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Sample records for adolescent marijuana abuse

  1. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (N = 164), ages 14–18 (x□ age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Results Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared to those who did not use medical marijuana. Conclusions Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. PMID:22721592

  2. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  3. Psychiatric Syndromes in Adolescents with Marijuana Abuse and Dependency in Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse: The Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Neuropsychological Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert J.; Monnig, Mollie A.; Lysne, Per A.; Ruhl, David A.; Pommy, Jessica A.; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Methods Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12–18), recruited in three groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day, percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. Results More drinks per drinking day predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana use was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. Conclusions In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to Visuospatial Ability. PMID:20958330

  5. Neurobiology of marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Abood, M E; Martin, B R

    1992-05-01

    Marijuana has a long history of abuse yet, as described here by Mary Abood and Billy Martin, there is little evidence that animals will self-administer the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol, or that marijuana stimulates brain reward pathways. While marked tolerance develops to marijuana, it has been difficult to demonstrate physical dependence, and until recently the mechanisms by which cannabinoids produced their behavioral effects were poorly defined. The development of new synthetic analogs played a critical role in the characterization and cloning of the cannabinoid receptor. Insight into cannabinoid receptors may lead to a better understanding of marijuana abuse in humans and provide new therapeutic strategies for several disorders.

  6. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  7. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  8. Adolescent Marijuana Abusers and Their Families. Research Monograph Series, No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; And Others

    Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…

  9. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  10. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  11. Prolonged atrial fibrillation precipitated by new-onset seizures and marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh; Huntwork, Margaret; Shetty, Varun; Sequeira, Gina; Akingbola, Olugbenga

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of prolonged atrial fibrillation (AF) precipitated by new-onset generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and marijuana abuse in a developmentally normal 18-year-old adolescent with a structurally normal heart. Our case highlights an interesting association and a unique pathophysiology between generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, marijuana abuse, and AF. We suggest that seizures and marijuana abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the etiology of AF in children. PMID:24420812

  12. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes

  13. Promoting the implementation of an evidence-based intervention for adolescent marijuana abuse in community settings: testing the use of intensive quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Sheidow, Ashli J; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Donohue, Bradley C; Ford, Julian D

    2008-07-01

    The development and evaluation of effective strategies for transporting evidence-based practices to community-based clinicians has become a research and policy priority. Using multisystemic therapy programs as a platform, an experimental design examined the capacity of an Intensive Quality Assurance (IQA) system to promote therapist implementation of contingency management (CM) for adolescent marijuana abuse. Participants included 30 therapists assigned to Workshop Only (WSO) versus IQA training conditions, and 70 marijuana-abusing youths and their caregivers who were treated by these clinicians. Analyses showed that IQA was more effective than WSO at increasing practitioner implementation of CM cognitive-behavioral techniques in the short-term based on youth and caregiver reports, and these increases were sustained based on youth reports. On the other hand, IQA did not increase therapist use of CM monitoring techniques relative to WSO, likely because of an unanticipated ceiling effect. Both sets of findings contribute to the emerging literature on the transport of evidence-based practice to real-world clinical settings.

  14. Parental Involvement in Brief Interventions for Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents (aged 12–18 years) identified in a school setting as abusing marijuana and other drugs were randomly assigned to complete one of two brief interventions (BIs). Adolescents and their parent (N = 259) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A) or a 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Using a latent construct representing 6-month marijuana use outcomes, current findings supported previous research that BI-AP resulted in superior outcomes when compared to BI-A. The presence of a marijuana dependence diagnosis at baseline predicted poorer outcomes when compared to youth without a diagnosis. Both baseline diagnostic status and co-occurring conduct problems interacted with intervention condition in predicting marijuana use outcomes. A marijuana dependence diagnosis resulted in a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-A condition when compared to BI-AP. Co-occurring conduct problems had a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-AP intervention when compared to BI-A. Implications for implementing BIs given diagnostic status, parent involvement and co-occurring conduct problems are discussed. PMID:26415058

  15. State Medical Marijuana Laws and Adolescent Marijuana Use in The United States: 1991 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Feng, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent marijuana use is associated with adverse later-life consequences, so identifying factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship of U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML) to adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases marijuana use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly limits use. We used 24 years of U.S. national data to examine the relationship between state MML and adolescent marijuana use. Methods Data came from 1,098,270 U.S. adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted between 1991–2014. The main outcome was any marijuana use in the prior 30 days. Using multilevel regression modeling, we examined marijuana use in adolescents nested within states, including whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a MML up to 2014, and whether the risk of use changed after state MML were passed. Individual-, school- and state-level covariates were controlled. Findings Overall, marijuana use was more prevalent in states that enacted MML up to 2014 than in other states (AOR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07–1.51). Pre- and post-MML risk did not differ in the full sample (AOR=0.92, 95%CI=0.82–1.04). A significant interaction (p<0.001) indicated differential post-MML risk by grade. In 8th graders, post-MML use decreased (AOR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.84), while no significant change occurred in 10th or 12th graders. Results were generally robust across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Previous evidence and this study show that MML passage does not result in increased adolescent marijuana use. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever enacted MML than in other states. State-level risk factors other than MML may contribute to both marijuana use and MML, warranting investigation. An observed 8th

  16. Effects of State Medical Marijuana Laws on Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Medical marijuana laws (MMLs) have been suggested as a possible cause of increases in marijuana use among adolescents in the United States. We evaluated the effects of MMLs on adolescent marijuana use from 2003 through 2011. Methods. We used data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and a difference-in-differences design to evaluate the effects of passage of state MMLs on adolescent marijuana use. The states examined (Montana, Rhode Island, Michigan, and Delaware) had passed MMLs at different times over a period of 8 years, ensuring that contemporaneous history was not a design confound. Results. In 40 planned comparisons of adolescents exposed and not exposed to MMLs across states and over time, only 2 significant effects were found, an outcome expected according to chance alone. Further examination of the (nonsignificant) estimates revealed no discernible pattern suggesting an effect on either self-reported prevalence or frequency of marijuana use. Conclusions. Our results suggest that, in the states assessed here, MMLs have not measurably affected adolescent marijuana use in the first few years after their enactment. Longer-term results, after MMLs are more fully implemented, might be different. PMID:23763418

  17. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Marijuana Use, Medical Marijuana Dispensaries, and Abusive and Neglectful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  19. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse.

  20. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the munchies." When someone smokes marijuana, they often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  1. The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479

  2. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  3. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  4. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents.

  5. Impulsivity, Attention, Memory, and Decision-Making among Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dawes, Michael A.; Furr, R. Michael; Charles, Nora E.; Liguori, Anthony; Shannon, Erin E.; Acheson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Marijuana is a popular drug of abuse among adolescents, and they may be uniquely vulnerable to resulting cognitive and behavioral impairments. Previous studies have found impairments among adolescent marijuana users. However, the majority of this research has examined measures individually rather than multiple domains in a single cohesive analysis. This study used a logistic regression model that combines performance on a range of tasks to identify which measures were most altered among adolescent marijuana users. Objectives The purpose of this research was to determine unique associations between adolescent marijuana user and performances on multiple cognitive and behavioral domains (attention, memory, decision-making, and impulsivity) in 14- to 17-year-olds while simultaneously controlling for performances across the measures to determine which measures most strongly distinguish marijuana users from non-users. Methods Marijuana-using adolescents (n=45) and controls (n=48) were tested. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test for: (a) differences between marijuana users and non-users on each measure, (b) associations between marijuana use and each measure after controlling for the other measures, and (c) the degree to which (a) and (b) together elucidated differences among marijuana users and non-users. Results Of all the cognitive and behavioral domains tested, impaired short-term recall memory and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were associated with marijuana use after controlling for performances across all measures. Conclusions This study extends previous findings by identifying cognitive and behavioral impairments most strongly associated with adolescent marijuana users. These specific deficits are potential targets of intervention for this at-risk population. PMID:23138434

  6. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 estimates to 2012–2013 estimates). However, youth perceptions of great risk of harm from monthly marijuana ... change. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm From Marijuana Use: 2013 ...

