods Twenty-eight athletes (17 males and 11 females) were evaluated for BMR, using IC and the predictive equations Harris and Benedict (HB), Cunningham (CUN), Henry and Rees (HR) and FAO/WHO/UNU (FAO). Body composition was obtained using DXA and sexual maturity data were retrieved through validated questionnaires. The correlations among anthropometric variables an IC were analysed by T-student test and ICC, while the agreement between IC and the predictive equations was analysed according to Bland and Altman and by survival-agreement plotting. Results The whole sample average BMR measured by IC was significantly different from the estimated by FAO (p<0.05). Adjusting data by gender FAO and HR equations were statistically different from IC (p <0.05) among males, while female differed only for the HR equation (p <0.05). Conclusion The FAO equation underestimated athletes’ BMR when compared with IC (T Test). When compared to the golden standard IC, using Bland and Altman, ICC and Survival-Agreement, the equations underestimated the energy needs of adolescent pentathlon athletes up to 300kcal/day. Therefore, they should be used with caution when estimating individual energy requirements in such populations. PMID:26569101

  20. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2016-11-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  1. Examining the Development and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing literature, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys’ sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental “readiness” for sex and curiosity; (3) boys’ need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys’ communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including HPV vaccination. PMID:20307842

  2. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  3. The Effect of Hand Dimensions, Hand Shape and Some Anthropometric Characteristics on Handgrip Strength in Male Grip Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=−0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with

  4. The effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p<0.001) and handgrip/height ratio (p<0.001). The indices of body height, body mass, lean body mass and body fat content (p<0.001) were significantly greater in grip athletes. All hand variables except FS1-4 (p>0.05) were significantly different between the groups (p<0.001). After controlling body mass all hand anthropometric characteristics except thumb length (r=0.240, p= 0.135), hand shape (r=-0.029, p=0.858), middle finger length (r=0.305, p=0.056) and forearm circumference (r=0.162, p=0.319) significantly correlated with

  5. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  6. Spectral Parameters of HRV In Yoga Practitioners, Athletes And Sedentary Males.

    PubMed

    Peter, Rosemary; Sood, Sushma; Dhawan, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle. The study was carried out in the departments of physiology at MAMC Agroha, Hisar and Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. The study group comprised of 1200 healthy male volunteers of 16 to 55 years of age. The study group was divided into four age groups: Group A of age 16 to 25 years; Group B of age 26 to 35 years; Group C of age 36 to 45 years and Group D of age 46 to 55 years. All age groups were further divided into three categories i.e athlete (runner), yoga (yoga practitioners) and sedentary in which individuals with sedentary life style were included. The basal recording of ECG in lead II was done for 5 minutes. The Polyrite-D ECG data was used for analysis of heart rate variability by frequency domain method. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. HF component in normalized unit was found significantly high in age group B and C in yoga practitioners and athletes as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D significantly high in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. Significantly decreased LF/HF ratio was found in age group B and C in yoga and athlete subjects as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. This indicates that

  7. Using hegemonic masculinity to explain gay male attraction to muscular and athletic men.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews relevant research on male homosexual attraction. Utilizing masculinity as its theoretical frame, the authors use childhood experiences with both fathers and peers, the gay community's inculcation of heteronormative ideologies, and the gay media's adherence to masculine prototypes, to provide causal explanations for the appeal of muscular, lean, and athletic physiques. While the authors acknowledge that not all individuals within the gay community look toward muscularity and athleticism as the primary components of attractiveness, it nonetheless remains important to examine the theoretical perspectives that may explain the appeal of this specific aesthetic.

  8. Haematological and iron-related parameters in male and female athletes according to different metabolic energy demands.

    PubMed

    Milic, Radoje; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Dopsaj, Violeta

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the iron-related haematological parameters in both male and female athletes participating in different sporting disciplines necessitating different metabolic energy demands. A total of 873 athletes (514 males, mean age: 22.08 ± 4.95 years and 359 females, mean age: 21.38 ± 3.88 years) were divided according to gender and to the predominant energy system required for participation in sport (aerobic, anaerobic or mixed) and haematological and iron-related parameters were measured. For both male and female athletes, significant differences related to the predominant energy system were found at a general level: male (Wilks' λ = 0.798, F = 3.047, p < 0.001) and female (Wilks' λ = 0.762, F = 2.591, p < 0.001). According to the ferritin cutoff value of 35 μg/L, whole body iron and sTfR significantly differed in all three groups of male and female athletes (p < 0.001). The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes in male athletes was significantly higher only in those who required an anaerobic energy source (p < 0.001), whilst in the females hypochromic erythrocytes (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin (anaerobic, p = 0.042; mixed, p = 0.006) were significantly different only in anaerobic and mixed energy source athletes. According to the ferritin cutoff value of 22 μg/L, in females, whole body iron, sTfR and hypochromic erythrocytes were significantly higher in all three groups of athletes than those below the aforementioned cutoff value (p < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant energy system required for participation in sport affects haematological parameters. sTfR and body iron proved to be reliable parameters for monitoring the dynamics of iron metabolism and could contribute to successful iron-deficiency prevention.

  9. Too little sleep and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of sustaining a new injury in adolescent elite athletes.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A

    2016-08-19

    Little is known about health variables and if these variables could increase the risk of injuries among adolescent elite athletes. The primary aim was to present overall data on self-perceived stress, nutrition intake, self-esteem, and sleep, as well as gender and age differences, on two occasions among adolescent elite athletes. A secondary aim was to study these health variables as potential risk factors on injury incidence. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 340 adolescent elite athletes on two occasions during a single school year: autumn semester and spring semester. The results show that during autumn semester, the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish was not met for 20%, 39%, and 43% of the adolescent elite athletes, respectively. The recommended amount of sleep during weekdays was not obtained by 19%. Multiple logistic regression showed that athletes sleeping more than 8 h of sleep during weekdays reduced the odds of injury with 61% (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.99) and athletes reaching the recommended nutrition intake reduced the odds with 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.91). Our findings suggest that nutrition intake and sleep volume are of importance in understanding injury incidence.

  10. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  11. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  12. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  13. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour. PMID:27483299

  14. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  15. Gonadectomy increases neurogenesis in the male adolescent rhesus macaque hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Allen, K M; Fung, S J; Rothmond, D A; Noble, P L; Weickert, C Shannon

    2014-02-01

    New neurons are continuously produced in the subgranular zone of the adult hippocampus and can modulate hippocampal plasticity across life. Adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes in sex hormone levels, and social and emotional behaviors. It is also an age for increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, which may involve altered hippocampal neurogenesis. The extent to which testosterone and other testicular hormones modulate hippocampal neurogenesis and adolescent behavioral development is unclear. This study aimed to determine if removal of testicular hormones during adolescence alters neurogenesis in the male rhesus macaque hippocampus. We used stereology to examine levels of cell proliferation, cell survival and neuronal differentiation in late adolescent male rhesus macaques (4.6-yrs old) that had previously been gonadectomized or sham operated prior to puberty (2.4-yrs old). While the absence of adolescent testicular hormones had no effect on cell proliferation, cell survival was increased by 65% and indices of immature neuronal differentiation were increased by 56% in gonadectomized monkeys compared to intact monkeys. We show for the first time that presence of circulating testicular hormones, including testosterone, may decrease neuronal survival in the primate hippocampus during adolescence. Our findings are in contrast to existing studies in adults where testosterone tends to be a pro-survival factor and demonstrate that testicular hormones may reduce hippocampal neurogenesis during the age typical of schizophrenia onset.

  16. Health Psychological Constructs as Predictors of Doping Susceptibility in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Cornelia; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Duschek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Doping is a highly relevant problem in sport, even in adolescent athletes. Knowledge of the psychological factors that influence doping susceptibility in young elite athletes remains sparse. Objectives This study investigated the predictive potential of different health-psychological constructs and well-being on doping susceptibility. The main hypotheses to be tested were positive associations of fear of failure, external locus of control, and ego-oriented goal orientation as well as negative associations of confidence of success, task orientation, internal locus of control, and performance motivation with doping susceptibility. Low levels of well-being are furthermore expected to be associated with doping susceptibility. Methods Within this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years responded to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Results Performance motivation was a negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and ego-oriented goal orientation were positive predictors of doping susceptibility. In addition, participants who were offered performance enhancing substances in the past were particularly susceptible to doping. Conclusions The study corroborates the predictive value of classical psychological constructs in doping research, initially analyzed in view of adult athletes, also for adolescents’ doping susceptibility. PMID:28144408

  17. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  18. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  19. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  20. Turn the Wheel: Integral School Counseling for Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, David

    2003-01-01

    This article formulates an overarching, inclusive model of integral counseling that enables school counselors to help male adolescents challenge the norm of conventional masculinity. The model draws from 3 areas: transpersonal counseling, holistic education, and mindful social action. The aim is to move the students' level of self-development and…

  1. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  2. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  3. The Effects of Family Disruption on Adolescent Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Elisa J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of separation and divorce on adolescents' (N=217) self-image, anxiety, locus of control, and perception of their family. Results indicated males from disrupted homes had better self-concepts and better perceptions of their family environment than those from intact homes. The opposite results were found among females. (JAC)

  4. Adolescent Male Responsibility in African-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.

    Young black males account for almost half of all unwed fathers. The average black adolescent unwed father is 17 years old at the birth of his first child, comes from an unusually large family, began having sex at an earlier age than other black men, and has had slightly positive educational and employment experiences. Most also exhibit a high…

  5. The Reading Life Histories of Three Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Billye J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the reading lives of three adolescent male students who struggle in reading. The three students identified for this study are students who failed to meet the academic criteria for promotion from grade eight to grade nine as defined by the 2011 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAKS) and were placed in grade nine by a school…

  6. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  7. A national study of substance use behaviors among NCAA male athletes who use banned performance enhancing substances

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Jennifer F.; Farris, Samantha G.; Yusko, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Reports of illicit substance use by college athletes have become commonplace in recent years, yet comparatively little effort has been put forth by the research community to understand these behaviors. Methods Data for this study came from a large, national dataset collected by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). This study compared substance use behaviors of male undergraduate student athletes who reported using ergogenic performance enhancing substances (e.g., anabolic steroids and peptide hormones) during college (PES users) to those who did not (PES non-users). Results A consistent pattern of higher substance use rates was observed among PES users compared to non-users, including heavier drinking, higher prevalence rates of cigarettes, marijuana, amphetamines, narcotics, and a variety of permissible and impermissible dietary supplements. An unexpected finding was that there were large discrepancies in reported prevalence rates between similar or overlapping survey items (e.g., past year use of “narcotics” versus “I have taken Vicodin, Oxycontin or Percocet with/without a prescription”). Conclusions These findings suggest that male college athletes who use PES while in college demonstrate a general tendency to engage in alcohol and drug use behaviors, regardless of whether these behaviors improve or impede athletic performance. The results further suggest that college athletes may not fully appreciate drug categorizations that are commonly employed to gauge substance use behaviors. Changes to drug education and prevention programs may be needed to enhance understanding of drug properties and actions. PMID:23688842

  8. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p < 0.001) but not for the control group (p = 0.817). In addition, as compared to the control, athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.

  9. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  10. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  11. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORE ENDURANCE AND BACK DYSFUNCTION IN COLLEGIATE MALE ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT NONSPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity and sports can be associated with low back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between core stability and nonspecific low back pain (LBP) among athletes. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between core endurance and back dysfunction in collegiate male athletes with and without nonspecific LBP. Methods Fifty-five male collegiate athletes from a variety of sports were recruited for this study. Their mean age was 21.50 ± (2.54) years, mean weight was 70.96 ± (5.33) kg., and mean height was 174.38 ± (4.37) cm. Thirty athletes with non-specific LBP and twenty five healthy athletes were assessed using McGill's anterior, posterior, and left and right plank core endurance tests (seconds) and for dysfunction using the Micheli functional scale (MFS). Pearson's product moment correlations examined the relationships between core endurance and MFS. Results There were significant differences regarding the measured core endurance tests between the healthy athletes group and the nonspecific LBP group (p < 0.05). Additionally, good negative (r = −0.794) and moderate negative (r = −0.541) correlations were found between MFS and trunk extensor and flexor endurance tests, respectively in the group with nonspecific LBP. Conclusion The results of this study imply that poor core endurance is likely associated with nonspecific LBP in collegiate athletes. Injury risk reduction and back management programs for the athletic population should include strategies that emphasize endurance of the core muscles especially the trunk extensors and flexors. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:27274419

  13. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  14. Understanding the Role of Athletics and Resiliency in the Persistence and Success of African American Males in a Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Melinda Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the part athletics and resiliency played in degree completion of African American males. Specifically, it investigated three at-risk African American males and the dynamics of athletic participation and resiliency in their degree completion. In view of the fact that many African American students begin their higher…

  15. Gradual and rapid weight loss: effects on nutrition and performance in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, G M; Koskinen, R; Laakso, J; Rankinen, T; Ruokonen, I

    1993-03-01

    We studied seven male wrestlers and three judo athletes (weight 55-93 kg) during two weight reductions. In the "gradual" procedure (GP), a 5.0 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) weight loss was achieved in 3 weeks by energy restriction. In the "rapid" procedure (RP), 6.0 +/- 0.6% of body weight was lost in 2.4 days by fluid and diet restriction and forced sweating, and followed by a 5-h "loading" (food and drinks ad libitum). The net weight loss after GP and loading was 2.7 +/- 0.5%. Protein intakes (4-d food records) during GP and RP were 71 +/- 16 and RP 56 +/- 17 g.d-1, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were 239 +/- 56 (GP) and 182 +/- 55 g.d-1 (RP). During GP and RP, mean thiamin, magnesium, and zinc intakes were at or below the respective recommendation. Thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron, and zinc status, assessed from blood chemistry, remained stable during both procedures. Changes in vitamin B6 indicator (E-ASTAC) and S-magnesium concentration were different (P < 0.01) between the procedures, suggesting negative trends during GP. Sprint (30-m run) and anaerobic (1-min Wingate test) performance was similar throughout the study. Following GP, vertical jump height with extra load increased by 6-8% (P < 0.01). Jumping results were not affected by RP. Hence, < or = 5% loss in body weight by either method did not impair experienced athletes' performance.

  16. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and use of painkillers among adolescent male ice hockey players in Finland.

    PubMed

    Selanne, Harri; Ryba, Tatiana V; Siekkinen, Kirsti; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Hakonen, Harto; Mikkelsson, Marja; Kujala, Urho M

    2014-01-01

    Participating in competitive sport increases the risk for injuries and musculoskeletal pain among adolescent athletes. There is also evidence that the use of prescription drugs has increased among sport club athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of painkillers among young male ice hockey players (IHP) in comparison to schoolboys (controls) and its relation to the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and problems during activities and sleeping. Information was gathered through a questionnaire, completed by 121 IHP and compared to the responses of 618 age-matched controls. Results showed that monthly existing pain was at 82% for IHP, and 72% for controls, though IHP had statistically more musculoskeletal pain in their lower limbs (56% vs. 44%), lower back (54% vs. 35%), and buttocks (26% vs. 11%). There were no group differences in the neck, upper back, upper limb, or chest areas. The disability index was statistically similar for both groups, as musculoskeletal pain causing difficulties in daily activities and sleeping was reported by a minority of subjects. Despite this similarity, IHP used more painkillers than controls (18% vs. 10%). Further nuanced research is encouraged to compare athletes and non-athletes in relation to painkillers.

  17. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p < 0.01), no relationship was found between shoulder proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes.

  18. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children <12 years and adults. The energy intake was mainly derived from vegetable sources (90 %) with maize and kidney beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.

  19. Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…

  20. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  1. Hypopituitarism After Multiple Concussions: A Retrospective Case Study in an Adolescent Male

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jeffrey C; Alderman, Mark; Stred, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development of hypopituitarism in an adolescent athlete after multiple concussions and to raise awareness among sports medicine clinicians concerning the growing concern of hypopituitarism in concussion injury surveillance and management. Background: A 14-year-old, previously healthy male athlete suffered 4 head traumas over a 4-month period. The first 3 traumas were considered by the athlete to be minor and were not reported to medical personnel. The fourth trauma was a medically diagnosed concussion suffered during soccer play. Over the next year, the patient noted a decline in strength and conditioning and a failure to grow. Differential Diagnosis: After physical examination and a full battery of endocrine tests, the patient, then 16.5 years old, was diagnosed with hypopituitarism. Follow-up interviews provided evidence that at least 2 of the 3 head injuries suffered before the last concussion could also be considered concussions, which may have contributed to the severity of the last head injury. Treatment: The patient is currently being treated with physiologic replacement hormones (growth hormone, cortisol, and thyroxine), with resumption of linear growth and strength. He is progressing well. Uniqueness: In the past few years in the medical literature, increased attention has been drawn to the occult occurrence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury in adults. Initial reports indicate that children are also at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hypopituitarism after mild traumatic brain injury in the sports medicine literature. Conclusions: Symptoms of hypopituitarism are often masked by trauma and postconcussion symptoms and may not appear until months or years after the trauma incident, which can lead to significant delay in proper diagnosis and treatment. We urge greater vigilance by, and training of, sports medicine clinicians toward the goal of recognizing the possibility of pituitary disorders

  2. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use increased dramatically among adolescent males. This review focuses on studies using animal models of AAS exposure during adolescence which is a hormonally sensitive developmental period. AAS exposure during this critical period has wide-ranging consequences, including increased dendritic spine density, altered brain serotonin levels and escalated aggression in response to physical provocation. Human data suggest that AAS induces indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression often described as "'roid rage". However, animal studies indicate that the behavioral impact of AAS is modulated by experiential and social contingencies, a perceived provocation, and the chemical composition of the AAS. The AAS, testosterone increases aggression in juvenile and adult male rats when physically provoked. In contrast, stanzolol, inhibits aggression in both juvenile and adult male rats, even when physically provoked. Nandrolone has minimal effects on aggression, unless preceded by attack training. Exposure to AAS during adolescence may have a host of unintended bio-behavioral consequences. Yet, the perception of harmlessness surrounds AAS use. The perception of harmlessness is promoted by the availability of AAS especially through internet pharmacies. The perception of acceptability is reflected in current cultural ethics that no longer condemn cheating to obtain personal achievement or success. A prevailing conviction is that although AAS are illegal they are not really bad. Reduction of the availability of AAS to adolescents requires ardent legislative and legal intervention. The problem of acceptability can be addressed by educating adolescents about the short-term and long-term effects of AAS on brain and behavior, to increase awareness of the potential consequences of AAS use that apply directly to them.

  3. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  4. Influence of growth rate on nitrogen balance in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Hauspie, Ronald; Clarys, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate nitrogen balance and protein requirements in adolescent sprint athletes as a function of growth rate and physical development. Sixty adolescent sprint athletes were followed up biannually over a 2-yr period. Individual growth curves and age at peak height velocity were determined. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was estimated based on anthropometric measurements and fat mass was estimated by underwater densitometry. Seven-day diet and physical activity diaries were completed to estimate energy balance and protein intake. Nitrogen analysis of 24-hr urine samples collected on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day allowed calculation of nitrogen balance. Body height, weight, and SMM increased throughout the study period in both genders. Mean protein intakes were between 1.4 and 1.6 g kg-1 day-1 in both genders. A protein intake of 1.46 g kg-1 day-1 in girls and 1.35 g kg-1 day-1 in boys was needed to yield a positive nitrogen balance. This did not differ between participants during and after their growth spurt. None of the growth parameters was significantly related to nitrogen balance. It can be concluded that a mean protein intake around 1.5 g kg-1 day-1 was sufficient to stay in a positive nitrogen balance, even during periods of peak growth. Therefore, protein intake should not be enhanced in peak periods of linear or muscular growth.

