Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S
The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.
Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane
Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…
Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine
Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…
Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles
The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…
Tonkin, Roger S
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275
Hendin, Herbert; And Others
Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…
... Search Share Print Home » Drugs of Abuse » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Brief Description Marijuana refers to ... drugs-abuse/marijuana press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...
Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie
Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.
Kandel, Denise B.; Griesler, Pamela C.; Lee, Gang; Davies, Mark; Schaffsan, Christine
This report uses the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to investigate the role of parents, especially members of the baby boom generation, on the marijuana use of children. The association of marijuana use between parents and children, the differences among parental birth cohorts, and the determinants of child marijuana use are…
Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda
Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)
Piehler, Timothy F.; Winters, Ken C.
Adolescents (aged 12–18 years) identified in a school setting as abusing marijuana and other drugs were randomly assigned to complete one of two brief interventions (BIs). Adolescents and their parent (N = 259) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A) or a 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Using a latent construct representing 6-month marijuana use outcomes, current findings supported previous research that BI-AP resulted in superior outcomes when compared to BI-A. The presence of a marijuana dependence diagnosis at baseline predicted poorer outcomes when compared to youth without a diagnosis. Both baseline diagnostic status and co-occurring conduct problems interacted with intervention condition in predicting marijuana use outcomes. A marijuana dependence diagnosis resulted in a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-A condition when compared to BI-AP. Co-occurring conduct problems had a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-AP intervention when compared to BI-A. Implications for implementing BIs given diagnostic status, parent involvement and co-occurring conduct problems are discussed. PMID:26415058
Hasin, Deborah S.; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Feng, Tianshu
Background Adolescent marijuana use is associated with adverse later-life consequences, so identifying factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship of U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML) to adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases marijuana use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly limits use. We used 24 years of U.S. national data to examine the relationship between state MML and adolescent marijuana use. Methods Data came from 1,098,270 U.S. adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted between 1991–2014. The main outcome was any marijuana use in the prior 30 days. Using multilevel regression modeling, we examined marijuana use in adolescents nested within states, including whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a MML up to 2014, and whether the risk of use changed after state MML were passed. Individual-, school- and state-level covariates were controlled. Findings Overall, marijuana use was more prevalent in states that enacted MML up to 2014 than in other states (AOR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07–1.51). Pre- and post-MML risk did not differ in the full sample (AOR=0.92, 95%CI=0.82–1.04). A significant interaction (p<0.001) indicated differential post-MML risk by grade. In 8th graders, post-MML use decreased (AOR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.84), while no significant change occurred in 10th or 12th graders. Results were generally robust across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Previous evidence and this study show that MML passage does not result in increased adolescent marijuana use. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever enacted MML than in other states. State-level risk factors other than MML may contribute to both marijuana use and MML, warranting investigation. An observed 8th
Carroll, J F
Survey research on levels of use and attitudes toward marijuana by youth indicate a consistently favorable attitude toward occasional, moderate use. Use of marijuana is contrasted with the use of alcohol and tobacco by youth. Research findings re the dangers of marijuana use are summarized. The inability of legislators and law enforcement personnel to control access to and use of marijuana, coupled with the high cost of our present legal response to the marijuana challenge, leads to recommending legalization of marijuana, as well as, developing a generic primary prevention program for marijuana abuse which features distinguishing "responsible use" from "abuse." Criteria for judging marijuana abuse are provided.
Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452
... this "the munchies." People who smoke marijuana often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...
Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew
Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479
Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.
There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532
Siegel, Jason T.; Tan, Cara N.; Navarro, Mario A.; Alvaro, Eusebio; Crano, William D.
Background The frequency with which adolescents are offered marijuana has been investigated as a predictor of marijuana use. The current study was designed to test whether the number of marijuana offers received provides an indirect path between parental knowledge and adolescents’ marijuana use. Methods Data from the nationally representative National Survey of Parents and Youth were examined. Analysis 1 tested the association between frequency of being offered marijuana and adolescents’ (N = 4264) marijuana usage in the subsequent year. Analysis 2, spanning a three-year time frame, tested whether the frequency of marijuana offers at the second year of the panel study bridged the relationship between parental knowledge in Year 1 and marijuana use in Year 3. Results Analysis 1 indicated that the frequency with which adolescents were offered marijuana predicted usage one year later, after controlling for previous usage and nine other common predictors of marijuana use. Analysis 2 revealed an indirect relationship between parental knowledge and use through the number of marijuana offers the adolescent received. Conclusion There was a strong link between the number of offers received and adolescents’ future marijuana use. Higher parental knowledge predicted reductions in offer frequency, which was associated with lower levels of marijuana use. Reducing the number of marijuana offers an adolescent receives could serve as a useful focus for intervention programs targeting parents. PMID:25620730
Anderson, Kristen G.; Sitney, Miranda; White, Helene R.
Background Motivational models for marijuana use have focused on reasons to use marijuana, but rarely consider motives to abstain. Objectives We examined how both adolescent marijuana abstinence motives and use motives contribute to marijuana use and problems at the end of emerging adulthood. Methods 434 community recruited youth who had not initiated marijuana use at baseline were followed from adolescence (at ages 12, 15, and 18 years) into emerging adulthood (age 25 years). Motives to abstain and to use marijuana, marijuana consumption, and marijuana-related problems were assessed across time. Results Endorsing more motives to abstain from marijuana across adolescence predicted less marijuana use in emerging adulthood and fewer marijuana-related problems when controlling for past motives to abstain and marijuana-related behavior. Positive reinforcement use motives related to increased marijuana consumption and problems, and negative reinforcement motives predicted problems when controlling for past marijuana use motives and behaviors. Expansion motives during adolescence related to lower marijuana use in emerging adulthood. When considered together, motives to abstain buffered the effect of negative reinforcement motives on outcomes at age 25 for youth endorsing a greater number of abstinence motives. Conclusions/Implications Given these findings, inclusion of both motives to use and abstain is warranted within comprehensive models of marijuana use decision making and may provide important markers for prevention and intervention specialists. PMID:25396758
Gordon, Susan M.
This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…
Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah
Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393
Brook, Judith S.; And Others
This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)
Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle
Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965
Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.
Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003
Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
Blake, Brian F.; And Others
Students in four metropolitan high schools participated in a survey of marijuana use. It was found that the personality traits of these early adolescents were related to the "style" of their marijuana usage, i.e., to the social conditions under which they tended to use the drug. Further, a given personality trait's relationship to the style of…
... Plan Search Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Revised February 2017 Photo by NIDA What is marijuana? Marijuana refers to the dried leaves, flowers, stems, ...
Sinha, Rajita; Easton, Caroline; Renee-Aubin, Lisa; Carroll, Kathleen M
Young marijuana abusers rarely seek treatment themselves and are difficult to engage in treatment when referred by social agencies. To evaluate treatment engagement strategies in this population, 65 young probation-referred marijuana abusers were randomly assigned to either three-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET alone) or three-session MET plus contingency management (MET/CM), with vouchers for treatment attendance. A significantly higher number of participants in the MET/CM condition completed the three-session intervention as compared with MET alone. Participants in both conditions reported significant reductions in marijuana use and improvement in legal problems. These findings suggest that young marijuana abusers benefit from scientifically validated treatments.
Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin
This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population.
Foley, John D
Substance use by adolescents and young adults continues to be a serious problem. Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance with close to 50% of high school seniors admitting use at some time. Each year 2.6 million individuals in this country become new users and most are under 19 years old. Individuals who provide health care services to this age group must have an understanding of the drug, its pharmacokinetics, and the many short- and long-term adverse effects. Familiarity with risk factors associated with initiating use can be helpful in screening older children and targeting anticipatory guidance toward those most likely to benefit. This article reviews these issues and includes commentary on a recently published review of treatment programs.
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
Youth Marijuana Use 1 Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program Jenny A. Crain, MS, MPH, CPH, Suzanne L...risk for lifetime marijuana use. Keywords: Marijuana use; Risk factors; Youth development programs; Adolescents Modifiable Risk Factors for...negative consequences. Previous research has shown that adolescents with a history of prior marijuana, tobacco, and/or alcohol use are at greater risk of
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...
Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A
We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Stryker, Jo Ellen
This study examined how aggregate levels of news coverage about marijuana have impacted adolescents' marijuana behavior generally, and through the intervening variables of personal disapproval and perceived harmfulness of marijuana, two variables that existing research has identified as significant predictors of adolescent marijuana use at the aggregate level. It was hypothesized that news coverage of reasons why people should not use marijuana would cause increase in aggregate marijuana abstinence, perceived harmfulness, and personal disapproval. Conversely, news coverage of positive aspects of marijuana use would cause decreases in marijuana abstinence, perceived harmfulness, and personal disapproval. Results of distributed lagged time-series regression and non-linear modeling offered support for two of the three proposed hypotheses. Aggregate media coverage explained a significant portion of the variation in adolescents' abstinence from marijuana use over time. It also explained a significant portion of the variation in personal disapproval of marijuana. Personal disapproval was found to partially mediate the relationship between media coverage and marijuana abstinence. Implications for the conceptualization of media effects on health behaviors are discussed.
Passarotti, A.M.; Crane, Natania A.; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J.
Background Marijuana use is increasingly widespread among adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use during this important developmental period. As such, we examined adolescent trajectories of marijuana use and the psychosocial factors that may differentiate individuals who escalate their marijuana use over adolescence and young adulthood from those who do not. Methods Participants were 1,204 9th and 10th graders at baseline who were over-sampled for cigarette use and were followed over 6-years, as part of an extensive longitudinal study, the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) was used to model trajectories of marijuana use and Mixed Effects Regression analyses were used to examine psychosocial correlates of marijuana use escalation over time. Results Our results revealed three trajectories of non-escalating users (low users, medium users, and high users) and one escalating user trajectory. We found that relative to Non-escalators the Escalators had higher cigarette smoking (p<.0001), novelty-seeking (p=.02), aggressive and anti-social behavior (p<.007), and problem behavior related to peer context (p=.04). Moreover, there were important time and group by time interactions in some of these relationships. On the other hand, parental control and depression did not differ between escalators and low and medium non-escalating users. Conclusions Cigarette smoking, novelty-seeking, aggressive and anti-social behavior, and peer influence are related to ‘escalating’ marijuana use throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25792233
Cheadle, Jacob E.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner
This study investigated the links between marijuana use trajectories and marijuana abuse/dependence (DSM-IV) using five waves of data from 718 North American Indigenous adolescents between 10 and 17 years from eight reservations sharing a common language and culture. Growth mixture models indicated that 15% of youth began using by 11–12 years of age and that another 20% began shortly thereafter. These early users had odds of abuse/dependence 6.5 times larger than abstainers. Girls were also unexpectedly found to be particularly at risk of early use, and this did not reflect other background and psychosocial factors, including friend use. While the timing, patterns, and consequences of use were similar to those reported for alcohol use previously, the social influences on use differed in important ways. PMID:23017929
... That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Listen Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, shredded leaves and flowers from the marijuana plant. Marijuana can be rolled up and smoked ...
Primary heroin abusers who remained in a voluntary drug-free treatment program for an average of nine months were carefully matched with not-retained control subjects. Marijuana was used by the retained subjects as a heroin substitute and those who used marijuana were more apt to remain in the treatment program. (Author)
Kanamori, Mariano; Weissman, Jessica; De La Rosa, Mario; Melton, James; Sanchez, Mariana; Rojas, Patria; Trekpa, Mary Jo
We examined the perception of adolescent children's marijuana use and its consequences in the Hispanic seasonal farmworking community of South Florida via three focus groups with Hispanic adult female seasonal workers (n = 29). The women described how adolescents' marijuana use increased over the past five years. Social networks for marijuana use were reported near schools and bus stations. Although participants expressed concern over adolescent marijuana use and involvement in selling marijuana, they reported that their job demands preclude their ability to supervise their children. Participants do not report unlawful marijuana use due to fear of deportation.
Rob, M; Reynolds, I; Finlayson, P F
A sample of 1,270 students in Years 7, 10 and 11 attending seven State high schools in a middle class area of Sydney answered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure many aspects of their family situation, school performance, spare time activities, drinking and drug taking behaviour and sexual activity. Data on the reported prevalence of marijuana use and the variables significantly associated with marijuana use are presented and discussed. Marijuana use was reported by 4.2% of 12 year olds (Year 7), 26.5% of 15 year olds (Year 10) and 26.7% of 16 year olds (Year 11). More than half of those who had ever used marijuana had used it during the week prior to the survey and there were no significant differences in the characteristics between these recent and the remaining users. Marijuana users reported significantly poorer family relationships than non-users and were about twice as likely as non-users to come from a broken home and/or to have a mother who works full-time, which is often a consequence of marital break-up. Marijuana users also displayed poorer school performance, spent less time on homework and had more school absenteeism than non-users. Marijuana users were more than three times as likely as non-users to have had heterosexual intercourse, drunk alcohol 3 or more times in the past week and to smoke cigarettes. Also, the reported use of stimulants, hallucinogens, narcotics (heroin) and sedatives was almost entirely restricted to those who reported marijuana use. Improvements in the quality of family life may prevent the use of marijuana and other probably more harmful drugs, as well as the indulgence in other acting-out behaviours.
Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sharma, Taral
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance by adolescents in the United States. According to a 2009 survey conducted by Monitoring the Future, there were about 11.8% of 8th graders, 26.7% of 10th graders and 32.8% of 12th graders who had abused marijuana at least once in the year (Johnston L.D., Bachman J.G., O'Malley P.M., Schulenberg J.E. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2009 [Computer file]. ICPSR28401-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-10-27. doi:10.3886/ICPSR28401). A retrospective review of published literature disclosed case reports of marijuana-induced mania in adult patients with no prior psychiatric history (Bonnet U., Chang D.I., Wiltfang J., Scherbaum N., Weber R. A case of cannabis-induced mania. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010 Apr; 78(4):223-5. Epub 2010 Feb3; Henquet C., Krabbendam L., de Graaf R., ten Have M., van Os J. Cannabis use and expression of mania in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):103-10. Epub 2006 Jun 21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document that marijuana induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with no known prior psychiatric history.
King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…
Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.
This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…
Gray, Kevin M.
Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States and worldwide. Marijuana use is a problem of increasing magnitude among adolescents. Use typically begins in adolescence and is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. Method This article will present an overview of trends in marijuana use, and will review the endocannabinoid system and marijuana. It will discuss recent policy developments in US and their implications, especially for adolescents. Existing treatments will be reviewed, including findings from a recent randomized double-blind trial of N-acetylcysteine, a compound that reverses the dysregulation of the glutamate system that occurs in substance dependence. Conclusions The core treatment approaches include psychosocial interventions, sometimes in combination with each other. While a reduction in days of use is often achieved with most of these approaches, abstinence is a much more elusive goal. The evidence base for effective treatments remains inadequate especially with regard to adolescents, and there is an urgent need for more research in this area. Promising new treatments include N-acetylcysteine in conjunction with contingency management. PMID:25289370
A survey of a representative sample of high school students in New York State revealed that involvement with other drug using adolescents is a more important correlate of marijuana use than is parental use of psychoactive drugs or alcohol. Implications of these data for parental and peer influence, the generation gap, and social change are…
MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A
Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.
Roditis, Maria L; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie
Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to social norms, risks and benefits, and exposure to pro- versus anti-marijuana messaging is related to use. Participants were 786 adolescents from Southern and Northern California (36.7% male, 63.21% females; mean age=16.1years; SD=1.6). Participants came from diverse ethnic backgrounds, with 207 (26.61%) White, 171 (21.98%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 232 (29.82%) Hispanic, and 168 (21.59%) other. Results indicated that marijuana and blunts were consistently perceived as more socially acceptable and less risky than cigarettes (p<0.01). Participants who reported that their friends used marijuana had a 27% greater odds of using marijuana themselves. Further, seeing messages about the good things or benefits of marijuana use was associated with a 6% greater odds of use [OR 1.06 (CI 1.00, 1.12)]. This study's findings offer a number of important public health implications, particularly as states move towards legalization of marijuana for recreational use. As this occurs, states need to take adolescents' perceptions of risks, benefits, social norms, and peer influences into account as they implement strategies to reduce youth use of marijuana and blunts.