  7. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

  8. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  9. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  10. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  11. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  12. Failure to Sustain Prepulse Inhibition in Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Dawes, Michael A.; Liguori, Anthony; Richard, Dawn M.; Bray, Bethany; Tong, Weiqun; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is typically initiated during adolescence, which is a critical period for neural development. Studies have reported reductions in prepulse inhibition (PPI) among adults who use marijuana chronically, although no human studies have been conducted during the critical adolescent period. Methods This study tested PPI of acoustic startle among adolescents who were either frequent marijuana Users or naïve to the drug (Controls). Adolescents were tested using two intensities of prepulses (70 and 85 dB) combined with a 105 dB startle stimulus, delivered across two testing blocks. Results There was a significant interaction of group by block for PPI; marijuana Users experienced a greater decline in the PPI across the testing session than Controls. The change in PPI of response magnitude for Users was predicted by change in urine THC/creatinine after atleast 18 hours of abstinence, the number of joints used during the previous week before testing, as well as self-reported DSM-IV symptoms of marijuana tolerance, and time spent using marijuana rather than participating in other activities. Conclusions These outcomes suggest that adolescents who are frequent marijuana users have problems maintaining of prepulse inhibition, possibly due to lower quality of information processing or sustained attention, both of may contribute to maintaining continued marijuana use as well as attrition from marijuana treatment. PMID:21196088

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  14. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  15. The Significance of Marijuana Use Among Alcohol Using Adolescent ED Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Thomas H.; Spirito, Anthony; Hernández, Lynn; Fairlie, Anne M.; Sindelar-Manning, Holly; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Lewander, William

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine if adolescents presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) for an alcohol-related event requiring medical care differ in terms of substance use, behavioral and mental health problems, peer relationships, and parental monitoring, based on their history of marijuana use. Methods Cross-sectional comparison of adolescents 13–17 years old, with evidence of recent alcohol use, 13–17 years old, presenting to a PED based on a self-reported history of marijuana use. Assessment tools included the Adolescent Drinking Inventory, Adolescent Drinking Questionnaire, Young Adult Drinking and Driving Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Peer Substance Use and Tolerance of Substance Use Scale, Results Compared to alcohol only (AO) using adolescents, adolescents who use alcohol and marijuana (AM) have higher rates of smoking (F=23.62) and binge drinking (F=11.56), consume more drinks per sitting (F=9.03), have more externalizing behavior problems (F=12.53), and report both greater peer tolerance of substance use (F=12.99) and lower parental monitoring (F=7.12). Conclusions Adolescents who use both AM report greater substance use and more risk factors for substance abuse than AO using adolescents. Screening for a history of marijuana use may be important when treating adolescents presenting with an alcohol-related event. Alcohol and marijuana co-use may identify a high risk population, which may have important implications for ED clinicians in the ED care of these patients, providing parental guidance, and planning follow-up care. PMID:20078438

  16. The effect of marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements on adolescents' evaluation of ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population. PMID:19735026

  17. Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo

    2014-07-29

    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors.

  18. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  19. Marijuana use, abuse, and dependence: evaluation of panic responsivity to biological challenge.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation examined marijuana use, abuse, and dependence in relation to anxious and fearful responding to panic-relevant bodily sensations elicited by a biological challenge procedure among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 64; 46.9% women; M(age) = 20.97, SD = 6.01). Results indicated that those who were dependent on marijuana had greater self-reported panic attack symptoms post-challenge than those who abused marijuana. No differences were found between those who did not meet criteria for either abuse or dependence (users), and those who abused or were dependent on marijuana. No group differences were found for heart rate reactivity. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of marijuana use and its disorders in terms of panic responsivity. PMID:20235439

  20. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  1. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  2. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  3. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teen Users’ IQ Decline ( August 2016 ) Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose ( May ... Marijuana in Teen Users’ IQ Decline Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose Nora's ...

  4. Contingency Management in Community Programs Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Adolescent substance abuse remains a public health problem, and more effective treatment approaches are needed. PURPOSE The study aims to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of implementing a cost-effective contingency management (CM) intervention in community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. METHODS Thirty-one adolescents with primary marijuana use disorder enrolled in a community treatment program were randomized. FINDINGS There were no significant group differences in percent negative UDS, sustained negative UDS, or retention in treatment. CONCLUSIONS CM was difficult to integrate into community treatment programs and did not seem to be an effective adjunct to standard community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. Modifying the CM procedure for adolescents, changing staff attitudes toward CM, and/or combining CM with other evidence-based psychosocial treatment may improve outcomes. PMID:22299805

  5. Longitudinal Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Passarotti, A.M.; Crane, Natania A.; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is increasingly widespread among adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use during this important developmental period. As such, we examined adolescent trajectories of marijuana use and the psychosocial factors that may differentiate individuals who escalate their marijuana use over adolescence and young adulthood from those who do not. Methods Participants were 1,204 9th and 10th graders at baseline who were over-sampled for cigarette use and were followed over 6-years, as part of an extensive longitudinal study, the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) was used to model trajectories of marijuana use and Mixed Effects Regression analyses were used to examine psychosocial correlates of marijuana use escalation over time. Results Our results revealed three trajectories of non-escalating users (low users, medium users, and high users) and one escalating user trajectory. We found that relative to Non-escalators the Escalators had higher cigarette smoking (p<.0001), novelty-seeking (p=.02), aggressive and anti-social behavior (p<.007), and problem behavior related to peer context (p=.04). Moreover, there were important time and group by time interactions in some of these relationships. On the other hand, parental control and depression did not differ between escalators and low and medium non-escalating users. Conclusions Cigarette smoking, novelty-seeking, aggressive and anti-social behavior, and peer influence are related to ‘escalating’ marijuana use throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25792233

  6. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depression) symptoms and brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Reliable raters manually traced amygdala and intracranial volumes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Female marijuana users had larger right amygdala volumes and more internalizing symptoms than female controls, after covarying head size, alcohol, nicotine and other substance use (p<0.05), while male users had similar volumes as male controls. For female controls and males, worse mood/anxiety was linked to smaller right amygdala volume (p<0.05), whereas more internalizing problems was associated with bigger right amygdala in female marijuana users. Gender interactions may reflect marijuana-related interruptions to sex-specific neuromaturational processes and staging. Subtle amygdala development abnormalities may underlie particular vulnerabilities to sub-diagnostic depression and anxiety in teenage female marijuana users. PMID:21664935

  7. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  8. Marijuana Use by Heroin Abusers as a Factor in Program Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellner, Melvyn

    1977-01-01

    Primary heroin abusers who remained in a voluntary drug-free treatment program for an average of nine months were carefully matched with not-retained control subjects. Marijuana was used by the retained subjects as a heroin substitute and those who used marijuana were more apt to remain in the treatment program. (Author)

  9. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  10. Relapse Among Adolescent Drug Abusers Following Treatment: The Role of Probable ADHD Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…

  11. New Developments in Understanding and Treating Adolescent Marijuana Dependence1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States and worldwide. Marijuana use is a problem of increasing magnitude among adolescents. Use typically begins in adolescence and is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. Method This article will present an overview of trends in marijuana use, and will review the endocannabinoid system and marijuana. It will discuss recent policy developments in US and their implications, especially for adolescents. Existing treatments will be reviewed, including findings from a recent randomized double-blind trial of N-acetylcysteine, a compound that reverses the dysregulation of the glutamate system that occurs in substance dependence. Conclusions The core treatment approaches include psychosocial interventions, sometimes in combination with each other. While a reduction in days of use is often achieved with most of these approaches, abstinence is a much more elusive goal. The evidence base for effective treatments remains inadequate especially with regard to adolescents, and there is an urgent need for more research in this area. Promising new treatments include N-acetylcysteine in conjunction with contingency management. PMID:25289370

  12. Inter-and Intragenerational Influences on Adolescent Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise

    1974-01-01

    A survey of a representative sample of high school students in New York State revealed that involvement with other drug using adolescents is a more important correlate of marijuana use than is parental use of psychoactive drugs or alcohol. Implications of these data for parental and peer influence, the generation gap, and social change are…

  13. Late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse: a case report with MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Camara, Massaman; Mbonda, Paul Chimi; Toffa, Dènahin; Touré, Kamadore

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in the world. The relation between marijuana use and epileptic seizures is still controversial. We report a case of late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse, with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. A 44-year-old patient was admitted for 03 isolated episodes of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. He had a history of 26 years regular marijuana smoking. On admission, we found a tachycardia, psychomotor slowing, asymmetric hyperreflexia, bilateral Babinski sign without weakness. Laboratory work-up showed a high level of urine of Δ-9-tétrahydroxycannabinol. Electroencephalogram was normal. Brain MRI revealed abnormal signal intensities in the right frontal lobe and basal ganglia. Seizures cessation was obtained with anti-epileptic treatment. We suggest that marijuana abuse through vascular and toxic mechanisms could explain seizures in this case. PMID:25120871

  14. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA . 1990;264(20): ...