  5. Radiological analysis of the medial epicondyle in the adolescent throwing athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min; Chan, Chee Ken; Takahashi, Norimasa; Kawai, Nobuaki; Teh, Kok Kheng; Saravana, R; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Injuries to the medial structures of the elbow due to overhead throwing games are well documented. However, variations of medial epicondyles are not well described, especially in athletes with fused medial epicondyles. In this study, we evaluated variations in the medial epicondyle of baseball players who were aged 15–17 years and had fused epicondyles. METHODS In this cross-sectional observational study, 155 skeletally mature baseball players with unilateral medial elbow pain and 310 elbow radiographs were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The medial epicondyles were categorised into three groups: normal, elongated or separated. RESULTS Among the 155 patients, 65 (41.9%) had normal epicondyles, 41 (26.5%) had elongated epicondyles and 49 (31.6%) had separated epicondyles. The medial epicondyle was larger on the dominant arm for 125 (80.6%) patients; the mean surface area on the dominant arm was 222.50 ± 45.77 mm2, while that of the non-dominant arm was 189.14 ± 39.56 mm2 (p < 0.01). Among the three categories of medial epicondyles, separated epicondyles had the largest surface area, followed by elongated and normal epicondyles. CONCLUSION Medial epicondyles in adolescent throwing athletes can be categorised into three different groups according to their shape (normal, elongated and separated). We observed a correlation between the shape and the surface area of the medial epicondyle in adolescent throwing athletes, with separated medial epicondyles having the largest surface area. Further studies and follow-up are needed to determine the prognostic value and clinical significance of these morphological variations. PMID:26976222

  6. Off-season physiological profiles of elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas K; Kieffer, H Scott; Kemp, Heather E; Torres, Sylvia E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of soccer-related fitness parameters on elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III male soccer players during the off-season. Sixteen underclassmen from a recent NCAA Division III national championship soccer team completed a series of tests across 3 separate occasions over a 15-day period, with adequate recovery time between sessions to eliminate any carryover effect. Physiological parameters measured included aerobic endurance, anaerobic power and capacity, jumping power, agility, hamstring flexibility, and body composition. Descriptive statistics such as the mean (±SD) and range were calculated for each test. Two-tailed Pearson correlations were run to determine significant relationships that existed between variables. Test results were T-Tests (9.9 ± 0.4), Active Knee Extension degrees (-34.2 ± 11.9 right, -34.0 ± 13.9 left), vertical jump (61.8 ± 7.2 cm), percent fat (5.6 ± 1.6), Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) laps (113.2 ± 12.3), estimated VO2max (53.6 ± 2.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), Wingate peak (802.7 ± 155.6 W), Wingate peak (10.9 ± 1.2 W · kg(-1)), Wingate mean (651.2 ± 101.6 W), Wingate mean (8.9 ± 0.6 W · kg), and Wingate fatigue rate (35.9 ± 8.4%). Strong correlations existed between PACER laps and percent fat, between peak W and peak W · kg(-1), and between peak W and fatigue rate. These results suggest that elite Division III soccer players maintain relatively high fitness levels during the off-season. Additionally, they provide coaches with preliminary norms that can be used to determine off-season training expectations and adjust programs accordingly for their athletes.

  7. A Test of Problem Behavior and Self-Medication Theories in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…

  8. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  9. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  10. Ectopic hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent male rats following alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    McClain, Justin A; Morris, Stephanie A; Marshall, S Alexander; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    The adolescent hippocampus is highly vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage, which could contribute to their increased susceptibility to alcohol use disorder. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents one potential mechanism by which alcohol (ethanol) affects hippocampal function. Based on the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to alcohol-induced damage, and prior reports of long-term alcohol-induced effects on adult neurogenesis, we predicted adverse effects on adult neurogenesis in the adolescent brain following abstinence from alcohol dependence. Thus, we examined neurogenesis in adolescent male rats during abstinence following a 4-day binge model of alcohol dependence. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed a 2.2-fold increase in subgranular zone cell proliferation after 7 days of abstinence. Increased proliferation was followed by a 75% increase in doublecortin expression and a 56% increase in surviving bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells 14 and 35 days post-ethanol exposure, respectively. The majority of newborn cells in ethanol and control groups co-localized with NeuN, indicating a neuronal phenotype and therefore a 1.6-fold increase in hippocampal neurogenesis during abstinence. Although these results mirror the magnitude of reactive neurogenesis described in adult rat studies, ectopic bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin positive cells were detected in the molecular layer and hilus of adolescent rats displaying severe withdrawal symptoms, an effect that has not been described in adults. The presence of ectopic neuroblasts suggests that a potential defect exists in the functional incorporation of new neurons into the existing hippocampal circuitry for a subset of rats. Age-related differences in functional incorporation could contribute to the increased vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to ethanol.

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of Japanese male athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, although the incidence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) is still low compared with that in Europe and the United States, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased over the last 15 years,. In both Japanese and Caucasian populations it has been reported that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness protects against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no reports focused specifically on athletes that investigate whether high cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can prevent disease later in life. We examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese athletes using a cohort study. Methods The cardiorespiratory fitness of male alumni of the physical education department of Juntendo University, as measured by stored data of a 1,500-m endurance run in college (1971–1991) was compared with their incidence of type 2 diabetes as determined by follow-up questionnaires (2007–2009). This study used Cox’s proportional hazards models and adjusted for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports club participation at college age. Results We collected data on cardiorespiratory fitness at college age and medical history survey data during 2007–2009 from 570 male alumni. The median follow-up period was 26 years (IQR: 23–29 years), and 22 men had developed type 2 diabetes. An inverse relationship was observed between incidence of type 2 diabetes and level of cardiorespiratory fitness at time of college after adjustment for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports participation. The adjusted hazards ratio and 95% CI by category (low, medium, and high) were 1.00 (reference), 0.40 (0.14–1.13) and 0.26 (0.07–1.00) (p = 0.03 for trend). Conclusions A high level of cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can help prevent type 2 diabetes later in life. PMID:24885699

  12. Examining the Pathologic Adaptation Model of Community Violence Exposure in Male Adolescents of Color

    PubMed Central

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined a model of desensitization to community violence exposure—the pathologic adaptation model—in male adolescents of color. The current study included 285 African American (61%) and Latino (39%) male adolescents (W1 M age = 12.41) from the Chicago Youth Development Study to examine the longitudinal associations between community violence exposure, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior. Consistent with the pathologic adaptation model, results indicated a linear, positive association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence, as well as a curvilinear association between community violence exposure in middle adolescence and depressive symptoms in late adolescence, suggesting emotional desensitization. Further, these effects were specific to cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and not somatic symptoms. Emotional desensitization outcomes, as assessed by depressive symptoms, can occur in male adolescents of color exposed to community violence and these effects extend from middle adolescence to late adolescence. PMID:27653968

  13. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  14. Identifying New Sources of African American Male Pre-Service Teachers: Creating a Path from Student-Athlete to Student-Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, David A.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Lewis, Chance W.; Bonner, Fred A., II; Rutledge, Michael; Watson, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the experiences of one African American former college athlete and two athletic department academic advisors at a BCS Division University in the Southern Region of the United States, Given the catastrophic shortage of African American male K-12 teachers, the participants of this study were interviewed to…

  15. Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the rate of concussions in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that high school athletes with ADHD would report a greater history of concussion than students without ADHD. A total of 6529 adolescent and young adult student athletes, between the ages of 13 and 19 years (mean, 15.9; standard deviation, 1.3), completed a preseason health survey in 2010. Of those with ADHD, 26.1% reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 17.1% of those without ADHD (p<0.00001; odds ratio [OR], 1.71). Stratified by gender, 27.0% of boys with ADHD reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 20.0% of boys without ADHD (p<0.004; OR, 1.48), and 23.6% of girls with ADHD reported a history of one or more concussions, compared to 13.6% of girls without ADHD (p<0.003; OR, 1.97). Of those with ADHD, 9.8% reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 5.5% of those without ADHD (p<0.0003; OR, 1.87). Stratified by gender, 10.0% of boys with ADHD reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 6.7% of boys without ADHD (p<0.033; OR, 1.54), and 9.1% of girls with ADHD reported a history of two or more concussions, compared to 3.8% of girls without ADHD (p<0.006; OR, 2.51). In this large-scale, retrospective survey study, boys and girls with ADHD were significantly more likely to report a history of concussion. Additional research is needed to determine whether students with ADHD are more susceptible to injury (i.e., have a lower threshold) or have different recovery trajectories.

  16. Modifying spike jump landing biomechanics in female adolescent volleyball athletes using video and verbal feedback.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Joanne L; Alexander, Marion J L

    2012-04-01

    Landing awkwardly from a jump is a common mechanism of injury for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Augmented feedback, such as verbal or visual instruction, has been shown to cause an immediate, positive change in landing biomechanics in a laboratory setting. No data exist on the longer term effects of feedback on jump landing biomechanics in a sports-specific setting. The purpose of this study was to explore whether providing video and verbal feedback to adolescent (12-14 years old) female volleyball athletes would improve their landing technique. Trunk and lower extremity kinematic variables were measured in 19 participants before a feedback session was provided to the intervention group (IG). Follow-up kinematic measurements of the IG were taken immediately postintervention, and again after 2 and 4 weeks. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the IG with a control group (CG), who received no feedback. The IG (n = 10) demonstrated increased maximal hip and trunk flexion compared with the CG (n = 9) at week 4 (p ≤ 0.05). One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if changes were evident within the IG over time. Ankle dorsiflexion, right knee and hip flexion, and trunk flexion changed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over the 4-week period. Augmented feedback appeared to produce a positive change in landing biomechanics in adolescent female volleyball athletes performing a sports-specific skill. Courtside video and verbal feedback may present a relatively simple, cost-effective method of introducing one component of a comprehensive ACL injury prevention program at a young age.

  17. Evaluation of unexplained dyspnea in a young athletic male with pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Tardie, Gregory B; Dorsey, David A; Kaeferlein, Bernhard H

    2005-09-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall associated with reduced exercise capacity. Uncertainty exists over the nature of physiologic impairment in PE. Evidence suggests that myocardial compression exerted by the displaced sternum on the right heart chambers, disables the ability of the heart to augment stroke volume during exercise. This case study describes the evaluation of an athletic 20 year old Caucasian male, lifelong non-smoker, with severe pectus deformity and previous fixation procedure to repair a sternal fracture. The patient performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test to determine the etiology of his dyspnea with exertion. The patient demonstrated normal work output and normal aerobic capacity but displayed dynamic hyperinflation. Mechanical restriction of tidal volume expansion appeared to be the major contributors to exercise limitation. These results are compared and contrasted with similar cases reported in the literature. Key PointsPectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common phenomenon affecting approximately 1 in 300 births, with a 9:1 ratio of male to female rate of incidence.The etiology or exercise limitation is most frequently due to cardiovascular limitation due to the compression of the sternum upon the myocardium, impairing the ability to augment stroke volume.The Pectus Severity Index (PSI) is a useful indicator of pectus severity.Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides useful data to distinguish between cardiovascular limitation, ventilatory limitation, or deconditioning in the evaluation of PE.In this case study, ventilatory limitation was due to the mechanical restriction of the thoracic cavity.

  18. Division I Men's Basketball Scholarship: The Challenges of Being a Black Male Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The Qualitative research will explore issues that interface particularly with Black student- athletes on Division 1 basketball scholarships regarding academic readiness, academic support, family support and how the experience of a Division 1 scholarship impacted their lives. The population of Black student-athletes that the focus of the research…

  19. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism across Three Groups of Elite Male European Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Femia, Pedro; Pushkarev, Vladimir P.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Dyatlov, Dmitry A.; Lekontsev, Evgeny V.; Kulikov, Leonid M.; Birk, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) is a strong candidate to influence elite athletic performance. Yet, controversy exists in the literature owing to between-studies differences in the ethnic background and sample size of the cohorts, the latter being usually low, which makes comparisons difficult. In this case:control genetic study we determined the association between elite athletic status and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism within three cohorts of European Caucasian men, i.e. Spanish, Polish and Russian [633 cases (278 elite endurance and 355 power athletes), and 808 non-athletic controls]. The odds ratio (OR) of a power athlete harbouring the XX versus the RR genotype compared with sedentary controls was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.48; P = 0.006]. We also observed that the OR of an endurance athlete having the XX versus the RR genotype compared with power athletes was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.07–3.31; P = 0.028). In endurance athletes, the OR of a “world-class” competitor having the XX genotype versus the RR+RX genotype was 3.74 (95%CI: 1.08–12.94; P = 0.038) compared with those of a lower (“national”) competition level. No association (P>0.1) was noted between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and competition level (world-class versus national-level) in power athletes. Our data provide comprehensive support for the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on elite athletic performance. PMID:22916217

  20. The ontogeny of exploratory behavior in male and female adolescent rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Lynn, Debra A; Brown, Gillian R

    2009-09-01

    During adolescence, rats gain independence from their mothers and disperse from the natal burrow, with males typically dispersing further than females. We predicted that, if dispersal patterns are associated with responsiveness to novelty, exploratory behavior in novel environments would increase across adolescence, and males would explore more than females. Alternatively, females might explore more than males, if females are more motivated than males to learn about the immediate environment or if females have poorer spatial abilities than males. Twenty-five male and 21 female rats were exposed to two novel environments (open field and elevated plus-maze) during early, mid-, or late adolescence. Total locomotion and amount of exploration directed towards aversive areas increased across adolescence, even when body weight was included as a covariate. Female adolescents locomoted more and spent more time exploring aversive areas than males. Developmental changes in neural function potentially underlie age and sex differences in exploratory behavior.

  1. Androgenic anabolic steroid use among male adolescents in Falkenberg.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports show that androgenic anabolic steroids are used by many teenagers, not as a deliberate attempt to give them strength, better athletic performance, etc., but to improve their looks. The so-called macho cult among young boys tempts them into using androgenic anabolic steroids to give them bigger muscles and a more powerful appearance. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroid use among teenagers in a small town and to create a platform for future work with the aim of decreasing the misuse of these drugs. In Falkenberg, a town in the county of Halland in the west of Sweden, the pupils at two high schools were investigated by means of an anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1383 students (688 males and 695 females) aged 14-19 years participated in the study, giving a participation rate of 96%. The number of answers completed was 99%. The use of androgenic anabolic steroids is a reality among male teenagers in Falkenberg, with 5.8% of them using the drugs. Among 15- to 16-year-old boys misuse of these drugs is as high as 10%, and of these 50% (5.0% of total) also inject ampoules of the drugs. This prevalence is alarming since the adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids are more serious in teenagers. Serious action must be taken to inform teenagers of the consequences of misusing drugs.

  2. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy; Harries, Simon K.; Williams, Rebecca L.; Lum, Cheryl; Callister, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old). Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E) from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73); however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their pre

  3. Dissatisfaction and acne vulgaris in male adolescents and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Isaacsson, Viviane Christina Siena; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has high prevalence, disturbing quality of life during adolescence. OBJECTIVES To measure dissastifaction and acne in 18-year-old male individuals and its associated factors. METHODS A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers to all boys during selection for the military service. Dissatisfaction and acne was evaluated using a self-administered face scale. Facial, prestrernal and dorsal acne were evaluated separately. RESULTS A total of 2,200 adolescents, aged 18 years, were interviewed. Among these, 1,678 had acne on the face and 974 (54.05%) showed some degree of dissatisfaction. Regarding the impact of acne located on the chest, 326 out of 686 adolescents (47.52%) reported dissatisfaction. For acne located on the back, 568 out of 1,103 affected individuals (51.50%) showed dissatisfaction. Facial / dorsal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically associated with lower income, lower education levels and with non-whites. Presternal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically asssociated with lower income and lower education levels. CONCLUSION This population-based study found a high prevalence of acne on the face, back and chest, with high rates of dissatisfaction. PMID:25054743

  4. After-school fitness performance is not altered after physical education lessons in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Buchanan, Erin; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Hoffman, Jay R

    2010-03-01

    Physical education (PE) provides a unique opportunity for school-age youth to establish health habits, although some young athletes are exempt from PE and others do not participate because of a concern regarding the lingering effects of fatigue on after-school fitness performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different PE lessons on after-school fitness performance in young athletes. Twenty athletes (14-18 years) participated in 3 different PE lessons that consisted of aerobic exercise (AE), resistance training (RT), or basketball skill training (BS). Fitness performance was assessed after-school following each lesson and after a control day without PE. There were no significant differences in flexibility (34.1 +/- 6.5, 34.7 +/- 1.3, 33.5 +/- 7.2, and 33.6 +/- 7.3 cm), vertical jump (46.3 +/- 14.7, 46.2 +/- 13.6, 46.4 +/- 13.4, and 45.6 +/- 14.2 cm), long jump (175.0 +/- 36.4, 174.2 +/- 36.3, 172.7 +/- 35.8, and 171.9 +/- 34.7 cm), medicine ball toss (348.9 +/- 121.8, 342.0 +/- 120.6, 353.9 +/- 123.6, and 348.4 +/- 129.1 cm), proagility shuttle run (5.8 +/- 0.5, 5.7 +/-0.53, 5.8 +/- 0.52, and 5.8 +/- 0.5 seconds), 20-m sprint (3.7 +/- 0.4, 3.7 +/- 0.4, 3.7 +/- 0.3, and 3.7 +/- 0.3 seconds), and 200-m sprint (36.3 +/- 4.7, 35.1 +/- 4.0, 35.9 +/- 5.9, and 35.4 +/- 5.4 seconds) after AE, RT, BS, or the control day, respectively. These findings suggest that an exercise lesson or skill-based PE class will not have an adverse effect on after-school fitness performance in adolescent athletes.

  5. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-12-20

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  6. Female and Male Student Athletes' Perceptions of Career Transition in Sport and Higher Education: A Visual Elicitation and Qualitative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith; Lawrence, Suzanne Malia

    2004-01-01

    The termination of a collegiate athletic career is inevitable for all student athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore student athletes' perceptions of the athletic career transition process. One-hundred-and-forty-three (n = 143) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II student athletes were administered the Life After…

  7. Adolescent and adult male rats habituate to repeated isolation, but only adolescents sensitize to partner unfamiliarity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.

  8. Postural stability of canoeing and kayaking young male athletes during quiet stance.

    PubMed

    Stambolieva, Katerina; Diafas, Vassilis; Bachev, Vichren; Christova, Lilia; Gatev, Plamen

    2012-05-01

    We studied the postural stability of 23 canoeing and kayaking young athletes and 15 healthy untrained age matched subjects during quiet and sensory conflicted stance (standing on stable and foam support with open and closed eyes). We measured with a force platform the center of pressure excursions and applied mean sway amplitude (MA), mean sway velocity (SV) and their Romberg ratios, and sway dispersion index to evaluate standing balance. During standing with eyes open, the athletes in comparison to non-athletes showed in sagittal and frontal plane greater MA and SV when the support was stable and smaller MA and SV when it was unstable. During standing with eyes closed, there were no differences between groups when the support was stable, however, the athletes sway faster and have smaller MA than controls while standing on the foam support. During standing on stable support, Romberg ratios for MA and SV revealed that unlike non-athletes the athletes' MA and SV were vision independent. However, while standing on unstable support the athletes' MA and SV became vision dependent and even greater for the medio-lateral sway. Canoeists' SV vision dependency in both planes was greater than for other groups. These results are in line with our hypothesis that young kayaking and canoeing athletes have a different from non-athletes model of sensory integration due to their specific sporting activity. One possible mechanism of this model may be a subtle re-adaptation deficit after disembarking to stable ground with diminished sensitivity of vision and vestibular apparatus.

  9. Body image perception, satisfaction and somatotype in male and female athletes and non-athletes: results using a novel morphing technique.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Arthur D; Benson, Philip J; Michanikou, Evangelia G; Tsiota, Dimitra G; Narli, Margarita K

    2003-10-01

    Thirty-six adults (24 males, 12 females) were assessed for anthropometric somatotype and body image (perception and satisfaction) by a novel technique using quantitative distortion of a digital still image. Software produced random distortions in nine body regions. The participants manipulated interactive slider controls to adjust each body feature in turn, recreate their perceived image and indicate their desired image. There were no differences in perception between the sexes. However, the ideal-actual differences (i.e. satisfaction) indicated that males desired larger and females smaller features, respectively, in the chest and thighs (P < 0.001) and arms and calves (P < 0.01). When the male-derived data were partitioned by sport (strength, endurance, team-sport and controls), differences were found in the perceived image size in the chest and rib regions (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Strength athletes perceived these areas to be smaller and the control group perceived these areas to be larger than the true values. Somatotype analysis indicated that the physique associated with minimal dissatisfaction was 2.0-5.0-3.0 for males and 3.0-2.5-3.0 for females. Cluster analysis, combining anthropometric and satisfaction data, revealed seven distinct subgroups distinguished by particular attributes of physical appearance. We conclude that the method is reliable and that body image includes sex-specific, anthropometric, perceptual and personality-related components.

  10. Predictors of Sexually Coercive Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair; Lindhorst, Taryn P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from male participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are used to examine childhood predictors of late adolescent and early adulthood sexually coercive behavior and adolescent mediators of these relationships. A path analysis shows that experiencing sexual abuse as a child has a direct effect on perpetrating…

  11. Delinquency in Male Adolescents: The Role of Alexithymia and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Gregoire

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…

  12. Adolescent Health Risk Profiles: The Co-Occurrence of Health Risks among Females and Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)

  13. Suicidal Behavior and Gay-Related Stress among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to attempted suicide rates of 9-12% among adolescents in community-based studies, attempted suicide was reported by 39% of 138 self-identified gay and bisexual adolescent males presenting in a social service agency for lesbian and gay adolescents. Findings suggest that gay youths are at increased risk for attempting suicide. (TJQ)

  14. Vitamin D status and musculoskeletal health in adolescent male ballet dancers a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ducher, Gaele; Kukuljan, S; Hill, B; Garnham, A P; Nowson, C A; Kimlin, M G; Cook, J

    2011-09-01

    Adequate vitamin D levels during growth are critical to ensuring optimal bone development. Vitamin D synthesis requires sun exposure; thus, athletes engaged in indoor activities such as ballet dancing may be at relatively high risk of vitamin D insufficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low vitamin D levels in young male ballet dancers and its impact on musculoskeletal health. Eighteen male ballet dancers, aged 10 to 19 years and training for at least 6 hours per week, were recruited from the Australian Ballet School, Melbourne, Australia. Serum 25(OH)D and intact PTH were measured in winter (July) from a non-fasting blood sample. Pubertal stage was determined using self-assessed Tanner criteria. Body composition and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body and lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Injury history and physical activity levels were assessed by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 16 participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels ranged from 20.8 to 94.3 nmol/L, with a group mean of 50.5 nmol/L. Two participants (12.5%) showed vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D level < 25 nmol/L], seven dancers (44%) had vitamin D insufficiency (25 to 50 nmol/L), and the remaining seven dancers (44%) had normal levels (> 50 nmol/L). No relationship was found between vitamin D status, PTH levels, body composition, and aBMD. The most commonly reported injuries were muscle tears and back pain. The average number of injuries reported by each dancer was 1.9 ± 0.4 (range: 0 to 5). There was no difference in the frequency of reported injuries between subjects with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (2.1 ± 0.6 injuries) and those with normal vitamin D levels (1.4 ± 0.6 injuries). This pilot study showed that more than half of highly-trained young male ballet dancers presented with low levels of vitamin D in winter. Further investigations in larger samples of adolescent athletes are needed

  15. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.