Reboussin, Beth A.; Green, Kerry M.; Milam, Adam J.; Furr-Holden, Debra M.; Johnson, Renee M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
Background The present study examined the influence of neighborhood factors on transitions in marijuana involvement during adolescence in a sample of primarily low-income, urban Black youth. Methods 556 Black adolescents were interviewed annually beginning in first grade as part of a longitudinal study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine stages of marijuana involvement from 6th to 9th grades. The influence of neighborhood disorder, drug activity, violent crime, safety and disadvantage on transitions in marijuana involvement was tested using latent transition analysis (LTA). Results There was evidence for three stages of involvement: no involvement, offered, and use and problems. Involvement increased steadily during adolescence with a slightly greater risk to transition from offers to use between 6th and 7th grades. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.04, CI=1.00, 1.08), drug activity (AOR=1.12, CI=1.02, 1.22) and disadvantage (AOR=1.44, CI=1.10, 1.92) were associated with the transition from marijuana offers to use and problems. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.07, CI=1.02, 1.11), drug activity (AOR=1.19, CI=1.10, 1.29) and violent crime (AOR=1.17, CI=1.03, 1.32) were associated with transitioning rapidly from no involvement to use and problems. Conclusions Understanding how neighborhoods could be organized and provided with supports to discourage marijuana use and promote non-drug using behaviors should be an important goal of any prevention program in low-income, urban Black neighborhoods. Enhancing citizen participation and mobilization to address the social processes of neighborhood disorder has the potential to reduce marijuana involvement in these neighborhoods. PMID:26162651
Greenblatt, Janet C.
The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) has shown that the rate of marijuana use among youth has more than doubled since 1992. Similar trends are noted across all subgroups studied. At the same time, the percentage of teens perceiving a "great risk" from smoking marijuana has declined. Negative effects of marijuana use are…
Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy
Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes. PMID:27478762
Dorius, Cassandra J.; Bahr, Stephen J.; Hoffmann, John P.; Harmon, Elizabeth Lovelady
Using data from a probability sample of 4,987 adolescents, we examine the degree to which closeness to mother, closeness to father, parental support, and parental monitoring buffer the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use. The relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use was attenuated by both…
Wilkinson, Samuel T; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Davidson, Larry; D'Souza, Deepak C
Risk perception has been shown to be protective with regard to marijuana use. Notably, the risk perception of marijuana in individuals with substance abuse problems varies significantly from that of the general public. Understanding how risk perception is formed in substance users could explain these differences and help predict the consequences of policy changes. Using this framework, we explored risk perception and its formation in a sample of substance abusing veterans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with veterans who were receiving treatment for substance abuse. Interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. A prominent perspective among the 31 participants was that marijuana is significantly different from other drugs because it is safe, not addictive, not associated with physical withdrawal, and has less overt behavioral effects than other substances. Many of these participants drew upon their own innocuous experiences with the drug in developing this perspective, more so than information from any other source. A contrasting narrative emphasized marijuana's capacity to cause negative social consequences, act as a gateway to the use of other, more harmful substances, and cause paranoia or worsen psychosis. In conclusion, individual experience with marijuana featured more prominently in informing risk perception than any other source of information. Our results and previous literature suggest that the significant disconnect between the individual experiences of substance users and the current clinical and legal policy towards marijuana may weaken the legitimacy of public policy or the authority of the medical community.
Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando
Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209
Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando
OBJECTIVE: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. METHODS: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. RESULTS: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. CONCLUSION: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.
McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K
Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.
Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth
Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059
Staff, Jeremy; Kloska, Deborah D.; Patrick, Megan E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John
Purpose Assess whether infrequent and frequent marijuana use at age 19/20 predicts receipt of educational degrees by the mid 20s, independent of confounding age 18 adolescent risk factors. Methods Data were from the Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally-representative survey of high school seniors followed into adulthood. Thirteen cohorts (1990 to 2002) of high school seniors were followed longitudinally to their mid 20s (n=4,925; 54% female). We used logistic regression and propensity score matching with successive inclusion of age 18 risk factors and substance use to compare age 19/20 frequent marijuana users (6+ occasions in past 30 days) to non-users, frequent users to infrequent users (1 to 6 occasions), and infrequent users to non-users on their likelihood of degree attainment by the mid 20s. Results Frequent marijuana users were less likely than infrequent users and non-users to earn Bachelor’s degrees, even after controlling for a host of age 18 risk factors (e.g., family socioeconomic background, academic performance, educational expectations, truancy). However, these differences were reduced in magnitude to statistical non-significance when we controlled for age 18 substance use. Across analyses, the proportion reaching this educational milestone did not differ significantly between infrequent users and non-users. Conclusions Results support a growing body of work suggesting that frequent marijuana use predicts a lower likelihood of post-secondary educational attainment, and this difference may originate during secondary school. PMID:26206441
Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...
Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James
This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…
Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.
The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hopkins, Jessica; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Wahlstrom, Lindsey
Background Growing moves in the U.S. toward relaxed laws surrounding adult use of marijuana raise concerns about concurrent increases in adolescent use of marijuana. Objectives This study collected and analyzed primary data on the relationship between marijuana legalization status in U.S. states and adolescents’ marijuana use. Methods Recruited through social networking sites and youth-services community agencies, a sample of 1,310 adolescents from 48 U.S. states and the District of Columbia reported their use of marijuana. Youths’ use rates were compared with the marijuana legalization status of youths’ states of residence. Results Study findings failed to show a relationship between adolescents’ use of marijuana and state laws regarding marijuana use. Relationships were found for increased marijuana use by older youths, females, and non-Hispanic youths. Youths whose parents completed 2 or more years of college were less likely to report marijuana use than those whose parents completed fewer than 2 years of college. Conclusions Albeit study findings do not support predictions of growing marijuana use by adolescents in states with liberalized adult use laws, further monitoring of adolescents’ use with larger and more representative samples is needed. PMID:27754733
Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Young, Amy
OBJECTIVES Our goals were to (1) determine adolescents' motivations (reasons) for engaging in the nonmedical (illicit) use of 4 classes of prescription medications and (2) examine whether motivations were associated with a higher risk for substance abuse problems. RESPONDENTS The 2005 sample (N = 1086) was derived from one ethnically diverse school district in southeastern Michigan and included 7th- through 12th-grade students. METHODS Data were collected by using a self-administered, Web-based survey that included questions about drug use and the motivations to engage in nonmedical use of prescription medication. RESULTS Twelve percent of the respondents had engaged in nonmedical use of opioid pain medications in the past year: 3% for sleeping, 2% as a sedative and/or for anxiety, and 2% as stimulants. The reasons for engaging in the nonmedical use of prescription medications varied by drug classification. For opioid analgesics, when the number of motives increased, so too did the likelihood of a positive Drug Abuse Screening Test score. For every additional motive endorsed, the Drug Abuse Screening Test increased by a factor of 1.8. Two groups of students were compared (at-risk versus self-treatment); those who endorsed multiple motivations for nonmedical use of opioids (at-risk group) were significantly more likely to have elevated Drug Abuse Screening Test scores when compared with those who were in the self-treatment group. Those in the at-risk group also were significantly more likely to engage in marijuana and alcohol use. CONCLUSION The findings from this exploratory study warrant additional research because several motivations for the nonmedical use of prescription medications seem associated with a greater likelihood of substance abuse problems. PMID:17142533
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.
Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277
Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela
Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067
Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela
Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.
Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G
Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.
Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McGlade, Erin; King, Jace B.; Terry, Janine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah
Introduction There are limited data regarding the impact of marijuana (MJ) on cortical development during adolescence. Adolescence is a period of substantial brain maturation and cortical thickness abnormalities may be indicative of disruptions of normal cortical development. This investigation applied cortical-surface based techniques to compare cortical thickness measures in MJ using adolescents compared to non-using controls. Methods Eighteen adolescents with heavy MJ use and 18 non-using controls similar in age received MRI scans using a 3T Siemens scanner. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with FreeSurfer. Group differences in cortical thickness were assessed using statistical difference maps covarying for age and gender. Results Compared to non-users, MJ users had decreased cortical thickness in right caudal middle frontal, bilateral insula and bilateral superior frontal corticies. Marijuana users had increased cortical thickness in the bilateral lingual, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal and left paracentral regions. In the MJ users, negative correlations were found between frontal and lingual regions for urinary cannabinoid levels and between age of onset of use and the right superior frontal gyrus. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to evaluate cortical thickness in a group of adolescents with heavy MJ use compared to non-users. Our findings are consistent with prior studies that documented abnormalities in prefrontal and insular regions. Our results suggest that age of regular use may be associated with altered prefrontal cortical gray matter development in adolescents. Furthermore, reduced insular cortical thickness may be a biological marker for increased risk of substance dependence. PMID:21310189
Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors.
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492
Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …
Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y
The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.
Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.
Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818
HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.
Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219
Objective The purpose of this commentary was to briefly summarize the literature on the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and mental health and how policy changes surrounding marijuana decriminalization and legalization might impact this relationship. Methods A comprehensive literature search on adolescent marijuana use, mental health, and the impact of decriminalization and legalization was conducted. Findings are briefly summarized and discussed. Results Although there is a great deal of ambiguity regarding the causal direction of marijuana use and mental health problems, what can safely be gleaned from this body of research is that early and frequent use of marijuana during adolescence is associated with the development of more psychiatric-related problems than occasional use or nonuse. Conclusions Until there is greater clarity in this domain, clinicians should continue to screen adolescent patients for marijuana use as well as mental health difficulties, but may need to be more thoughtful about screening among early adolescents, if in fact a shift in the age of marijuana uptake occurs amidst policy changes. PMID:26883502
Heitzeg, Mary M.; Cope, Lora M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Hardee, Jillian E.; Zucker, Robert A.
This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning—negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)—were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4; mean age 19.6; and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2.Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. PMID:26403581
Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K
This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.
Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.
Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714
Mashhoon, Y.; Sava, S.; Sneider, J.T.; Nickerson, L.D.; Silveri, M.M.
Background The prevalence of marijuana (MJ) use among youth and its legalization for medical or recreational use has intensified public health endeavors of understanding MJ effects on brain structure and function. Studies indicate that MJ use is related to impaired cognitive performance, and altered functional brain activation and chemistry in adolescents and adults, but MJ effects on brain morphology in emerging adults are less understood. Methods 15 MJ users (age 21.8±3.6, 2 females) and 15 non-using (NU) participants (age 22.3±3.5, 2 females) were included, demographically matched on age, education and alcohol use. High-resolution structural MR images were acquired at 3 Tesla. Cortical thickness (CT) and volumetric analyses were performed using Freesurfer. A priori regions of interest (ROI) included orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. Results Whole brain CT analysis did not find significant group differences in a priori ROIs but revealed MJ users had significantly less CT (i.e., thinness) in right fusiform gyrus (rFG) compared to NU (p<0.05). Thalamic volume was significantly smaller in MJ users compared to NU (right, p=0.05; left, p=0.01) and associated with greater non-planning (p<0.01) and overall impulsivity (p=0.04). There were no other group volume differences. Conclusions RFG cortical thinness and smaller thalamic volume in emerging adults is associated with MJ abuse. Furthermore, smaller thalamic volume associated with greater impulsivity contributes to growing evidence that the thalamus is neurobiologically perturbed by MJ use. Collectively, altered thalamic and rFG structural integrity may interfere with their known roles in regulating visuoperceptual and object information processing. PMID:26249265
Smith, Matthew Lee; Barry, Adam E; Merianos, Ashley L
Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used substances among adolescents. In the context of the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM), this study investigated the relationships between psychological and normative factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Data were analyzed from 1053 middle and high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between BPSM constructs. Results indicate that latent constructs of the BPSM are significant antecedent factors to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; however, the relationships between study constructs were inconsistent with those theorized by BPSM. Findings support the importance of theory testing for complex models applied to new topics and new populations.
Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A
This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research.
Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W
Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.
Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.
Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Also not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues – and associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses – using a longitudinal dataset of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men’s adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men’s psychopathology in their mid 30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife. PMID:25017389
Wilson, Natascha; Cadet, Jean Lud
There is a need to bridge the gap between the fields of addiction psychiatry and general psychiatry in order to effectively treat co-morbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This alarming epidemic transcends communities and severely impacts healthcare worldwide yielding poor treatment outcomes and prognoses for afflicted patients. Because substance abuse can acerbate and/or trigger psychosis and mood disorders, it is important to keep these issues in the forefront when evaluating patients. In order to address some of the complications stemming from not enough interactions between various groups of practitioners, this review addresses the neurobehavioral effects of cannabis use and their impact on patients who suffer from psychotic or affective disorders. The hope is that this paper will serve as a spring board for further discussions among practitioners who treat these patients. Greater interactions between caretakers are bound to impact the care of our patients in a very positive way. PMID:20155601
Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F
Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.
Green, Kerry M.; Musci, Rashelle J.; Johnson, Renee M.; Matson, Pamela A.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
Objective This study identifies and compares outcomes in young adulthood associated with longitudinal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence among urban youth. Method Data come from a cohort of 678 urban, predominantly Black children followed from ages 6–25 (1993–2012). Analyses are based on the 608 children who participated over time (53.6% male). Longitudinal patterning of alcohol and marijuana use were based on annual frequency reports from grades 8–12 and estimated through latent profile analysis. Results We identified four classes of alcohol and marijuana use including Non-Use (47%), Moderate Alcohol Use (28%), Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use (12%) and High Dual Use (13%). A marijuana only class was not identified. Analyses show negative outcomes in adulthood associated with all three adolescent substance use classes. Compared to the non-use class, all use classes had statistically significantly higher rates of substance dependence. Those in the ‘High Dual Use’ class had the lowest rate of high school graduation. Comparing classes with similar alcohol but different marijuana patterns, the ‘Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use’ class had a statistically significant increased risk of having a criminal justice record and developing substance use dependence in adulthood. Conclusion Among urban youth, heterogeneous patterns of alcohol and marijuana use across adolescence are evident, and these patterns are associated with distinct outcomes in adulthood. These findings suggest a need for targeted education and intervention efforts to address the needs of youth using both marijuana and alcohol, as well as the importance of universal early preventive intervention efforts. PMID:26517712
Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.
Background The study assesses the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, children living at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. Method This study used a longitudinal design. The sample participants (N=548) were first studied at mean age 14 and last studied at mean age 43. Results Six trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic/heavy users (3.6%), increasing users (5.1%), chronic/occasional users (20%), decreasers (14.3%), quitters (22.5%), and nonusers/experimenters (34.5%). With three exceptions, as compared with being a nonuser/experimenter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy, the increasing, or the chronic/occasional user trajectory group was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and having a spouse/partner who used marijuana at early midlife. In addition, compared with being a quitter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy user trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, alcohol dependence/abuse, and spouse/partner marijuana use. Implications for intervention are presented. Conclusions Trajectories of marijuana use, especially chronic/heavy use, increasing use, and chronic/occasional use, are associated with unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. The importance of the findings for prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27168181
Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda
Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…
King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.
Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…
Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.
The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…
Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.
The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)
Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Stephan, Philippe; Laget, Jacques; Chinet, Leonie; Bernard, Mathieu; Halfon, Olivier
A questionnaire investigating adolescents' opinions and experiences regarding marijuana use was administered to 163 adolescents and young adults (96 boys and 67 girls) aged 13 to 20 (mean age = 16.8, s.d. = 1.5). Items referred to marijuana and other substances' dangerousness, representations regarding the positive and negative consequences of…
Isen, Joshua D.; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence—when the brain is still developing—has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants’ family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9–12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17–20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose–response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878
de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S
Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.
Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W
Adult maladaptive behaviors including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and marijuana use are major public health concerns. At the present time, there is a dearth of research showing the interrelationships among the possible predictors of adult maladaptive behaviors (i.e., ASPD and marijuana use). Therefore, the current study examines the pathways from adverse family environments in late adolescence to these maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. There were 674 participants (52 % African Americans, 48 % Puerto Ricans). Sixty percent of the sample was female. Structural equation modeling in the current study included 4 waves of data collection (mean ages 19, 24, 29, and 36). An adverse family environment in late adolescence was related to greater externalizing personality in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to greater marijuana use in emerging adulthood. This in turn was positively associated with partner marijuana use in young adulthood, which in turn, was ultimately related to maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. An adverse family environment in late adolescence was also related to greater marijuana use in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with an adverse relationship with one's partner in young adulthood. Such a negative partner relationship was related to maladaptive behaviors in adulthood. The findings suggest that family-focused interventions (Kumpfer and Alvarado in Am Psychol 58(6-7): 457-465, 2003) for dysfunctional families may be most helpful when they include the entire family.
Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Park, Ann; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Tapert, Susan F.
Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance among teenagers, yet little is known about the possible neural influence of heavy marijuana use during adolescence. We previously demonstrated an altered functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity related to spatial working memory (SWM) among adolescents who were heavy users of after an average of 8 days of abstinence, but the persisting neural effects remain unclear. To characterize the potentially persisting neurocognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in adolescence, we examined fMRI response during SWM among abstinent marijuana-using teens. Participants were 15 MJ teens and 17 demographically similar non-using controls, ages 16–18. Teens underwent biweekly urine toxicology screens to ensure abstinence for 28 days before fMRI acquisition. Groups performed similarly on the SWM task, but MJ teens demonstrated lower activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal and occipital cortices, yet significantly more activation in right posterior parietal cortex. MJ teens showed abnormalities in brain response during a SWM task compared with controls, even after 1 month of abstinence. The activation pattern among MJ teens may reflect different patterns of utilization of spatial rehearsal and attention strategies, and could indicate altered neurodevelopment or persisting abnormalities associated with heavy marijuana use in adolescence. PMID:18356027
Williamson, J M; Borduin, C M; Howe, B A
This study examined the individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Dyads were divided into 4 demographically similar groups: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and nonmaltreatment control. Results show that adolescent neglect was primarily associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation. Adolescent physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child developmental skills, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. In contrast, adolescent sexual abuse was related to maternal emotional problems and adolescent internalizing behaviors. In general, each group of maltreated adolescents experienced lower levels of family cohesion, more attention problems, and more daily stress than did their nonmaltreated counterparts. Findings are consistent with an ecological model of adolescent maltreatment.
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Polzella, Sue A.; Selinger, Marilyn
The paper reviews adolescent development and considers the teacher's role in dealing with a compulsive substance abuser. Typical characteristics of substance abusers, such as isolation or withdrawal from the family unit, decreased academic achievement, initial denial of a drug/alcohol problem, and interactions with a negative peer group are noted,…
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Amini, Fariboz; And Others
Issues involved in treating adolescent drug abusers and literature describing abuser personality traits are examined. The Youth Service at Langley Porter Institute and the problems encountered and solutions attempted there are discussed. The importance of residential as opposed to outpatient treatment and honesty in staff-patient relationships is…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin
Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286
BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROWN, ELAINE N.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.; BROOK, DAVID W.
Summary Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outcomes than a non or low-use trajectory group. The chronic marijuana-use trajectory group was highly associated with criminal behavior and partners’ marijuana use in adulthood. Treatment programs for marijuana use should also directly address common adverse life-course outcomes which users may already be experiencing. PMID:21675549
Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…
Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.
Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Ray, Kimberly L.; Hines, Christina S.; Li, Karl; Dawes, Michael A.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; Laird, Angela R.
Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week) and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, “Wins” and “Losses” were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during “Losses.” Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both “Wins” and “Losses.” However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the “Losses” condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity. PMID:25692068
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.
Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…
Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.
Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633
Garcia-Jimenez, Sara; Heredia-Lezama, Karina; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Fuentes-Lara, Griselda; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Deciga-Campos, Myrna
Drug abuse among college students is characterized by lower academic performance and long-term negative consequences. Screening to detect students at high risk of consuming drugs is of primary importance to insure early identification and appropriate levels of care. As a result, this study aimed to determine the current or past use of drug abuse through a questionnaire applied to a student population at the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. The results were confirmed by immunoanalysis and gas chromatography of urine. We interviewed 181 students aged 15 to 21 (gender was not considered in this study), and urine samples were collected for analytical analysis. For detection of metabolites Delta9-THCA-A and benzoylecgonine from marijuana and cocaine, respectively, a homogenous enzymatic inmmunoanalysis was used; subsequent samples were analyzed by a mass spectrometer with quadrupole detector. Seven samples of the total (181) did not completely fit the inclusion criteria and were eliminated. The results showed 0.50% and 1.16% positive samples for benzoylecgonine and Delta9-THCA-A, respectively. These results are not different from those of the National Questionnaire on Addiction. We can establish a program for detecting drug consumption in our students. This kind of study is important in order to implement programs that can help us to decrease the abuse of drugs in our college population.
Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Cervantes, Richard C.; Merten, Michael J.
Families in which one or more members are undocumented immigrants experience unique hardships. Yet, little is known about stress and substance use among adolescents growing up in these families. The present study examined associations between two sources of adolescent stress (i.e., low parental involvement due to contextual constraints and family economic insecurity) and lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among adolescents in families with undocumented members. The sample was comprised of 102 adolescents (10–18 years old) and one of his or her parents. Participants responded a survey in English or Spanish. Adolescent lifetime use of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana was 51%, 32.4%, and 37.3%, respectively. Chi–Square analyses found no significant gender differences in lifetime substance use. Logistic regression models showed that adolescent stress due to hindered parental involvement increased the odds of both lifetime cigarette and marijuana use after controlling for gender, age, linguistic acculturation, familism, parental control, and negative peer affiliation. Being a girl increased the odds of lifetime alcohol use. Family economic stress was not associated with lifetime substance use. Results suggest that hindered parental involvement might be a stressor and a risk factor for cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents growing up in families with undocumented members. Because parents in these families are likely to be undocumented, policies that allow immigrants to apply for legal status could improve parents' working conditions and facilitate parental involvement; in turn, such policies could decrease the risk for adolescent substance use among children of Latino immigrants. PMID:26900317
Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.
This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…
Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FKBP5 CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n=179 maltreated; n=147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7–9 and adolescence: ages 15–18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with 1–2 copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward SUD in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939
Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.
This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…
Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy
Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)
Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824
Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.
Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127
Cloutier, Renee; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R
Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12–17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713
Battle, Judy Shepps
Adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is currently increasing. Three out of four adolescents report regular drinking. Significant alcohol, inhalant, and cigarette use is reported as early as fourth grade, and alcohol experimentation increases from 6 to 17 percent between fourth and sixth grades. Adolescence is a high risk stage for…
Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…
Staggs, Frank M., Jr.; Nyberg, Kenneth L.
Drug abuse and the differences in drug use patterns and related behavior between rural blacks and whites were examined. Questionnaires were administered to 993 (369 black and 624 white) rural adolescents in grades 7-12 in randomly selected schools in Texas. The instrument totaled 15 pages containing 65 items which yielded 178 quantifiable…
Palmgreen, P; Donohew, L; Lorch, E P; Hoyle, R H; Stephenson, M T
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of targeted televised public service announcement campaigns in reducing marijuana use among high-sensation-seeking adolescents. METHODS: The study used a controlled interrupted time-series design in 2 matched communities. Two televised antimarijuana campaigns were conducted in 1 county and 1 campaign in the comparison community. Personal interviews were conducted with 100 randomly selected teenagers monthly in each county for 32 months. RESULTS: All 3 campaigns reversed upward developmental trends in 30-day marijuana use among high-sensation seekers (P < .002). As expected, low-sensation seekers had low use levels, and no campaign effects were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Televised campaigns with high reach and frequency that use public service announcements designed for and targeted at high-sensation-seeking adolescents can significantly reduce substance use in this high-risk population. PMID:11211642
Williamson, Jeffrey M.; And Others
Examined individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Adolescent neglect was associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation; physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child development, and adolescent…
Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; DeWitt, Samuel J; Mishra, Virendra
Background As the most commonly used illicit substance during early adolescence, long-term or latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use across adolescent developmental processes remain to be determined. Methods We examined cortical thickness, gray/white matter border contrast (GWR) and local gyrification index (LGI) in 42 marijuana (MJ) users. Voxelwise regressions assessed early-onset (age <16) vs. late-onset (≥16 years-old) differences and relationships to continued use while controlling for current age and alcohol use. Results Although groups did not differ by onset status, groups diverged in their correlations between cannabis use and cortical architecture. Among early-onset users, continued years of MJ use and current MJ consumption were associated with thicker cortex, increased GWR and decreased LGI. Late-onset users exhibited the opposite pattern. This divergence was observed in all three morphological measures in the anterior dorsolateral frontal cortex (p<.05, FWE-corrected). Conclusions Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond. PMID:26507433
Fried, Peter A
For the purposes of this review, the impact of prenatal exposure to marijuana in adolescent offspring is discussed in the context that the effects may be apparent only when the multifaceted nature of complex behaviors is examined and that such exposure can be distinguished from those of prenatal exposure to cigarettes. The data are derived from adolescents participating in an on going longitudinal study for whom prenatal marijuana and cigarette exposure had been ascertained with the low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample that had been assessed since birth. In this report, cognitive functioning and visual perceptual performance in 9- to 12-year-olds and facets of attention in 13- to 16-year-olds are examined. These three areas of behavior all appear to be affected differentially by maternal use of marijuana or cigarettes. Prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with lowered IQ, poorer impulse control, and poorer performance on tests requiring fundamental aspects of visuoperceptual performance. In contrast, prenatal marijuana did not have a negative impact on IQ or on basic visuoperceptual skills. Rather, in utero exposure to marijuana had an impact on the application of these skills in tasks in problem-solving situations requiring visual integration and analytical skills as well as sustained attention. These differential findings are discussed in terms of cigarette exposure having a "bottom-up" impact and marijuana exposure having a "top-down" impact. The latter is also discussed in terms of prenatal marijuana's negative association with aspects of executive function.
de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia
Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…
Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R
Weight, height, and head circumference were examined in children from birth to early adolescence for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. The negative association between growth measures at birth and prenatal cigarette exposure was overcome, sooner in males than females, within the first few years, and by the age of six, the children of heavy smokers were heavier than control subjects. Pre and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke did not have a negative effect upon the growth parameters; however, the choice of bottle-feeding or shorter duration of breast-feeding by women who smoked during pregnancy appeared to play an important positive role in the catch-up observed among the infants of smokers. Prenatal exposure to marijuana was not significantly related to any growth measures at birth, although a smaller head circumference observed at all ages reached statistical significance among the early adolescents born to the heavy marijuana users.
Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A
Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.
French, Michael T.; Roebuck, M. Christopher; Dennis, Michael L.; Godley, Susan H.; Liddle, Howard A.; Tims, Frank M.
Conducted an economic evaluation of five outpatient adolescent treatment approaches (12 total site-by-conditions) to identify average economic costs to society. Results suggest that some types of substance-abuse intervention for adolescents can reduce social costs immediately after treatment. (SLD)
RAND Corporation, 2007
Many adolescents experiment with marijuana; the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 46% of high school seniors have tried this drug at some time. Pushing boundaries is what young people do, and some researchers believe that trying marijuana is a normal part of growing up. RAND Corporation researchers have revisited Shedler and Block's…
Ford, Benjamin M; Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E; Prather, Paul L
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes. Instead, SCBs are a highly structural diverse group of compounds, easily synthesized, which produce very dangerous adverse effects occurring by, as of yet, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, available evidence indicates that K2/Spice products are clearly not safe marijuana alternatives.
Chu, Doris C
A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed.
... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...
Lifford, Kate; Fowler, Tom; Rice, Frances; Neale, Mike; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne
The present study used a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic and environmental influences on the association between earlier conduct problems and the initiation and progression of marijuana use during adolescence. Parent- and teacher-reported conduct problems assessed at Time 1 (1996) and self-reported marijuana use assessed at Time 2 (2004) were available for 1088 adolescent twin pairs participating in the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins (CaStANET). Using a novel approach to the modeling of initiation and progression dimensions in substance use, findings suggested that the initiation of marijuana use in adolescence was influenced by genetic, common and unique environmental factors. The progression (or frequency) of marijuana use was influenced by genetic and unique environmental factors. Findings for conduct problems indicated that while the presence or absence of conduct problems was largely heritable, the relative severity of conduct problems appeared to be more strongly environmentally influenced. Multivariate model fitting indicated that conduct problems in childhood and early adolescence made a small but significant contribution to the risk for marijuana use 8 years later. PMID:17131199
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.
Stephenson, Michael T.
Investigates sensation seeking as a moderating variable of 368 adolescents' reactions to antimarijuana public service announcements. Notes that two structural equation models (one for high sensation seekers and the other for low sensation seekers) revealed two very different styles of processing the ads. Considers how antimarijuana attitudes for…
This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment.
Hill, Danielle; Mrug, Sylvie
Background School-level characteristics are related to students’ substance use, but little research systematically examined multiple school characteristics in relation to different types of substance use across grade levels. Objectives This study examines multiple school-level characteristics as correlates of students’ tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and combined substance use across three grade levels. Methods Students (N = 23,615) from 42 urban and suburban middle schools and 24 high schools in the U.S. reported on their tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Students’ mean age was 14 years; 47% were male, 53% African American and 41% Caucasian. School-level data included poverty, racial composition, academic achievement, student-teacher ratio, absenteeism, and school size. Multilevel logistic and Poisson regressions tested associations between school-level predictors and adolescent substance use in middle school, early high school and late high school. Results School-level poverty, more ethnic minority students, low achievement, and higher absenteeism were related to alcohol, marijuana and combined substance use, particularly at lower grade levels. By contrast, cigarette smoking was more prevalent in more affluent high schools with more White students. After adjusting for other school characteristics, absenteeism emerged as the most consistent predictor of student substance use. Conclusions/Importance Interventions addressing absenteeism and truancy in middle and high schools may help prevent student substance use. Schools serving poor, urban, and mostly minority students may benefit from interventions targeting alcohol and marijuana use, whereas interventions focusing on tobacco use prevention may be more relevant for schools serving more affluent and predominantly White students. PMID:26584423
Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison
There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain following sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N=479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N=2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence. PMID:25862212
Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene R; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison
There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain despite sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N = 479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N = 2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence.
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia
African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811
Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; McQueeny, Tim; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.
Some neurocognitive recovery occurs within a month of abstinence from heavy marijuana use, yet functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed altered activation among recent and abstinent adult users. Here, we compared fMRI response during a spatial working memory (SWM) task between adolescent marijuana users with brief and sustained durations of abstinence. Participants were 13 recent users (2 – 7 days abstinent), 13 abstinent users (27 – 60 days abstinent), and 18 non-using controls, all ages 15 – 18. Groups were similar on demographics, had no psychiatric or medical disorders, and user groups were similar on substance histories. Teens performed a 2-back SWM task during fMRI. Groups performed similarly on the task, but recent users showed greater fMRI response in medial and left superior prefrontal cortices, as well as bilateral insula. Abstinent users had increased response in the right precentral gyrus (clusters ≥1328 μl, p<.05). This cross-sectional study did not examine changes in brain response among the same participants over time. Yet results suggests that adolescents who recently used marijuana show increased brain activity in regions associated with working memory updating and inhibition, compared to users with weeks to months of abstinence. This study preliminarily suggests that (1) recent marijuana use may disrupt neural connections associated with SWM and result in compensatory brain response, and (2) sustained abstinence from marijuana may be associated with improvements in SWM response among adolescents. PMID:21053763
Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J
Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABAA, glycine and 5HT3 receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABAA receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858
McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.
Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T
Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions.
Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida
Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…
Friedman, Alfred S.; Utada, Arlene
Describes development of Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD), a 150-item instrument with a structured interview format, which produces a comprehensive evaluation of the life problem areas pertinent to the needs of adolescent drug abuse clients. A series of validity and reliability tests are described, along with characteristics of the…
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…
Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro
Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.
Discusses what makes an aftercare group for adolescent substance abusers function productively and describes the format that seems to work best for young adolescents in an aftercare group. Emphasizes importance of group facilitator skills in areas of leadership, safety, and structure in helping adolescents gain re-identification as abstaining…
Fuller, LaShonda B.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Halebsky, Mark A.
Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…
Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.
The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…
Feeney, Kathleen E; Kampman, Kyle M
Marijuana has consistently been reported as the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States each year. Currently, the legalization of marijuana is up for debate across the nation. While marijuana use is prevalent among the adolescent population, research has shown that there can be devastating effects on health and well-being. A review of the literature shows that marijuana use can have a negative impact on physical health, psychological well-being, and multiple psychosocial outcomes. Adolescents who used marijuana more frequently and began using marijuana at an earlier age experienced worse outcomes and long-lasting effects.
Phagava, H; Bakashvili, I; Chanturishvili, T; Abashidze, G; Pagava, K
To estimate the substance abuse and thus assess the basic indicators of health risk behavior of the adolescents in Georgia: frequencies of their tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was adapted from the Swiss Survey (SMASH2002), translated into Georgian and other languages mainly used in schools (Russian, Armenian and Azeri). It contained 87 questions. Two-stage cluster sampling was devised. Weight was adjusted. A total of 599 classes were selected. Field work took place in 2004. All questionnaires (n=9499; 56,8% filled out by girls, 39,6% - by boys; the mean age was 15,5+/-1,1 years) before being processed into the Epidata were edited. The final data were analysed by SPSS 11.0. 10,4% of adolescents have reported to smoke. The average age of starting to smoke is 13,4 years. 61,2% girls and 67.8% boys drink vine. 56,7% out of the total number of respondents claimed to have been never drunk, 30,0% - answered positively. 2,3% said that they had intravenous drug injection. The drug of preference is cannabis - 6,8%. 72,2% of those who have had intravenous drug injections answered positively to the question "Have you ever been really drunk?" Performed survey is a first one done among adolescents in Georgia. It gave us basic information for planning and implementation of necessary measures in order to improve the health of adolescents and raise awareness of professionals involved in health care and prevention settings for adolescents.
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong
The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members.
Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E
Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.
Troxel, Wendy M.; Ewing, Brett; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
Objectives The current study examines the association between self-reported measures of trouble sleeping, total sleep time (TST), and bedtimes and odds of past month alcohol and marijuana (AM) use in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Design Web-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Los Angeles (LA) County, California. Participants The sample is comprised of 2539 youth representing four distinct racial/ethnic categories (Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, Asian, and “Other”; mean age= 15.54; 54.23% female) from Los Angeles. Measurements The survey assessed TST and bedtimes (weekdays and weekends), trouble sleeping, and past month AM use, as well as relevant covariates (sociodemographics and mental health symptoms). Results Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of sleep problems and AM use, the associations between sleep problems and AM use were consistent across racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, shorter TST, later bedtimes, and trouble sleeping, were each associated with significantly higher odds of past month alcohol use, whereas later bedtimes and shorter TST were also associated with increased odds of past month marijuana use, even after adjusting for other known risk factors. Conclusions Sleep problems are associated with increased AM use in teens, even after controlling for sociodemographics and mental health symptoms. Further longitudinal research on sleep and AM use is critical to identify novel prevention and intervention efforts to reduce disparities in the relationship between sleep and AM use. PMID:26436131
Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…
Wright, Natasha E.; Scerpella, Danny; Lisdahl, Krista M.
decreased. Cotinine levels predicted increased behavioral approach. Female MJ users also had greater anxiety and disinhibition. In sum, these findings suggest sub-clinical threshold deficits related to regular marijuana use that are indicative of a need to prevent marijuana use in adolescents and young adults. PMID:27835662
Spotts, J V; Shontz, F C
This report applies a theory of psychological individuation to inferences drawn from an 8-year series of clinical studies of men who practice heavy, chronic use of different drugs. Each man was studied intensively over a period of 4-5 months, using interviews and a comprehensive battery of dimensional and morphogenic assessment procedures. Users of barbiturates and sedative hypnotics were found to be least mature, followed by users of opiates, users of amphetamine, users of cocaine, and nonusers of drugs, who were found to be most mature. A theory is described which conceives adolescent substance abuse as rooted in dysfunctional relationships with parental figures which block or delay the normal individuation process. Comparable sets of representative case studies of heavy, chronic users of alcohol and marihuana are recommended to facilitate the development of treatment programs that take into account the special needs of persons who practice heavy, chronic use of different substances.
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.
Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…
Padula, Claudia B.; McQueeny, Tim; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.; Tapert, Susan F.
Background Amygdala volume abnormalities have been reported in relation to craving in substance-dependent adults, but it remains unclear if these effects are seen in adolescent marijuana (MJ) users, particularly following abstinence. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between amygdala volume and craving during 28 days of abstinence in adolescent MJ users. Methods MJ-using adolescents (n = 22) aged 16–19 were recruited as part of a larger study on brain function in teen drug users. Craving measures were collected twice per week throughout a 28-day abstinence period. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at the end of the 28 days of confirmed abstinence. Left and right amygdala volumes were traced by hand (ICC>0.86). Composite scores for self-reported craving and withdrawal symptoms throughout the 28-day abstinence period were calculated to provide four composite measures of total craving, mood, sleep, and somatic complaints. Results Results revealed that greater craving during abstinence was significantly associated with smaller left and right amygdala volumes, after controlling for age and gender. Other measures of withdrawal, including mood, somatic complaints and sleep problems, were not related to amygdala morphometry. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous findings in adult alcohol-and cocaine-dependent individuals, who demonstrated a relationship between reduced amygdala volumes and increased craving. Future studies are needed to determine if these brain-behavior relationships are attributable to MJ use or predate the onset of substance use. PMID:25668330
Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...
Bryan, Angela D; Schmiege, Sarah J; Magnan, Renee E
Adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system have a high incidence of risky sexual behaviors resulting in unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Substance use may be particularly important as a risk factor for unsafe sexual behavior for this group, and recent evidence suggests a possible association between marijuana use and risky sexual behavior. Adolescents (n = 728; 33% female) on probation were followed for 2 years, at intervals of 6 months, to explore the association of marijuana use and condom use longitudinally and at a specific intercourse occasion. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that greater marijuana use at baseline was associated with a steeper decline in condom use over the 2-year period of the study. In-depth analysis of the most recent intercourse occasion suggested that condom use was less likely if marijuana was being used by the participant or his/her partner and that this association was more pronounced if intercourse occurred with someone the participant had just met. Implications for the prevention of risky sexual behavior in this population are discussed.
Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Miller, Paul M.
Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are at particular risk for HIV because of difficulties with affect regulation and dysfunctional thinking that are thought to be sequelae of the abuse. These difficulties can lead to impulsivity and failure to assertively set limits in sexual situations. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has frequently been…
Jordan, Karen M.
Studies indicate that substance abuse is a growing problem among gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Prevention and intervention efforts can be successful in working with sexual minority adolescents in jeopardy of developing substance abuse problems. School psychologists are uniquely poised to address this problem through…
Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa
With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…
Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.
Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…
Balogh, R; Bretherton, K; Whibley, S; Berney, T; Graham, S; Richold, P; Worsley, C; Firth, H
The present authors conducted a study of the occurrence of victimization and the perpetration of sexual abuse among 43 in-patients with intellectual disability aged between 9 and 21 years who were admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient department over a period of 5 years. A retrospective case-note review was employed that explored the nature and severity of abuse in relation to the age, gender and level of disability. The prevalence of abuse or abusive behaviour, i.e. 14% of 300 admissions, did not change over time. In 13 out of the 43 cases, the issue of sexual abuse was identified after admission. Victimization alone occurred in 21 cases, perpetration alone in six cases, and both victimization and perpetration in 16 cases. Fifty per cent of the victims had been abused by a member of their close or extended family. Most cases (62%) were adolescents. There was only one instance of a victim being abused by a female. However, there were five girls who were perpetrators, all of whom had previously been victims. By contrast, 11 out of the 17 male perpetrators had been victims. Despite difficulties of disclosure, it was possible to establish that severely disabled patients had suffered sexual abuse. The present data support theories which (1) recognize gender differences in sexual abuse patterns and (2) have a developmental perspective, incorporating the influence of adolescence.
Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.
Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…
Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.
This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266
Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others
Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…
Mushanyu, J; Nyabadza, F; Muchatibaya, G; Stewart, A G R
Adolescence methamphetamine use is an issue of considerable concern due to its correlation with later delinquency, divorce, unemployment and health problems. Understanding how adolescents initiate methamphetamine abuse is important in developing effective prevention programs. We formulate a mathematical model for the spread of methamphetamine abuse using nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It is assumed that susceptibles are recruited into methamphetamine use through imitation. An epidemic threshold value, [Formula: see text], termed the abuse reproduction number, is proposed and defined herein in the drug-using context. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation. This means that methamphetamine problems may persist in the population even if [Formula: see text] is less than one. Sensitivity analysis of [Formula: see text] was performed to determine the relative importance of different parameters in methamphetamine abuse initiation. The model is then fitted to data on methamphetamine users less than 20 years old reporting methamphetamine as their primary substance of abuse in the treatment centres of Cape Town and parameter values that give the best fit are chosen. Results show that the proportion of methamphetamine users less than 20 years old reporting methamphetamine as their primary substance of abuse will continue to decrease in Cape Town of South Africa. The results suggest that intervention programs targeted at reducing adolescence methamphetamine abuse, are positively impacting methamphetamine abuse.
Spann, Marisa N; Mayes, Linda C; Kalmar, Jessica H; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12-17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with nonperseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with nonperseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction.
Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.
Parental monitoring is commonly accredited as an important protective factor against risky adolescent behaviors. In this meta-analytic review, associations of adolescents’ perceptions of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use were collected and quantified across 25 independent samples from 17 empirical studies involving 35,367 unique participants. Applying a random-effects model, the average magnitude of effect was r = −.21,. The association was significantly stronger in female-only samples (r = −.31 vs. r = −.19, p < .001) and when parental monitoring was defined purely in terms of parental knowledge of the child’s whereabouts, activities, and relations (r = −.24 vs. r = −.19, p < .05). Cross-sectional (r = −.23) and longitudinal studies (r = −.10) disclosed significant effect sizes. To assess publication bias, a file-drawer analysis indicated that 7,358 studies of nil effect size would be necessary to render the association of parental monitoring and reduced marijuana usage nonsignificant. Theoretical and practical implications of parental monitoring are discussed, especially issues concerning the measurement of parental monitoring and the possible utility of the construct in curtailing marijuana use. PMID:26082797
Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V
The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007
This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…
Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ensminger, Margaret E
While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school dropout and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime.
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W
This is the first study to assess the associations between the trajectories of marijuana use and other predictors of violent behavior with the use of guns or other weapons as well as stealing without the use of weapons among inner-city African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838). Logistic regression analyses examined whether the longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use compared with the trajectory of no/low marijuana use predicted violent behavior. A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (AOR = 3.37, P < .001), the moderate use of marijuana trajectory group (AOR = 1.98, P < .01), and the quitter trajectory group (AOR = 1.70, P < .05) was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in violence (i.e., shooting or hitting someone with a weapon) compared with the BPP of the no use of marijuana trajectory group. Our results address a number of important public health and clinical issues. Public health funds might be spent on prevention programs focused on decreasing the use of marijuana, increasing educational retention, and decreasing contact with deviant associates. Understanding the psychosocial conditions related to the use of weapons is critical for individuals involved in the criminal justice system, physicians, and other health care providers in managing individuals who engage in violent behavior.
Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie
A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.
Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161
Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637
Vik, Peter W.; And Others
Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…
Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others
Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to…
Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.
This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…
Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.
Basic research and programs in substance abuse dealing directly with rural and small town populations lag far behind those aimed at urban groups, in both quality and quantity. A study was conducted to identify factors related to substance use by a preadolescent and early adolescent rural and small town population. Data were collected from 496…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee
The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…
Kinnier, Richard T.; And Others
Examined relationships among depression, meaninglessness, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among 48 high school students and 113 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Correlational analyses indicated that high school students who viewed themselves negatively, were depressed, or who had found little meaning in their lives were more likely to…
Friedman, Alfred S.; And Others
Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescent drug abuser's motivation to seek treatment and treatment outcome in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Found moderate relationship between motivation and problem reduction. Found that motivation to seek assistance with other life problems correlated positively with problem…
Smith, Thomas E.
The Fresh Start Program was an experiment in providing a comprehensive educational and therapeutic program for sexually abused and exploited adolescents. The program was based on the theory and practice of experiential, outdoor-challenge adventure education. The experiment involved 16 youth in a living and learning environment in the north woods…
Describes two adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in New England psychiatric center: Osgood Three, which is no longer in existence, and Tyler Three, which replaced it and is struggling to grow. Considers transition from Osgood Three to Tyler Three, process of change, and learning what can be preserved from past and what must be…
Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel
The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.
Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen
This study examined psychosocial mechanisms by which children’s early sensation seeking may influence their later marijuana use. In a longitudinal study, 4th and 5th grade elementary school children (N = 420) were followed until they were in 11th and 12th grades in high school with annual or biennial assessments. Sensation seeking (assessed over the first 4 assessments) predicted affiliating with deviant peers and level of favorable social images of kids who use marijuana (both assessed over the subsequent 3 assessments). Affiliation with deviant peers and the growth in social images predicted marijuana use in 11th and 12th grades. Affiliation with deviant peers mediated the effect of early sensation seeking on subsequent marijuana use. The theoretical and applied significance of this influence of early sensation seeking is discussed. PMID:18547739
Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo
Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096
YÜCE, Murat; KARABEKİROĞLU, Koray; YILDIRIM, Zeynep; ŞAHİN, Serkan; SAPMAZ, Dicle; BABADAĞI, Zehra; TURLA, Ahmet; AYDIN, Berna
Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse and its associated factors in children and adolescents referred to our child and adolescent psychiatry clinic from official medico–legal units. Methods All victims of sexual abuse (n=590) aged 1–18 (mean: 13.56±3.38) referred from forensic units to Ondokuz Mayis University Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic over a period of 2 years [boys: 83 (14.1%); girls: 507 (85.9%)] were included. Child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic medicine specialists evaluated all the cases. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Form (WISC-R) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version-Turkish Version (K-SADS-PL-T) were applied. Results Abuse-related psychiatric diagnoses (of which 45.9% were major depressive disorder and 31.7% were post-traumatic stress disorder cases) were made in 75.2% of the cases. In 80.3% of the cases, the perpetrators were known to their victims [incest, n=91 (15.1%)], and intercourse took place in 48.8%. Although gender and age were not significantly associated with the appearance of any psychiatric disorders, severity of abuse (e.g., intercourse; p=.006), additional physical assault (p<.001), and incest (p<.001) had a significant correlation with psychiatric disorders. To explore the predictive value of multiple factors in the appearance of any sexual assault-related psychiatric disorder, a logistic regression model was used to determine the best linear combination of age, gender, abuse severity, incest, involvement of any other victim, additional physical assault, and length of time from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation. This combination of variables (occurrence of incest, additional physical assault, and a long duration from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation) significantly predicted the appearance of a psychiatric disorder of any kind (χ2
Werner, Mark J.
The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G
Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.
Pearish, Pamela L.