  15. The Role of Neighborhood in Urban Black Adolescent Marijuana Use*

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Green, Kerry M.; Milam, Adam J.; Furr-Holden, Debra M.; Johnson, Renee M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study examined the influence of neighborhood factors on transitions in marijuana involvement during adolescence in a sample of primarily low-income, urban Black youth. Methods 556 Black adolescents were interviewed annually beginning in first grade as part of a longitudinal study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine stages of marijuana involvement from 6th to 9th grades. The influence of neighborhood disorder, drug activity, violent crime, safety and disadvantage on transitions in marijuana involvement was tested using latent transition analysis (LTA). Results There was evidence for three stages of involvement: no involvement, offered, and use and problems. Involvement increased steadily during adolescence with a slightly greater risk to transition from offers to use between 6th and 7th grades. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.04, CI=1.00, 1.08), drug activity (AOR=1.12, CI=1.02, 1.22) and disadvantage (AOR=1.44, CI=1.10, 1.92) were associated with the transition from marijuana offers to use and problems. Neighborhood disorder (AOR=1.07, CI=1.02, 1.11), drug activity (AOR=1.19, CI=1.10, 1.29) and violent crime (AOR=1.17, CI=1.03, 1.32) were associated with transitioning rapidly from no involvement to use and problems. Conclusions Understanding how neighborhoods could be organized and provided with supports to discourage marijuana use and promote non-drug using behaviors should be an important goal of any prevention program in low-income, urban Black neighborhoods. Enhancing citizen participation and mobilization to address the social processes of neighborhood disorder has the potential to reduce marijuana involvement in these neighborhoods. PMID:26162651

  16. Marijuana use is associated with risky sexual behaviors in treatment-seeking polysubstance abusers

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple types of substance use are associated with HIV risk behaviors, but relatively little research has examined the association between marijuana use and risky sexual activities in treatment-seeking polysubstance abuse patients. Objectives This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexual behaviors in 239 patients with cocaine, opioid, or alcohol use disorders who were initiating outpatient substance use treatment. Methods Participants completed the HIV Risk Behavior Scale and were classified into one of three groups based on their marijuana use histories: never (n = 66), past but not current use (n = 124), or current use (n = 49). Results Compared to never marijuana users, current and former marijuana users had a greater likelihood of having more than 50 lifetime sexual partners [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9 (1.0 – 15.7) and 5.2 (1.6 – 17.3), respectively]. Former marijuana users had increased risk of low frequency condom use with casual partners relative to never users [OR (95% CI) = 2.9 (1.1 – 7.6)]. Moreover, current marijuana users were more likely than never users to have had more than two recent sexual partners [OR (95% CI) = 8.1 (1.94 – 33.44)]. Conclusion Treatment-seeking polysubstance abusers with current or past marijuana use histories may be at greater risk of HIV infection than their counterparts who do not use marijuana. These data underscore the importance of increasing awareness about the potential association between marijuana use and increased high risk sexual behavior among polysubstance abusing patients. PMID:23841867

  17. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes. PMID:27478762

  18. The Formation of Marijuana Risk Perception in a Population of Substance Abusing Patients.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Davidson, Larry; D'Souza, Deepak C

    2016-03-01

    Risk perception has been shown to be protective with regard to marijuana use. Notably, the risk perception of marijuana in individuals with substance abuse problems varies significantly from that of the general public. Understanding how risk perception is formed in substance users could explain these differences and help predict the consequences of policy changes. Using this framework, we explored risk perception and its formation in a sample of substance abusing veterans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with veterans who were receiving treatment for substance abuse. Interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. A prominent perspective among the 31 participants was that marijuana is significantly different from other drugs because it is safe, not addictive, not associated with physical withdrawal, and has less overt behavioral effects than other substances. Many of these participants drew upon their own innocuous experiences with the drug in developing this perspective, more so than information from any other source. A contrasting narrative emphasized marijuana's capacity to cause negative social consequences, act as a gateway to the use of other, more harmful substances, and cause paranoia or worsen psychosis. In conclusion, individual experience with marijuana featured more prominently in informing risk perception than any other source of information. Our results and previous literature suggest that the significant disconnect between the individual experiences of substance users and the current clinical and legal policy towards marijuana may weaken the legitimacy of public policy or the authority of the medical community. PMID:25982082

  19. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209

  20. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  1. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... et al. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review. Curr Pharm Des . 2014;20( ...

  2. Adolescent marijuana use from 2002 to 2008: higher in states with medical marijuana laws, cause still unclear

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M.; Poh, Ernest; Cerdá, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Since 1996, 16 states have legalized marijuana use for medical purposes. The current study provides a scientific assessment of the association of medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use using national data. Method State representative survey data on approximately 23,000 12–17 year olds was collected by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health annually from 2002–2008. Yearly state-specific estimates of prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perception of its riskiness were statistically tested for differences between states with and without MML by year and across years. Results States with MML had higher average adolescent marijuana use, 8.68% (95% CI: 7.95–9.42) and lower perception of riskiness, during the period 2002–2008 compared to states without MML, 6.94% (95% CI: 6.60–7.28%). In the eight states that passed MML since 2004, in the years prior to MML passage, there was already a higher prevalence of use and lower perceptions of risk in those states compared to states that have not passed MML. Conclusions While the most likely of several possible explanations for higher adolescent marijuana use and lower perceptions of risk in MML states cannot be determined from the current study, results clearly suggest the need for more empirically-based research on this topic. PMID:21820632

  3. Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Adolescent Marijuana Users: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James

    2006-01-01

    This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…

  4. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  5. "Fry:" A Study of Adolescents' Use of Embalming Fluid with Marijuana and Tobacco. TCADA Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, William N.

    Adolescent use of marijuana and tobacco has increased throughout the 1990s. Perhaps as a part of this trend, increasingly there have been reports of adolescents who use marijuana or tobacco cigarettes dipped in embalming fluid. Unfortunately, most of these reports involve young people coming for drug treatment, many of whom were incoherent. The…

  6. Abnormal cerebellar morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277

  7. Social norms and self-efficacy among heavy using adolescent marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Denise D; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Stephens, Robert S; Roffman, Roger A

    2011-12-01

    Adolescence is a time in which individuals are particularly likely to engage in health-risk behaviors, with marijuana being the most prevalent illicit drug used. Perceptions of others' use (i.e., norms) have previously been found to be related to increased marijuana use. Additionally, low refusal self-efficacy has been associated with increased marijuana consumption. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of normative perceptions and self-efficacy on negative marijuana outcomes for a heavy using adolescent population. A structural equation model was tested and supported such that significant indirect paths were present from descriptive norms to marijuana outcomes through self-efficacy. Implications for prevention and intervention with heavy using adolescent marijuana users are discussed.

  8. Marijuana-based Drugs: Innovative Therapeutics or Designer Drugs of Abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Kathryn A.; Prather, Paul L.; James, Laura P.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana has been used recreationally and medicinally for centuries. The principle psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1R agonists and antagonists could potentially treat a wide variety of diseases; unfortunately, therapeutic doses produce unacceptable psychiatric effects. “K2” or “Spice” (K2/Spice), an emerging drug of abuse, exhibits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to Δ9-THC, these drugs are widely unregulated and touted as “legal” marijuana. This review summarizes current and future therapeutic uses of CB1R ligands and provides a historical perspective of the K2/Spice “phenomenon” so the reader can decide if marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or instead perpetuate drug abuse. PMID:21441120

  9. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  10. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  11. ALTERED PREFRONTAL AND INSULAR CORTICAL THICKNESS IN ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McGlade, Erin; King, Jace B.; Terry, Janine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data regarding the impact of marijuana (MJ) on cortical development during adolescence. Adolescence is a period of substantial brain maturation and cortical thickness abnormalities may be indicative of disruptions of normal cortical development. This investigation applied cortical-surface based techniques to compare cortical thickness measures in MJ using adolescents compared to non-using controls. Methods Eighteen adolescents with heavy MJ use and 18 non-using controls similar in age received MRI scans using a 3T Siemens scanner. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with FreeSurfer. Group differences in cortical thickness were assessed using statistical difference maps covarying for age and gender. Results Compared to non-users, MJ users had decreased cortical thickness in right caudal middle frontal, bilateral insula and bilateral superior frontal corticies. Marijuana users had increased cortical thickness in the bilateral lingual, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal and left paracentral regions. In the MJ users, negative correlations were found between frontal and lingual regions for urinary cannabinoid levels and between age of onset of use and the right superior frontal gyrus. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to evaluate cortical thickness in a group of adolescents with heavy MJ use compared to non-users. Our findings are consistent with prior studies that documented abnormalities in prefrontal and insular regions. Our results suggest that age of regular use may be associated with altered prefrontal cortical gray matter development in adolescents. Furthermore, reduced insular cortical thickness may be a biological marker for increased risk of substance dependence. PMID:21310189

  12. Marijuana: still a "signal of misunderstanding".

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, J T

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews four decades of my professional experience with marijuana, including: 1) my treatment of marijuana-dependent patients, particularly adolescents; 2) my research on the general effects and medical uses of the government-grown marijuana and of oral tetrahydrocannabinol (Marinol); and 3) my social policy experiences, both nationally and internationally, as a member of the National Commission on Marijuana Drug Abuse. The article emphasizes the mythology, morality, and misunderstanding that clouds so much of the thinking about marijuana in general and its medical utility in particular.