  16. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, R Hugh; Sparkes, Diane L; Dascombe, Benjamin J; Macdonald, Margaret M; Evans, Craig A; Stevens, Christopher J; Crompton, Marcus J; Gottfries, Johan; Franks, Jesse; Murphy, Grace; Wood, Ryan; Roberts, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32-34°C and 20-30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as "faux" sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine, serine, glycine

  17. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, R. Hugh; Sparkes, Diane L.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.; Macdonald, Margaret M.; Evans, Craig A.; Stevens, Christopher J.; Crompton, Marcus J.; Gottfries, Johan; Franks, Jesse; Murphy, Grace; Wood, Ryan; Roberts, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32–34°C and 20–30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as “faux” sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine, serine

  18. Factors limiting anaerobic performance in adolescent males with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Boas, S R; Joswiak, M L; Nixon, P A; Fulton, J A; Orenstein, D M

    1996-03-01

    Forty-one adolescent males (11.1-18.3 yr) with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 37 healthy adolescent males (11.1-17.9 yr) performed a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). The group with CF was subdivided by sexual maturity, nutritional status, and degree of airway obstruction. The subjects with CF had lower absolute power outputs than the healthy controls [mean power in Watts (mean +/- SD): 350.2 +/- 135.9 vs 424.5 +/- 120.4, P < 0.001; peak power: 525.2 +/- 178.4 vs 665.9 +/- 191.3, P < 0.001). When absolute power was corrected for lean body mass, the subjects with CF had lower power outputs than the healthy controls (mean power in W.kg-1: 8.9 +/- 1.7 vs 9.6 +/- 0.9, P < 0.05; peak power: 13.4 +/- 2.1 vs 15.0 +/- 1.6, P < 0.05). The subgroup with CF with a higher body mass index (BMI > 17.5 kg.m-2) had higher peak and mean power output than subjects with CF with a lower BMI in both absolute power and when power was expressed per lean body mass. When sexual maturation was considered, subjects with CF with salivary testosterone greater than 4.0 ng.dl-1 had a higher mean and peak power in both absolute terms and relative to lean body mass than subjects with CF with salivary testosterone less than 4.0 ng.dl-1. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the nutritional factor accounted for 70%-80% of the variability in power output in the subjects with CF, while testosterone accounted for 10% of the variability. Pulmonary function was not a significant independent correlate of anaerobic power. Our results suggest that nutritional status, and to a lesser extent maturational factors, may play a more important role than pulmonary function in determining anaerobic fitness in male adolescents with CF.

  19. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury.

  20. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ≤2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes.

  1. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  2. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  3. A case of acute psychosis in an adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Babar, Ghufran; Alemzadeh, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a disorder of calcium homeostasis. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent male, who presented with an acute psychosis coinciding with severe hypercalcemia and markedly elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level and low vitamin D level. A Sestamibi scan showed a positive signal inferior to the left lobe of the thyroid gland. He had only a partial response to the initial medical and psychiatric management. The enlarged parathyroid gland was resected surgically and postoperatively serum calcium and iPTH levels normalized. The histopathology was compatible with a benign adenoma. Patient's acute psychotic symptoms resolved gradually after surgery; however he remained under psychiatric care for the behavioral issues for about 6 months after surgery. While psychosis is a rare clinical manifestation of hypercalcemia secondary to PHPT in pediatric population, it should be considered as a clinical clue in an otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patient.

  4. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.

  5. Mating behavior of adolescent male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2015-04-01

    Male mating tactics vary extensively in many primates. Some variation occurs because adolescent males often are sexually active but cannot invest heavily in mating effort because of their limited ability to compete directly with adults and because they are still investing in growth; consequently, most of their mating attempts may be surreptitious and/or with females whose fecundity is low. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a complex mating system: most copulations occur between estrous females with full sexual swelling and multiple males in group settings where the potential for sperm competition is high, but males sometimes mate-guard females, and sometimes male-female pairs mate exclusively with each other while avoiding other males during "consortships." Among other factors, dominance ranks, coalition formation, and variation in male-female association influence male mating and reproductive success. Mating effort increases from adolescence into prime adulthood. At Gombe and Mahale, adolescent males copulated more with nulliparous than with parous females, and mostly when females were unlikely to be ovulating, partly because of low adult male interest in nulliparous females and partly because of aggression from or avoidance of adult males. Adolescents thus had low probabilities of siring infants. However, adolescents are known to have gained some paternity at Gombe and in other populations, and their mating behavior deserves more study. I present data on mating by adolescent males in an unusually large chimpanzee community at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Adolescents at Ngogo also copulated more with nulliparous than parous females and mostly copulated outside of periovulatory periods. Also, they directed less aggression at estrous females than did adult males. However, they gained lower shares of copulations than reported for Gombe and Mahale, regardless of female parity, and received more aggression from adult males. These differences might partly

  6. Functional Connectivity Is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Lin, Xiaodi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Ott, Summer; Biekman, Brian; Hunter, Jill V.; Dash, Pramod K.; Taylor, Brian A.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery following sports-related concussion (SRC) is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity (FC) would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN) (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex) 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n = 13) and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 13). The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the PCC and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN). Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately 1 week and 1 month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at 1 month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent 1-month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play. PMID:27504104

  7. SIXTY SECONDS OF FOAM ROLLING DOES NOT AFFECT FUNCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY OR CHANGE MUSCLE TEMPERATURE IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas W.; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Turner, Anthony P.; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Physiotherapists and other practitioners commonly prescribe foam rolling as an intervention, but the mechanistic effects of this intervention are not known. Purpose The aim of this investigation was to establish if a single bout of foam rolling affects flexibility, skeletal muscle contractility and reflected temperature. Methods Twelve adolescent male squash players were evaluated on two separate occasions (treatment and control visits) and were tested on both legs for flexibility of the hip flexors and quadriceps, muscle contractility (as measured by tensiomyography) and temperature of the quadriceps (assessed via thermography) at repeated time points pre- and post a 60s rolling intervention (pre-, immediately post, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes post). They rolled one leg on the treatment visit and did not perform rolling on the control visit. Results The main outcome measure was the flexibility of hip flexor and quadriceps at repeated time points up to 30 minutes post intervention. The average foam rolling force was 68% of subject's body weight. This force affected the combination of hip and quadriceps flexibility (p = 0.03; 2.4 degrees total increase with foam rolling) but not each muscle independently (p = 0.05 – 0.98) following a single 60s bout. Muscle contractility is not affected (p = 0.09 – 0.93) and temperature is not increased by foam rolling across time points (p = 0.19). Conclusions A single sixty-second bout of rolling applied to the quadriceps induces a small significant change in flexibility that is of little practical relevance, while muscle contractility and temperature remain unchanged. Investigation of larger doses of rolling is merited in athletic populations to justify current practice. Level of Evidence 2c PMID:27757289

  8. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  9. Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey B; Grenier, Michelle; Edwards, Nicholas M; Madsen, Nicolas L; Czosek, Richard J; Spar, David S; Barnes, Allison; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Knilans, Timothy K

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sport. Screening young athletes for high-risk cardiac defects is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in an adolescent population. Adolescent athletes were recruited from local schools and/or sports teams. Each subject underwent a history and/or physical examination, an electrocardiography (ECG), and a limited echocardiography (ECHO). The primary outcome measure was identification of cardiac abnormalities associated with an elevated risk for sudden death. We secondarily identified cardiac abnormalities not typically associated with a short-term risk of sudden death. A total of 659 adolescent athletes were evaluated; 64% men. Five subjects had cardiac findings associated with an elevated risk for sudden death: prolonged QTc >500 ms (n = 2) and type I Brugada pattern (n = 1), identified with ECG; dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1) and significant aortic root dilation; and z-score = +5.5 (n = 1). History and physical examination alone identified 76 (11.5%) subjects with any cardiac findings. ECG identified 76 (11.5%) subjects in which a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. Left ventricular mass was normal by ECHO in all but 1 patient with LVH on ECG. ECHO identified 34 (5.1%) subjects in whom a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. In conclusion, physical examination alone was ineffective in identification of subjects at elevated risk for SCDY. Screening ECHO identified patients with underlying cardiac disease not associated with immediate risk for SCDY. Cost of comprehensive cardiac screening is high.

  10. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries.

    PubMed

    Caine, Dennis; Purcell, Laura; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury - are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete's vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended

  11. Adolescent males' abortion attitudes: data from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Marsiglio, W; Shehan, C L

    1993-01-01

    Roughly 13% of a nationally representative sample of 1,880 15-19-year-old males approve of abortion in each of eight circumstances presented to them, while about 4% disapprove in every instance. The proportions agreeing that abortion is acceptable range as high as 85-90% if the pregnancy endangers the woman's health or results from rape. Any type of religious affiliation, especially religious fundamentalism, is related to weaker support for abortion; an even stronger correlate of abortion attitudes is the importance of religion to the respondent. Abortion attitudes vary little by race after other social background factors are controlled. Those with more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and those who perceive that they would be upset if they became a father in the immediate future are particularly likely to express acceptance of abortion. Roughly 61% of adolescent males do not feel that it would be all right for a woman to have an abortion if her partner objects, indicating a possible "gender conflict of interest" over the abortion issue.

  12. What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

  13. Mobility and muscle strength in male former elite endurance and power athletes aged 66-91 years.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, S; Wasenius, N; Laine, M K; Kujala, U M; Mälkiä, E; Kaprio, J; Sarna, S; Bäckmand, H M; Kettunen, J A; Heinonen, O J; Jula, A M; Aunola, S; Eriksson, J G

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare mobility and muscle strength in male former elite endurance and power athletes aged 66-91 years (n = 150; 50 men in both former elite athlete groups and in their control group). Agility, dynamic balance, walking speed, chair stand, self-rated balance confidence (ABC-scale), jumping height, and handgrip strength were assessed. Former elite power athletes had better agility performance time than the controls (age- and body mass index, BMI-adjusted mean difference -3.6 s; 95% CI -6.3, -0.8). Adjustment for current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and prevalence of diseases made this difference non-significant (P = 0.214). The subjects in the power sports group jumped higher than the men in the control group (age- and BMI-adjusted mean differences for vertical squat jump, VSJ 4.4 cm; 95% CI 2.0, 6.8; for countermovement jump, CMJ 4.0 cm; 95% CI 1.7, 6.4). Taking current LTPA and chronic diseases for adjusting process did not improve explorative power of the model. No significant differences between the groups were found in the performances evaluating dynamic balance, walking speed, chair stand, ABC-scale, or handgrip strength. In conclusion, power athletes among the aged former elite sportsmen had greater explosive force production in their lower extremities than the men in the control group.

  14. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  15. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  16. Comparison of the short-term oxidative stress response in National League basketball and soccer adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Perrea, Anastasia; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Doulamis, Ilias P; Exarhopoulou, Konstantina; Kypraios, George; Kalofoutis, Anastasios; Perrea, Despina N

    2014-08-01

    Physical exercise is considered protective against oxidative stress-related disorders. However, there is increasing evidence that strenuous activity may induce increased oxidative stress response. This study investigated the impact of vigorous physical activity on serum oxidative stress markers in 36 soccer and 12 basketball National League adolescent athletes 40 minutes before and 15 minutes after a National League game. Serum total peroxide, fibrinogen, polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase, and myeloperoxidase levels were determined. No significant differences in any of the measured parameters were observed before the match. Soccer players exhibited significantly lower total peroxide (P < .05) and higher PMN elastase concentrations (P < .05) than that of the basketball athletes after the game. A number of important differences between these 2 sports, such as duration or total aerobic and anaerobic demands, may affect oxidative status. These parameters need to be further examined in order to elucidate the different effects of these 2 sports on postexercise oxidative status.

  17. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  18. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  19. Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .

    PubMed

    Beamon, Krystal K

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills.

  20. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-03-05

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.

  1. Relationships between cooperation and goal orientation among male professional and semi-professional team athletes.

    PubMed

    Lameiras, João; Almeida, Pedro L; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In team sports, athletes' goals may focus on the task (enhancing performance, developing better skills, etc.) or on ego (being better than the others, achieving superiority, etc.). This study investigated the relationships between athletes' goal orientation and their tendency to cooperate with teammates and coaches. 158 professional men (M age = 24.1 yr., SD = 4.6) who played on various sport teams participated in this study. Goal orientation was measured with the Portuguese version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and cooperation was measured with the Questionário de Cooperação Desportiva. Cooperation was positively correlated with task orientation, and negatively correlated with ego orientation. Overall, the findings support that in sports, directing the players' focus on task may promote prosocial behavior.

  2. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  3. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth incarcerated for serious offenses. We examined several risk factors for substance use and delinquency (i.e., early and frequent substance use, prior history of arrests, school expulsion, Black ethnicity), as well as the association between aggression and polysubstance use. Methods Data were collected via questionnaires from 373 serious male juvenile offenders upon intake into a secure locked facility. Youth were on average 16 years old, and minority youth were overrepresented (28.1% Black, 53.1% Latino). Poisson regressions were used to assess the associations between the risk factors, aggression, and polysubstance use. Results Consistent with the literature, Black youth reported less polysubstance use and later age of drug use onset than White and Latino youth. Findings suggest that Latino juvenile offenders and those with an early and problematic pattern of substance use are at heightened risk for polysubstance use. Aggression was not significantly related to polysubstance use, over and above the risk factors. Conclusions Given that Latino youth experience low rates of treatment for substance use, the development of culturally-sensitive interventions for these youth is needed. Interventions should also be multifaceted to address the multitude of risk factors associated with polysubstance use among juvenile offenders. PMID:26997851

  4. The construct validity of session RPE during an intensive camp in young male Karate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Haddad, Monoem; Gevat, Cecilia; Vando, Stefano; Maurino, Lucio; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim of this study was to assess the validity of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and two objective HR-based methods for quantifying karate’s training load (TL) in young Karatekas. Methods: eleven athletes (age 12.50±1.84 years) participated in this study. The training period/camp was performed on 5 consecutive days with two training session (s) per-day (d). Construct validity of RPE method in young Karate athletes, was studied by correlation analysis between RPE session’s training load and both Edwards and Banister’s training impulse score’ method. Results: significant relationship was found between inter-day (n-11 × d-5 × s-2 = 110) sessions RPE and Edwards (r values from 0.84 to 0.92 p < 0.001) and Banister’s (r values from 0.84 to 0.97 p < 0.001), respectively Conclusion: this study showed that session-RPE can be considered a valid method for quantifying karate’s training load in young karate athletes. PMID:25332921

  5. Development of motor and specific motor abilities for athletics in elementary school male and female first-graders.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Retelj, Edvard; Milat, Sanja; Ivanisević, Snjezana; Gudelj, Ines

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine canonic relations between the set of basic motor variables and the set of athletic variables assessing the abilities of sprint, throw and long-distance run adjusted for children aged seven years. Study sample consisted of 635 first-graders from Split elementary schools, divided into groups of 325 male and 310 female subjects. The set of nine variables of the basic motor space and three variables of situation motoricity in athletics were applied at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. Association between the sets of variables was determined by canonic correlation analysis. In male subjects, association between the sets of variables revealed a predominant effect of explosive strength on the sprint and throw ability on initial measurement. On final measurement, association in the first pair of canonic dimensions was underlain by the favorable impact of all strength factors with a predominance of explosive strength, which was accompanied by the development of flexibility and coordination, influencing performance in sprint and throwing; the second canonic variable was bipolar, differentiating aerobic endurance ability determined by above-average flexibility, frequency of lower extremity movements and static strength, and throwing ability determined by above-average equilibrium, explosive strength, coordination and repetitive strength. In female subjects, on initial measurement association in the first pair of canonic dimensions was mostly determined by the effect of explosive strength, repetitive strength of the trunk and movement frequency on general ability in athletics defined by the abilities of sprint, throw and long-distance run. Association in the second pair of canonic dimensions was determined by the impact of explosive strength and flexibility on sprint performance on the one hand, and by the effect of movement frequency and repetitive strength of the trunk on long-distance run performance on the other hand

  6. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  7. The effect of physical attractiveness of models on advertising effectiveness for male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  8. The Loss and Search for the Puer, A Consideration of Inferiority Feelings in Certain Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    A sense of inferiority in adolescent males can result from a split senex-puer archetype, a Jungian construct focused on the individual's identification with and/or repression of psychic age and youth. Adolescents experience healing of the split senex-puer archetype to the degrees to which they involve themselves in the eros and power of their life…

  9. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  10. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…

  12. Self-Regulated Learning and Executive Function: Exploring the Relationships in a Sample of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effeney, Gerard; Carroll, Annemaree; Bahr, Nan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between SRL and EF in a sample of 254 school-aged adolescent males. Two hypotheses were tested: that self-reported measures of SRL and EF are closely related and that as different aspects of EF mature during adolescence, the corresponding components of SRL should also improve, leading to an age-related…

  13. A Comparison of the Family Environments of Black Male and Female Adolescent Alcohol Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.

    1991-01-01

    Examined African-American adolescents' use of alcohol and their perceptions of their family environments. Alcohol-using adolescents (n=71) completed Family Environment Scale (FES). Analyses of data revealed that females differed significantly from males on 4 of 10 FES subscales. Findings support view that alcohol affects perception of family…

  14. Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for VO2max Relative to Fat Free Mass.

    PubMed

    Mageean, Amanda L; Alexander, Ryan P; Mier, Constance M

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in repeated sprint exercise (RSE) performance among male and female athletes matched for VO2max relative to FFM (VO2max FFM). Thirty nine male and female college athletes performed a graded exercise test for VO2max and hydrostatic weighing to determine FFM. From the results, 11 pairs of males and females matched for VO2max FFM (mean ± SD; 58.3 ± 4.3 and 58.9 ± 4.6 ml·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1); men and women, respectively) were identified. On a separate day, matched participants performed a RSE protocol that consisted of five 6-sec cycle sprints with 30-sec recovery periods, followed by 5-min active recovery and a 30-sec all-out sprint. Repeated 6-sec sprint performance did not differ between men and women; both maintained power output (PO) until sprint 4. POFFM (W·kg(-1) FFM) did not differ between men and women during the five sprints. During the 30-sec sprint, men achieved a lower peak POFFM than women (11.7 ± 1.5 vs 13.2 ± 1.2); however, the decline in POFFM over 30 sec was greater in women. VO2 (ml·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) was lower in men during recovery (24.4 ± 3.8 vs 28.7 ± 5.7) and at the beginning (29.2 ± 4.0 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and end (49.4 ± 5.0 vs 52.3 ± 4.0). of the 30-sec sprint. These data indicate that men and women with similar aerobic capacities do not respond differently to short repeated sprints but may differ in their ability to recover and perform sprints of longer duration.

  15. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance.

  16. Effects of a Six-Week Hip Thrust vs. Front Squat Resistance Training Program on Performance in Adolescent Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; McMaster, Daniel T; Reyneke, Jan H T; Cronin, John B

    2017-04-01

    Contreras, B, Vigotsky, AD, Schoenfeld, BJ, Beardsley, C, McMaster, DT, Reyneke, JHT, and Cronin, JB. Effects of a six-week hip thrust vs. front squat resistance training program on performance in adolescent males: A randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 999-1008, 2017-The barbell hip thrust may be an effective exercise for increasing horizontal force production and may thereby enhance performance in athletic movements requiring a horizontal force vector, such as horizontal jumping and sprint running. The ergogenic ability of the squat is well known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 6-week front squat and hip thrust programs in adolescent male athletes. Vertical jump height, horizontal jump distance, 10- and 20-m sprint times, and isometric midthigh pull peak force were among the measured performance variables, in addition to front squat and hip thrust 3 repetition maximum (3RM) strength. Magnitude-based effect sizes revealed potentially beneficial effects for the front squat in both front squat 3RM strength and vertical jump height when compared with the hip thrust. No clear benefit for one intervention was observed for horizontal jump performance. Potentially beneficial effects were observed for the hip thrust compared with the front squat in 10- and 20-m sprint times. The hip thrust was likely superior for improving normalized isometric midthigh pull strength and very likely superior for improving hip thrust 3RM and isometric midthigh pull strength. These results support the force vector theory.