This document reviews literature which analyzes factors of adolescent drug use/abuse and the effectiveness of various drug abuse prevention programs. After a brief introduction to the topic of drug abuse, 16 terms such as "adolescence" and "drug abuse" are defined. Ten papers and articles on the topic of motivations and factors for drug use are…
Eggleston, William; Stork, Christine
NMDA receptor antagonists include the prescription medication ketamine, the illicit xenobiotics PCP, MXE, and other novel PCP analogs, and the OTC medication DXM. The NMDA receptor antagonist most commonly abused by adolescents in the United States is DXM. These xenobiotics cause dissociative effects by non-competitively inhibiting the action of glutamate at the NMDA receptor. Additionally, these agents modulate the actions of monoamine neurotransmitters, agonize opioid receptors, and inhibit nitric oxide synthase. Patients typically present with sympathomimetic and neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations after abuse of NMDA receptor antagonists. Treatment is generally symptomatic and supportive. Interventions include benzodiazepines, propofol, fluids, antiemetics, aggressive cooling, and respiratory support.
The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.
Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald
Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…
Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Cole, Rebekah F.; Lauka, Justin
Inhalant and prescription medication abuse, particularly among adolescents, are serious problems in our society. Several risk factors associated with inhalant and medication abuse among adolescents have been identified. As a result, adolescents may suffer multiple consequences in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article is to…
Joanning, Harvey; And Others
Assessed differential effectiveness of three models of adolescent drug abuse treatment: Family Systems Therapy (FST), Adolescent Group Therapy (AGT), and Family Drug Education (FDE). FST appeared more effective in stopping adolescent drug abuse than AGT or FDE, registering twice as many apparently drug-free clients as FDE and three times as many…
Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.
Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…
Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.
Analyses of study on adolescents in publicly funded treatment programs present sex and ethnic differences. Among some of the findings: females were more likely to report methamphetamine use, males reported marijuana use; Hispanics and African Americans were referred to treatment from criminal justice; reported marijuana as primary drug; mandated…
This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…
Loveland-Cherry, C J
Substance abuse often begins in adolescence and is a major factor determining health outcomes for adolescents and adults; thus, it is an important focus for prevention strategies. The use of drugs, especially alcohol, can lead to chronic addiction to substances as well as contribute to a number of common chronic conditions. These conditions include cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability from accidents or violence, and unplanned pregnancy and are major causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. As the major social unit responsible for socialization of children and stabilization of adult personalities, the family has been the target of prevention efforts. In this chapter the empirical literature on family interventions to prevent substance use in adolescents is critically reviewed, generalizations and implications for practice identified, and directions for future research projected.
Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.
A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.
Joffe, Alain; Yancy, W Samuel
This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.
A large number of adolescents in a psychiatric population, particularly those who are chemically dependent, prefer to listen to heavy metal music. Young people who do not identify with traditional values may find simple but unconventional answers to complex problems in the lyrics of this type of music. While a clearcut relationship cannot be established between heavy metal music and destructive behavior, evidence shows that such music promotes and supports patterns of drug abuse, promiscuous sexual activity, and violence.
Wilkinson, S; Hough, G
Two case examples of abused adopted adolescents are discussed to highlight tension within the treatment relationship when the therapist is expected to accept without question a clearly unbelievable story. These examples illustrate how the lies of such youths can function as narrative truth. The unbelievable tales that emerge in the therapeutic work effectively alter the adolescents' perceptions about the perplexing loss of continuity, both internal and external, that occurred when they were removed from their homes. Characters in the stories represent fragmented self- and object-representations as victim, abuser, rescuer, and passive onlooker. Counterparts to the patient as victim, abuser, rescuer, and passive onlooker can be recognized in the therapist's subjective responses. If the therapist can use countertransference to inform an understanding of the treatment process, an appreciation emerges that the truth of the lie is in its impact. Decisions about how to intervene can then be crafted. The second separation-individuation intrinsic to adolescent development is understood to provide a ripe opportunity for this working-through process.
Shervette, Robert E., III; And Others
Over a 3-year period, 29 adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Jimson weed ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of atropine/scopolamine toxicity, clinical course, treatment, and outcome. Journal availability: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue,…
Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David
This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and suicidal attempt were associated with childhood abuse, and increased risk for attempt was associated also with abuse at adolescence. No associations with sex or sex by abuse interactions were observed. The higher frequency of childhood abuse among women could account in part for their higher rates of suicidal attempts as compared to men.
Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna
While research has explored adolescents' use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58 % female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration 1 year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Kerr, David C. R.; Pears, Katherine C.
Objective: This study examined whether the use of tobacco and marijuana by fathers or mothers predicted onset of alcohol use in their offspring over and above effects of parental alcohol use. Method: The present study included 146 children of 93 parents (90 fathers and 85 mothers). The fathers were originally recruited as boys to the Oregon Youth Study, a study of community, familial, and individual risk factors for delinquency. Results: Only mothers’ but not fathers’ alcohol use was associated with children’s age at onset. Children’s age at onset was predicted by mothers’ tobacco use and by the interaction of fathers’ marijuana use and alcohol use. These effects were observed when controlling for parental education, child’s gender, and also child’s antisocial behavior—a general developmental risk factor for substance use onset in adolescence. Conclusions: Mothers’ substance use played a major role in childhood onset of alcohol use, yet the role of maternal substance use as a risk factor for their children has previously received less attention than the role of paternal substance use. Also, findings imply that it may be important to identify children of polysubstance-using parents for targeted prevention programs. PMID:26751359
Bratter, Thomas Edward
Suggests that the psychotherapist working with families of adolescent drug abuser must work for parental involvement, strengthening of the family group, and increased adolescent responsibility and independence from parents who unwittingly encourage a prolonged symbiotic relationship. (Author/CJ)
Strasburger, Victor C
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.
Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony
Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741
Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda, Noemí
The aim of this study was to evaluate the emotional impact on adolescent victims of sexual abuse from participating in a study addressing the consequences of their abuse. A total of 114 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old participated (54 sexually abused adolescents and 60 nonabused students). Both groups responded to a battery of scales to determine their coping strategies and some psychological consequences linked to stressful experiences and two questions about the emotional impact of participating in the study. Sexually abused adolescents reported fewer unpleasant emotions after participating than did nonvictim students (mean difference = .45, t = -2.934; p < .01). Adolescents who had more symptoms reported more discomfort (rS scores between .35 and .49; p < .01). These results suggest that when ethical guidelines are followed, it is possible to survey adolescent victims of sexual abuse on aspects related to their experience without causing them significant distress.
Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H.; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C.
Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk. PMID:21420833
Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A
The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies.
Fitzgerald, Paul J
A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.
As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.
Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.
Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267
C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.
Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Rohr, Michael E.; And Others
The physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents has been gaining attention as a national problem of social and clinical significance. In this study a model was developed in order to identify abuse (victimization) in an adolescent population (n=52). Four scales (Adjustment, Delinquency, Family Relations, and Anxiety) of the Personality…
Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula
This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's  ecological systems theory is…
Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas
Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…
Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit
The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline
Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina
Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…
Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Johnson, Rebecca; McCloskey, Laura A.
This study examined the representation of internal states in childhood recollections of male and female adolescents with and without abuse histories. Participants' (N = 71) exposure to spousal violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and 6 years later when they were 12 to 18 years old. At the Year…
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…
Lisdahl, Krista M.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Wright, Natasha E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler
Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings. PMID:23847550
Temple, Jeff R.; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna
While research has explored adolescents’ use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58% female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration one year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts. PMID:26525389
Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk
normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.
Garner, Bryan R.; Godley, Susan H.; Funk, Rodney R.
Evaluated streamlined admission procedures for adolescents entering outpatient substance abuse treatment, comparing 128 adolescents receiving existing procedures with 149 receiving the new admission and admission tracking procedures. Results show that adolescents were admitted to treatment sooner under the new procedures, but the percentage who…
Green, Kerry M; Musci, Rashelle J; Matson, Pamela A; Johnson, Renee M; Reboussin, Beth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Urban populations disproportionately experience poor sexual outcomes, including high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, the contribution of substance use across adolescence to poor sexual outcomes in young adulthood has not been investigated in depth, despite offering opportunities for more targeted prevention. This study aimed to estimate joint trajectories of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use to determine if they relate differently to four sexual outcomes: multiple sexual partners, sex without a condom, teenage pregnancy, and contraction of a sexually transmitted infection in young adulthood (by age 25). Data came from a longitudinal study of urban youth followed from age 6 to age 25, with annual assessments during adolescence and young adulthood (n = 608). The sample showed high levels of sexual risk, with young adults on average having sex without a condom once in the past month, 28.5% having multiple sexual partners in the past month, one quarter having contracted a sexually transmitted infection, and over 60% of the women being pregnant as a teenager and 36% of the men having gotten a partner pregnant. Applying longitudinal latent profile analysis to estimate joint trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use from grades 8-12, we identified four classes representing high dual use, moderate alcohol use, moderate alcohol use with increasing marijuana use, and non-use. Class membership differently predicted all four outcomes investigated with high dual users having the highest level of teenage pregnancy and the increasing marijuana trajectory having the highest risk of engaging with multiple sexual partners in the past month. Results suggest implications for both sexual risk and substance use prevention for urban youth.
Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally; Humphreys, Janice C
The mental health impact of abusive adolescent dating relationships has not been well described, but fear related to abuse has been reported. We elaborate the theme of fear in women's descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse. A sample of community-based women, ages 19-34, who experienced an abusive dating relationship during adolescence (ages 11-20) was used. Data were analyzed via thematic analysis. Fear was a consistent and resonant theme. Three types of fear were identified: fear for self, fear for other relationships, and fearful expectation. These results offer important insights into the impact of abusive adolescent relationships on women's mental health.
Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.
Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559
Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P
This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.
Rowe, Cynthia L.
Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221
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Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashjmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as, compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual Abused adolescents reported lower family cohesion at baseline, although both abused and nonabused adolescents showed similar substance use reductions. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, we found that substance use changed with change in cohesion over time. These findings link change in family functioning to change in adolescent substance use, supporting family systems theory. Findings suggest that a potent target of intervention involves focus on increasing positive communication interactions. PMID:16933433
Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana
This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.
Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J
In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse.
Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.
Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi
The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.
Kouyoumdjian, Claudia; Guzmán, Bianca L; Leon, Nancy
A growing population in the US is Latinos, an ethnic group defined by people of origin from Latin America. By 2050, Hispanics will be at least one quarter of the United States population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006 ) with a substantial proportion under the age of 25 (Vaughan, Kratz, & D'argent, 2011 ). Yet, the literature on substance use among Latino adolescents is not advancing parallel to the growth of the population (Szapocznik, Lopez, Prado, Schwartz, & Pantin, 2006 ). Health concerns during early adolescence can have a lasting impact on the Latino community and society at large, as early substance initiation can lead to addiction during adulthood (Behrendt, Wittchen, Höfler, Lieb, & Beesdo, 2009 ). Therefore, research that aims to identify psychosocial determinants that serve as risk and protective factors specific to Latino early adolescents is needed as a critical first step in the development of culturally specific prevention initiatives (Vaughan et al., 2011 ).
Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.
AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691
Churchwell, John C; Carey, Paul D; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A
It has been hypothesized that changes in striatal-mediated dopamine modulation during adolescence may increase the risk for initiating substance abuse as a result of its fundamental role in arbitrating reward sensitivity and motivation during learning and decision making. However, substance abuse during adolescence may also significantly modify striatal structure and function and concomitantly alter reward sensitivity and action control while this brain region is undergoing remodeling. In the present investigation, to assess the relationship of methamphetamine (Meth) or Meth and cannabis (CA) abuse to regional striatal morphology, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from three groups of adolescents composed of healthy controls (n = 10), Meth abusers (n = 9) and combined Meth and CA abusers (Meth+CA, n = 8). We also assessed novelty seeking using the novelty seeking subscale of Cloninger's Tridimensional Character Inventory. The results indicate that adolescent Meth+CA abusers have increased regional striatal volume and show intensified novelty seeking in contrast to the controls. The degree of Meth exposure was also positively correlated with regional striatal volume and novelty seeking in both the Meth and Meth+CA users. These preliminary findings support theories that propose a role for the striatum in adolescent substance abuse and further indicate that novelty seeking may be related to the initiation of, or sustained, drug use.
Singer, Merrill; Garcia, Roberto
Although there is a strong experiential sense among people in the substance abuse prevention field that Hispanic adolescents may be particularly at-risk for the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, this concern has produced only limited research or culturally sensitive, ethnically targeted prevention efforts. The following factors hinder the…
Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A.; Richardson, Angela S.; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen
Objective: A cross-sectional study of gender specific relationships between self-reported child sexual abuse and suicidality in a community sample of adolescents. Method: Students aged 14 years on average (N=2,485) from 27 schools in South Australia completed a questionnaire including items on sexual abuse and suicidality, and measures of…
Lindon, Jillian; Nourse, Carol A.
A treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls, using a group work model, incorporated three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. Abused girls demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives. The six participants showed improvement according to self-statements and…
Sikes, April; Cole, Rebekah F.; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Lauka, Justin
As individuals with multiple needs, substance abusing adolescents may seek the support and assistance of school counselors. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to assist students with substance abuse issues. Specifically, this article examines (a) complexity of addressing substance…
Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Beasley, Carol; Christenberry, Nola J.
The harmful effects of sexual abuse on children are no longer debatable, yet adequate legal action and protective services often are not provided for child and adolescent victims. With the rate of confirmed child sexual abuse victims escalating to more than 350,000 cases per year, the role of schools in meeting the specific needs of these children…
Bogdaniak, Roman C.
Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…
Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard
A school-based substance abuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substance abuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…
Hawkins, J. David; And Others
Reviews the etiology of chemical use and abuse among children and adolescents. Discusses progression of youth drug behavior from initial to occasional and/or regular use. Identifies the following predictors of chemical abuse: (1) antisocial behavior; (2) school acquiescence; (3) peer influence; and (4) age at onset of use. (Author/LHW)
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
Kim, Dong-Hyun; So, Wi-Young
Background: Recreational drug abuse control has long been a major goal of global health and social welfare organizations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible associations between recreational drug abuse and Korean adolescents' school records. Methods: In 2012, 74,186 seventh- through twelfth-grade students participated…
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Walker, R. Dale; And Others
A 10-year study identified risk factors and measured prevalence of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and psychopathology in 523 urban American Indian adolescents and 276 urban Indian women. Describes study aims, research design, methods, sample characteristics, assessment instruments, substance use prevalence, and methodological issues related to…
Henegar, LaTrica Y.
This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…
Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene
Study of 176 adolescent drug abusers found that greater psychopathology at pretreatment was not found to be related to less improvement in drug treatment. For the male subsample, greater paranoid trends predicted to less reduction in substance use/abuse. Borderline psychotic symptomatology predicted to more improvement. (RJM)
Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.
The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This third chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" contains four articles on peer pressure and drug abuse in early adolescence. "Initiation of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the Midel School Years," by Robert Hubbard, Rebecca Brownlee, and Ron Anderson, presents a study designed to provide a prospective assessment of the nature and…
Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold
The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…
Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.
Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…
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Finn, Kristin V.
Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…
Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett
In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540
Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.
This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Apodaca, T R; Moser, N C
Adolescents naturally experience an increased interest in sexual behavior, but they usually lack much experience. Thus, any prescription medication that holds the potential to ease or facilitate sexual matters holds a unique allure. Widespread cultural awareness of medications to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) has combined with a recent trend toward increased adolescent prescription drug abuse to create unique challenges for industry, clinicians, and researchers.
Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.
Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression among adolescents attending family planning clinics, and to determine the relationship among depression, a history of sexual abuse, and other risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 279 minority females. Results of the study indicated that 40 adolescents (14.3%) scored at or…
Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.
The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…
The paper examines the literature concerning drug and alcohol abuse among handicapped adolescents. An introductory section noting the relative lack of research on this problem is followed by a review of adolescent drug research identifying longitudinal studies involving more than 70,000 subjects, studies of associated personality variables, and…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.
Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula
This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's  ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.
Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan
This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S
Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products.
Lisdahl, Krista M; Price, Jenessa S
This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18-26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18-26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p < .01), less efficient sustained attention (p < .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p < .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p < .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users.
Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.
This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255
Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.
Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren
The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys.
Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko
Although it seems evident that attention should be paid to risky sexual behaviors and their association with mental health among young people, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aims to explore the relationship between sexual risk behaviors and mental health among adolescents. The participants were 251 adolescents in a juvenile detention facility (221 males and 31 females) as the "delinquent" group and 367 high school students (167 males and 200 females) as the "non-delinquent" group. A questionnaire including the Kessler 10, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale was employed to measure mental health status as well as sexual risk behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempts, and abuse history. Having a history of sexual abuse or of physical abuse was associated with age when one first had sex among males with delinquent behaviors, while same tendency was observed among males without delinquent behaviors. Among the female with delinquent behaviors group, past abuse history was significantly associated with higher number of sex partners. In the non-delinquent group, better mental health among males and, contrarily, worse mental health among females were associated with having more sex partners. The results highlight the importance of addressing abuse history among females and males. Given that poor mental health status in the adolescents was associated with risky sexual behaviors, adolescents are a vulnerable group that requires attention in terms of sexual and reproductive health that integrates mental health and psychosocial components.
Mena, Maite P.; Dillon, Frank R.; Mason, Craig A.; Santisteban, Daniel A.
Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control talk between 108 Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that Hispanic parents who had older adolescents, reported more involvement, were less concerned of possible negative reactions from their child, and felt more knowledgeable and confident regarding sex and birth control also reported greater frequency of birth control talk. Hispanic parents with a daughter, who reported more involvement, or whose child reported more communication were more likely to report greater frequency of talking about moral issues. PMID:25411479
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Green, Kerry M.
Background: The aim of this study was to examine how patterns of academic and behavior problems in first grade relate to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use from middle school through entry into high school among African Americans. Methods: Latent class and latent transition analyses were conducted on a community sample of 458 low-income, urban-dwelling African-Americans. Results: Two behavior problem classes emerged at school entry; externalizing and attention/concentration. Academic problems co-occurred with both problem behavior classes although more strongly with attention/concentration. Youth in the attention/ concentration problem class were more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to use and problems beginning in 7th grade and to use and problems given the opportunity to use marijuana early in high school compared to youth with no problems. Youth in the externalizing behavior problem class were significantly more likely to transition from no involvement to having a marijuana opportunity during the transition to high school compared to youth in the attention/concentration problems class. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of developing prevention programs and providing school services that address the co-occurrence of academic and behavior problems, as well as their subtype specific risks for marijuana involvement, particularly for low-income minority youth who may be entering school less ready than their non-minority peers. These findings also provide evidence for a need to continue to deliver interventions in middle and high school focused on factors that may protect youth during these critical transition periods when they may be especially vulnerable to opportunities to use marijuana based on their academic and behavioral risk profile. PMID:25305658
Bootzin, Richard R; Stevens, Sally J
Adolescence is a time of change that can be both exciting and stressful. In this review, we focus on the central role that disturbed sleep and daytime sleepiness occupies in interactions involving substance abuse and negative health, social, and emotional outcomes. As a means of improving sleep and lowering risk for recidivism of substance abuse, we developed and implemented a six-session group treatment to treat sleep disturbances in adolescents who have received treatment for substance abuse. The components of the treatment are stimulus control instructions, use of bright light to regularize sleep, sleep hygiene education, cognitive therapy, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Preliminary evidence indicates that participants who completed four or more sessions in the treatment program showed improved sleep and that improving sleep may lead to a reduction in substance abuse problems at the 12-month follow-up.
DiPietro, S B
The purpose of this study was to compare female adolescent victims of sexual abuse and their nonabused adolescent sisters with matched nonvictim control subject sister sets on measures of personality adjustment and attitudes. The study involved 60 girls between the ages of 11 and 21: 15 victims of child sexual abuse, 15 nonabused adolescent sisters, and 15 nonvictim control sisters sets who were matched to the victim sister sets on age, socioeconomic status, birth order of daugthers, number of children in family, and race. This is the first study that has attempted to assess the adjustment of siblings in sexually abusive families. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed no differences among the four groups. Results of 12 paired t-tests revealed only one significant difference between the victim sister and control sister groups. These unexpected findings are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are made.
Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.
A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)
da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu
Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support.
Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann
This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Out, Dorothee; Granger, Douglas A.; Putnam, Frank W.
Abstract Objective: Little is known regarding neuroendocrine responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have experienced sexual abuse. Therefore, we collected saliva samples three times daily for 3 days to assess concentrations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) – a surrogate marker for autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and, in particular, sympathetic activity – in sexually abused adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-four girls (mean age: 15±1.4 years) who had experienced recent sexual abuse (i.e., sexual abuse occurred 1–6 months prior to study enrollment) and 12 healthy comparison subjects (mean age: 14.8±1.3 years) completed a structured interview and assessments to ascertain symptoms of posttraumatic stress, then collected saliva at home upon awakening, 30 minutes after waking, and at 5 p.m. on three consecutive school days. Results: For sexually abused girls, total PTSD symptoms were associated with higher overall morning levels of sAA (r=0.51, p=0.02), a finding driven by intrusive symptoms (r=0.43, p<0.05) and hyperarousal symptoms (r=0.58, p=0.01). There were no significant differences in diurnal sAA secretion between the sexually abused girls and healthy comparison adolescents. Conclusions: Overall morning concentrations of sAA in sexually abused girls are associated with overall PTSD severity as well as symptoms of hyperarousal and intrusive symptoms, possibly reflecting symptom-linked increases in ANS tone. These data raise the possibility that alterations in ANS activity are related to the pathophysiology of sexual abuse-related PTSD in adolescent girls, and may inform therapeutic interventions (e.g., antiadrenergic medications). PMID:25803321
Schonberg, S K
Illnesses related to both the pharmacologic properties of abused substances and their methods of administration often bring the teenager to medical attention and may provide sufficient motivation for the adolescent to seek help beyond the acute problem. Successful treatment of an overdose reaction, an abstinence syndrome, or any other medical complication of drug abuse may give the physician a unique opportunity to begine further evalution for future care.
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Monti, Peter
Objective The purpose of this study was to test a cognitive behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with a co-occurring alcohol or other drug use disorder (AOD) and suicidality in a randomized clinical trial. Method Forty adolescents (Mage = 15; 68% females, 89% Caucasian) and their families recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital were randomly assigned to an integrated outpatient cognitive behavioral intervention for co-occurring AOD and suicidality (I-CBT) or enhanced treatment-as-usual (E-TAU). Primary measures include the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, Columbia Impairment Scale, Timeline Followback, Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, and the Rutgers Marijuana Problem Index. Assessments were completed at pre-treatment as well as 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-enrollment. Results Using intent-to-treat analyses, I-CBT was associated with significantly fewer heavy drinking days and days of marijuana use relative to E-TAU, but not drinking days. Those randomized to I-CBT in comparison to E-TAU also reported significantly less global impairment as well as fewer suicide attempts, inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and arrests. Adolescents across groups showed equivalent reductions in suicidal ideation. Conclusions I-CBT for adolescents with co-occurring AOD and suicidality is associated with significant improvement in both substance use and suicidal behavior, as well as markedly decreased use of additional health services including inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Further testing of integrated protocols for adolescent AOD and suicidality with larger and more diverse samples is warranted. PMID:22004303
Children and adolescents in Germany show a high rate of substance use, esp. concerning tobacco and alcohol. Taking these and other drugs can be seen as a juvenile risk behaviour associated with adverse effects, e. g. violence, unsafe sexuality, early pregnancy, underachievement in school. Prevention and intervention measures should begin early and be designed comprehensively in order to gain decisive and long-lasting effects. Children and adolescents of addicted parents and those with substance abusing peers have to be viewed as especially in danger for increased substance abuse and associated risk behaviours. One of the main preventive tasks is the acquisition of affective self-control and self-management competences.
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…
D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.
Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167
Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero
Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.
Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.
This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…
Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy
Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.
Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta
Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.
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Perkins, Daniel F.; Jones, Kenneth R.
Objective: This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and several risk behaviors, and thriving behaviors, and the relationship between potential protective factors and engagement in risk and thriving behaviors among victims of physical abuse. Three categories of potential protective factors were examined: (1) individual…
Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton
Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males (n = 21) and females (n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.
Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia
Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use.
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect = 0.04, standard error (SE) = 0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer
Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…
Riddle, C R
The development and implementation of an adolescent sexual abuse group on an inpatient psychiatric unit is described. Steps of Kurt Lewin's model of change are used as a framework for this planned change. Specific issues concerning group procedure and process are detailed. Recommendations for this group and broader use of the Lewin model are included.
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.
The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…
Kennedy, Joycee; McCarthy, Carol J.
Descriptions of past social attitudes and policies that influence the present structure and thinking in the areas of child protection, juvenile justice, education, and mental health are provided by this handbook designed to aid in understanding and helping adolescents traumatized by abuse. This foundation is interwoven with current news examples…
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Friedrich, William N.; Jaworski, Theresa M.; Huxsahl, John E.; Bengtson, Brad S.
Evaluated children (N=350) to assess the degree to which dissociation and sexual behavior discriminated sexually abused children and adolescents from nonpsychiatric and psychiatric comparison groups. Results show that psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples differed in their reports of sexual concerns and dissociation, whereas psychiatric abused…
Smith, Thomas Edward; Sells, Scott P.; Rodman, Jeffrey; Reynolds, Lisa Rene
Ninety-three parents and 102 adolescents were referred by juvenile court and treated for substance abuse and a co-morbid diagnosis of either oppositional defiant or conduct disorder using a parent education program over a six-week period. The goals of this study were to assess whether or not active parent involvement and the concurrent treatment…
Rainey, David Y.; And Others
The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…
Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda
Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…
Hovdestad, Wendy E.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Thornton, Tiffany
Childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance abuse are important health issues that have been linked by research and theory for at least 50 years. Considering the intricacies of child maltreatment research, this paper aims to answer the question: which models show the most promise to explain why child maltreatment is a risk indicator for…
Crisma, M.; Bascelli, E.; Paci, D.; Romito, P.
Objective:: Understanding the impediments that prevented sexually abused adolescents from disclosure to their family or to professionals, and analyzing the responses they received when they did disclose. Methods:: In depth anonymous interviews were conducted in Italy through a toll-free telephone line with 36 young people who experienced sexual…
Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.
This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…
Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…
Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.
This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…
Corrigan, Matthew J.; Loneck, Barry; Videka, Lynn; Brown, M. Craig
The field of substance abuse prevention has evolved towards a risk and protective factor paradigm in explaining the onset and escalation of adolescent substance use. This framework for understanding the problem has been developed and employed by researchers at the University of Washington, under Doctors Hawkins and Catalano, to assess communities…
Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…
Reardon, Barbara; Griffing, Penelope
Examined factors related to the self-concept of institutionalized male drug abusers (N=140). The Tennessee Self Concept Scale, a family questionnaire, and an interview were administered. Results yielded several predictors of self-concept, including parent-adolescent relationship, number of prior status offenses, and preference for nondepressant…
Parker, Ben; Turner, William
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff
Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…
Li, Erica; Freedman, Lori R; Fernandez Y Garcia, Erik; Miller, Elizabeth
Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is prevalent with significant health and social consequences. Faith-based organizations could play an important role in ARA prevention and intervention. Studies on the role of faith-based organizations in interpersonal violence have focused on adult survivor perspectives rather than adolescents. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with faith-based organization leaders, parents, and youth. Findings highlight that church leaders, parents, and youth all expect that faith-based organizations can play a role in educating teens about healthy relationships. Divergent perspectives about how faith-based organizations should address adolescent sexuality and privacy need to be addressed.
Rosenthal, M S; Kleber, H D
The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects.
Rynes, Kristina N.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Shoham, Varda
Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (TD/AW) cycles observed early in treatment would predict poor adolescent outcomes at follow-up for families who exhibited entrenched parent-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (PD/AW) before treatment began. Participants were 91 families who received at least 4 sessions of BSFT in a multi-site clinical trial on adolescent drug abuse (Robbins et al., 2011). Prior to receiving therapy, families completed videotaped family interaction tasks from which trained observers coded PD/AW. Another team of raters coded TD/AW during two early BSFT sessions. The main dependent variable was the number of drug use days that adolescents reported in Timeline Follow-Back interviews 7 to 12 months after family therapy began. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses supported the main hypothesis, showing that PD/AW and TD/AW interacted to predict adolescent drug use at follow-up. For adolescents in high PD/AW families, higher levels of TD/AW predicted significant increases in drug use at follow-up, whereas for low PD/AW families, TD/AW and follow-up drug use were unrelated. Results suggest that attending to parallel demand-withdraw processes in parent/adolescent and therapist/adolescent dyads may be useful in family therapy for substance-using adolescents. PMID:23438248
Dworkin, A. Gary; Stephens, Richard C.
Drawing from literature on differences between the Mexican American experience and that of other groups, offers a model to explain the higher rates of inhalant abuse among Mexican American youth. Considers cultural, ecological, structural, and economic factors. (Author/GC)
Stein, L.A.R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph S.; Martin, Rose Marie; Golembeske, Charles
Few measures exist to assess risky behaviors and consequences as they relate to substance use in juvenile delinquents. This study sought to validate such a measure on a racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 175). Results indicate that alcohol-related risky behaviors and consequences comprise a single scale as do marijuana-related risky behaviors and consequences. Furthermore, results suggest that the retention of common items for both scales produces reliable and valid scales and maintains parsimony. Internal consistencies were more than adequate (0.72 – 0.83) and test-retest stabilities, even across several months were acceptable (0.52 - 0.50). The scales evidenced a high degree of concurrent and predictive incremental validity in predicting conduct disorder, dependence symptoms, and consumption patterns. Researchers can use these scales to measure a generalized construct tapping risks and consequences as related to alcohol and marijuana use. Ease of use may make these scales appealing to clinicians who can provide feedback to clients regarding risky behaviors involving alcohol and marijuana. PMID:20149558
Millsaps, Cheryl L.; And Others
Describes research involving adolescent marijuana abusers. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised found characteristics consistent with pattern produced by cerebral dysfunction including reduced memory indices in relation to intellectual function and attentional ability. Intelligence was found to be in…
Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.
Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059
Molinari, Geralyn D.
This guide was developed to assist treatment providers and school personnel to identify New Jersey drug and alcohol treatment programs providing services to adolescents. Geographical areas served, days and hours of operation, admission requirements, services available for adolescents, payment information, and the name of a contact person are…
Saloner, Brendan; Carson, Nicholas; Lê Cook, Benjamin
Purpose To identify contributors to racial/ethnic differences in completion of alcohol and marijuana treatment among adolescents at publicly-funded providers. Methods The 2007 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) provided substance use history, treatment setting, and treatment outcomes for youth aged 12-17 from five racial/ethnic groups (N=67,060). Individual-level records were linked to variables measuring the social context and service system characteristics of the metropolitan area. We implemented non-linear regression decomposition to identify variables that explained minority-white differences. Results Black and Hispanic youth were significantly less likely than whites to complete treatment for both alcohol and marijuana. Completion rates were similar for whites, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, however. Differences in predictor variables explained 12.7% of the black-white alcohol treatment gap and 7.6% of the marijuana treatment gap. By contrast, predictors explained 57.4% of the Hispanic-white alcohol treatment gap and 19.8% of the marijuana treatment gap. While differences in the distribution of individual-level variables explained little of the completion gaps, metropolitan-level variables substantially contributed to Hispanic-white gaps. For example, racial/ethnic composition of the metropolitan area explained 41.0% of the Hispanic-white alcohol completion gap and 23.2% of the marijuana completion gap. Regional differences in addiction treatment financing (particularly use of Medicaid funding) explained 13.7% of the Hispanic-white alcohol completion gap and 9.8% of the Hispanic-white marijuana treatment completion gap. Conclusions Factors related to social context are likely to be important contributors to white-minority differences in addiction treatment completion, particularly for Hispanic youth. Increased Medicaid funding, coupled with culturally tailored services, could be particularly beneficial. PMID:24613095
Hill, Kevin P.