  13. Associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with HIV/STD risk behavior in high-risk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest an association of marijuana use with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most studies have focused on global associations of marijuana use with sexual risk outcomes and few have examined relevant cognitive variables. Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV/STDs and preliminary evidence suggests that marijuana is a potentially important cofactor for sexual risk behavior in this population. This study evaluated global, situational and event-level associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with sexual risk outcomes in a large, racially diverse sample of adjudicated youth (n = 656, 66% male, mean age = 16.7 years). Cross-sectional and prospective analyses identified associations of marijuana use and dependence symptoms with sexual risk outcomes, including lower frequency of condom use and higher STD incidence. Stronger sex-related marijuana expectancies predicted greater intentions for and frequency of marijuana use in sexual situations. In event-level analyses that controlled for alcohol, marijuana use predicted a significantly decreased likelihood of condom use; this association was moderated by sex-related marijuana expectancies. Mediation analyses suggested that behavioral intentions partly accounted for the prospective association of expectancies with marijuana use before sex. These results provide further evidence that marijuana use is a potentially important cofactor for HIV/STD transmission in high-risk adolescents and suggest that cognitive factors could be important for characterizing this association. PMID:20853925

  14. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  15. "Girls Are Retarded When They're Stoned." Marijuana and the Construction of Gender Roles among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jessica; Weber, Timothy R.; Albanez, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from 122 male and 110 female focus-group participants to study why adolescent females use less marijuana than adolescent males, focusing on normative boundaries that restrict females in access to and use of marijuana. Results suggest the limiting effects of traditional gender roles on marijuana use. (SLD)

  16. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  17. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  18. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  19. Testing the effects of peer socialization versus selection on alcohol and marijuana use among treated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  20. Adolescent Victims of Abuse: A Treatment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Merchant, Darlene

    This paper presents a theory and model for treating adolescent victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect. The theory examines issues related to abuse or neglect and the effect that an abusive history has on adolescent development. Specific issues noted are depression, anger, low self-esteem, self-shame, lack of trust, a sense of…

  1. Marijuana-based drugs: innovative therapeutics or designer drugs of abuse?

    PubMed

    Seely, Kathryn A; Prather, Paul L; James, Laura P; Moran, Jeffery H

    2011-02-01

    The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). Unfortunately, pharmacological research into the design of effective THC analogs has been hampered by psychiatric side effects. THC-based drug design of a less academic nature, however, has led to the marketing of "synthetic marijuana," labeled as K2 or "Spice," among other terms, which elicits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to THC, the active ingredients of K2/Spice preparations are widely unregulated. The K2/Spice "phenomenon" provides a context for considering whether marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or merely perpetuate drug abuse.

  2. Do adolescent Ecstasy users have different attitudes towards drugs when compared to Marijuana users?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents’ attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents: non-marijuana/ecstasy users, marijuana users (used marijuana at least once but never used ecstasy) and ecstasy users (used ecstasy at least once). Methods Data from 5,049 adolescents aged 12–18 years old who had complete weighted data information in Round 2 of the Restricted Use Files (RUF) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Results Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non-drug using youth. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non-drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs. Conclusion Information about the risks and consequences of ecstasy use need to be presented to adolescents in order to attempt to reduce adolescents’ approval of ecstasy use as well as ecstasy experimentation. PMID:18068314

  3. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  4. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  5. The Moderating Effect of Marijuana Use on the Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and HIV Risk among Adolescents in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818

  6. Frequent Marijuana Use is Associated with Greater Nicotine Addiction in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Rait, Michelle A.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marijuana and tobacco are the substances used most commonly by adolescents and co-occurring use is common. Use of one substance may potentiate the addictive properties of the other. The current study examined the severity of nicotine addiction among teen smokers as a function of co-occurring marijuana use. METHODS Participants were 165 adolescents (13–17 years old) who reported smoking at least 1 cigarette per day (CPD) in the past 30 days. General linear models examined the association of marijuana use with multiple measures of nicotine addiction including the Modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ), Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), ICD-10, and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). RESULTS The adolescent sample (mean age=16.1 years, SD=0.95) averaged 3.0 CPD (SD=3.0) for 1.98 years (SD=1.5). Most (79.5%) also smoked marijuana in the past 30 days. In models controlling for age, daily smoking status, and years of tobacco smoking, frequency of marijuana use accounted for 25–44% of the variance for all four measures of adolescent nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS Marijuana use was associated with greater reported nicotine addiction among adolescent smokers. The findings suggest a role of marijuana in potentiating nicotine addiction and underscore the need for treatments that address both smoked substances. PMID:24928480

  7. Neural Correlates of Verbal Learning in Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Alcohol and marijuana are the most widely used intoxicants among adolescents, yet their potential unique and interactive influences on the developing brain are not well established. Brain regions subserving learning and memory undergo continued maturation during adolescence, and may be particularly susceptible to substance-related neurotoxic damage. Here, we characterize brain response during verbal learning among adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Design Participants performed a verbal paired associates encoding task during fMRI scanning. Setting Adolescent subjects were recruited from local public schools and imaged at a University-based fMRI Center. Participants Participants were 74 16- to 18-year-olds, divided into four groups: (1) 22 controls with limited alcohol and marijuana experience, (2) 16 binge drinkers, (3) 8 marijuana users, and (4) 28 binge drinking marijuana users. Measurements Diagnostic interview assured that all teens were free from neurologic or psychiatric disorders; urine toxicology and breathalyzer verified abstinence for 22–28 days before scanning; a verbal paired associates task was administered during fMRI. Findings Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the verbal encoding task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns. A main effect of drinking pointed to decreased inferior frontal but increased dorsal frontal and parietal fMRI response among binge drinkers (corrected p < .05). There was no main effect of marijuana use. Binge drinking × marijuana interactions were found in bilateral frontal regions (corrected p < .05), where users of either alcohol or marijuana showed greater response than non-users, but users of both substances resembled non-users. Conclusions Adolescent substance users demonstrated altered fMRI response relative to nonusing controls, yet binge drinking appeared associated with more differences in activation than marijuana use. Alcohol and marijuana may have interactive effects that

  8. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Cope, Lora M; Martz, Meghan E; Hardee, Jillian E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning-negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)-were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. PMID:26403581

  9. Past 15-Year Trends in Adolescent Marijuana Use: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714

  10. Marijuana use, motives, and change intentions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dash, Genevieve F; Anderson, Kristen G

    2015-01-01

    Research typically focuses on motives to use or abstain from marijuana (MJ) in isolation; few studies have integrated both constructs in models of MJ use decision making. We expand the existing literature by integrating these motives in cognitive models of use and cessation in adolescents. We expected use motives to account for past use and intentions for future use, and for motives to abstain to dominate models explaining intention, desire, and self-efficacy for quitting. Adolescent MJ users (N = 162) reported their use and abstinence motives as well as their use and cessation behavior via online survey conducted in high schools. Past use was related to high conformity and low coping, while past cessation attempts were related to high enhancement motives. Intentions to use were related to low negative consequences and conformity, and high enhancement and expansion motives to use. Quitting intention was related to social motives to use, as was quitting self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was also related to high personal/peer beliefs motives to abstain. While past MJ use and intended future use were almost exclusively accounted for by use motives, both motives to use and abstain impacted self-reported cognitions associated with cessation in this sample of adolescent MJ users. PMID:25950589

  11. Adolescent abuse of dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard H

    2005-09-01

    Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXM), a constituent of more than 125 patent cough/cold remedies, is the most popular antitussive medication in the United States. Cough syrups or capsules also contain additional ingredients such as acetaminophen, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin, and/or pseudoephedrine, and toxicity with overdosage is additive to that of dextromethorphan alone. An unknown number of adolescents in the United States and Europe intoxicate themselves with acute megadoses of dextromethorphan. A megadose of DXM is defined as 5 to 10 times the dose recommended for control of annoying nonproductive coughs. Although a moderate overdose of pure DXM hydrobromide is free of serious adverse effects, approximately 5% of persons of European ethnicity lack the ability to metabolize the drug normally, leading to rapid acute toxic levels. Variable quantities of pure dextromethorphan powder in multiples of 1 gram are easily available from the worldwide web, including e-Bay. Recipe-like extraction procedures are quickly available on the Internet for seemingly simple and inexpensive home manufacture of concentrated dextromethorphan powder from Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold tablets (street name triple C). Adolescents intoxicate themselves at parties and even before or after school since the drug is legal, relatively inexpensive, and easily purchased or shoplifted at drug or convenient stores. Acute megadoses of the drug have profound psychological and physiological effects similar to those of phencyclidine (PCP). Megadoses of dextromethorphan used to self-intoxicate, can produce a false-positive screening test for phencyclidine in a urine specimen.