  17. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53), contracted MS (MD=162.7N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53) and MAS (MD=422.1N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.23) than males. MAS increased linearly with the external load in both genders with males demonstrating a significantly higher slope (p=0.019) than females. The observed differences outlined above may contribute to the higher knee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males.

  18. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  19. Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574

  20. Peer passenger influences on male adolescent drivers’ visual scanning behavior during simulated driving

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Anuj K.; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C. Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Shope, Jean T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a higher likelihood of crashes and fatalities when an adolescent drives with peer passengers, especially for male drivers and male passengers. Simulated driving of male adolescent drivers with male peer passengers was studied to examine passenger influences on distraction and inattention. Methods Male adolescents drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator with a male confederate who posed either as a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Drivers’ eye-movements were recorded. The visual scanning behavior of the drivers was compared when driving alone versus when driving with a passenger, and when driving with a risk-accepting versus a risk-averse passenger. Results The visual scanning of a driver significantly narrowed horizontally and vertically when driving with a peer passenger. There were no significant differences in the times the drivers’ eyes were off the forward roadway when driving with a passenger versus when driving alone. Some significant correlations were found between personality characteristics and the outcome measures. Conclusions The presence of a male peer passenger was associated with a reduction in the visual scanning range of male adolescent drivers. This reduction could be a result of potential cognitive load imposed on the driver due to the presence of a passenger and the real or perceived normative influences or expectations from the passenger. Implications and contribution The presence of male peer passengers was associated with deficient visual scanning in male adolescent drivers. Such reduced scanning behavior is evident in drivers with high cognitive load. Further investigation of passenger influences on adolescent drivers should include examination of distraction and inattention aspects of passenger influence. PMID:24759440

  1. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  2. Is Body Composition Associated With An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Hornsby, Myles; Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between relative body composition and body mass to height, anterior knee pain, or patellofemoral pain (PFP) in adolescent female athletes. Background Patellofemoral pain is common in female athletes and has an undefined etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was an association among higher body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, and relative body fat percentage in the development of PFP in an adolescent female athlete population. We hypothesized that female athletes who developed PFP over the course of a competitive basketball season had higher relative body mass or body fat percentage compared with those who did not develop PFP. Methods Fifteen middle school basketball teams that consisted of 248 basketball players (mean age, 12.76 ± 1.13 years; height, 158.43 ± 7.78 cm; body mass, 52.35 ± 12.31 kg; BMI, 20.73 ± 3.88 kg/m2) agreed to participate in this study over the course of 2 basketball seasons, resulting in 262 athlete-seasons. Testing included the completion of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form, standardized history, physician-administered physical examination, maturational estimates, and anthropometrics. Results Of the 262 athlete-seasons monitored, 39 athletes developed PFP over the course of the study. The incidence rate of new PFP was 1.57 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The cumulative incidence of PFP was 14.9%. There was no difference in BMI between those who developed PFP (mean body mass, 20.2 kg/m2; 95% CI, 18.9–21.4) and those who did not develop PFP (mean body mass, 20.8 kg/m2; 95% CI, 20.3–21.3; P > 0.05). Body mass index z-scores were not different between those who developed PFP (mean, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.7–0.6) and those who did not develop PFP (mean, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3–0.6; P > 0.05). A similar trend was noted in relative body fat percentage, with mean scores of similar ranges in those who developed PFP (mean body fat

  3. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  4. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  5. The influence of resistance training experience on the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes.

    PubMed

    Weakley, Jonathon; Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Jones, Ben

    2017-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes, while considering resistance training experience. Data were collected on 25 male athletes over two testing sessions, with 72 hours rest between, for the 3RM front squat, chin up and bench press. Subjects were initially categorized by resistance training experience (inexperienced; 6-12 months, experienced; >2 years). The assessment of the between-day reliability (coefficient of variation [CV%]) showed the front squat (experienced: 2.90%; inexperienced: 1.90%), chin up (experienced: 1.70%; inexperienced: 1.90%), and bench press (experienced: 4.50%; inexperienced: 2.40%) were all reliable measures of strength in both groups. Comparison between groups for the error of measurement for each exercise showed trivial differences. When both groups were combined, the CV% for the front squat, bench press, and chin up were 2.50%, 1.80%, and 3.70%, respectively. This study provides scientists and practitioners with the between-day reliability reference data to determine real and practical changes for strength in male youth athletes with different resistance training experience. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that 3RM front squat, chin up and bench press are reliable exercises to quantify strength in male youth athletes.

  6. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sommerfield, Lesley M; McAnulty, Steven R; McBride, Jeffrey M; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Austin, Melanie D; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D; Calhoun, Mason C; Young, Juliane O; Haines, Traci L; Utter, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition.

  7. Control of dynamic foot-ground interactions in male and female soccer athletes: females exhibit reduced dexterity and higher limb stiffness during landing.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Mark A; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J; Gregor, Robert J; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-01-22

    Controlling dynamic interactions between the lower limb and ground is important for skilled locomotion and may influence injury risk in athletes. It is well known that female athletes sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears at higher rates than male athletes, and exhibit lower extremity biomechanics thought to increase injury risk during sport maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower extremity dexterity (LED)--the ability to dynamically control endpoint force magnitude and direction as quantified by compressing an unstable spring with the lower limb at submaximal forces--is a potential contributing factor to the "at-risk" movement behavior exhibited by female athletes. We tested this hypothesis by comparing LED-test performance and single-limb drop jump biomechanics between 14 female and 14 male high school soccer players. We found that female athletes exhibited reduced LED-test performance (p=0.001) and higher limb stiffness during landing (p=0.008) calculated on average within 51 ms of foot contact. Females also exhibited higher coactivation at the ankle (p=0.001) and knee (p=0.02) before landing. No sex differences in sagittal plane joint angles and center of mass velocity at foot contact were observed. Collectively, our results raise the possibility that the higher leg stiffness observed in females during landing is an anticipatory behavior due in part to reduced lower extremity dexterity. The reduced lower extremity dexterity and compensatory stiffening strategy may contribute to the heightened risk of ACL injury in this population.

  8. Brief Report: The Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males--A Descriptive Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Andrew J.; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N = 86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture…

  9. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  10. "You're So Gay!:" Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…

  11. Male Adolescent Birth Control Behavior: The Importance of Developmental Factors and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)

  12. Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

  13. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  14. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…

  15. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Magal, Meir; Cain, Rebekah J.; Long, Josh C.; Thomas, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p < 0.05). A-two-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed a non-significant time or treatment effect for USG or body mass but did demonstrate a significant USG interaction. In addition, an independent t-test examining absolute changes in USG demonstrated a significant difference between groups in which the EXP group improved hydration status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body

  16. CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF AN ISOLATED GRADE III LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY IN AN ADOLESCENT MULTI-SPORT ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, M. Alex; Budich, Justin M.; Eckenrode, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case report Background Isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament knee injuries are an uncommon traumatic injury with little guidance available in the literature for conservative management and prognosis for return to sport. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical decision-making in both differential diagnosis and physical therapy management of an isolated grade III lateral collateral ligament sprain in an adolescent multi-sport high school athlete. Case Description A 16 year-old male, high school, multi-sport athlete (cross country, wrestling, track and field) sustained a traumatic knee injury during a wrestling match when his involved lower extremity was forcefully externally rotated by his opponent. Initial clinical presentation revealed pain and increased laxity with varus stress testing of the left knee, which was subsequently identified via MRI as a complete lateral collateral ligament rupture (grade III). A conservative physical therapy program was developed targeting the active and neuromuscular subsystems, theorized to compensate for the lack of an intact lateral collateral ligament. Outcomes The subject attended 18 visits of physical therapy over a period of 12 weeks. His rehabilitation program focused on functional strengthening of the posterolateral corner, enhancement of neuromuscular control, and graded progression to sports specific drills. Return to play decisions were based on a combination of lower extremity functional performance measures, condition specific outcome measures and subjective performance on sports specific tasks. At discharge from physical therapy, he reported 0/10 pain, scored a 76/80 on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and was able to return to competitive track and field events. Discussion Few descriptions in the literature exist for the conservative management of isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament injuries. A program of selective functional strengthening

  17. Delinquency and Reputational Orientations of Adolescent At-Risk and Not-at-Risk Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…

  18. Knee extension strength in obese and nonobese male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula, Achref; Martin, Vincent; Bouchant, Antoine; Walrand, Stéphane; Lavet, Cédric; Taillardat, Michel; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Boisseau, Nathalie; Duché, Pascale; Ratel, Sébastien

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare "absolute" and "relative" knee extension strength between obese and nonobese adolescents. Ten nonobese and 12 severely obese adolescent boys of similar chronological age, maturity status, and height were compared. Total body and regional soft tissue composition were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Knee extensors maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque was measured using an isometric dynamometer at a knee angle of 60° (0° is full extension). Absolute MVC torque was significantly higher in obese adolescents than in controls. However, although MVC torque expressed per unit of body mass was found to be significantly lower in obese adolescent boys, no significant difference in MVC torque was found between groups when normalized to fat-free mass. Conversely, when correcting for thigh lean mass and estimated thigh muscle mass, MVC torque was significantly higher in the obese group (17.9% and 22.2%, respectively; P <0.05). To conclude, our sample of obese adolescent boys had higher absolute and relative knee extension strength than our nonobese controls. However, further studies are required to ascertain whether or not relative strength, measured with more accurate in vivo methods such as magnetic resonance imaging, is higher in obese adolescents than in nonobese controls.

  19. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  20. Factors that adolescent males take into account in decisions about an unplanned pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Corkindale, Carolyn J; Condon, John T; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a larger study with teenage males [Condon, J. T., Corkindale, C. J., Russell, A., & Quinlivan, J. A. (2006). Processes and factors underlying adolescent males' attitudes and decision-making in relation to an unplanned pregnancy. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 447-458], and extends the findings of that study. Using a 25-item scale embedded in an electronic role-play, data were obtained from 330 male Australian school students on their priorities and concerns in relation to possible outcomes of a partner's pregnancy. Common factors taken into account by almost the entire adolescent sample related to the negative effects of becoming a teenage father. The differences between participants were identified using cluster analysis, which produced three groupings. The majority group was characterised as 'well-balanced' (80.6%), and the two minority groups as 'unwilling/unready' (10.9%) and 'family-centred' (8.5%). Group membership was strongly predictive of the males' final decision regarding the hypothetical pregnancy outcome. Understanding adolescent attitudes and beliefs when faced with this decision may assist practitioners in their guidance of the young couple and help prevent negative psychological sequelae.

  1. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Longman, Daniel; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D) was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km), representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001) and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02). Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  2. Can Persistence Hunting Signal Male Quality? A Test Considering Digit Ratio in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Longman, Daniel; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Stock, Jay T.

    2015-01-01

    Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. ‘Having’ theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, ‘getting’ theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D) was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km), representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001) and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02). Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness. PMID:25853679

  3. The Brotherhood: Empowering Adolescent African-American Males toward Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…

  4. Serum zinc is associated with plasma leptin and Cu-Zn SOD in elite male basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Fan, Bin; Wu, Zhaozhao; Xu, Minxiao; Luo, Yufeng

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between plasma trace element and plasma leptin, as well as percent fat mass, in 16 male basketball athletes. Blood samples were obtained before intensive training and 24h after intensive training to measure plasma zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and leptin levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG), total and cholesterol (TC) levels were determined using commercially available kits for humans. Subjects presented similar values in terms of age (21.1±2.2 years old), body mass index (23.9±2.00kg/m(2)), percent body fat (14.40±1.52%), plasma hemoglobin (150.1±9.4g/L), plasma Zn (17.47±1.28μmol/l), plasma Cu (13.42±1.40μmol/L), plasma Ca (2.41±0.14mmol/L), and plasma Mg (0.96±0.02mmol/L). The correlation analysis between degree of plasma leptin and plasma element contents was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Plasma Zn correlated positively with plasma leptin (r=0.746, P<0.01), Cu-Zn SOD (r=0.827, P<0.01), and negatively with percent fat mass (r=-0.598, P<0.05) under no-training conditions. Meanwhile, plasma Cu, Ca, Mg, and Fe did not correlate with plasma leptin or percent fat mass (P>0.05). In conclusion, plasma Zn may be involved in the regulation of plasma leptin and may serve as a lipid-mobilizing factor in Chinese men's basketball athletes.

  5. Changes in Kidney Functions during Middle-distance Triathlon in Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Poortmans, J R; Jeannaud, F; Baudry, S; Carpentier, A

    2015-11-01

    Strenuous exercise induces proteinuria which is related to the intensity of exercise. However, renal responses to each type of exercise during a middle-distance triathlon have not been reported. The present study, carried out on 7 healthy athletes, investigated renal function at rest and after each exercise of a half-triathlon race. Blood and urine samples were collected at rest and after each specific event. Protein excretion and renal clearances were determined on each sample. Compared with resting values, albuminuria was increased by a factor of 30 (p<0.05) after swimming but did not differ from the resting value after cycling and running (p>0.05). Rates of β2-microglobulin and retinol-binding protein excretion did not change throughout the triathlon (p>0.05). Glomerular filtration rate (expressed as creatinine clearance) remained stable after each exercise event, whereas tubular reabsorption rate (expressed as urea clearance) was reduced by 50, 40 and 65% after swimming, cycling and running, respectively, compared to pre-exercise values (p<0.05). Glomerular membrane permeability (expressed as albumin clearance) was significantly increased by the swimming event (13 times, p<0.05). These results suggest that middle-distance triathlon has a noticeable impact on the glomerular membrane permeability (albumin clearance) and elimination of protein waste (urea clearance) depending on exercise type.

  6. Effects of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Bauer, Timm; Kinscherf, Ralf; Vorwald, Silke; Klute, Konstanze; Bischoff, Dirk; Müller, Helmut; Weber, Marc-André; Metz, Jürgen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Billeter, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    In classic concentric/eccentric exercise, the same absolute load is applied in concentric and eccentric actions, which infers a smaller relative eccentric load. We compared the effects of 6 weeks of classic concentric/eccentric quadriceps strength training (CON/ECC, 11 subjects) to eccentric overload training (CON/ECC+, 14 subjects) in athletes accustomed to regular strength training. The parameters determined included functional tests, quadriceps and fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre type distribution by ATPase staining, localisation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform mRNAs by situ hybridization and the steady-state levels of 48 marker mRNAs (RT-PCR) in vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and after training. Both training forms had anabolic effects with significant increases in quadriceps CSA, maximal strength, ribosomal RNA content and the levels of mRNAs involved in growth and regeneration. Only the CON/ECC+ training led to significantly increased height in a squat jump test. This was accompanied by significant increases in IIX fibre CSA, in the percentage of type IIA fibres expressing MHC IIx mRNA, in the level of mRNAs preferentially expressed in fast, glycolytic fibres, and in post-exercise capillary lactate. The enhanced eccentric load apparently led to a subtly faster gene expression pattern and induced a shift towards a faster muscle phenotype plus associated adaptations that make a muscle better suited for fast, explosive movements.

  7. Pathways to interleukin-6 in healthy males and serious leisure male athletes: physical activity, body composition and age.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Leah; M Macey, Paul; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is beneficial to overall health, in part due to physiological changes that lower risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including reduced inflammation. However, the mechanism by which PA reduces inflammation is unclear. One possible pathway is that PA improves body composition which in turn reduces inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess PA-body composition -inflammation pathways, as well as influences of age. In a sample of 72 healthy males with a range of PA profiles (age 18-65, mean ± sd = ), we measured PA as metabolic equivalent tasks (as per the International PA Questionnaire), body composition as percent body fat, lean mass, and fat mass, and inflammation as plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6). We treated body composition in the SEM analysis as a latent variable indicated by the three measures. We performed statistical corrections for missing values and one outlier. The model demonstrated significant effects of PA on IL-6 both directly and through body composition. Percent body fat, fat mass, and lean mass were significant indicators of the body composition latent variable. Additionally, age showed an indirect effect on IL-6 through body composition, but no direct effect. The findings suggest that PA does improve inflammatory profile through improving body composition, but that other pathways also exist.

  8. Indoor Tanning Use among Adolescent Males: The Role of Perceived Weight and Bullying

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Traeger, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Background Appearance motives predict indoor tanning use in adolescents; however, research has primarily focused on females. Salient social factors, such as bullying victimization have yet to be explored in the context of indoor tanning. Purpose To examine the role of perceived weight and bullying victimization in indoor tanning use among adolescent males. Methods Data on perceived weight, bullying victimization, and frequency of indoor tanning were obtained from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey—a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. Results The association of perceived weight status with indoor tanning use significantly varied by bullying victimization, such that perceiving oneself as being very underweight or very overweight was associated with increased indoor tanning, particularly for those males who were victims of bullying. Conclusions Bullying victimization may be a risk factor for indoor tanning use among adolescent males who perceive their weight as extreme. PMID:23494291

  9. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    g·dL-1, p < 0.05), suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05) and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1) after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball). Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes. Key points Grape extract consumption improves the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in sportsmen. Grape extract consumption enhances physical performance in one category of sportsmen (Handball). The performance enhancement might be caused by the protective action of grape extract during physical exercise. PMID:24150013

  10. Emotion Recognition and Perspective Taking: A Comparison between Typical and Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Zaharia, Alexandra; Brosch, Tobias; Eliez, Stephan; Bateman, Anthony; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that antisocial individuals present impairment in social cognitive processing, more specifically in emotion recognition (ER) and perspective taking (PT). The first aim of the present study was to investigate the recognition of a wide range of emotional expressions and visual PT capacities in a group of incarcerated male adolescents in comparison to a matched group of community adolescents. Secondly, we sought to explore the relationship between these two mechanisms in relation to psychopathic traits. Methods Forty-five male adolescents (22 incarcerated adolescents (Mage = 16.52, SD = 0.96) and 23 community adolescents (Mage = 16.43, SD = 1.41)) participated in the study. ER abilities were measured using a dynamic and multimodal task that requires the participants to watch short videos in which trained actors express 14 emotions. PT capacities were examined using a task recognized and proven to be sensitive to adolescent development, where participants had to follow the directions of another person whilst taking into consideration his perspective. Results We found a main effect of group on emotion recognition scores. In comparison to the community adolescents, the incarcerated adolescents presented lower recognition of three emotions: interest, anxiety and amusement. Analyses also revealed significant impairments in PT capacities in incarcerated adolescents. In addition, incarcerated adolescents’ PT scores were uniquely correlated to their scores on recognition of interest. Conclusions The results corroborate previously reported impairments in ER and PT capacities, in the incarcerated adolescents. The study also indicates an association between impairments in the recognition of interest and impairments in PT. PMID:28122048

  11. Selected issues for the adolescent athlete and the team physician: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    This document provides an overview of selected medical issues that are important to team physicians who are responsible for the care and treatment of athletes. It is not intended as a standard of care and should not be interpreted as such. This document is only a guide and, as such, is of a general nature, consistent with the reasonable, objective practice of the healthcare profession. Adequate insurance should be in place to help protect the physician, the athlete, and the sponsoring organization. This statement was developed by a collaboration of six major professional associations concerned about clinical sports medicine issues; they have committed to forming an ongoing project-based alliance to bring together sports medicine organizations to best serve active people and athletes. The organizations are: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and the American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine.

  12. Creating lasting attitude and behavior change in fraternity members and male student athletes: the qualitative impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program.

    PubMed

    Foubert, John D; Perry, Bradford C

    2007-01-01

    Fraternity members and male student athletes responded to open-ended questions assessing the impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program. All participants reported either lasting attitude or behavior changes; most reported both. Participants reported increased understanding of how rape might feel and attributed this change to seeing a videotape describing a male-on-male rape situation. Participants refrained from telling jokes about rape and reported feeling more effective when helping survivors seeking assistance. These behavior changes were attributed to the videotape and to a section of the program encouraging participants to confront rape jokes and challenge sexist behaviors.