With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean
Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299
Shrier, Lydia A; Walls, Courtney E; Kendall, Ashley D; Blood, Emily A
Drawing on factors identified in the literature, this study explored in-the-moment associations of social, emotional, and temporal contexts and perceived marijuana availability with desire to use the drug, using momentary sampling methodology with young people who frequently use marijuana. Forty-one adolescent/young adult medical outpatients aged 15 to 24 years who reported using marijuana at least twice a week completed 2,912 brief questionnaires on a handheld computer in response to signals emitted at random four to six times a day for 2 weeks. The questionnaires assessed, for the moment when signaled, desire to use marijuana, location, companionship, perceived ease of getting marijuana (availability), positive affect, and negative affect. Participants reported any desire to use marijuana on 1,528 reports (55%). Companionship, perceived availability, and positive affect were independently associated with having any desire to use marijuana. Once desire to use marijuana was present, time of day, positive affect, and negative affect were independently associated with strength of desire. By collecting data in real time, in real life, this study highlights the importance of examining and intervening on emotional, environmental, and temporal contexts for youth who frequently use marijuana in order to reduce their desire to use the drug.
Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret
Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali
The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history.
Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.
Burke, Andrew R.; Miczek, Klaus A.
Rationale Research on adolescence and drug abuse increased substantially in the past decade. However, drug-addiction related behaviors following stressful experiences during adolescence are less studied. We focus on rodent models of adolescent stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. Objectives Review the ontogeny of behavior, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent rodents. We evaluate evidence that stressful experiences during adolescence engender hypersensitivity to drugs of abuse and offer potential neural mechanisms. Results and Conclusions Much evidence suggests that final maturation of behavior, dopamine systems, and HPA axis occurs during adolescence. Stress during adolescence increases amphetamine- and ethanol-stimulated locomotion, preference, and self-administration under many conditions. The influence of adolescent stress on subsequent cocaine- and nicotine-stimulated locomotion and preference is less clear. The type of adolescent stress, temporal interval between stress and testing, species, sex, and the drug tested are key methodological determinants for successful cross-sensitization procedures. The sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system is proposed to underlie stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse in both adolescents and adults through modulation by CRF. Reduced levels of mesocortical dopamine appear to be a unique consequence of social stress during adolescence. Adolescent stress may reduce the final maturation of cortical dopamine through D2 dopamine receptor regulation of dopamine synthesis or glucocorticoid-facilitated pruning of cortical dopamine fibers. Certain rodent models of adolescent adversity are useful for determining neural mechanisms underlying the cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. PMID:24370534
Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M
As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana.
Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin
Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223
Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia
This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…
Tourigny, Marc; Hebert, Martine; Daigneault, Isabelle; Simoneau, Ann Claude
The effects of a group therapy program for teenage girls reporting child sexual abuse were evaluated by means of a pretest/post-test design with a control group. The psycho-educational intervention consisted of an average of 20 weekly two-hour meetings. Results of the repeated analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant improvement in…
Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.
Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…
Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…
Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.
Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom
Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…
Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.
Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth
This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…
Duan, Lei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann
The present study analyzed the long-term effects of perceived friend use and perceived peer use on adolescents' own cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as a series of parallel growth curves that were estimated in two developmental pieces, representing middle and high school (N = 1,040). Data were drawn from a large drug abuse prevention trial,…
Murray, B Lee
This case report is the story of my son's alleged abuse, told from my perspective. At the time, Jordan, a boy with Down syndrome, was 14 years old when his disclosure of sexual abuse by a school employee occurred. As part of the healing process, I use autoethnography to tell the story. I also describe and discuss a school-based program, which I developed and deliver, to provide sexual health promotion and sexual abuse prevention to adolescents with developmental disabilities.
Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K
Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized.
Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.
Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088
... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...
Crawley, Rachel D.; Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica Kalling; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.
This study tested the hypothesis that basic social information-processing components represented by family conflict, peer aggression, and pro-aggression cognitive scripts are related to aggression and social problems among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The sample consisted of 547 adolescents in two community-based residential facilities. Correlation results indicated that more peer aggression is related to more pro-aggression scripts; scripts, peer aggression, and family conflict are associated with social problems; and in-treatment physical altercation involvement is predicted by higher peer aggression. Findings suggest that social information-processing components are valuable for treatment research. PMID:26622072
Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele
Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…
Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao
Background Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents. Method A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI. Results Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9%) reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse. PMID:26114574
Ashby, Bethany D; Kaul, Paritosh
The sexual assault of girls and women in this country is estimated at approximately 20%. The development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after sexual abuse and assault is one of the potential lingering aftereffects. In this article we describe PTSD after sexual abuse and its effect on presenting complaints, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and chronic pain, for the pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) clinician. Treatment approaches, including the use of antidepressants and anxiolytics, as well as evidenced-based psychotherapies, are highlighted. In addition, this article will assist the PAG clinician in identifying trauma-related concerns during clinic visits and will cover specific screening tools to aid in identification of PTSD. A better understanding of PTSD after sexual abuse will allow PAG providers to deliver better care to their patients.
Solakoglu, Ozgur; Driver, Nichola; Belshaw, Scott H
Drawing from Robert Agnew's General Strain Theory, the purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sexual abuse on deviant behaviors, such as suicide, smoking, drinking, drug use, violent crime, and property crime, among Turkish adolescents. The article also aims to understand the mediating role of negative emotions, including depression and anger, as well as gender differences in this relationship. Findings from a series of analyses demonstrate that the experience of sexual abuse is significantly related to the likelihood of engaging in most of the deviant behaviors. In addition, the mediating role of negative emotions, particularly anger, was highlighted in the findings. Furthermore, the effect of sexual abuse on deviant behaviors was relatively greater for Turkish males compared with Turkish females. The current study contributes to the literature on the consequences of sexual abuse by considering them within the unique Islamic-Western cultural context of Turkey. Overall, findings suggest that this particular form of strain has a substantial impact on deviant behaviors among Turkish adolescents.
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…
This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…
Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen
The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…
Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.
The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…
Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.
This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…
... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...
Saewyc, E M; Bearinger, L H; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
The influence of sexual orientation on adolescents' sexual behaviors and pregnancy histories was investigated in a subsample of 3816 female adolescents, 12-19 years old, who completed the 1987 Minnesota (US) Adolescent Health Survey. 182 identified themselves as bisexual or lesbian, 1753 were unsure of their sexual orientation, and 1881 were heterosexual. Bisexual/lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual respondents ever to have had intercourse (33.0% and 29.3%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of childhood physical abuse (19.3% vs. 11.9%) and sexual abuse (22.1% vs. 15.3%) than their heterosexual counterparts. Among sexually experienced respondents, 29.8% of bisexual/lesbian adolescents, 43.5% of those unsure about their identity, and 23.1% of heterosexuals used no contraception and 12.3%, 8.5%, and 14.5%, respectively, of those who used contraception used an ineffective method. 12.3% of bisexual/lesbian women, 6.1% of those unsure about their sexual orientation, and 5.3% of heterosexual adolescents had experienced a pregnancy; 2 or more pregnancies were reported by 23.5%, 15.1%, and 9.8%, respectively, of ever-pregnant teens. Finally, 9.7% of bisexual/lesbian women had engaged in prostitution in the year preceding the survey, compared with 1.9% of heterosexuals and 3.4% of those unsure about their orientation. These findings suggest that adolescents who identify themselves as lesbian or bisexual are at high risk of pregnancy and poor contraceptive practices. Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that their pregnant adolescent patients are heterosexual or that lesbian clients or those unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of contraception.
Ryan, Sheryl A; Ammerman, Seth D
Many states have recently made significant changes to their legislation making recreational and/or medical marijuana use by adults legal. Although these laws, for the most part, have not targeted the adolescent population, they have created an environment in which marijuana increasingly is seen as acceptable, safe, and therapeutic. This clinical report offers guidance to the practicing pediatrician based on existing evidence and expert opinion/consensus of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding anticipatory guidance and counseling to teenagers and their parents about marijuana and its use. The recently published technical report provides the detailed evidence and references regarding the research on which the information in this clinical report is based.
Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M
The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental education. Participants were 702 adolescents from Jammu in the age range of 13-17 years (41.5% female). We found acceptance for a four-factor intercorrelated model for the CTQ with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (5 emotional neglect and 2 physical neglect items) factors following a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Forty-one to sixty-one percent of adolescents reported maltreatment which is higher in comparison with CTQ based studies from the West. Analysis of CFA with covariates (MIMIC model) indicated that males, and adolescents of less educated mothers' and from joint families reported higher abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse, respectively, while fathers' education level was not associated with abuse or neglect. Implications of these findings are highlighted.
Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.
Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica
Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana’s interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Auerbach, Randy P.; Kim, Judy C.; Chango, Joanna M.; Spiro, Westley J.; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K.
The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13–18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754
Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A
This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure.
McCormick, Cheryl M
There is increasing evidence that adolescence, like early life, is a sensitive period in which ongoing brain development can be influenced by environmental factors. This review describes our use of social instability as a model of mild adolescent social stress, its effects on social interactions and on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function over the course of the procedure and in response to new stressors. The effects of social instability are sex-specific, with qualitative differences between the sexes on HPA function over the course of the stressor procedure, and with greater effects in males on behaviour observed during the social instability and greater effects in females on behavioural responses to drugs of abuse into adulthood, long after the stress exposure. The results from investigations with this model of adolescent social stress are discussed in relation to those of studies using other stressor procedures. Elevated exposure to glucocorticoids over the course of adolescence confers sex-specific changes in behavioural responses to drugs of abuse, which may be of relevance for understanding risk factors in people.
Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...
... documented any effects of inhalants on the rump. Marijuana Question 1 Tetrahydrocannabinol is: Question 1: Options * A high tech gasoline A chemical in marijuana A brain neurotransmitter A dinosaur in Jurassic Park ...
Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed to assess pulmonary functions and anatomy. Results Thirty-one male volatile substance abusers and 19 control subjects were included in the study. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 14.6 ± 2.2 (9-18) years and duration of drug use was 3.7 ± 1.7 years. The most common respiratory symptoms in volatile substance abusers were nasal congestion (45.2%), sputum (38.7%), exercise intolerance (32.3%) and cough (22.6%). Results of spirometric studies showed 12 (41.4%) subjects with low FVC values < 80% of predicted, indicative of restrictive ventilatory pattern in the study group. Although the difference was not statistically significant, restrictive ventilatory pattern was higher in the study group. There was no statistically significant correlation between restrictive ventilatory pattern and the age of onset/duration/frequency of inhalant abuse, respiratory symptoms and scintigraphic abnormalities. Subjects who had restrictive pattern in their pulmonary function tests were more likely to have abnormal findings at HRCT (p < 0.01). Conclusion This study has shown a positive correlation between volatile substance abuse and the development of restrictive ventilatory pattern, but more comprehensive studies are needed for more precise conclusions. PMID:22958270
Cloak, Christine C; Alicata, Daniel; Ernst, Thomas M; Chang, Linda
Psychological maturation continues into young adulthood when substance abuse and several psychiatric disorders often emerge. Marijuana is the most common illicit drug abused by youths, typically preceding other illicit substances. We aimed to evaluate the complex and poorly studied relationships between marijuana use, psychiatric symptoms, and cortisol levels in young marijuana users. Psychiatric symptoms and salivary cortisol were measured in 122 youths (13-23 years old) with and without marijuana use. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Symptom-Checklist-90-R and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Mid-day salivary cortisol levels were measured. Additionally, salivary cytokine levels were measured in a subset of participants. Although the cortisol levels and salivary cytokine levels were similar, the young marijuana users had more self-reported and clinician rated psychiatric symptoms than controls, especially anxiety-associated symptoms. Moreover, marijuana users with earlier age of first use had more symptoms, while those with longer abstinence had fewer symptoms. Greater cumulative lifetime marijuana use was also associated with greater psychiatric symptoms. The discordant anxiety (feeling stressed or anxious despite normal cortisol) in the marijuana users, as well as symptom exacerbations with early and continued marijuana use in young marijuana users suggest that marijuana use may contribute to an aberrant relationship between stress response and psychiatric symptoms. The greater symptomatology, especially in those with earlier initiation and greater marijuana usage, emphasize the need to intervene for substance use and perceived anxiety in this population. PMID:25875137
Hill, Meg; Reed, Kathryn
Marijuana is a commonly used drug. At present, it remains an illegal substance in most areas of the United States. Recent controversy regarding the perceived harms of this drug has resulted in debate in both legal and medical circles. This review examines evidence regarding the effects of marijuana exposure during pregnancy and breast-feeding. We examined studies pertaining to fetal growth, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal findings, and continued development of fetuses and neonates exposed to marijuana through adolescence. In addition, the legal implications for women using marijuana in pregnancy are discussed with recommendations for the care of these patients. The current evidence suggests subtle effects of heavy marijuana use on developmental outcomes of children. However, these effects are not sufficient to warrant concerns above those associated with tobacco use. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. It is predominantly used for its pleasurable physical and psychotropic effects. With the recent changes to legislature in Colorado and Washington State making the recreational use of marijuana legal, marijuana has gained national attention. This raises the question: If it is legal for a woman to consume marijuana, what is the safety of this activity in pregnancy and breast-feeding? Moreover, do the harms of marijuana use on the fetus or infant justify the mandatory reporting laws in some states?
... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...
... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...
Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C
Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.
Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James
Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377
Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.
Background In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Methods Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-2011) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Results Within Colorado those reporting “great-risk” to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Conclusions Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. PMID:24837585
de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Guembarovski, Roberta Losi; Hirata, Bruna Karina Banin; de Almeida, Felipe Campos; André, Nayara Delgado; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara
Objectives: To provide a review of published literature regarding genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene, named as 5-HTTLPR, and its potential role as a susceptibility marker for ethanol abuse in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A literature review of several databases was conducted with the following keywords: 5-HTTLPR, children or adolescents or teenagers, susceptibility, alcohol or ethanol, abuse or misuse. Results: Alcohol interacts with serotonergic synaptic transmission in several ways, and the reduced availability of serotonin transporters might foster brain dysfunction, driving to alcohol abuse. The initial use of ethanol in children and adolescents is determined primarily by environmental influences, whereas the establishment of drinking patterns is strongly controlled by genetic factors. Functional polymorphic variants in the promoter region of the 5-HTTLPR gene have age-dependent effects in alcohol abuse. This polymorphism, mapped to the 5′ region of the SLC6A4, is a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and involves a direct repeat of 20–23 base pairs GC-rich sequences, comprising a short (S) allele, consisting of 14 repeats, and a long (L) allele, with 16 repeats. Additional variants have been described, although their influences on childhood and adolescence ethanol use are not clear. Conclusion: The influence of the 5-HTTLPR allelic variants in children and adolescent misuse of alcohol might be considered for clinical management, preventing long-term behavior problem. Identifying genetic markers associated to the potential alcohol misuse or abuse could be useful in guiding management and formulating effective coping strategies. PMID:27047556
Gullbrå, Frøydis; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Rortveit, Guri; Hafting, Marit
Objectives To explore significant experiences of adolescents as next of kin that the general practitioner (GP) should identify and recognize. Design Qualitative study with focus-group interviews. Subjects and setting Three focus-group interviews were conducted with a total of 15 Norwegian adolescents each with an ill or substance-abusing parent. The participants were recruited from existing support groups. Results The adolescents’ days were dominated by unpredictability in their family situation and their own exhausting efforts to keep up an ordinary youth life. Mostly, they consulted GPs for somatic complaints. In encounters with the GP, they wanted to be met both as a unique person and as a member of a family with burdens. Their expectations from the GP were partly negatively formed by their experiences. Some had experienced that both their own and their parent’s health problems were not addressed properly. Others reported that the GP did not act when he or she should have been concerned about their adverse life situation. The GP may contribute to better long-term psychosocial outcomes by ensuring that the adolescents receive information about the parent’s illness and have someone to talk to about their feelings and experiences. In addition, the GP may help by supporting their participation in relieving activities. Conclusion Burdened adolescents seek a GP most often for somatic complaints. The GP has a potential to support them by taking the initiative to talk about their life situation, and by recognizing their special efforts. Key pointsLittle is known about how a general practitioner can support adolescents with ill or substance-abusing parents.Adolescents experience unpredictability in life and strive to find balance between their own needs and the restrictions caused by parental illness.In encounters with adolescents having ill parents, the GP should take the initiative to talk about their family situation.The GP may help them by recognizing their
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status. PMID:28272353
Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah
Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E
Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.
Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos
This study explored the relationship between 1) child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual abuse (AASA), and both (CSA+AASA), and 2) the frequency of positive and negative sexual cognitions according to their content -intimate, exploratory, dominance, submission, and impersonal- in men and women. We also analyzed the severity of the sexual contact of individuals who had experienced AASA. We assessed a Spanish sample of 228 men and 333 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old. In the sample, 341 individuals reported having experienced some type of sexual victimization (victims group), while 220 individuals reported no victimization (non-victims group). Overall, sexual victims reported a higher frequency of positive sexual cognitions compared to non-victims, particularly when they had experienced CSA+AASA and the severity of the sexual contact was greater. Men and women who had experienced abuse reported a higher frequency of exploratory cognitions (p < .01). Male victims reported more cognitions of submission (p < .01), whereas female victims reported more cognitions of dominance (p < .05), which indicates lack of congruence with traditional gender roles. Finally, only intimate cognitions (p < .001) were experienced as negative by male victims. We discuss the relevance of the findings for therapeutic interventions with sexual abuse victims.
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…
Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.
Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066
The problem of middle adolescent substance use and abuse among high school age males was examined. Financial and socio-emotional costs and rates of incidence for substance use and abuse among high school males are addressed followed by a discussion of social, environmental, and intra-psychic factors, which influence substance use and abuse. To…
Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.
The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once…
Hadland, Scott E.; Harris, Sion K.
Purpose of review Despite widespread marijuana use among adolescents, accurate information on known health effects is poorly disseminated to clinicians and their patients. Amidst rapidly evolving drug policy in the United States and elsewhere, it is imperative that providers understand the short- and long-term consequences of marijuana use. Recent findings Research on regular marijuana use highlights a unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain to adverse neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes. Although studies have not firmly established causality, onset of regular marijuana use in adolescence is associated with later decline in cognitive function, as well as with adult onset of psychosis and anxiety. Educational and employment outcomes may be poorer among regular marijuana-using adolescents. A number of other adverse respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal associations with regular marijuana use have also been established. Good screening tools and promising brief intervention and behavioral treatment programs are available to clinicians, who are in a position to identify problematic marijuana use among adolescents and refer for services. Summary A common misperception among youth is that marijuana use is without harm. However, adolescent marijuana use may have measurable, durable and potentially irreversible effects on later cognitive function and mental health. PMID:24914878
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
Exposure to drugs of abuse during adolescence may lead to developmental disturbances, which may have functional consequences as well. Especially detrimental to the brain is substantial binge drinking, which may in the worst case lead to loss of the brain's gray matter gray substance and reduced integrity of the white matter. These changes are reflected in many cognitive functions. Also cannabis interferes with brain maturation and causes impairment of cognitive functioning. Although the structural changes induced by drugs are likely to largely return to normal after cessation of use, their overall effect on the functional capacity of the young may be significant.
Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien
It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.
Smith, David E
As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.
Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk
Objective This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. Results The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. Conclusion This study suggests that there are differences in
Miklowitz, David J.
The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family’s structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family’s history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress. PMID:22504610
Miklowitz, David J
The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family's structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family's history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress.
Bostwick, J. Michael
, dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse. PMID:22305029
Bostwick, J Michael
, dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse.
Walsh, Kate; Basu, Archana; Monk, Catherine
Study Objective Latinas have the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy in the US. Identifying means to improve the well-being among these young women is critical. The current study examined whether a history of child sexual abuse — itself a risk factor for adolescent pregnancy — was associated with more perceived stress and negative mood over the course of pregnancy and whether dysfunctional attitudes explained these associations. Design and Setting This mixed methods study involved lab-based assessments of perceived stress, sexual abuse history, and dysfunctional attitudes as well as Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) of mood states every 30 minutes during a 24-hour period once during each trimester of pregnancy. Participants Pregnant adolescents (n = 204, 85% Latina). Main Outcome Measures EMA mood states and lab-based retrospective self–reports of perceived stress. Results One in four pregnant adolescents had a history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused adolescents reported greater perceived stress during the first trimester relative to those without, though the groups did not differ on EMA negative mood ratings. Dysfunctional attitudes explained associations between sexual abuse and perceived stress. Sexual abuse was indirectly associated with the intercept and slope of negative mood through dysfunctional attitudes. Findings were circumscribed to sexual abuse and not other types of child abuse. Conclusions Identifying sexually abused pregnant adolescents and providing support and cognitive therapy to target dysfunctional beliefs may decrease stress during the first trimester as well as negative affect throughout pregnancy. PMID:26130137
Kaminer, Yifrah; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; McKay, James R; Burke, Rebecca H
Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator or mechanism of behavior change that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a 16-item measure developed to assess an individual's commitment to his/her stated treatment goal. The objectives of this study are to explore the research and clinical utility of the commitment construct as measured by the ASAGC. During sessions 3 and 9 of a 10-week SUD treatment, therapists completed the ASAGC for 170 13-18 year-old adolescents. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the ATAGC items. Concurrent validity with related constructs, self-efficacy and motivation for change, was examined as well. At both sessions, the factor analysis resulted in two scales--Commitment to Recovery and Commitment to Harm Reduction. The ASAGC scales were found to demonstrate a high level of internal consistency (alpha coefficients ranged from .92 to .96 over time). In contrast to the Commitment to Harm Reduction scale, the Commitment to Recovery scale consistently correlated with scales from the Situational Confidence Questionnaire assessing self-efficacy, evidencing concurrent validity. Similarly, the Commitment to Recovery scale was related to the Problem Recognition Questionnaire, providing further evidence of the validity of the ASAGC. The ASAGC is a reliable and valid clinical research instrument for the assessment of adolescents' commitment to their substance abuse treatment goal. Clinical researchers may take advantage of the clinical utility of the ASAGC including its ability to differentiate between commitment to abstinence versus commitment to harm reduction.
Genes and pathways co-associated with the exposure to multiple drugs of abuse, including alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine, and/or nicotine: a review of proteomics analyses.
Wang, Ju; Yuan, Wenji; Li, Ming D
Drug addiction is a chronic neuronal disease. In recent years, proteomics technology has been widely used to assess the protein expression in the brain tissues of both animals and humans exposed to addictive drugs. Through this approach, a large number of proteins potentially involved in the etiology of drug addictions have been identified, which provide a valuable resource to study protein function, biochemical pathways, and networks related to the molecular mechanisms underlying drug dependence. In this article, we summarize the recent application of proteomics to profiling protein expression patterns in animal or human brain tissues after the administration of alcohol, amphetamine/methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, morphine/heroin/butorphanol, or nicotine. From available reports, we compiled a list of 497 proteins associated with exposure to one or more addictive drugs, with 160 being related to exposure to at least two abused drugs. A number of biochemical pathways and biological processes appear to be enriched among these proteins, including synaptic transmission and signaling pathways related to neuronal functions. The data included in this work provide a summary and extension of the proteomics studies on drug addiction. Furthermore, the proteins and biological processes highlighted here may provide valuable insight into the cellular activities and biological processes in neurons in the development of drug addiction.
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L.
This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episodes Data System (TEDS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to medical marijuana laws without this supply source. PMID:25558490
Stewart, Jeremy G.; Kim, Judy C.; Esposito, Erika C.; Gold, Joseph; Nock, Matthew K.; Auerbach, Randy P.
Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and depressed youth are six times more likely to make suicide attempts as compared to non-depressed adolescents. The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of two well-established correlates of suicidality – childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and disinhibition – in predicting suicide attempts among depressed adolescents. Method Participants were 163 adolescents (125 females) aged 13 to 18 (M = 15.60, SD = 1.27) diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (n = 95, 58.3%) and/or Dysthymia (n = 69, 42.3%) recruited from an acute residential treatment service. Participants completed interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, self-report measures of depressive symptoms and CSA, and a computerized disinhibition task. Results Consistent with hypotheses, CSA moderated the association between disinhibition and adolescents' report of their past year and lifetime suicide attempts. Specifically, higher disinhibition was associated with a greater likelihood of having made a suicide attempt among adolescents with a history of CSA, but not among those without. The same pattern of results held in analyses of suicide attempt frequency. Limitations Primary findings were based on observational, cross-sectional data, and therefore, causal relationships cannot be inferred. The gender imbalance in the sample precluded stratifying our analyses by gender. CSA was ascertained by self-report; replication of the results with more objective measures is warranted. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CSA and disinhibition may work together to predict elevated suicide risk, and these results have implications for early identification efforts in youth at high risk for suicide. PMID:26318268
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Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M
With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy.
Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka
This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.
Napoli, Maria; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen
This article presents the results of a study conducted with 243 Native American students who were part of a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents attending middle school in a large urban center in the Southwest region of the United States. Native adolescents who felt a stronger sense of belonging in their school were found to report a lower lifetime use of alcohol and cigarettes, lower cigarette and marijuana use in the previous month, lower frequency of current use of these substances, fewer substances ever used, and a later age of initiation into drug use than other Native students. Research implications are discussed in relationship to school environment, culturally-grounded prevention curricula, and school social work practice. PMID:21359140
Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention. PMID:20119565
Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains.
Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.
Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws (ability to purchase alcohol <21 years) during adolescence can have long-term effects, including heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorders as adults. We examined whether exposure to permissive MLDA laws during adolescence has long-term effects on illicit drug use and disorders in adulthood. Methods Participants from the 2004-2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were linked with historical state MLDA laws. Participants born in 1949-1972 (age 31-63 years at observation, n=110,300) were analyzed because they came of legal age for alcohol purchase when changes occurred in state MLDA laws. Logistic regression was used to model drug use measures as a function of exposure to permissive MLDA during adolescence, adjusting for state and birth-year fixed effects, demographics, and salient state characteristics. Results Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of marijuana were 4.7%, 7.8%, and 1.2% respectively. Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs other than marijuana were 2.9%, 6.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. Among the full sample, exposure to permissive MLDA laws was not significantly associated with drug use or abuse/dependence in adulthood. Men exposed to permissive MLDA laws were at 20% increased odds of past year illicit drug use (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32). Conclusions Restricting alcohol access during adolescence did not increase long-term drug use. Allowing the purchase of alcohol among those less than 21 years of age could increase the risk of drug use later in life. PMID:25707705
Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman
Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders.
Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana
The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA.
Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David
The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)
Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.
Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…
Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.
Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…
Anderson, Shawanda W.; Moore, Paula A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a school-based education and counseling program (Life Skills Training Program) would have an impact on school-aged children/adolescents' views of substance abuse. The study also investigated the degree and direction of change. Participants were 338 elementary or middle-school students in the metro…
Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.
We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…
Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D.; Brausch, Amy M.; Montgomery, Brad S.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the independent effects of different treatment elements on a number of secondary problems related to childhood and adolescent sexual abuse, as well as investigate a number of different moderators of treatment effectiveness. Method: Twenty-eight studies that provided treatment outcome…
Riggs, Paula D.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Lohman, Michelle; Kayser, Ashley
Objective: In adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD), comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater severity of substance abuse, conduct problems, and worse treatment outcomes. Although many controlled trials have established the efficacy of psychostimulants, including pemoline, for ADHD in children and…
Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…
Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.
This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…
Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J
Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered.
Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.
Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F
This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.
Dull, R. Thomas
Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.
Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…
This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are intended to provide a framework for physicians' awareness, to present selected facts and information, to outline current thinking regarding…
This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and nonmedical purposes or to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization. The accompanying technical report reviews what is currently known about the relationships of marijuana use with health and the developing brain and the legal status of marijuana and adolescents' use of marijuana to better understand how change in legal status might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Dillon, Frank; Mena, Maite P.; Estrada, Yannine; Vaughan, Ellen L.
SUMMARY There is great significance to improving our understanding of predictors of treatment utilization among Hispanic substance abusing youth. One hundred and ten Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents participated in a study of treatment utilization. Analyses showed that adolescents with lower numbers of externalizing disorders (χ2 = 4.18, df = 1, p < .05) and parents with better parenting strategies (χ2 = 8.73, df = 2, p < .05), predicted overall treatment utilization (residential + outpatient). Better parenting practices and higher parental years in the U.S. predicted more utilization of outpatient services and lower parenting stress predicted more utilization of residential services. Without specialized engagement strategies, adolescents and families most in need may be the least likely to engage in recommended treatment. PMID:25400514
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.
Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen
There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.
Penning, Susan L; Collings, Steven J
Risk factors for traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse experiences (perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury) were examined in a sample of 718 South African secondary school adolescents. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the most consistent predictors of reenactments were a history of child sexual abuse (rape and/or indecent assault) and respondents' gender, with males being significantly more likely than females to report perpetration (OR = 13.5) and females being more likely to report revictimization (OR = 3.2) and self-injury (OR = 2.5). An analysis restricted to respondents with a history of child sexual abuse indicated that negative abuse-related cognitions were the most consistent predictor of all forms of traumatic reenactment.
Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N.; Fishbein, Martin
This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents’ perception of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents’ evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana PSAs negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who are at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help us design more effective anti-marijuana PSAs by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population. Limitations of the study and future directions were discussed. PMID:19735026
Hurd, Yasmin L
Epidemics require a paradigm shift in thinking about all possible solutions. The rapidly changing sociopolitical marijuana landscape provides a foundation for the therapeutic development of medicinal cannabidiol to address the current opioid abuse crisis.
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L
The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving.
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.
Daigneault, Isabelle; Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine
This study evaluates the mediational role of general attributions in explaining the impact of specific attributions regarding sexual abuse (SA) on six posttraumatic symptoms. One hundred three SA female adolescents (13-17 years old) completed the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children (TSCC; Briere, 1989), the blame/guilt subscale of the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale (CITES-R; Wolfe, Gentile, Michienzi, Sas, & Wolfe, 1991), and the Personal Attributions for Negative Events subscale of the Children's Attributions and Perceptions Scale (CAPS; Mannarino, Cohen, & Berman, 1994). Results indicate that general attributions act as a mediator between specific attributions and six posttraumatic symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, sexual concerns, posttraumatic stress, dissociation, and anger).
Small, La Fleur F.; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, “What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?” This research examines African American women’s substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951
Glozah, Franklin N
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friend on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across two consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point where they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. PMID:26595356
Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji
Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed.
Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S.; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji
Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed. PMID:26339209
Pacula, Rosalie L; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L
This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to MMLs without this supply source.
Tucker, Joan S.; de la Haye, Kayla; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.; Pollard, Michael S.
Purpose Although a number of social network studies have demonstrated peer influence effects on adolescent substance use, findings for marijuana use have been equivocal. This study examines whether structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use over time. Methods Using one-year longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this paper examines whether three structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use: whether the friendship is reciprocated, the popularity of the nominated friend, and the popularity/status difference between the nominated friend and the adolescent. The sample consists of students in grade 10/11 at Wave I, who were in grade 11/12 at Wave II, from two large schools with complete grade-based friendship network data (N = 1612). Results In one school, friends’ influence on marijuana use was more likely to occur within mutual, reciprocated friendships compared to non-reciprocated relationships. In the other school, friends’ influence was stronger when the friends were relatively popular within the school setting or much more popular than the adolescents themselves. Conclusions Friends’ influence on youth marijuana use may play out in different ways, depending on the school context. In one school influence occurred predominantly within reciprocated relationships that are likely characterized by closeness and trust, whereas in the other school adopting friends’ drug use behaviors appeared to be a strategy to attain social status. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which structural features of friendships moderate friends’ influence on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:24054813