  12. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  13. Heterogeneity in men's marijuana use in the 20s: adolescent antecedents and consequences in the 30s.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Isaac J; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Another issue not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues and the associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses using a longitudinal data set of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men's adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men's psychopathology in their mid-30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife.

  14. Comorbid mood, psychosis, and marijuana abuse disorders: a theoretical review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Natascha; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2009-10-01

    There is a need to bridge the gap between the fields of addiction psychiatry and general psychiatry to effectively treat co-morbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This alarming epidemic transcends communities and severely impacts healthcare worldwide, yielding poor treatment outcomes and prognoses for afflicted patients. Because substance abuse can exacerbate or trigger psychosis and mood disorders, it is important to keep these issues in the forefront when evaluating patients. To address some of the complications stemming from not enough interactions between various groups of practitioners, this review addresses the neurobehavioral effects of cannabis use and their impact on patients who suffer from psychotic or affective disorders. The hope is that this article will serve as a spring board for further discussions among practitioners who treat these patients. Greater interactions between caretakers are bound to impact the care of our patients in a very positive way.

  15. Risk factors for adolescent marijuana use across cultures and across time.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Brook, D W; Arencibia-Mireles, O; Richter, L; Whiteman, M

    2001-09-01

    An integrated analysis of the data from 3 different studies was conducted to examine the early psychosocial predictors of later marijuana use among adolescents. Longitudinal analysis of interview data was performed. The data used in the analysis were derived from (a) a sample of 739 predominantly White adolescents representative of the northeastern United States, (b) a sample of 1,190 minority adolescents from the East Harlem section of New York City, and (c) a sample of 1,374 Colombian adolescents from two cities in Colombia, South America. In 2 of the samples, participants were interviewed in their homes, and in the 3rd study, participants were assessed in school. The predictors included a number of variables from (a) the personality domain, reflecting the adolescents' conventionality and intrapsychic functioning; (b) the family domain, representing the parent-child mutual attachment relationship and parental substance use; (c) the peer domain, reflecting the peer group's delinquency and substance use; and (d) the adolescents' own use of legal drugs. The dependent variable was adolescent marijuana use. The results of the analysis demonstrated remarkable consistency in the risk and protective factors for later marijuana use across the 3 samples, attesting to the robust nature of these predictors and their generalizability across gender, time, location, and ethnic/cultural background. These findings have important implications for designing intervention programs. Programs aimed at preventing adolescent marijuana use can be designed to incorporate universal features and still incorporate specific components that address the unique needs of adolescents from different groups. PMID:11678369

  16. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  17. A Review of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies in Marijuana using Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Silveri, Marisa M

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (MJ) remains the most widely used illicit drug of abuse, and accordingly, is associated with adverse effects on mental and physical health, and neurocognitive decline. Studies investigating the neurobiology of underlying MJ effects have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in brain areas that contain moderate to high concentrations of cannabinoid (CB1) receptors and that are implicated in MJ-related cognitive decrements. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), a non-invasive imaging technique used to assess neurochemistry, has been widely applied to probe a variety of substance-abusing populations. To date, however, there is a relative paucity of MRS published studies characterizing changes in neurometabolite concentrations in MJ users. Thus, the current review provides a summary of data from the eight existing MRS studies of MJ use in adolescents and adults, as well as interpretations and implications of study findings. Future MRS studies that address additional factors such as sex differences, onset and duration of use, abstinence and age, are warranted, and would lead to a more thorough characterization of potential neurochemical correlates of chronic MJ use, which would fill critical gaps in the existing literature. PMID:24587965

  18. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  19. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas J; Isen, Joshua D; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence--when the brain is still developing--has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.

  20. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  1. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  2. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  3. Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood: Developmental Trajectories and Their Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study assesses the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, children living at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. Method This study used a longitudinal design. The sample participants (N=548) were first studied at mean age 14 and last studied at mean age 43. Results Six trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic/heavy users (3.6%), increasing users (5.1%), chronic/occasional users (20%), decreasers (14.3%), quitters (22.5%), and nonusers/experimenters (34.5%). With three exceptions, as compared with being a nonuser/experimenter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy, the increasing, or the chronic/occasional user trajectory group was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and having a spouse/partner who used marijuana at early midlife. In addition, compared with being a quitter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy user trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, alcohol dependence/abuse, and spouse/partner marijuana use. Implications for intervention are presented. Conclusions Trajectories of marijuana use, especially chronic/heavy use, increasing use, and chronic/occasional use, are associated with unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. The importance of the findings for prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27168181

  4. Adolescents' Beliefs about Marijuana Use: A Comparison of Regular Users, Past Users and Never/Occasional Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Stephan, Philippe; Laget, Jacques; Chinet, Leonie; Bernard, Mathieu; Halfon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire investigating adolescents' opinions and experiences regarding marijuana use was administered to 163 adolescents and young adults (96 boys and 67 girls) aged 13 to 20 (mean age = 16.8, s.d. = 1.5). Items referred to marijuana and other substances' dangerousness, representations regarding the positive and negative consequences of…

  5. Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; Khoddam, Rubin; Irons, Daniel; Tuvblad, Catherine; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence—when the brain is still developing—has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants’ family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9–12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17–20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose–response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment. PMID:26787878

  6. Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: data from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Saunders, B; Resnick, H S; Best, C L; Schnurr, P P

    2000-02-01

    A national household probability sample of 4,023 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years was interviewed by telephone about substance use, victimization experiences, familial substance use, and posttraumatic reactions to identify risk factors for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--(4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) defined substance abuse/dependence. Age and ethnicity data were available for 3,907 participants. Major findings were (a) adolescents who had been physically assaulted, who had been sexually assaulted, who had witnessed violence, or who had family members with alcohol or drug use problems had increased risk for current substance abuse/dependence; (b) posttraumatic stress disorder independently increased risk of marijuana and hard drug abuse/dependence; and (c) when effects of other variables were controlled, African Americans, but not Hispanics or Native Americans, were at approximately 1/3 the risk of substance abuse/dependence as Caucasians.

  7. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  8. Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents: Gender Differences in Protective Familial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Andrew; Unger, Jennifer B.; Basáñez, Tatiana; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Given the important contextual function of family dynamics and traditional gender roles in Latino cultures, parental influences on substance use among Latino adolescents may differ across genders. This study examined associations between family factors (parental monitoring, parent–child communication, family cohesion, and familism) and marijuana use among 1,369 Latino adolescents in Southern California. Students from seven schools completed surveys in 9th and 11th grades. Longitudinal hierarchical linear regression analyses evaluated the associations between family factors in 9th grade and lifetime marijuana use in 11th grade, as well as gender differences in these associations. Girls reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental communication, and familism than boys did, but there were no gender differences in family cohesiveness. In a regression model controlling for covariates and previous marijuana use, parent–child communication and family cohesion in 9th grade were each uniquely predictive of lower levels of marijuana consumption in 11th grade. Gender was a statistical moderator, such that higher levels of parent–child communication predicted lower marijuana use among boys, whereas girls’ use was relatively low regardless of parent–child communication levels. Results are discussed in the light of the concurrent socialization processes of family and gender in Latino culture and its relation to preventing delinquent behaviors such as marijuana use. PMID:20977294

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  10. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  11. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  12. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  13. Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R.; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified four distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early-onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the four marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed within the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early-onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  14. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects. PMID:26237286