  13. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  14. Anticipatory Socialization and Male Catholic Adolescent Socio-Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, James M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Merton and Kitts' thesis of anticipatory socialization is supported. The importance of the class of destination, as opposed to the class of origin is underscored implying that anticipatory socialization is a primary explanation for differential attitudes formulated before adolescents have undergone mobility or achieved status positions equal to…

  15. Development of Male Proactive and Reactive Physical Aggression during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Vitaro, Frank; Lacourse, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different developmental courses have been postulated for proactive and reactive aggression. Objective: Investigated the developmental course of proactive and reactive aggression in a large sample of adolescent boys from low socioeconomic areas. Method: A dual group-based joint trajectory method was used to identify distinct…

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Offending for Male Adolescents Leaving Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Hernandez, Pedro M.; Herz, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties that adolescents encounter as they age out of the foster care system are numerous and fairly well documented. Such difficulties include poor health, lack of affordable housing, low-wage employment, limited educational opportunities, and unreliable or nonexistent familial support. These difficulties often increase the likelihood of…

  17. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective: This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth…

  18. Sensory Integration and Ego Development in a Schizophrenic Adolescent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Karen A.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study compared hours spent by a schizophrenic adolescent in "time out" before and after initiation of treatment. The study evaluated the effects of sensory integrative treatment on the ability to handle anger and frustration. Results demonstrate the utility of statistical analysis versus visual comparison to validate effectiveness…

  19. Reducing the Risk of Postoperative Genital Complications in Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossanova, ?ssem; Lozovoy, Vasiliy; Wood, Dan; ??nekenova, ?enzhekyz; Botabayeva, ?igul; Dossanov, Bolatbek; Lozovaya, Yelena; ?marov, ?algat

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive system of adolescents is exposed to a high risk of anomalies. In spite of the successes of surgical correction, the percentage of postoperative complications remains high. Special attention should be paid to circumcision, which is regarded as a religious tradition in many countries and carried out with sanitary violations. This…

  20. Reliability and validity of a 20-s alternative to the wingate anaerobic test in team sport male athletes.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Gaddour, Abdelmajid; Neji, Zied; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20) versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30) could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg) who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for peak power output (PPO) (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95) and mean power output (MPO) (ICC 0.98 and 0.90) did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin) and fatigue index (FI) were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76). Standard errors of the means (SEM) for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were "marginal," with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97), with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively). Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30.

  1. Effects of exercise on alterations in redox homeostasis in elite male and female endurance athletes using a clinical point-of-care test.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan A; Towey, Colin; Bruinvels, Georgie; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R

    2016-10-01

    Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant). Elite male and female endurance athletes (n = 22) completed a discontinuous incremental treadmill protocol at submaximal running speeds and a test to exhaustion. Redox measures were analyzed via blood sampling at rest, warm-up, submaximal exercise, exhaustion, and recovery. FORD was elevated above rest after submaximal and maximal exercise, and recovery (p < 0.05, d = 0.87-1.55), with only maximal exercise and recovery increasing FORT (p < 0.05, d = 0.23-0.32). Overall, a decrease in oxidative stress in response to submaximal and maximal exercise was evident (p < 0.05, d = 0.46). There were no gender differences for ARH (p > 0.05). The velocity at lactate threshold (vLT) correlated with the FORD response at rest, maximal exercise, and recovery (p < 0.05). Using the clinical POC redox test, an absence of oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise is evident in the nonfatigued elite endurance athlete. The blood antioxidant response (FORD) to exercise appears to be related to a key marker of aerobic fitness: vLT.

  2. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Anorexia Nervosa: A Misdiagnosis of the Adolescent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses rarity of anorexia nervosa among male population with primary reference to differences from female symptomatology. Presents case which implies that anorexia nervosa in the male may be a marker for other more severe pathology. Presents findings which suggest a diagnostic strategy based on familial, behavioral, environmental, educational,…

  4. Culturally Responsive Social Skills Instruction for Adolescent Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr

    2011-01-01

    The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…

  5. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A

    2004-08-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation.

  6. Heel pain due to psoriatic arthritis in a 50 year old recreational male athlete: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yedon, Dominique Forand; Howitt, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Heel pain is a common presentation in a sports injury practice, with a list of common differentials including achilles tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis. However, seronegative arthritis can also cause enthesopathies that produce heel pain and should be considered in a differential diagnosis list. In this case, a 50 year old recreationally active male presented with non-traumatic insidious heel pain and without history of any skin conditions or any other symptoms of seronegative spondyloarthritis. Clinical suspicion led to laboratory testing and radiographs/bone scan which yielded the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:22131565

  7. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  8. Resveratrol exerts no effect on inflammatory response and delayed onset muscle soreness after a marathon in male athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Laupheimer, M W; Perry, M; Benton, S; Malliaras, P; Maffulli, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the inflammatory response and delayed onset of muscle soreness after a marathon are altered by resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant. Design: Double blind placebo-controlled randomised pilot study. Setting: London Marathon. Participants: Marathon race participants Interventions: 7 healthy male athletes were randomised to receive Resveratrol (600 mg Resveratrol daily for 7 days immediately before the marathon) or a placebo. Main Outcome Measurements: Blood samples taken 48 hours before and 18–32 hours after the marathon were analysed for white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A VAS score was taken at the same times as the blood samples to assess delayed onset muscle soreness. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes occurring between pre- and post- tests for WBC, CRP or VAS. Conclusions: There were no differences in immune response or delayed onset muscle soreness between resveratrol and placebo after a marathon. Further investigations are needed with longer treatment time and higher doses, analysing additional parameters such interleukins for a possible effect of resveratrol on the inflammatory response due to extensive exercise. To avoid a type II error, 17 subjects in each group would be required. PMID:25147765

  9. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  11. Anaerobic performance and metabolism in boys and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beneke, Ralph; Hütler, Matthias; Leithäuser, Renate M

    2007-12-01

    Short-term maximum intensity performance, absolute and related to body mass, is lower in children than adolescents. The underlying mechanisms are not clear. We analysed Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) performance and metabolism in ten boys (mean (SD); age 11.8 (0.5) years, height 1.51 (0.05) m, body mass 36.9 (2.5) kg, muscle mass 13.0 (1.0) kg) and 10 adolescents (16.3 (0.7) years, 1.81 (0.05) m, 67.3 (4.1) kg, 28.2 (1.7) kg). Related to body mass, power of flywheel acceleration (6.0 (1.6) vs. 8.1 (1.1) W kg(-1)), peak power (10.8 (0.7) vs. 11.5 (0.6) W kg(-1)), average power (7.9 (0.5) vs. 8.9 (0.7) W kg(-1)), minimum power (6.1 (0.7) vs. 6.9 (0.9) W kg(-1)) and anaerobic lactic energy (687.6 (75.6) vs. 798.2 (43.0) J kg(-1)) were lower (P < 0.05) in boys than in adolescents. Related to muscle mass the change in lactate (0.69 (0.08) vs. 0.69 (0.04) mmol kg (MM) (-1) s(-1)) and PCr (0.60 (0.17) vs. 0.52 (0.10) mmol kg (MM) (-1) s(-1)) were not different. The corresponding oxygen uptake (1.34 (0.13) vs. 1.09 (0.13) ml kg (MM) (-1) s(-1)), total metabolic rate (132.4 (12.6) vs. 119.7 (8.5) W kg (MM) (-1) ) and PP (30.5 (2.6) vs. 27.5 (1.7 W) kg (MM) (-1) ) were higher (P < 0.01) in boys than in adolescents. The results reflect a lower relative muscle mass combined with no differences in muscular anaerobic but fascilitated aerobic metabolism in boys. Compared with adolescents, boys' performance seemed to be significantly impaired by flywheel inertia but supported by identical brake force related to body mass.

  12. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  13. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot A A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  14. Control of dynamic foot-ground interactions in male and female soccer athletes: Females exhibit reduced dexterity and higher limb stiffness during landing

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Mark A.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Gregor, Robert J.; Powers, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling dynamic interactions between the lower limb and ground is important for skilled locomotion and may influence injury risk in athletes. It is well known that female athletes sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears at higher rates than male athletes, and exhibit lower extremity biomechanics thought to increase injury risk during sport maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower extremity dexterity (LED) – the ability to dynamically control endpoint force magnitude and direction as quantified by compressing an unstable spring with the lower limb at submaximal forces – is a potential contributing factor to the “at-risk” movement behavior exhibited by female athletes. We tested this hypothesis by comparing LED-test performance and single-limb drop jump biomechanics between 14 female and 14 male high school soccer players. We found that female athletes exhibited reduced LED-test performance (p=0.001) and higher limb stiffness during landing (p=0.008) calculated on average within 51 ms of foot contact. Females also exhibited higher coactivation at the ankle (p=0.001) and knee (p=0.02) before landing. No sex differences in sagittal plane joint angles and center of mass velocity at foot contact were observed. Collectively, our results raise the possibility that the higher leg stiffness observed in females during landing is an anticipatory behavior due in part to reduced lower extremity dexterity. The reduced lower extremity dexterity and compensatory stiffening strategy may contribute to the heightened risk of ACL injury in this population. PMID:24275440

  15. Event-related differences in the cross-sectional areas and torque generation capabilities of quadriceps femoris and hamstrings in male high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Masataka; Iida, Tomomi; Uchiyama, Akiko; Nakajima, Yoshiharu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the event-related differences in the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and torque generation capabilities of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings (HAM) in male high school athletes. Subjects were soccer players (n=32), volleyball players (21), rowers (29), karate athletes (18), sumo wrestlers (15), sprinters (22), throwers (16), and nonathletes (20). The CSAs of QF and HAM at the mid-thigh were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, isokinetic torques during knee extension and flexion were determined at a pre-set velocity of 1.05 rad/s. The CSAs of the two muscle groups and torques developed in the two motions were significantly related to the two-third power of lean body mass (LBM(2/3)) and the product of CSA and femur length (CSA*fl), calculated as an index of muscle volume, respectively. CSA relative to LBM(2/3) for QF did not differ among the groups, but that for HAM was higher in sprinters, soccer players, throwers, and karate athletes than in sumo wrestlers, rowers, volleyball players, and nonathletes. Knee extension torque relative to the CSA*fl of QF was higher in karate athletes, soccer players, and rowers than in nonathletes, but the corresponding value for knee flexion did not differ among groups. Thus, the present study indicated that, at least in male high school athletes, the event-related differences in LBM and the muscularity of QF and HAM produced the corresponding differences in the CSAs of the reciprocal muscle groups and knee extension and flexion torques, respectively. However, specific profiles related to competitive and/or training styles exist in HAM CSA and knee extension torque, which cannot be explained by the magnitude of LBM and QF CSA, respectively.

  16. Bullying Victimisation and Social Support of Adolescent Male Dance Students: An Analysis of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This analysis (n?=?33), drawn from the findings of the author's larger mixed method research study, investigated bullying and harassment of adolescent male students (ages 13-18) pursuing dance study at the pre-professional level in the United States. Procedures for this analysis included review of primary and secondary sources from the…

  17. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  18. Adolescent Males, Impulsive/Aggressive Behavior, and Alcohol Abuse: Biological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matykiewicz, Lynn; La Grange, Linda; Reyes, Edward; Vance, Peter; Wang, Mu

    1997-01-01

    Compared adjudicated male adolescents (N=37) to middle school students on measures of glucose nadir and urinary 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), a serotonin metabolite. Results show that adjudicated youth had significantly lower levels of both substances, supporting previous studies linking low glucose and 5-HIAA levels to impulsivity,…

  19. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  20. Developing Argument Skills in Severely Disadvantaged Adolescent Males in a Residential Correctional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fuccio, MaryAnne; Kuhn, Deanna; Udell, Wadiya; Callender, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the intervention designed by Kuhn and Udell (2003) to develop argument skills could be implemented productively among adolescent males in a residential juvenile detention facility--boys who were educationally disengaged and severely disadvantaged academically as well as socially. Compared to a control group from the same…

  1. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  2. Bilateral parotid enlargement as a presenting feature of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, J. A.; Fortune, F.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male is reported. The clinical presentation was one of painless parotid swelling of 3 years duration with marked weight loss and underlying metabolic alkalosis. The diagnostic significance of parotid salivary gland swellings is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8140014

  3. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Reports of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yah, Fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study, based upon the national 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of U.S. high school students, provides the most current and representative data on physical dating violence among adolescent males (N = 6,528) The dependent variable was physical dating violence. The independent variables included four dimensions: violence, suicide,…

  5. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  6. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  7. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  8. Three Avid Adolescent Male Writers' Experiences at a Residential Summer Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruday, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This study explored three purposefully-sampled avid adolescent male writers' experiences at a residential summer writing workshop program. It investigated how the social context of the program influenced the writing of the focal students, the ways that they identified themselves as writers, and the risks that they took in their works. It also…

  9. Factors Related to the Self-Concept of Institutionalized, White, Male, Adolescent Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Barbara; Griffing, Penelope

    1983-01-01

    Examined factors related to the self-concept of institutionalized male drug abusers (N=140). The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, a family questionnaire, and an interview were administered. Results yielded several predictors of self-concept, including parent-adolescent relationship, number of prior status offenses, and preference for nondepressant…

  10. The Experience of Male Adolescent Refugees during Their Transfer and Adaptation to a UK Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a study which investigated the experience of six male adolescent refugees during their transfer and adaptation to a secondary school in the UK. The research used a qualitative design. The approach adopted was Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The data generated three superordinate themes which reflected the…

  11. Reading Problems, Attentional Deficits, and Current Mental Health Status in Adjudicated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…

  12. Privilege of Whiteness: Adolescent Male Students' Resistance to Racism in an Australian Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchell, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In this article I explore links between racism and 'whiteness' within hegemonic masculine discourses. I examine ways in which adolescent male students construct their own identities within a privileged white position. I acknowledge whiteness as a racial issue and interrogate different forms of whiteness through students' narratives. Adolescent…

  13. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  14. Spiritual Identity in Israeli Religious Male Adolescents: Observations and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2002-01-01

    Based on Herbert's (1987) theory of ego identity development and on interviews of hundreds of Israeli religious male adolescents and young adults who were raised and educated in religious society and later left the fold, this article presents a model of development of religious identity. Three levels of religious identity development--healthy,…

  15. Enhancing Writing Achievement through a Digital Learning Environment: Case Studies of Three Struggling Adolescent Male Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruden, Manning; Kerkhoff, Shea N.; Spires, Hiller A.; Lester, James

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how "Narrative Theatre," a narrative-centered digital learning environment, supported the writing processes of 3 struggling adolescent male writers. We utilized a multicase study approach to capture 3 sixth-grade participants' experiences with the digital learning environment before, during, and after…

  16. Factors that Adolescent Males Take into Account in Decisions about an Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…

  17. Aberrant Paralimbic Gray Matter in Incarcerated Male Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain structure and psychopathic traits in maximum-security incarcerated male adolescents, and to examine whether the associations between brain volumes in paralimbic and limbic regions and psychopathic traits observed in incarcerated adult men extend to an independent sample of incarcerated male…

  18. Family Structure, Parental Strictness, and Sexual Behavior among Inner-City Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Jemmott, John B., III

    1992-01-01

    Family structure, parental strictness, and sexual behavior were examined among black male adolescents (n=200). Those living with both parents used condoms more frequently. Those who believed that their mothers were more strict than others reported less frequent coitus with fewer women, while those perceiving their father to be more strict used…

  19. Athletic coaches as violence prevention advocates.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Stetkevich, Nicholas; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is a significant public health problem. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based ARA prevention program that trains coaches to deliver violence prevention messages to male athletes. Assessing acceptability and impact of CBIM on coaches may inform prevention efforts that involve these important adults in health promotion among youth. As part of a two-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial of CBIM in 16 high schools in Northern California, coaches completed baseline and postseason surveys (n = 176) to assess their attitudes and confidence delivering the program. Coaches in the intervention arm also participated in interviews (n = 36) that explored program acceptability, feasibility, and impact. Relative to controls, intervention coaches showed increases in confidence intervening when witnessing abusive behaviors among their athletes, greater bystander intervention, and greater frequency of violence-related discussions with athletes and other coaches. Coaches reported the program was easy to implement and valuable for their athletes. Findings illustrate the value of exploring attitudinal and behavioral changes among ARA prevention implementers, and suggest that coaches can gain confidence and enact behaviors to discourage ARA among male athletes. Coaches found the program to be feasible and valuable, which suggests potential for long-term uptake and sustainability.

  20. Lack of recent condom use among detained adolescent males: a multilevel investigation

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, R; Salazar, L; DiClemente, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate multiple levels of influence with respect to the lack of recent condom use among a high risk sample of adolescent males recruited from short term detention facilities. Methods: A cross sectional survey of 231 adolescent males serving, predominantly, short term detention sentences. Assessments were conducted using audiocomputer assisted self interviewing. Condom use during the most recent sexual event was assessed as well as 20 potential correlates of not using condoms. Correlates were assessed within five levels of causation: personal, relational, peer affiliation, family, and societal. Results: Nine correlates achieved bivariate significance (p<0.05). Of these, the personal level correlates were particularly important in a multivariate model. The motivation subscale from the Condom Barriers Scale was the strongest multivariate correlate of recent condom use. Adolescents scoring below the median were about 3.4 times more likely to report lack of recent condom use (p = 0.0006). Adolescents indicating they had ever caused a pregnancy were about 2.5 times more likely to report lack of condom use (p = 0.02). Finally, those reporting their peers did not use condoms were about twice as likely to report lack of use (p = 0.048). Conclusion: Upon investigating multiple levels of potential influence on condom use, the multivariate findings suggest that personal level factors may be the most important determinant of non-use among adolescent males in short term detention facilities. Although structural changes may be needed to influence some forms of safer sex behaviour, direct intervention with adolescent males may be justified to favourably alter determinants of condom use. PMID:15572607

  1. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Balraj; Treece, Jennifer M.; Bhatheja, Samit; Lavine, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT) scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal. PMID:27738530

  2. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  3. The approach to elbow pain in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Sommer; Sgromolo, Nicole; Atanda, Alfred

    2014-02-01

    Elbow pain in pediatric throwing athletes can be very concerning and challenging to diagnose. Diagnosis involves determining whether the injury is chronic or acute in nature and the anatomical location of the pain. Physicians should be aware of the sport-specific forces that predispose athletes with immature skeletons to injury and should be familiar with the common presentations of these injuries. In order to narrow the diagnosis, physicians should gather a detailed history of how and when the pain occurred in addition to performing a thorough physical exam that includes tests, such as the modified milking maneuver and the moving valgus stress test. Appropriate imaging helps physicians to confirm the diagnosis and elucidates any associated pathology in patients. In most cases, the treatment given to patients is conservative and involves rest, ice, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain, and an appropriate physical therapy regimen with a progressive return to play when symptoms have resolved. When patients fail to respond to conservative treatment, surgical intervention may be needed. Knowing when to refer patients for orthopedic evaluation helps athletes return to play quickly and safely.

  4. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  5. Assessment and treatment of knee pain in the child and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Meng

    2014-12-01

    Knee pain in children and adolescents is one of the most prevalent complaints in a pediatric practice, accounting for at least a third of musculoskeletal complaints. Accurate diagnosis requires an understanding of knee anatomy and patterns of knee injuries and skill in physical examination. This review covers the most common causes of knee pain in children and adolescents, including overuse issues, such as Osgood-Schlatter and osteochondritis dissecans, as well as traumatic injuries, including tibial spine fractures and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

  6. Body weight changes in child and adolescent athletes during a triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2013-01-01

    We examined young athletes during a triathlon performed in a hot climate. Complete or partial data were available for 95 athletes competing in the National Triathlon Championship in Costa Rica. Mean ± SD for age and body weight (BW) were 13.1 ± 2.5 years and 46.3 ± 11.5 kg, respectively. Race requirements included: 500 m swimming, 15 km cycling, 3.5 km running for juniors (9-13 years); 800 m swimming, 30 km cycling, 8 km running for seniors (14-17 years). WBGT on race day was >31 °C. BW recorded pre- and post-race was available for 92 athletes and performance data were available for 83 of these. Information regarding symptoms experienced during the race was available for 95 athletes. Change in BW (%ΔBW) was calculated and ranged from +0.6 to -2.4 % for junior boys (-1.2 ± 0.9 %), +0.7 to -2.5 % for junior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), 0 to -2.8 % for senior girls (-1.3 ± 0.9 %), and +0.6 to -4.5 % for senior boys (-1.7 ± 1.1 %). Eighteen participants reported no medical symptoms. Of 77 participants who reported symptoms, 42.9 % reported exhaustion/fatigue, 36.4 % reported side stitch/cramp, and 23.4 % reported dizziness. Participants reporting no medical symptoms achieved almost identical (P = 0.99) %ΔBW as those reporting at least one symptom. %ΔBW was more negative (P = 0.005) in participants who reported dizziness (-1.9 %ΔBW) compared with those who did not (-1.4 %ΔBW). %ΔBW was associated with performance in junior girls (r = 0.47, P = 0.02) and senior boys (r = 0.51, P = 0.01), with a trend in junior boys (r = 0.41, P = 0.053) but not in senior girls (r = 0.004, P = 0.99). Young athletes participating in a triathlon in a hot climate can tolerate mild to moderate levels of dehydration, without detrimental effects to self-assessed health.

  7. Range Is Everything! Success with the Adolescent Male Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Wayman, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The changing male voice has long been a challenge, not only for students but also for directors who need to find just the right music to help students feel most successful. This article presents the key elements for success in selecting boys' literature: (1) Know the students' voices; (2) Range is everything; (3) Avoid pitches below A for tenors;…

  8. Resiliency in Adolescent Males in a Correctional Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Baartman, Jyl; Buboltz, Michelle; Sonnichsen, Kim; Solomon, Rebekka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to establish the existing positive factors in the lives of 18 juvenile males living in a low-security correctional facility in order to determine approaches which foster resiliency. Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, an approach to understanding human development within the context of the…

  9. Color Vision Deficiency and Functional Disorders Among Israeli Male Adolescents Between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Berger, Assaf; Findler, Michael; Maymon, Dror; Korach, Tzfanya; Yativ, Oshrat Fono; Gronovich, Yoav; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-09-01

    Color vision deficiency has been associated with educational difficulties among male children, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association of color vision deficiency with functional conditions, including ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis and somatoform disorders, in a large population of male adolescents. We included all Israeli male adolescents that underwent medical and cognitive examinations during conscription between the years 2007 and 2013. The prevalence of ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was compared to a control group. The study included 305 964 males aging 17 ± 0.6, of which 7584 (2.5%) had color vision deficiency. Using a multivariable analysis, the probability for irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was increased by 1.41, 1.94, and 3.87, respectively (P < .05). No significant association was found between ADHD and color vision deficiency. Color vision abnormalities are associated with functional disorders in male adolescents, including irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders.

  10. Nurse practice issues regarding sperm banking in adolescent male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reebals, Jeri F; Brown, Richard; Buckner, Ellen B

    2006-01-01

    The impressive increase in the survival rate of childhood cancer patients has produced increased interest in quality of life issues. This research addresses nurse practice issues in determining whether the newly diagnosed adolescent male patient is offered the option of sperm banking before undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Questionnaires were distributed to nurses and nurse practitioners on 3 inpatient and outpatient units who care for adolescent male cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, during chemotherapy, and during follow-up care. Findings indicate that 96.3% of respondents agreed that all male patients undergoing cancer treatment with infertility as a potential side effect should be offered sperm banking. Respondents viewed oncologists and nurse practitioners as appropriate professionals to discuss the option. Lack of knowledge regarding sperm banking could be limiting nurses' willingness to introduce the topic, and education regarding cryopreservation may improve their knowledge and practice.

  11. Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Athletes After 6 Days of Intensified Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Simola, Rauno Álvaro De Paula; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Raeder, C, Wiewelhove, T, Simola, RÁDP, Kellmann, M, Meyer, T, Pfeiffer, M, and Ferrauti, A. Assessment of fatigue and recovery in male and female athletes after 6 days of intensified strength training. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3412-3427, 2016-This study aimed to analyze changes of neuromuscular, physiological, and perceptual markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in high-resistance strength training. Fourteen male and 9 female athletes participated in a 6-day intensified strength training microcycle (STM) designed to purposefully overreach. Maximal dynamic strength (estimated 1 repetition maximum [1RMest]; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery); maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC); countermovement jump (CMJ) height; multiple rebound jump (MRJ) height; jump efficiency (reactive strength index, RSI); muscle contractile properties using tensiomyography including muscle displacement (Dm), delay time (Td), contraction time (Tc), and contraction velocity (V90); serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK); perceived muscle soreness (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS) and perceived recovery (physical performance capability, PPC); and stress (MS) were measured before and after the STM and after 3 days of recovery. After completing the STM, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) performance decreases in 1RMest (%[INCREMENT] ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; -7.5 ± 3.5, ES = -0.21), MVIC (-8.2 ± 4.9, ES = -0.24), CMJ (-6.4 ± 2.1, ES = -0.34), MRJ (-10.5 ± 3.3, ES = -0.66), and RSI (-11.2 ± 3.8, ES = -0.73), as well as significantly reduced muscle contractile properties (Dm, -14.5 ± 5.3, ES = -0.60; V90, -15.5 ± 4.9, ES = -0.62). After days of recovery, a significant return to baseline values could be observed in 1RMest (4.3 ± 2.8, ES = 0.12), CMJ (5.2 ± 2.2, ES = 0.28), and MRJ (4.9 ± 3.8, ES = 0.32), whereas RSI (-7.9 ± 4.5, ES = -0.50), Dm (-14.7 ± 4.8, ES = -0.61), and V90 (-15.3 ± 4.7, ES = -0.66) remained

  12. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  13. Factor structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: youth version in German female and male detainees and community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S; Krischer, Maya K

    2009-03-01

    Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male adolescents in the United States and the United Kingdom, only one published study has addressed the factor structure of PCL:YV psychopathy in female adolescents, and no prior studies have addressed it outside of these countries. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying PCL:YV scores in 314 incarcerated (143 male, 171 female) and 193 in-school (99 male, 94 female) adolescents, ages 14 to 19 years. The 2-factor model provided adequate fit only for incarcerated male adolescents and the 4-factor model was problematic in all samples, but the 3-factor solution provided an adequate model in incarcerated and community male adolescents. None of the models provided consistently acceptable fit among female adolescents. Current findings provide evidence for the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathy in incarcerated and community male adolescent samples but raise doubts about the applicability of this model to female adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Think manager--think male in adolescents and its relation to sexism and emotions in leadership.

    PubMed

    García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents.

  15. Cocaine selling among urban black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Dembo, R; Williams, L; Schmeidler, J

    1994-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of juvenile detainees are used to examine the relationships between cocaine selling, substance use, and other delinquency among the Black and White males in the study. A descriptive comparison of rates of cocaine selling among the youths is followed by a descriptive comparison of prevalence of substance use and other delinquency across four subgroups: White and Black males indicating they sold and did not sell cocaine. These comparisons are followed by analyses of variance examining the relationships between involvement in substance use and other delinquency, and ethnicity, cocaine selling, and the interaction of ethnicity and cocaine selling. Important ethnicity and cocaine-selling effects are found, but not ethnicity by cocaine-selling interactions. The implications of our findings for theory and service provision are drawn.

  16. Achievement goal profiles among adolescent males and females.

    PubMed

    Litalien, David; Morin, Alexandre J S; McInerney, Dennis M

    2017-04-01

    Achievement goal theory has long been a dominant model in the study of student motivation. However, a relatively small number of researchers have investigated gender differences in achievement goals or have considered the possible role that social and extrinsic goals may play in student academic motivation. Adopting a person-centered multiple goals perspective based on personal investment theory, this longitudinal study investigated whether males and females shared similar goal profiles, and whether the predictors (facilitating conditions) and outcomes (learning processes, task perseverance, and future aspirations) of these profiles were equivalent across genders. Profiles were extracted from 8 types of academic goals, based on a large sample of Hong Kong high school students (N = 7,848). Findings revealed 5 distinctive profiles for both males and females. Although the relative size of these profiles differed across samples of male and female students, the results show that 4 of these profiles were mostly equivalent across genders. Predictors of membership into these profiles were also equivalent across genders, whereas their relative outcomes were specific to gender. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed.

  18. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    PubMed Central

    Harbili, Erbil; Alptekin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA). Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05). As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. Key points The results demonstrate that the maximum strength of the extensor muscles of the hip during the first pull and their explosive strength during the second pull must be improved. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. PMID:24790499

  19. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  20. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22908911

  1. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy.

    PubMed

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Mills, Kathryn L; Lenroot, Rhoshel K

    2012-08-21

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence - a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum - all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.

  2. Examining Struggling Male Adolescent Readers' Responses to Graphic Novels: A Multiple Case Study of Four, Eighth-Grade Males in a Graphic Novel Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen W.

    2010-01-01

    Although graphic novels are an increasingly popular literary format, there is currently little empirical research that documents their use with struggling male adolescent readers in school settings. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the ways in which four struggling, eighth-grade, male readers responded to graphic novels…

  3. Violence among young men: the importance of a gender-specific developmental approach to adolescent male suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.

  4. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy - Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) Upon Behaviorally Challenged Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of a sub-sample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Results Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. Conclusion The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult to manage aggressive behaviors. PMID:21501287

  5. Iron and the athlete.

    PubMed

    Suedekum, Natalie A; Dimeff, Robert J

    2005-08-01

    Iron is an important mineral necessary for many biologic pathways. Different levels of deficiency can occur in the athlete, resulting in symptoms that range from none to severe fatigue. Iron deficiency without anemia may adversely affect athletic performance. Causes of iron deficiency include poor intake, menstrual losses, gastrointestinal and genitourinary losses due to exercise-induced ischemia or organ movement, foot strike hemolysis, thermohemolysis, and sweat losses. A higher incidence of deficiency occurs in female athletes compared with males.

  6. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis mimicking infective endocarditis in an adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Varnier, Giulia Camilla; Sebire, Neil; Christov, Georgi; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare but serious small vessel vasculitis with heterogeneous clinical presentation ranging from mainly localised disease with a chronic course, to a florid, acute small vessel vasculitic form characterised by severe pulmonary haemorrhage and/or rapidly progressive vasculitis or other severe systemic vasculitic manifestations. Cardiac involvement is, however, uncommon in the paediatric population. We report a case of a 16-year-old male who presented with peripheral gangrene and vegetation with unusual location on the supporting apparatus of the tricuspid valve, initially considered to have infective endocarditis but ultimately diagnosed with GPA. We provide an overview of the limited literature relating to cardiac involvement in GPA, and the diagnostic challenge relating to infective endocarditis in this context, especially focusing on the interpretation of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and the characteristic clinical features to identify in order to promptly recognise GPA, since timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for this potentially life-threatening condition.

  7. Masculinity-femininity in fathers of creative male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grant, T N; Domino, G

    1976-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship of paternal masculinity-femininity to filial creativity in a sample of high school students and their fathers. Thirty-one male high school students were identified as creative on the basis of teacher nominations and scores on the Remote Associates Test. An equal size control group of students matched on sex, educational level, grade point average, and geographical residence was formed. Fathers of both experimental and control students were administered a battery of tests which included a variety of masculinity-femininity measures. The results seem to support the general hypothesis that creativity is related to parental identification as a function of a less conventional sex-role stereotype, and the more specific hypothesis that there is a relation between paternal masculinity-femininity and filial creativity.

  8. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.

  9. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  10. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  11. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2 h each day for 28 days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults.

  12. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Teens > Athlete's Foot A A A ... your skin, hair, and nails. What Is Athlete's Foot? The medical name for athlete's foot is tinea ...

  13. Evaluation and Management of Patellar Instability in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Khormaee, Sariah; Kramer, Dennis E.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The rising popularity and intensity of youth sports has increased the incidence of patellar dislocation. These sports-related injuries may be associated with significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Treatment requires understanding and attention to the unique challenges in the skeletally immature patient. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches spanning 1970-2013. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Although nonoperative approaches are most often suitable for first-time patellar dislocations, surgical treatment is recommended for acute fixation of displaced osteochondral fractures sustained during primary instability and for patellar realignment in the setting of recurrent instability. While a variety of procedures can prevent recurrence, the risk of complications is not minimal. Conclusion: Patellar stabilization and realignment procedures in skeletally immature patients with recurrent patellar dislocation can effectively treat patellar instability without untoward effects on growth if careful surgical planning incorporates protection of growth parameters in the skeletally immature athlete. PMID:25984256

  14. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  15. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence.

  16. Lumbar mobility and low back pain during adolescence. A longitudinal three-year follow-up study in athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Oksanen, A; Salminen, J J

    1997-01-01

    In this 3-year longitudinal study, we studied lumbar mobility and the occurrence of low back pain among 98 adolescents who were free of previous severe low back pain: 33 nonathletes (16 boys, 17 girls), 34 boy athletes (ice hockey and soccer players) and 31 girl athletes (figure skaters and gymnasts). During the followup, low back pain lasting longer than 1 week was reported by 29 athletes (15 boys and 14 girls) and by 6 nonathletes (3 boys and 3 girls). In multivariate analyses, participation in sports and low maximal lumbar flexion at the baseline predicted low back pain during the followup among boys; however, these factors accounted for only 16% of the variability between the groups with and without low back pain. Among girls, decreased range of motion in the lower lumbar segments, low maximal lumbar extension, and high body weight at the baseline were predictive of low back pain during the followup, accounting for 31% of the variability between the groups. The girls in the lowest tertile of maximal lumbar extension at baseline had a relative risk of 3.4 to have future low back pain compared with those in the highest tertile. We conclude that the low individual physiologic maximum of lower segment lumbar extension mobility may cause overloading of the low back among athletes involved in sports with frequent maximal lumbar extension and that it predicts future low back pain.

  17. Negotiating dominant masculinity ideology: strategies used by gay, bisexual and questioning male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bianca D M; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15-23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents' management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs.

  18. School- and community-based associations to hypermasculine attitudes in African American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips; Hayes, Demarquis M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of hypermasculinity as a form of reactive coping among urban African American adolescent males (ages 12-17) and assessed the extent to which hypermasculinity is influenced by youth appraisals of how adults in their school and community perceive them. Two research questions were addressed: (a) Do adolescent males who report negative community and school experiences use hypermasculine attitudes as a coping response? (b) Do the effects of perceived negative school and community experiences persist, if they are present at all? Participants in the study were 241 African American adolescent males who attended public schools in a large southeastern city. Associating youth-reported questionnaires on perceived teacher expectations and perceptions of community challenges from one wave of data on hypermasculine attitudes within the same year and 2 years later, the results indicate that hypermasculinity attitudes stem from negative perceptions in the community and school contexts. Also, hypermasculinity attitudes were associated with these negatively perceived experiences across time. When examined longitudinally, negative experiences in the community had a stronger relation to hypermasculinity than similar experiences at school.

  19. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  20. Lower lateral orbitofrontal cortex density associated with more frequent exposure to television and movie violence in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J; Openshaw, Anne E; Zamboni, Giovanna; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens' Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density--a possible risk factor for altered socioemotional functioning.

  1. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (< 55% carbohydrates, < 40% fats). Plasma glucose levels, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  2. Time of Day – Effects on Motor Coordination and Reactive Strength in Elite Athletes and Untrained Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Piazza, Marina; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: the issue of time-of-day effects on performance is crucial when considering the goal of reaching peak results in sport disciplines. The present study was designed to examine time-of-day effects in adolescents on motor coordination, assessed with Hirtz’s battery and neuromuscular components of strength, evaluated with reactive strength tests. Methods: forty-two elite female gymnasts, aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years (Mean ± SD), were recruited for the study. Fifty healthy female students (aged 12.8 ± 1.7 years) served as the control group. All participants underwent the testing sessions over two days at two different times of day in a randomized order. Results: Oral temperature was measured at the two times of the day and a significant diurnal variation (p < 0.01) in both groups was found. MANOVA revealed significant group differences in the overall tests (p < 0.01). The gymnast group showed no significant differences in the coordination tests with respect to the time of day, but significant differences were observed for reactive strength as assessed with the vertical jump tests (p < 0.01). Gyamnasts attained better results in the evening in the reactive strength tests [flight time (F1.90 = 17.322 p < 0.01) and ground contact time (F1.90 = 8.372; p < 0.01) of the hopping test]. Conclusion: the temperature effect was more evident in the reactive strength tests and orientation test, especially in the gymnast group in which this effect added to their usual training time effect. The time-since-awakening influenced coordination performances in complex tasks more than reaction strength tests in simple tasks. The main outcome of the study was that we did not observe time-of-day effects on coordination skills in elite gymnasts and in untrained adolescents. The time of day in which athletes usually trained these skills could influence these results. Key points The results obtained in this study suggested that the best time to perform a particular task depends

  3. Effects of dynamic warm-up with and without a weighted vest on lower extremity power performance of high school male athletes.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Michael P; Peintner, Ashley M; Boehner, Amber L; Cameron, Cori N; Murphy, Jessica R; Carter, John W

    2010-12-01

    This study examined lower extremity power performance, using the Margaria-Kalamen Power Test, after a dynamic warm-up with (resisted) and without (nonresisted) a weighted vest. Sixteen (n = 16) high school male football players, ages 14-18 years, participated in 2 randomly ordered testing sessions. One session involved performing the team's standard dynamic warm-up while wearing a vest weighted at 5% of the individual athlete's body weight before performing 3 trials of the Margaria-Kalamen Power Test. The second session involved performing the same dynamic warm-up without wearing a weighted vest before performing 3 trials of the Margaria-Kalamen Power Test. The warm-up performed by the athletes consisted of various lower extremity dynamic movements over a 5-minute period. No significant difference was found in power performance between the resisted and nonresisted dynamic warm-up protocols (p > 0.05). The use of a dynamic warm-up with a vest weighted at 5% of the athlete's body weight was not advantageous for increasing lower extremity power output in this study. The results of this study suggest that resisted dynamic warm-up protocols may not augment the production of power performance in high school football players.

  4. A Qualitative Description of Self-Regulatory Behaviors of Male Expert and Novice Athletic Trainers in Collegiate Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardin, Fredrick A.; Middlemas, David A.; Mensch, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Understanding the transition from a novice to an expert has the potential to provide valuable information for young professionals and athletic training educators to aid in the development of tools necessary for lifetime professional learning. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the self-regulated learning…

  5. Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program by Fraternity Men and Male Student Athletes: Powerful Effects and Implications for Changing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Cowell, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to determine fraternity men and student athletes' perceptions of a commonly used rape-prevention program. Participants saw "The Men's Program" and then participated in 60-90 minute focus groups assessing whether their attitudes and behavior would change, what about the program led to that change, and…

  6. Design and Psychometric Properties of Male Adolescent Health Needs-Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Elham; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents. Methods: This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015). The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability. Results: The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items), including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (P<0.001) Conclusion: According to the psychometric assessment, MAHNAS is a valid and reliable scale compatible with the Iranian culture that can be used in the health needs assessment of male adolescents. PMID:27713893

  7. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  8. Patterns of HIV Treatment Adherence do not Differ Between Male and Female Adolescents in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Kimon L H; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Anabwani, Gabriel; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that longer and more frequent dosing gaps among boys in Botswana taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to girls could account for previously seen gender-specific differences in outcomes. We monitored 154 male and 134 female adolescents for 2 years with medication event monitoring systems (MEMS). Median adherence was 95.6 % for males and 95.7 % for females (p = 0.40). There were no significant gender differences in the number of ≥7 day (p = 0.55) and ≥14 day (p = 0.48) dosing gaps. The median maximal gap was 7.7 days for males and 8.0 days for females (p = 0.47). These findings are not consistent with clinically meaningful gender differences in adherence.

  9. The traits of the great calls in the juvenile and adolescent gibbon males Nomascus gabriellae

    PubMed Central

    Bolechová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about vocal ontogeny and vocal plasticity during ontogeny in primate species is central to understanding the evolution of human speech. Vocalizations in gibbons (Hominoidea) are very interesting and contain complex species- and sex-specific patterns. However, ontogeny of gibbon songs is little studied. Here, we document regular production and ontogenetic changes of female-specific “great call” in 4 immature (2 juvenile—c.a. 3 years old; and 2 adolescent—c.a. 5 years old) males of southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (N. gabriellae) over nine months. None of the males produced fully developed adult-like “great call” and little ontogenetic changes to “great calls” occurred. “Great calls” of sons were shorter, started higher and ended lower than those of their mothers. Regular production of twitter part of great call likely appears around 4th year as it was observed in adolescent but not in juvenile males. PMID:28296969

  10. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  11. Smokeless Tobacco Decision-Making Among Rural Adolescent Males in California.

    PubMed

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2016-10-28

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) use among US high school males living in rural areas exceeds national levels. Subgroups at heightened risk of ST use have been identified, but less is known regarding ST decision-making within high-risk groups. The study objective was to describe rural adolescent males' perceived ST acceptability, health risks, and social implications and how those perceptions differ between ST users and never-users. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 55 male students (32 ST ever-users) at three rural California high schools. Interviews were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. Investigators collaboratively developed a codebook based on thematic content and then independently coded transcripts, reconvening frequently to achieve consensus. Coded text was systematically organized into themes following a general inductive approach. ST users and non-users shared multiple ST-related perceptions, including: that ST is a common, normative way of life in rural "country" culture among certain groups; that ST use conveys oral health risks; and that the decision to use (or not to use) is rooted in personal choice. ST users' and never-users' perceptions differed regarding the immediacy, severity, and inevitability of health risks, particularly relative to cigarette smoking. Other differences included perceived parental permissiveness and the expected social benefits of ST use, such as peer acceptance and conveying maturity. Within this population of rural male adolescents, ST users emphasized the social benefits of ST use, while acknowledging but discounting health risks. Differences and similarities in tobacco perceptions among adolescents living in similar environments may inform effective health communication.

  12. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  13. Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics.

  14. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12–17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test. Results There was a progressive increase in weight, height, and BMD for all evaluated age groups following the advance of chronological age. A negative correlation was found between the %BF with BMD in all evaluated segments. Significant differences were found between the eutrophic group compared to the overweight group and the obesity group in the evaluated segments (P <0.01) noting a reduction of up to 12.92% for the lumbar region between eutrophic and obese. Conclusion The results suggest that increase %BF is associated with lower BMD among male adolescents. PMID:27685942

  15. Abnormal response to emotional stimulus in male adolescents with violent behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Xie, Bin; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study is to explore the characteristics of emotional stimulus in adolescents with violent behavior and to identify the correlated dysfunctional regions of the brain. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained while the participants passively viewed pictures with neutral or negative affective valence. 15 male adolescents with violent behavior, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years old, and 16 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. While looking at neutral pictures, several brain regions were activated more intensely in the violent group than the control one. After digitally subtracting the control group, these areas included the bilateral amygdala, left orbital gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and left visual cortex. While passively viewing negative pictures, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus were less activated in the violent group than the control group. Male adolescents with violent behaviors have some dysfunctions during the processing and evaluation of information from external emotional stimulus. These individuals are inclined to interpret neutral information as threatening stimulus.