  15. Depressive symptoms in adolescents: associations with white matter volume and marijuana use

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms among adolescent marijuana users and controls. Methods Data were collected from marijuana users (n = 16) and demographically similar controls (n = 16) aged 16–18. Extensive exclusionary criteria included psychiatric and neurologic disorders, including major depression. Substance use, mood, and anatomical measures were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Results Marijuana (MJ) users demonstrated more depressive symptoms than controls (p < .05). MJ use (β = .42, p < .005) and smaller white matter volume (β = −.34, p < .03) each predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. MJ use interacted with white matter volume (β = −.55, p < .03) in predicting depression scores on the Beck Depression Inventory: among MJ users, but not controls, white matter volume was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Marijuana use and white matter volume were additive and interactive in predicting depressive symptoms among adolescents. Subtle neurodevelopmental white matter abnormalities may disrupt the connections between areas involved in mood regulation. PMID:17537075

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Marijuana Use and Problem Drinking in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jessor, Richard; Chase, James A.; Donovan, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436

  17. Marijuana, Alcohol Use and Attempted Smoking Cessation in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Kong, Grace; Bagot, Kara; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between the frequency of current marijuana and alcohol use and cigarette-quit attempts in male and female adolescent smokers. Methods Data from a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors in high-school-age adolescents were analyzed. Current cigarette smokers (n=804) who reported use of at least 1 cigarette in the past month were divided into those with and without a history of at least 1 quit attempt (a self-reported episode of trying to “stop smoking”). Logistic regression models were fit to describe the association between the frequency of marijuana/alcohol use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts. Results Among the total sample, higher frequency marijuana use (more than six times in the past 30 days) and frequent binge drinking (more than 5 days of binge drinking in the past 30 days) decreased the odds of having a past cigarette-quit attempt (higher frequency marijuana adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.36–0.86) (frequent binge drinking AOR=0.49; 95%CI=0.29–0.83). A significant gender interaction was observed for the relationship between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of cigarette-quit attempts (p=0.03), with decreased odds in boys (AOR=0.41; 95% CI=0.22–0.77) but not in girls (AOR=0.71; 95% CI=0.37–1.33). Conclusions Adolescent smokers who report higher frequency marijuana use or frequent binge drinking have a decreased likelihood of a history of a cigarette-quit attempt. The gender-related association between higher frequency marijuana use and a history of quit attempts suggests that boys with greater substance use may need particularly intensive support to initiate quit attempts. PMID:25174418

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF MARIJUANA USE FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD: PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL ROLE OUTCOMES1,2

    PubMed Central

    BROOK, JUDITH S.; LEE, JUNG YEON; BROWN, ELAINE N.; FINCH, STEPHEN J.; BROOK, DAVID W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood were examined for adverse life-course outcomes among African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. Data for marijuana use were analyzed at four points in time and on participants’ personality attributes, work functioning, and partner relations in adulthood using growth mixture modeling. Each of the three marijuana-use trajectory groups (maturing-out, late-onset, and chronic marijuana-users) had greater adverse life-course outcomes than a non or low-use trajectory group. The chronic marijuana-use trajectory group was highly associated with criminal behavior and partners’ marijuana use in adulthood. Treatment programs for marijuana use should also directly address common adverse life-course outcomes which users may already be experiencing. PMID:21675549

  19. Methylphenidate Misuse in Substance Abusing Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.

    2000-01-01

    Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…

  20. Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependency in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Schmidt, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the problem of substance use and abuse among adolescents and discusses the important role of school leaders in addressing this problem. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents is a significant and serious problem. In fact, an alarmingly high number of students report that they have used drugs or alcohol. Substance use and…

  1. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  2. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  3. Selection and Influence Mechanisms Associated With Marijuana Initiation and Use in Adolescent Friendship Networks.

    PubMed

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S

    2013-09-01

    Friends are thought to influence adolescent drug use. However, few studies have examined the role of drugs in friendship selection, which is necessary to draw sound conclusions about influence. This study applied statistical models for social networks to test the contribution of selection and influence to associations in marijuana use among friends in two large high schools (N = 1,612; M age = 16.4). There was evidence for friend selection based on similar lifetime and current marijuana use at both schools, but friends were found to influence the initiation and frequency of adolescent marijuana use in just one of these schools. There was minimal evidence that peer effects were moderated by personal, school, or family risk factors.

  4. Selection and Influence Mechanisms Associated With Marijuana Initiation and Use in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.; Pollard, Michael S.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    Friends are thought to influence adolescent drug use. However, few studies have examined the role of drugs in friendship selection, which is necessary to draw sound conclusions about influence. This study applied statistical models for social networks to test the contribution of selection and influence to associations in marijuana use among friends in two large high schools (N = 1,612; M age = 16.4). There was evidence for friend selection based on similar lifetime and current marijuana use at both schools, but friends were found to influence the initiation and frequency of adolescent marijuana use in just one of these schools. There was minimal evidence that peer effects were moderated by personal, school, or family risk factors. PMID:24187477

  5. The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976–2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aims Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time period. Design Combined analysis of nationally-representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the U.S. conducted 1976–2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. Setting In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the U.S. Participants 986,003 adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12 Measurements Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Findings Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana, and other characteristics. For example, compared to birth cohorts in which most (87–90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where less than half (42–46.9%) disapproved (99% C.I. 2.75, 4.53). Conclusions Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms. PMID:21545669

  6. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  7. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  8. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  9. Pathways from parental knowledge and warmth to adolescent marijuana use: an extension to the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T

    2009-03-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N = 2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents' marijuana beliefs-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps < .001. Marijuana intention (p < .001), but not perceived behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r = .54, p < .001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12-18 years of age.

  10. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  11. Pathways from parental knowledge and warmth to adolescent marijuana use: an extension to the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T

    2009-03-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N = 2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents' marijuana beliefs-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps < .001. Marijuana intention (p < .001), but not perceived behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r = .54, p < .001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12-18 years of age. PMID:18989783

  12. Early and mid-adolescence risk factors for later substance abuse by African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824

  13. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.) PMID:24381821

  14. A Trajectory Analysis of Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hubbard, Alan; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14–19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership. Results The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership. Conclusions Urban Latino adolescents’ substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention. PMID:21094433

  15. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  16. Marijuana: a realistic approach.

    PubMed

    Chun, G

    1971-04-01

    Much of the current confusion concerning marijuana has been caused by a lack of definition of terms. Variations in drug effect that are related to the type and potency of cannabis preparation and route of administration need clarification. When domestic strength marijuana is smoked recreationally, the subjective effects include relaxation, mild euphoria and increased sensory awareness. The objective effects include tachycardia, reddening of the conjunctivae and a distorted sense of time. Undesirable effects such as panic reactions, amotivational behavior, and acute toxic psychosis occur infrequently and are reversible with proper therapy. Other effects which have been attributed to marijuana are unsubstantiated. The recent upsurge in use of marijuana involves persons of a different type than those who used it heretofore and has greatly increased the number of people familiar with the drug. The disparity between what many people know empirically and the information disseminated through official media has lessened the credibility of physicians with many of our younger citizens. When young people recognize misinformation about marijuana, they are no longer listening when the facts are presented about more dangerous drugs, and the abuse of these drugs must be our main concern. To be considered is the potential hazard to adolescent users who may concomitantly be exposed to a subculture of experimentation with stronger drugs at a time when the opinion of a peer group is a strong factor in their behavior. PMID:5551311

  17. Marijuana: A Review of Medical Research with Implications for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)

  18. Adolescent Marijuana Use Intentions: Using Theory to Plan an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…

  19. Trajectories of Marijuana Use From Adolescence Into Adulthood: Environmental and Individual Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In addition, analyses examined between-trajectory differences in family, peer, school, neighborhood, individual, mental health, and substance use factors at key developmental points in adolescence and adulthood. Four trajectories of marijuana use were identified: nonusers (27%), adolescent-limited (21%), late-onset (20%), and chronic (32%) users. At age 33, the chronic trajectory was associated with the worst functioning overall. The late-onset group reported more substance use and sexual risk behavior than nonusers, but was otherwise not differentiated. The adolescent-limited group reported significantly lower educational and economic outcomes at age 33 than the late-onset and nonuser groups. In analyses at earlier ages, adolescent-limited and late-onset groups reported more problems in functioning during the period of escalation in use and improvement in functioning with the beginning of desistance. Implications for prevention are discussed, particularly the unique risks associated with early adolescent versus later onset of marijuana use. PMID:26389603