  16. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-03-09

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice.

  17. Short photoperiod condition increases susceptibility to stress in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Li-Jing; Yuan, Ming; Li, Su-Xia; Yue, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ju-Lian; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The seasonality of depressive symptoms is prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms that underlie such susceptibility to seasonal influences on mood disorders are unclear. We examined the effects of a short photoperiod condition on the susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable mild stress (SCUS) and rhythmic alterations of plasma corticosterone (CORT), melatonin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in adolescent male rats. Compared with the 12h/12h light/dark photoperiod control (CON) rats, the 8h/16h photoperiod SCUS rats exhibited significant anhedonia, a core symptom of human depression, together with a blunted diurnal rhythm and elevation of 24h CORT, melatonin, and NPY levels. The 8h/16h photoperiod condition also blunted the rhythmicity of CORT, caused a phase inversion of melatonin, and caused a phase delay of NPY compared with 12h/12h CON rats. Such abnormalities of plasma CORT, NPY, and melatonin might cause adolescent individuals to present higher stress reactivity and greater vulnerability to stress over their lifetimes. The present study provides evidence of the susceptibility to the seasonality of stress-related disorders in adolescence.

  18. Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link.

  19. The effect of labour on somatotype of males during the adolescent growth period.

    PubMed

    Ozener, B; Duyar, I

    2008-01-01

    Although the effect of labour and physical stress on the height and weight of growing children is relatively well known, rather limited information concerning the influences of the work environment on the physique of working children and adolescents is available. The purpose of this study was to increase our knowledge of the effects of mechanical stress on the human physique via somatotype during the adolescent growth period. Anthropometric measurements of 509 male apprentices aged 13.50-18.49 years and measurements of 451 nonworking youth (control group) of the same age group were taken. The members of both groups were from the lower socioeconomic strata and had similar living conditions. The apprentices were working an average of 11h per day in vocations requiring intense physical effort. The subjects were somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric protocol. The overall mean somatotypes were 2.3-4.4-3.3 for working adolescents, and 2.5-3.9-3.6 for the nonworking controls. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between the groups. Working adolescents were more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than their nonworking peers. In both groups, endomorphy decreased with age up to age 15; then remained stable for the labourers but increased for the nonworking peers. In both groups, mesomorphy was stable, but decreased with ectomorphy. These results indicate that physical stress not only causes retardation in linear growth, but also produces changes in human physique during the growth period.

  20. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  1. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    PubMed

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  2. The sexual preference of female rats is influenced by males' adolescent social stress history and social status.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa

    2017-03-01

    Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour.

  3. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol induces widespread changes in cytokine expression, with recent data from our laboratory having demonstrated that, during acute ethanol intoxication, adult rats exhibit consistent increases in interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression in several brain regions, while showing reductions in IL-1 and TNFα expression. Given evidence indicating that adolescence may be an ontogenetic period in which some neuroimmune processes and cells may not yet have fully matured, the purpose of the current experiments was to examine potential age differences in the central cytokine response of adolescent (P31-33days of age) and adult (69-71days of age) rats to either an acute immune (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-immune challenge (ethanol). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either sterile saline, LPS (250μg/kg), or ethanol (4-g/kg), and then trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 3h later for measurement of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), plasma endotoxin, and central mRNA expression of several immune-related gene targets. In Experiment 2, the response to intragastrically (i.g.) administered ethanol was examined and compared to animals given tap water (i.g.). Results showed that LPS stimulated robust increases in expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, and IκBα in the hippocampus, PVN, and amygdala, and that these increases were generally less pronounced in adolescents relative to adults. Following an i.p. ethanol challenge, IL-6 and IκBα expression was significantly increased in both ages in the PVN and amygdala, and adults exhibited even greater increases in IκBα than adolescents. I.g. administration of ethanol also increased IL-6 and IκBα expression in all three brain regions, with hippocampal IL-6 elevated even more so in adults compared to adolescents. Furthermore, assessment of plasma endotoxin concentrations revealed (i) whereas robust increases in plasma endotoxin were observed in adults injected with LPS

  4. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females

    PubMed Central

    Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655

  5. Using self-determination theory to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    García Calvo, Tomás; Cervelló, Eduardo; Jiménez, Ruth; Iglesias, Damián; Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Motivational characteristics are influential in shaping adolescents' desire to persist in sport or to discontinue their sport participation. Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) was utilized as the theoretical framework for this study. This theory examines whether sustained participatory involvement, defined as continued participation in the sport through the next year, was influenced by individuals' self-determined motivation and by the fulfillment of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Four hundred ninety two soccer players between the ages of 13 and 17 years comprised the sample. Results indicated sport dropout was explained by higher levels of amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation and by lower satisfaction of relatedness and autonomy needs. The findings of this study contribute to the knowledge base on sport dropout as they supported many of self-determination theory.

  6. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury–anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury – are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete’s vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is

  7. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory.

  8. A case of severe anal injury in an adolescent male due to bestial sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Roger O

    2009-10-01

    This report delineates a case of anal injury in a 12-year-old boy who gave a detailed history of bestial behavior with a male bulldog. The child described how he had seen this behavior modeled on the internet and subsequently initiated contact with his own dog, causing the dog to penetrate him anally. This type of juvenile bestial behavior with injury has only been reported once previously in the medical literature. Zoophilia, along with a number of other paraphilias, frequently has its onset in the adolescent age group. Adolescents evidencing paraphilic behaviors require thorough psychological evaluation. Spontaneous sexual assault of a human by a canine has never been described in the human or veterinary medical literature, nor is such a thing likely. A clinician involved in evaluating serious ano-genital injury in a child reportedly due to spontaneous canine sexual assault must consider other possible traumatic etiologies including sexual abuse. Investigation in any such case is essential.

  9. Male Adolescent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eme, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, one-third of male adolescents in treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD) also have an Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This strongly suggests that ADHD is a major risk factor for the development of SUD which practitioners must address if they are to provide adequate treatment for adolescents with SUD/ADHD. This paper supports a causal role for ADHD in the development of SUD and examines the developmental mechanisms whereby ADHD increases risk for SUD. These mechanisms include increased risk for conduct disorder, academic failure, deviant peer affiliation, engaging in risk behaviors, and self-medication. Assessment and treatment recommendations for those comorbid for SUD/ADHD are provided. PMID:25969828

  10. Atypical major depressive episode as initial presentation of intracranial germinoma in a male adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Su, Kuan-Pin; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2017-01-01

    A 17-year-old adolescent boy presented with atypical major depressive episode (MDE) without specific focal neurological signs for 6 months. He had a diagnosis of intra-cranial germinoma, and the atypical MDE symptoms subsided after the operation. However, he had a relapse of atypical MDE 7 months after the first surgery. His mood and binge eating symptoms subsided, but intractable body weight gain only partially improved after treatment. When encountering manifestations of depression with atypical features, especially with binge eating symptoms in male children and adolescents, with early onset age, no family history, and prolonged depressive episodes, clinicians should consider not only mood disorders including bipolar spectrum disorders but also organic brain lesions such as intracranial germinoma. PMID:28053535

  11. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  12. What African American Male Adolescents Are Telling Us about HIV Infection among Their Peers: Cultural Approaches for HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…

  13. Injuries to the Young Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  14. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student’s t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs’ muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353

  15. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.

  16. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  17. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors.

  18. Negotiating Dominant Masculinity Ideology: Strategies Used by Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bianca D. M.; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15–23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents’ management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs. PMID:20082238

  19. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  20. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  1. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  2. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  3. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P < 0.05) than before Ramadan (23.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg). There was a minor reduction of 1.3 kg in body mass and an increase in total fatigue scores (T2, 19 +/- 5; T3, 16 +/- 4; both P < 0.05) during Ramadan in comparison with the control period (T1, 12 +/- 3). These results show that the RIF has little effect on aerobic performance and on very short duration sprinting and jumping test performance in elite Judokas. Additionally, experienced athletes can maintain both sufficient energy intake and normal training loads during the RIF. The slight reduction in the 30-second jump test may be associated with reduced central drive and body mass. Collectively, these results suggest that the RIF has little effect on the performance of experienced Judokas, but Muslim athletes who train during the RIF should carefully periodize their training load and monitor their food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  4. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  5. Altered pattern of brain dopamine synthesis in male adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forssberg, Hans; Fernell, Elisabeth; Waters, Susanna; Waters, Nicholas; Tedroff, Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Background Limited data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicate alterations in brain dopamine neurotransmission. However, these studies have used conventional univariate approaches that are less sensitive to detect complex interactions that may exist between different brain dopamine pathways and individual symptoms of ADHD. We aimed to investigate these potential interactions in adolescents with ADHD. Methods We used a 3D PET scan to measure utilization of native L-[11C]-DOPA to map dopamine presynaptic function in various cortical, striatal and midbrain regions in a group of 8 male adolescents with ADHD and 6 age matched controls. To evaluate the interactions between the studied brain regions, multivariate statistical methods were used. Results Abnormal dopaminergic function was found in multiple brain regions of patients with ADHD. A main finding was lower L-[11C]-DOPA utilization in adolescent with ADHD as compared to control subjects, especially in subcortical regions. This pattern of dopaminergic activity was correlated specifically with symptoms of inattention. Conclusion Dopamine signalling in the brain plays an important modulatory role in a variety of motor and cognitive functions. We have identified region-specific functional abnormalities in dopaminergic function, which may help better account for the symptoms of ADHD. PMID:17144907

  6. Fat-free mass and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in the 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise in young male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakao, Rieko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2008-05-01

    The relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has not been well researched because of the relatively small number of subjects studied. This study investigated the effects of FFM on EPOC and EPOC/maximum oxygen consumption. 250 Japanese male athletes between 16 and 21 years old from Nagasaki prefecture had their EPOC measured up to 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise. The value was named as EPOC40 min. The proportions of EPOC up to 1, 3, 6, 10, and 25 minutes to EPOC40 min were calculated and named as P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25, respectively. Body size and composition, VO2max and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were also measured. Mean EPOC40 min was 9.04 L or 158 ml/kg FFM. EPOC40 min was related to FFM (r=0.55, p<0.001) and VO2max (r=0.37, p<0.001). The ratio of EPOC40 min to VO2max was related to FFM (r=0.28, p<0.001). P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25 were negatively related to EPOC40 min/FFM, EPOC40 min/VO2max, and FFM. Athletes who had larger FFM had larger EPOC40 40 min and EPOC40 40 min/VO2max, and smaller P1, P3, P10, and P25.

  7. Comparison of esthetics perception and satisfaction of facial profile among male adolescents and adults with different profiles

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Shafaee, Hooman; Mozhdehifard, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate esthetics perception and satisfaction of the facial profile among Iranian male adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, male subjects referred to Orthodontic Department of Mashhad Dental School were enrolled (n = 84) and were divided into two groups: Adolescents (n = 39), and adults (n = 45). They were also assigned to straight, convex, or concave profile groups based on the facial profile angle (G-Sn-Pog’). An ideal silhouette of the lower facial profile was designed in Adobe® Photoshop® CS2 software (Kansas, USA). Then, eight other silhouettes representing different relations of the maxilla and mandible were constructed. Patients were asked to use numbers 1–10 to rank the facial profiles in the order of the attractiveness, and choose a silhouette that best closely resembled their own profile. Moreover, using a questionnaire patients were asked to rank their satisfaction with their profile, and asked to assign a number (1–5) to each question as follows; one represented the least satisfaction, while five reflected the highest satisfaction. Results: Adult and adolescent subjects with straight (adults: 12.0 ± 1.9, adolescents: 12.8 ± 1.05) and concave (adults: 10.0 ± 2.14, adolescents: 10.0 ± 2.08) profile showed the highest and the least satisfaction with their own profile, respectively. Both adult and adolescent group selected “retrognathic maxilla, prognathic mandible” as the least attractive profile. Overall, “straight” and “bimaxillary dentoalveolar retrusion” were chosen as the most attractive silhouettes in adolescent and adults, respectively. In comparison to a professional opinion (clinician ranking), 42.9% of adolescents and 22% of adults were able to correctly diagnose their own profiles type. Conclusion: Most of the male adolescents and especially adults diagnosis of their own profile differed with a professional assessment. PMID:27127750

  8. Trauma and Aggression: Investigating the Mediating Role of Mentalizing in Female and Male Inpatient Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abate, Anna; Marshall, Kaisa; Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda

    2017-02-07

    High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior. Using a sample of inpatient adolescents, the current study examined relations between PTSD symptoms and four forms of aggression, exploring the role of both over- and under-mentalizing (i.e., hypo- and hypermentalizing) as mediators and gender as a moderator. The results suggest that hypermentalizing, but not hypomentalizing, mediates the relation between trauma and aggression, extending prior research related to inpatient adolescents for the first time. Evidence of moderated mediation was noted, such that this mediational relation was evident for females but not males. The current study offers support for differential underlying causes of aggression among males and females with PTSD symptoms.

  9. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.

  10. Influence of the parent-adolescent relationship on condom use among South Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.

  11. Balance and Coordination Capacities of Male Children and Adolescents With Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Pitetti, Ken; Miller, Ruth Ann; Loovis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) exhibit a mixture of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial limitation. Identifying specific inadequacies in motor proficiency in youth with ID would improve therapeutic management to enhance functional capacity and health-related physical activity. The purpose of this study was to initiate descriptive data collection of gross motor skills of youth with ID and compare those skills with competency norms. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) was used to measure 6 items for balance (BAL), 5 items for upper limb coordination (ULC), and 6 items for bilateral coordination (BLC) of 123 males (ages 8-18) with ID but without Down syndrome. The authors performed 2,840 assessments (10-32 for each item); 944, 985, and 913 for BAL, ULC, and BLC, respectively. Mean scores for all age groups for BAL, ULC, and BLC were consistently below BOT-2 criteria. Overall motor skills of males with ID are below the competence expected for children and adolescents without disabilities.

  12. Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

  13. Dating violence victimization, dispositional aggression, and nonsuicidal self-injury among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Hower, Heather M; Wolff, Jennifer; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize the association between dating violence victimization and dispositional aggression in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. One hundred fifty-five adolescents (ages 13-17) and their parents completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children clinical interview to assess NSSI and child abuse; adolescents completed self-report measures of aggression and dating violence victimization (verbal, physical, and sexual). Dating violence victimization and NSSI were found to be highly prevalent among both males and females in this psychiatric inpatient sample. Two moderational models were supported, wherein dating violence was associated with NSSI in the context of elevated trait anger in males and indirect aggression in females. Findings suggest that helping victims of dating violence acquire skills to address certain forms of dispositional aggression may attenuate NSSI.

  14. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  15. Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.

  16. Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or postpubertal exposure.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Ty T; Palmer, Jennifer S; Gray, L Earl; Veeramachaneni, D N Rao

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated sequelae in male rabbits following exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at a dose level known to adversely affect testicular function in rodents without causing systemic toxicity. Because rabbits have a relatively long phase of reproductive development simulating better than rodents the reproductive development of humans, and because the use of rabbits facilitates multiple evaluations of mating ability and seminal quality, we used this animal model. Rabbits were exposed to 0 or 400 mg DBP/kg/day in utero (gestation days [GD] 15-29) or during adolescence (postnatal weeks [PNW] 4-12), and male offspring were examined at 6, 12, and 25 weeks of age. Another group was exposed after puberty (for 12 weeks) and examined at the conclusion of exposure. The most pronounced reproductive effects were in male rabbits exposed in utero. Male offspring in this group exhibited reduction in numbers of ejaculated sperm (down 43%; p < 0.01), in weights of testes (at 12 weeks, down 23%; p < 0.05) and in accessory sex glands (at 12 and 25 weeks, down 36%; p < 0.01 and down 27%; p < 0.05, respectively). Serum testosterone levels were down (at 6 weeks, 32%; p < 0.05); a slight increase in histological alterations of the testis (p < 0.05) and a doubling in the percentage (from 16 to 30%, p < 0.01) of abnormal sperm; and 1/17 males manifesting hypospadias, hypoplastic prostate, and cryptorchid testes with carcinoma in situ-like cells. In the DBP group exposed during adolescence, basal serum testosterone levels were reduced at 6 weeks (p < 0.01) while at 12 weeks, testosterone production in vivo failed to respond normally to a GnRH challenge (p < 0.01). In addition, weight of accessory sex glands was reduced at 12 weeks but not at 25 weeks after a recovery period; there was a slight increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in the ejaculate; and 1/11 males was unilaterally cryptorchid. In both of these DBP-treated groups, daily sperm production, epididymal sperm counts, mating

  17. Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent offending in adolescence. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, undercontrolled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26 years, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most elevated on psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 years were less extreme but elevated on impulsive personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offenses. A third group of men who had been aggressive as children but not very delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offenders who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings support the theory of life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.

  18. Social Norms and Beliefs Regarding Sexual Risk and Pregnancy Involvement among Adolescent Males Treated for Dating Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Rothman, Emily F.; Hathaway, Jeanne E.; Raj, Anita; Miller, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored perceived sexual norms and behaviors related to sexual risk and pregnancy involvement among adolescent males (ages 13 to 20) participating in programs for perpetrators of dating violence. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the contexts and mechanisms underlying the intersection of adolescent dating violence, sexual risk and pregnancy. Six focus groups were conducted (N = 34 participants). A number of major themes emerged: 1) male norm of multiple partnering, 2) perceived gain of male social status from claims of sexual activity, 3) perception that rape is uncommon combined with belief that girls claiming to be raped are liars, 4) perception that men rationalize rapes to avoid responsibility, 5) condom non-use in the context of rape and sex involving substance use, 6) beliefs that girls lie and manipulate boys in order to become pregnant and trap them into relationships, and 7) male avoidance of responsibility and negative responses to pregnancy. The combination of peer-supported norms of male multiple partnering and adversarial sexual beliefs appear to support increased male sexual risk, lack of accountability for sexual risk, and rationalization of rape and negative responses to pregnancy. Further research focused on the context of male sexual risk and abusive relationship behaviors is needed to inform intervention with young men to promote sexual health and prevent rape, dating violence, and adolescent pregnancy. PMID:16845498

  19. Early life overnutrition induced by litter size manipulation decreases social play behavior in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Laura O; Ferri, Bárbara G; de Sousa, Francielly A Lopes; Vilela, Fabiana C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of artificial litter size adjustment on offspring development. Social play behavior is important for neurobehavioral development and is impaired in several developmental psychiatric disorders. This study therefore investigated the effect of litter size on play behavior in adolescent rats. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of 3 pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors scored daily during the first week of lactation (PND2-8) revealed that arched nursing and pup licking behaviors were increased in dams with SLs versus those with NLs. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain and advanced development of physical landmarks and reflexes, possibly due to overnutrition. Social isolation lasting 3.5h prior to social play behavioral testing produced a higher frequency and duration of pouncing, pinning, sniffing, and grooming in both male and female offspring. However, male SL offspring exhibited a lower frequency of pouncing and pinning when compared with male NL offspring, while no litter size-dependent differences were observed in social behaviors unrelated to play (sniffing and grooming). These findings identify a possible sexually dimorphic influence of litter size in the development of social behavior. Given that social behaviors such as play behavior are vital for normal cognitive and social development, these findings have important implications for developmental and neuropsychiatric research.

  20. A Comparative Analysis Regarding Factors Related to 13- to 18-Year-Old African American Male Adolescents in Special Education and the Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Jonathan Lanier

    2013-01-01

    This study was focused on the identification of selected risk factors seemingly present among African American male adolescents 13 to 18 years old who were participants in special education programs at their schools. Many of these male adolescents were also found to participate in the juvenile justice system under what was characterized as…

  1. Safe sex versus safe love? Relationship context and condom use among male adolescents in the favelas of Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Fatima; Martín, Teresa Castro

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of the relationship context where adolescent sexual activity takes place on contraceptive decisions. The data were collected in a specially designed survey carried out in May 2000 on 1,438 adolescent males aged 13-19 residing in favelas (urban slum areas) of Recife, Brazil. A logistic regression analysis of condom use at last sexual intercourse and a multinomial logit analysis of contraceptive method choice were performed for 678 sexually active adolescents. Educational attainment, degree of knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, and condom use at first sexual intercourse were found to be significantly associated with current condom use. Regarding the relationship context, the analysis revealed that adolescent males in steady relationships were less likely to use condoms, less likely to regard themselves at risk of HIV infection, and more concerned about pregnancy prevention than adolescents in casual relationships. Differentials in condom use by type of relationship, however, did not result from a higher rejection of contraception by steady partners but from their higher likelihood to rely on other contraceptive methods. Results suggest that prevention campaigns need to take into account the intimate context where adolescents assess potential health risks, and to address the divergent symbolic meanings condoms may have in different types of relationships. If an increase of condom use among stable sexual partners is pursued, public health campaigns might need to romanticize condom use as a sign of love and trust and place more emphasis on the benefits of dual protection.

  2. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  3. Deficits in male sexual behavior in adulthood after social instability stress in adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Green, Matthew R; Cameron, Nicole M; Nixon, Feather; Levy, Marisa J; Clark, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stressors in adolescence has long-lasting effects on emotional and cognitive behavior, but little is known as to whether reproductive functions are affected. We investigated appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior in male rats that were exposed to chronic social instability stress (SS, n=24) for 16 days in mid-adolescence compared to control rats (CTL, n=24). Over five sexual behavior test sessions with a receptive female, SS rats made fewer ejaculations (p=0.02) and had longer latencies to ejaculation (p=0.03). When only data from rats that ejaculated in the fifth session were analyzed, SS rats (n=18) had reduced copulatory efficiency (more mounts and intromissions before ejaculation) compared to CTL rats (n=19) (p=0.004), and CTL rats were twice as likely as SS rats to make more than one ejaculation in the fifth session (p=0.05). Further, more CTL (14/24) than SS (5/25) rats ejaculated in four or more sessions (p=0.05). SS rats had lower plasma testosterone concentrations than CTL rats (p=0.05), but did not differ in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, or Fos immunoreactive cell counts in the medial preoptic area. The groups did not differ in a partner preference test administered between the fourth and fifth sexual behavior session. The results suggest that developmental history contributes to individual differences in reproductive behavior, and that stress exposures in adolescence may be a factor in sexual sluggishness.

  4. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  5. A self-efficacy questionnaire regarding leisure time physical activity: Psychometric properties among Iranian male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Mohammad Hadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Shiri, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attention to different aspects of self-efficacy leads to actual evaluation of self-efficacy about physical activity. This study was carried out in order to design and determine psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire for evaluation of self-efficacy about leisure time physical activity (SELPA) among Iranian adolescent boys, with an emphasis on regulatory self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This descriptive–analytic study was conducted in 734 male adolescents aged 15–19 years in Isfahan. After item generation and item selection based on review of literature and other questionnaires, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were determined and items were modified employing the opinions of expert panel (N = 10). Comprehensibility of the questionnaire was determined by members of target group (N = 35). Exploratory factors analysis (EFA) was operated on sample 1 (N1 = 325) and confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) on sample 2 (N2 = 347). Reliability of SELPA was estimated via internal consistency method. Results: According to EFA, barrier self-efficacy and scheduling self-efficacy are the two main aspects of SELPA with the total variance of 65%. The suggested model was confirmed by CFA and all fitness indices of the corrected model were good. Cronbach's alpha was totally estimated as 0.89 and for barrier and scheduling self-efficacy, it was 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusions: The results provide some evidence for acceptable validity and reliability of SELPA in Iranian adolescent boys. However, further investigations, especially for evaluation of predictive power of the questionnaire, are necessary. PMID:26985219

  6. Prenatal nicotine exposure changes natural and drug-induced reinforcement in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ryan M; Park, Minjung; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2008-06-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of substance misuse and obesity in adolescents whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Although dopamine systems that mediate natural and drug-induced reinforcement have been shown in animal studies to be altered by gestational nicotine treatment, it is not clear whether there are concomitant changes in reinforcement sensitivity. To test whether prenatal nicotine exposure influences sensitivity to natural and drug rewards, timed pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering saline or nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 4 to 18. Male offspring were tested as adolescents, on postnatal day 32, for operant responding maintained by sucrose pellets or i.v. cocaine (200 or 500 mug/kg per injection). Cocaine-induced stereotypy and c-fos mRNA expression in cortex and striatum were also examined. Complex changes in reward circuitry were observed in the offspring of nicotine-exposed dams. Nicotine-exposed adolescents did not self-administer the low dose of cocaine, but, at the higher dose, exhibited significantly greater cocaine intake and c-fos mRNA expression in nucleus accumbens than did controls. In contrast, control animals showed significantly greater drug-induced stereotypy at both cocaine doses. Operant responding maintained by sucrose was also influenced by gestational nicotine exposure. At a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule, although the number of pellets eaten by the two experimental groups was equivalent, more pellets were left uneaten by nicotine-exposed offspring. At FR2 and FR5 schedules, the responding maintained by sucrose pellets was lower in nicotine-exposed offspring. These findings suggest that nicotine exposure during gestation may induce changes in both natural and drug reward pathways.

  7. The effects of traditional family values on the coming out process of gay male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, B S; Muzzonigro, P G

    1993-01-01

    The development of a gay or lesbian identity (often referred to as the coming out process) has been widely studied in adults; however, few studies have examined the process in gay adolescents. Even among these studies, little research has investigated the effects of race or family values on the coming out process. A small sample of African-American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Eurasian, and Caucasian gay male adolescents participated in this survey study. Coming out was operationalized in three stages: sensitization; awareness with confusion, denial, guilt, and shame; and acceptance. The majority of respondents reported feeling different from other boys as children. The average age of first crush on another boy was 12.7 years; average age for realizing they were gay was 12.5 years. Most respondents reported feeling confused during their first awareness that they were gay. Denial of identity was a coping strategy for about half the sample. Traditional family values played a greater role in predicting coming out experiences than did race. Families were categorized as having high or low traditional values based upon (1) the importance of religion, (2) emphasis on marriage, (3) emphasis on having children, and (4) whether a non-English language was spoken in the home. Families with a strong emphasis on traditional values were perceived as less accepting of homosexuality than were the low traditional families. Those who work with adolescents need to be aware that some will recognize their sexual orientation as gay, lesbian, or bisexual during this time of their lives. These youth need support in the coming out process because they may encounter stigmatization and disapproval not only from the larger society, but also from their families, peers, and sometimes the gay community itself.

  8. Interrelations between temperament, character, and parental rearing in male delinquent adolescents in northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Ruchkin, V V; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B; Cloninger, C R

    1998-01-01

    A comparison between 192 male delinquent adolescents and 121 controls from Northern Russia using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Own Memories of Parental Rearing (EMBU) questionnaire on perceived parental rearing showed significant differences. The delinquent group had a higher level of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Self-transcendence, and also scored lower on Self-directedness. Delinquents who committed nonviolent crimes (thefts) appeared to have a higher level of Harm Avoidance compared with those who committed violent crimes (hooliganism, robbery, rape, and murder). As concerns perceived parental rearing practices, delinquents experienced more parental rejection and overprotection. Most of the personality dimensions were found to be highly correlated with the level of parental emotional warmth. Furthermore, both temperament traits and maternal rearing practices predicted the development of character dimensions. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive nature of parent-child relationships and of character development.

  9. Absence of a normal cortisol awakening response (CAR) in adolescent males with Asperger syndrome (AS).

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Turner-Cobb, Julie; Munro-Naan, Zoe; Jessop, David

    2009-08-01

    In addition to abnormalities in social and communication development, a 'need for sameness' and 'resistance to change' are features of autistic spectrum disorders first identified by Kanner in 1943. Our ability to react to change is modulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a feature of which is a dramatic increase in cortisol upon waking, the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). This study examined whether the CAR was evident in 20 adolescent males with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and 18 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 11-16). Whilst a significant CAR was evidenced in the TD control group, this was not the case for those with AS. A normal diurnal decrease in cortisol, however, was evident in both groups. The implication that individuals with AS may have an impaired response to change in their environment due to a refractory HPA axis is discussed.

  10. Psychotic-like symptoms as a risk factor of violent recidivism in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Vermeiren, Robert R; Noom, Marc; Broekaert, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth detention centers in Flanders. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children was used to assess PLSs and the number of SUDs. Two to 4 years later, information on official recidivism was obtained. Although hallucinations were unrelated to violent recidivism, paranoid delusions (PDs) and threat/control override delusions (TCODs) were negatively related to violent recidivism. The relation between PLSs and violent recidivism did not become stronger in the presence of SUDs. Detained youths with PLSs do not have a higher risk for violent recidivism than detained youths without PLSs. In contrast, by identifying detained youths with PDs or TCODs, clinicians are likely to identify youths with a low risk for future violent crimes.

  11. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  12. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  13. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  14. The Effects of Value Confrontation and Reinforcement Counseling on the Career Planning Attitudes and Behavior of Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Post-tests show that the value confrontation procedure resulted in significantly greater frequency of information seeking for internally controlled subjects when compared to the reinforcement counseling and control procedures. Examines two procedures designed to enhance the career planning attitudes and behavior of rural adolescent males.…

  15. Social Bonds and School Bullying: A Study of Macanese Male Adolescents on Bullying Perpetration and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background: School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences. Objective: Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study…

  16. The Impacts of the Voice Change, Grade Level, and Experience on the Singing Self-Efficacy of Emerging Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe characteristics of the voice change in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade choir students using Cooksey's voice-change classification system and to determine if the singing self-efficacy of adolescent males is affected by the voice change, grade level, and experience. Participants (N = 80) consisted of…

  17. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Song; Zhang, Jiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs) are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA) was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus), which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus), the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus), and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine), which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network) and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network). Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD. PMID:26713867

  18. Assessment of hematological profiles of adult male athletes from two different air pollutant zones of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Health effects from air pollution are severe concern of today's world. The study was undertaken to assess the effects of air pollution on hematological profiles of trained and untrained males of West Bengal. The sample consisted of 60 sprinters, 60 footballers, and 120 untrained males, subdivided into two groups from two zones, namely, Tollygunge and Sonarpur. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of ambient air were monitored for both zones. Height and weight of all the subjects were measured. Venous blood sample was drawn from the cubital vein, and the red blood cell count (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined by standard methods. Results revealed that SPM, RPM, SOx, and NOx concentrations were significantly higher in the Tollygunge area than Sonarpur. TC, PCV, and Hb concentration of untrained males were significantly higher than footballers in both regions but no significant difference were observed when compared with sprinters, except the Hb concentration in the Tollygunge zone. On the other hand, all hematological parameters of both trained and untrained males were significantly higher in the Sonarpur area than Tollygunge. It was concluded that environmental air pollutants might influence hematological profile adversely both in trained and sedentary males. However, further investigation in this area is needed.

  19. The Prevalence of Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescent Student Athletes From the State of Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry; Replogle, William; McIntyre, Louis; Igboechi, Oduche; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and hypertension in the United States. The prevalence of these diagnoses among individuals participating in school-sanctioned sports has not been clearly defined. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among student athletes and investigate associations between race, sex, type and number of sports played, and the prevalence of these diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Pre–sports participation medical examinations (N = 7705) performed between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed to identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated BP and examine relationships between the type of sports played, participation in multiple sports versus a single sport, and the athlete’s body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and BMI. The risk of obesity among single-sport athletes was more than 2-fold the risk (relative risk [RR], 2.13) compared with ≥3-sport athletes and 1.42 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.42). The prevalence of elevated BP was 21.2%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and elevated BP. The risk of elevated BP among single-sport athletes was 1.59 times greater (RR, 1.59) than ≥3-sport athletes and 1.30 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.30). Finally, obese students were 2.40 times more likely to have elevated BP compared with nonobese students (P < .001). Conclusion: The result of this study confirms the progressive nature of the obesity epidemic and identifies the contribution of obesity to the worsening cardiometabolic profiles in student athletes. The study also identifies that participation in multiple sports and running sports decreases

  20. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses.

  1. Neurocognitive skills moderate urban male adolescents' responses to preventive intervention materials.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty

    2006-03-15

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials.

  2. The Role of Game Based Learning in the Health Literacy of African American Adolescent Males

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.

  3. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-06-26

    We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.

  4. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males

    PubMed Central

    Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, ‘stoned', ‘want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents. PMID:27898071

  5. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  6. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity.

  7. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration.

  8. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  9. Consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats on fear conditioning and extinction in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwater, Margaret A.

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol

  10. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  11. Effect of training judo in the competition period on the plasmatic levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in high-performance male athletes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Donizete Cicero Xavier; Rossano Procida, Izildinha; das Neves Borges-Silva, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose this study was to evaluate the effect of training judo in the competition period on the plasmatic levels of bioactive molecules in high-performance male athletes. The subjects were divided into two groups, a trained group with 11 judokas and a nontrained group also with 11 subjects. Blood samples obtained 60 h after training to measure plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and leptin levels. The trained group presented a significant reduction in the percentage of fat and fat mass and an increase in the lumbar and lower limbs traction forces and the maximum VO(2) when compared to the nontrained group. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6 between the two groups. The trained group presented a lower concentration of leptin, both as absolute values as well as relative to the percentage of fat, and a higher concentration of MCP-1, in relation to the nontrained group. Our results suggest an adaptation in the capacity of synthesizing and secreting leptin in response to chronic stress in judo, what suggests a neuro-hormonal adjustment that guarantees the efficiency of metabolism. The changes of MCP-1 indicated a possible inflammatory state.

  12. Northern excess in adolescent male firearm suicides: a register-based regional study from Finland, 1972-2009.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Anniina; Keränen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    There are more firearms in Northern Finland as compared to Southern Finland, and a positive association between suicide rates and the number of firearms in a given region has been demonstrated in previous literature. Accordingly, the authors compared firearm suicide rates of Finnish adolescent (under 18 years) males in the two geographic regions. Young adult (18-24 years) and adult (25-44 years) males were used as reference groups. National data on cases of suicide in Northern and Southern Finland between 1972 and 2009 were obtained from Statistics Finland. Firearm suicides (n=5,423) were extracted according to ICD-classification (ICD-8/9: E955, ICD-10: X72-X75). The distribution of types of firearms (hunting gun, handgun, other) employed in suicides was also investigated. The adolescent male firearm suicide rate in Northern Finland was almost three times higher than that observed in Southern Finland, while there was no difference in rates of suicide by other methods. A northern excess in firearm suicide rates was also found among young adult and adult males. Hunting guns were the most common type of firearms employed in young male suicides, and their use was especially common in Northern Finland. Our results indicate that the use of firearms plays a major role in explaining the northern excess in young Finnish male suicide rates, and emphasize a need to advance suicide prevention according to specific regional characteristics.

  13. Optimum onset period for training based on maximum peak velocity of height by wavelet interpolation method in Japanese high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Demura, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Jinzaburou

    2005-01-01

    The Wavelet Interpolation Method (WIM) was applied to the longitudinal records of individuals' heights and weights from 6 to 17 years of age (1983 to 1994) in an athlete group (male: 45, female: 50) and a control group (male: 85, female: 85). The criterion of maturity was derived from age at Maximum Peak Velocity (MPV) of height in the control group. Ages at MPV of height and weight were compared between the athletes and control subjects. The WIM was also applied to mean heights from 6.5 to 17.5 years of all the subjects classified by maturation rate in order to derive a model of growth velocity types. Among the athletes, the males were early-maturing and the females tended to be late-maturing. The difference between the ages at MPV of height and weight in males and females was less in the athletes group than in the control group. For the growth velocity model, in the athlete group, three types could be confirmed among the males, and five among the females. By making use of the type models, it was possible to clarify the spans of adolescence as classified by maturation rates, and it was concluded that the period following the age at MPV seems appropriate for the introduction of regular athletic training for each level of maturity.

  14. Student-Athletes' Misperceptions of Male and Female Peer Drinking Norms: A Multi-Site Investigation of the "Reign of Error"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, H. Wesley; Craig, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Data from student-athletes at 15 colleges and universities (N = 4,258) document extensive misperceptions of peer drinking norms and their association with personal quantity of alcohol consumed. Regardless of actual drinking norms at each school, student-athletes commonly overestimated the alcohol consumption norms (both quantity and frequency…

  15. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an

  16. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups.

  17. Contextualizing Exposures and Experiences of Behaviors That Influence the Risk of Crash Injury in Latino Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Trevino, Sandra; Riera, Antonio; Meyer, Emily; Anderson, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The largest proportion of mortality burden for U.S. Latino adolescent males is attributed to motor vehicle crashes. In a traffic safety context, relatively little is known about how these youth regularly interface within their own culture and how developmental factors as well as behavior choices influence their risk of crash injury. This complex sociobehavioral interface has implications for how this group perceives, interprets, and navigates the adolescent period that is coupled with passenger and driver experiences. We conducted a mixed method study with triangulation design inclusive of in-depth ethnically concordant interviews. Purposive sampling was used to select Latino adolescent males (15–18 years old). Validated measures of acculturation, sensation and reward seeking, and threat avoidance were administered. Using a standard discussion guide with prompts, we explored respondents’ perceptions of Latino cultural themes, ideas, attitudes, and experiences regarding passenger and driver safety. Codes were created and defined as concepts emerging from the data in an inductive fashion. Using the constant comparative method, we compared coded text to identify novel themes and expand existing themes until thematic saturation was reached. Despite Latino adolescent males expressing a high value of passenger and driver safety, this did not uniformly manifest in their reports of real-life behaviors. Their experiences reflected a dense frequency of exposure to risky behavior modeling and crash injury risk. Opportunities for Latino youth and family-focused risk reduction skill strategies are plentiful. Further research should explore how culture influences parent perceptions of safety and risk and the extent to which family structure shapes the modeling of risk that their adolescent faces. PMID:23169119

  18. Repeated Binge Ethanol Administration During Adolescence Enhances Voluntary Sweetened Ethanol Intake in Young Adulthood in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M.; Alipour, Kent K.; Michael, Laura A.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Binge alcohol consumption is a rising concern in the United States, especially among adolescents. During this developmental period alcohol use is usually initiated and has been shown to cause detrimental effects on brain structure and function as well as cognitive/behavioral impairments in rats. Binge models, where animals are repeatedly administered high doses of ethanol typically over a period of three or four days cause these effects. There has been little work conducted aimed at investigating the long-term behavioral consequences of repeated binge administration during adolescence on later ethanol-induced behavior in young adulthood and adulthood. The repeated four-day binge model may serve as a good approximate for patterns of human adolescent alcohol consumption as this is similar to a “bender” in human alcoholics. The present set of experiments examined the dose-response and sex-related differences induced by repeated binge ethanol administration during adolescence on sweetened ethanol (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) intake in young adulthood. In both experiments, on postnatal days (PND) 28–31, PND 35–38 and PND 42–45, ethanol (1.5, 3.0 or 5.0 g/kg) or water was administered intragastrically to adolescent rats. Rats underwent abstinence from PND 46–59. Subsequently, in young adulthood, ethanol and saccharin intake were assessed. Exposure to any dose of ethanol during adolescence significantly enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood. However, while female rats had higher overall g/kg intake, males appear to be more vulnerable to the impact of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequently increased ethanol intake in young adulthood. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence did not alter saccharin consumption in young adulthood in male or female rats. Considering that adolescence is the developmental period in which ethanol experimentation and consumption is usually initiated, the present set of experiments demonstrate the importance of

  19. Trajectories of male sexual aggression from adolescence through college: A latent class growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Swartout, Kevin M; Swartout, Ashlyn G; Brennan, Carolyn L; White, Jacquelyn W

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of male college students report engaging in some form of sexual coercion by the end of their fourth year of college. White and Smith (2004) found that negative childhood experiences-childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence-predicted sexual aggression perpetrated before college, but not during the subsequent college years, a puzzling finding in view of the reasonably consistent rates of sexual aggression from adolescence to the first 2 years of college. The current study takes a person-centered approach to sexual aggression in an attempt to resolve this discrepancy. We examined the possibility of cohesive subgroups of men in terms of their frequency of sexual aggression across the pre-college and college years. A series of latent class growth models were fit to an existing longitudinal dataset of sexual experiences collected across four time points-pre-college through year 3 of college. A four-trajectory model fit the data well, exhibiting significantly better fit than a three-trajectory model. The four trajectories are interpreted as men who perpetrate sexual aggression at (1) low (71.5% of the sample), (2) moderate (21.2%), (3) decreasing (4.2%), and (4) increasing (3.1%) frequencies across time. Negative childhood experiences predicted membership of the decreasing trajectory, relative to the low trajectory, but did not predict membership of the increasing trajectory, explaining the discrepancy uncovered by White and Smith. Implications for primary prevention of sexual aggression are discussed.

  20. [A historical perspective on the health of boys and male adolescents (1780-2010)].

    PubMed

    Dinges, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the discourse on health, boys are emerging as a problem group. In contrast to girls who tended to be seen as fragile if not sickly, boys used to be thought of as strong and healthy. Gender-specific concepts stipulated much more exercise for boys, the masturbation discourse prevented a relaxed relationship to the own body. The paper first describes specific problems in the biography (babies, child labour, tuberculosis, school, fitness for military service) and their solutions up to the time of the Weimar Republic. During and after the two world wars school boys tended to be of poorer health than girls. The consequences of war affect the mental health of (half-) orphans gender-non-specifically up to the third generation. After 1945, attention to health concerns is rather restricted to the professional aptitude of mining trainees, health-related risk behaviour tends to be interpreted in terms of gender. Mothers sought medical advice slightly more frequently on behalf of boys up to puberty. Concerning the time between 1780 and 2010 inferior health is often noticeable in boys and male adolescents. This used to, and still does, apply to babies, child labour, industrial work and occupational accidents, conscription and direct consequences of war. It was mostly due to gender-specific separation of labour, but partly also to a higher risk preference. The gender-specific wider scope for exercise and sports up to the 1960s, in contrast, had a health-promoting effect.