  20. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  1. Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence into adulthood: Environmental and individual correlates.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G; Nevell, Alyssa M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Abbott, Robert D; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In addition, analyses examined between-trajectory differences in family, peer, school, neighborhood, individual, mental health, and substance use factors at key developmental points in adolescence and adulthood. Four trajectories of marijuana use were identified: nonusers (27%), adolescent-limited (21%), late-onset (20%), and chronic (32%) users. At age 33, the chronic trajectory was associated with the worst functioning overall. The late-onset group reported more substance use and sexual risk behavior than nonusers, but was otherwise not differentiated. The adolescent-limited group reported significantly lower educational and economic outcomes at age 33 than the late-onset and nonuser groups. In analyses at earlier ages, adolescent-limited and late-onset groups reported more problems in functioning during the period of escalation in use and improvement in functioning with the beginning of desistance. Implications for prevention are discussed, particularly the unique risks associated with early adolescent versus later onset of marijuana use. PMID:26389603

  2. Pathways from Parental Knowledge and Warmth to Adolescent Marijuana Use: An Extension to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N=2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents’ marijuana beliefs—attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control—as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps<.001. Marijuana intention (p<.001), but not perceived behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r=.54, p<.001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12–18 years of age. PMID:18989783

  3. Adolescent Self-Control Predicts Joint Trajectories of Marijuana Use and Depressive Mood into Young Adulthood Among Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N=838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood. PMID:23670644

  4. Adolescent self-control predicts joint trajectories of marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood among urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood.

  5. Correlates of marijuana use in Colombian adolescents: a focus on the impact of the ecological/cultural domain.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rosen, Zohn; Montoya, Ivan

    2002-09-01

    To examine the influence of ecological/cultural factors and family, personality, and peer factors present during early adolescence that influence marijuana use in late adolescence. A community sample of 2,226 Colombian adolescents living in mixed urban-rural communities and their mothers were interviewed in their homes by trained Colombian interviewers, first in 1995-1996 and then again 2 years later. The scales used were based on item intercorrelations and grouped into the following categories: (a) adolescent personality, (b) family traits, (c) peer factors, (d) ecological/cultural variables, and (e) marijuana use. Data were examined using hierarchical regression modeling to determine the relationship between each of the domains and late adolescent marijuana use. The findings supported the family interactional theory of adolescent drug use behavior and found that factors in all of the domains had a direct effect on late adolescent marijuana use as well as indirect effects mediated through the more proximal domains in the model. Of particular interest was the strength of the influence of the ecological/cultural factors, which far exceeded that observed in similar studies done in the United States. Owing to the similarity with findings from studies conducted in the United States, interventions designed domestically could effectively be directly applied to adolescents in Colombia. The findings also suggest that prevention programs designed specifically to target ecological or cultural factors may have the most profound influence for reducing marijuana use in late adolescence. PMID:12225741

  6. Developmental epidemiology of drug use and abuse in adolescence and young adulthood: Evidence of generalized risk

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, R.H.C.; Young, S.E.; Hopfer, C.J.; Corley, R.P.; Stallings, M.C.; Crowley, T.J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies highlight a narrowing gender gap and the existence of a shared etiology across substances of abuse; however, few have tested developmental models using longitudinal data. We present data on developmental trends of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, abuse and dependence assessed during adolescence and young adulthood in a community-based Colorado twin sample of 1733 respondents through self-report questionnaires and structured psychiatric interviews. Additionally, we report on the rates of multiple substance use and disorders at each developmental stage, and the likelihood of a substance use disorder (SUD; i.e., abuse or dependence) diagnosis in young adulthood based on adolescent drug involvement. Most notably, we evaluate whether the pattern of multiple substance use and disorders and likelihood ratios across substances support a model of generalized risk. Lastly, we evaluate whether the ranked magnitudes of substance-specific risk match the addiction liability ranking. Substance use and SUDs are developmental phenomena, which increase from adolescence to young adulthood with fewand inconsistent gender differences. Adolescents and young adults are not specialized users, but rather tend to use or abuse multiple substances increasingly with age. Risk analyses indicated that progression toward a SUD for any substance was increased with prior involvement with any of the three substances during adolescence. Despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, tobacco posed the greatest substance-specific risk for developing subsequent problems. Our data also confirm either a generalized risk or correlated risk factors for early onset substance use and subsequent development of SUDs. PMID:19250776

  7. Adolescents' attitudes toward antimarijuana ads, usage intentions, and actual marijuana usage.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2013-12-01

    The association of adolescents' appraisals of the antimarijuana TV ads used in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12- to 18-year-old respondents (N = 2,993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multilevel linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: Resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all ps < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents' usage status predicted intentions and actual usage 1 year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both ps < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users who reported more positive attitudes toward the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding preimplementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PMID:23528197

  8. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  9. Pharmacotherapy for substance abuse disorders in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gabriel; Ivanov, Iliyan

    2011-02-01

    The public health effects of adolescent substance abuse disorders (SUD) reaches further than the immediate intoxicating effects. Medications play a limited role in the treatment of youth beyond addressing short-term symptoms but may improve longer-term outcomes for some patients. Given the potential devastating consequences of SUD, clinicians should become familiar with all available treatment options. This article reviews the pharmacotherapy for adolescent SUD to inform clinicians considering the use of this modality for selected groups of patients.

  10. An Examination of Social Anxiety in Marijuana and Cigarette Use Motives Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Renee M; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713

  11. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  12. Group motivational interviewing for adolescents: Change talk and alcohol and marijuana outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Houck, Jon M.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about what may distinguish effective and ineffective group interventions. Group motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising intervention for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use; however, the mechanisms of change for group MI are unknown. One potential mechanism is change talk, which is client speech arguing for change. The present study describes the group process in adolescent group MI and effects of group-level change talk on individual alcohol and marijuana outcomes. Method We analyzed 129 group session audio recordings from a randomized clinical trial of adolescent group MI. Sequential coding was performed using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) and the CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI) software application. Outcomes included past-month intentions, frequency, and consequences of alcohol and marijuana use, motivation to change, and positive expectancies. Results Sequential analysis indicated that facilitator open-ended questions and reflections of change talk (CT) increased group CT. Group CT was then followed by more CT. Multilevel models accounting for rolling group enrollment revealed group CT was associated with decreased alcohol intentions, alcohol use and heavy drinking three months later; group sustain talk was associated with decreased motivation to change, increased intentions to use marijuana, and increased positive alcohol and marijuana expectancies. Conclusions Facilitator speech and peer responses each had effects on change and sustain talk in the group setting, which was then associated with individual changes. Selective reflection of CT in adolescent group MI is suggested as a strategy to manage group dynamics and increase behavioral change. PMID:25365779

  13. Comparison of indirect assessments of association as predictors of marijuana use among at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Thush, Carolien; Sussman, Steve; Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the authors compared indirect measures that attempt to quantify the level of marijuana associations among adolescents. They also evaluated whether these various methods overlap or tap different aspects of associative processes that may act in concert to influence marijuana use. Automatic drug-relevant associations were assessed in 121 at-risk youth in continuation high schools in California with the use of a word association index and computer-based, reaction time measures (i.e., Implicit Association Test [IAT] and Extrinsic Affective Simon Task [EAST]). Measures of working memory capacity, sensation seeking, and explicit cognitions also were included in analyses as potential confounders. The word association index and the marijuana IAT excited D measure were significant predictors of marijuana use. The word association index accounted for more variance in marijuana use than did the IAT or EAST measures. Further, confirmatory factor analytic models of the indirect measures of marijuana use revealed a significant moderate correlation between the EAST Excitement and Word Association factors but no significant correlations between the Word Association and IAT factors. These findings suggest that there is some convergence among the different indirect measures, but these assessments also appear to tap different aspects of associative processes. The types of indirect measures evaluated in this work provide information about spontaneous cognitions related to substance use, capturing influences on behavior that are not evaluated with traditional explicit assessments of behavior. Findings from this work add to a growing body of research that implicates the importance of implicit associative processes in risk and health behaviors. PMID:17469944

  14. Comparison of indirect assessments of association as predictors of marijuana use among at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Thush, Carolien; Sussman, Steve; Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the authors compared indirect measures that attempt to quantify the level of marijuana associations among adolescents. They also evaluated whether these various methods overlap or tap different aspects of associative processes that may act in concert to influence marijuana use. Automatic drug-relevant associations were assessed in 121 at-risk youth in continuation high schools in California with the use of a word association index and computer-based, reaction time measures (i.e., Implicit Association Test [IAT] and Extrinsic Affective Simon Task [EAST]). Measures of working memory capacity, sensation seeking, and explicit cognitions also were included in analyses as potential confounders. The word association index and the marijuana IAT excited D measure were significant predictors of marijuana use. The word association index accounted for more variance in marijuana use than did the IAT or EAST measures. Further, confirmatory factor analytic models of the indirect measures of marijuana use revealed a significant moderate correlation between the EAST Excitement and Word Association factors but no significant correlations between the Word Association and IAT factors. These findings suggest that there is some convergence among the different indirect measures, but these assessments also appear to tap different aspects of associative processes. The types of indirect measures evaluated in this work provide information about spontaneous cognitions related to substance use, capturing influences on behavior that are not evaluated with traditional explicit assessments of behavior. Findings from this work add to a growing body of research that implicates the importance of implicit associative processes in risk and health behaviors.

  15. Sex Differences in Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Disinhibition Predicting Marijuana Use Across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Julia W.; Collado, Anahi; Shadur, Julia M.; Lejuez, Carl W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition has been consistently linked to substance use across development. Recent research suggests, however, that these relations may be influenced by both sex and measurement approach. The current study examined the moderating effect of sex on the association between behavioral and self-report measures of disinhibition and marijuana use across adolescence. Participants were 115 boys and 89 girls initially evaluated at grade 8 using a laboratory behavioral assessment and self-report questionnaires of disinhibitory variables. Marijuana use was measured annually from grades 9 through 12. Results suggest that boys and girls did not differ on either self-reported or behaviorally assessed levels of disinhibition, and that disinhibition measured using both approaches was associated with increases in marijuana use over time. There was a significant interaction between sex and disinhibition, suggesting that boys (but not girls) who self-reported elevations in disinhibition evidenced greater increases in marijuana use. The current findings add to a growing literature supporting the importance of using multiple methods to assess disinhibition and highlight the critical role of biological sex in understanding these relations. PMID:26237324

  16. The Body-Image of Physically Abused and Normal Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorth, Craig W.; Harway, Michele

    1981-01-01

    Compared the human figure drawings of physically abused adolescents with those of normal adolescents. Significant differences were found between the drawings of the two groups including erasure, clothing, detail, fingers, symmetry, and arm position. The drawings of the physically abused adolescents seemed to be indicative of poor body image.…

  17. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  18. Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users with Co-Occurring Alcohol Use: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Infante, M. Alejandra; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Meruelo, Alejandro D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. Method Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n=59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then re-assessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. Results MJ+ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps<.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps≤.02). Conclusions Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. PMID:25938918

  19. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  20. New Perspectives on Marijuana and Youth: Abstainers Are Not Maladjusted, but Lone Users Face Difficulties. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents experiment with marijuana; the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 46% of high school seniors have tried this drug at some time. Pushing boundaries is what young people do, and some researchers believe that trying marijuana is a normal part of growing up. RAND Corporation researchers have revisited Shedler and Block's…

  1. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Yusuf, Ayodeji; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies. PMID:25288854

  2. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    MedlinePlus

    ... breadcrumb navigation Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask Quick Links Facts For Families ... No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  3. Does Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Lead to Criminal Involvement in Adulthood? Evidence from a Multiwave Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    While marijuana use is common during adolescence, it can have adverse long-term consequences, with serious criminal involvement being one of them. In this study, we utilize longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Study of a community cohort of urban African Americans (N=702) to examine the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use (20 or more times) on adult criminal involvement, including perpetration of drug, property and violent crime, as well as being arrested and incarcerated. Utilizing propensity score matching to take into account the shared risk factors between drug use and crime, regression analyses on the matched samples show that heavy adolescent marijuana use may lead to drug and property crime and criminal justice system interactions, but not violent crime. The significant associations of early heavy marijuana use with school drop-out and the progression to cocaine and/or heroin use only partially account for these findings. Results suggest that the prevention of heavy marijuana use among adolescents could potentially reduce the perpetration of drug and property crime in adulthood, as well as the burden on the criminal justice system, but would have little effect on violent crime. PMID:20598815

  4. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  5. The links between religiosity, childhood sexual abuse, and subsequent marijuana use: an empirical inquiry of a sample of female college students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Doris C

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Shifting the Paradigm: Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and the Need for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Golick, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment.

  7. Shifting the Paradigm: Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and the Need for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Golick, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment. PMID:26800275

  8. Examining Adolescents' Responses to Anti-marijuana PSAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates sensation seeking as a moderating variable of 368 adolescents' reactions to antimarijuana public service announcements. Notes that two structural equation models (one for high sensation seekers and the other for low sensation seekers) revealed two very different styles of processing the ads. Considers how antimarijuana attitudes for…

  9. The dynamics of alcohol and marijuana initiation: patterns and predictors of first use in adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Kosterman, R; Hawkins, J D; Guo, J; Catalano, R F; Abbott, R D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study, guided by the social development model, examined the dynamic patterns and predictors of alcohol and marijuana use onset. METHODS: Survival analysis and complementary log-log regression were used to model hazard rates and etiology of initiation with time-varying covariates. The sample was derived from a longitudinal study of 808 youth interviewed annually from 10 to 16 years of age and at 18 years of age. RESULTS: Alcohol initiation rose steeply up to the age of 13 years and then increased more gradually; most participants had initiated by 13 years of age. Marijuana initiation showed a different pattern, with more participants initiating after the age of 13 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that: (1) the risk of initiation spans the entire course of adolescent development; (2) young people exposed to others who use substances are at higher risk for early initiation; (3) proactive parents can help delay initiation; and (4) clear family standards and proactive family management are important in delaying alcohol and marijuana use, regardless of how closely bonded a child is to his or her mother. PMID:10705852

  10. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-05-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABA(A), glycine and 5HT(3) receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858

  11. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  12. Parental Support, Mental Health, and Alcohol and Marijuana Use in National and High-Risk African-American Adolescent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Sokol, Robert J.; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs), depressive symptoms (DSs), and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds. PMID:26843811

  13. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Primer for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Smith, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is an increasing problem in U. S. society. This article provides an overview of adolescent substance abuse, screening, and assessment strategies; contact information related to specific assessment instruments; and information regarding ethic important to consider during the assessment process. (Contains 16 references and…

  14. Issues in the Treatment of Antisocial Adolescent Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…

  15. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-01-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain following sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N=479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N=2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence. PMID:25862212

  16. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene R; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-10-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain despite sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N = 479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N = 2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  18. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always. PMID:11993283

  19. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always.

  20. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  1. Jimson "loco" weed abuse in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shervette, R E; Schydlower, M; Lampe, R M; Fearnow, R G

    1979-04-01

    Over a three-year period, 29 adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Jimson weed ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of atropine/scopolamine toxicity clinical course, treatment, and outcome. Twenty-two were male and seven were female. All had mydriasis, hallucinations, and were disoriented. Tachycardia (heart rate greater than 95), dry mucous membranes, and flushed facies were often present. Urinary retention requiring catheterization was present in five patients. Sixty-five percent (17/26) had detectable atropine or scopolamine in their urine. The average length of hospitalization was 1.8 days. No serious complications were encountered during hospitalization and full recovery were noted in all patients. Gastric lavage and hospital admission for close monitoring and medical support are essential phases of management. Physicians who care for adolescents should be aware of this relatively new form of drug abuse and its management. PMID:440859

  2. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  3. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  4. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Adolescent Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Holly Barrett; Turner, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substance abuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included…

  5. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  6. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence Among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WU, LI-TZY; PILOWSKY, DANIEL J.; SCHLENGER, WILLIAM E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with progression to inhalant abuse and dependence. Results Inhalant use was common among the studied adolescents. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 0.4% met DSM-IV inhalant abuse or dependence criteria in the past year. Inhalant abuse and dependence affected adolescents regardless of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. The progression from inhalant use to abuse or dependence was related to early first use, use of multiple inhalants, and weekly inhalant use. Adolescents with inhalant use disorders reported coexisting multiple drug abuse and dependence, mental health treatment, and delinquent behaviors. Conclusions Adolescents with an inhalant use disorder may represent a subgroup of highly troubled youths with multiple vulnerabilities. Because early use is associated with progression to abuse and dependence, prevention programs should target elementary school–age children. PMID:15381887

  7. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  8. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  9. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. PMID:23899534

  10. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members.

  11. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  12. The Growth of Neighborhood Disorder and Marijuana Use Among Urban Adolescents: A Case for Policy and Environmental Interventions*

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Lee, Myong Hwa; Milam, Adam J.; Johnson, Renee M.; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the growth of neighborhood disorder and subsequent marijuana use among urban adolescents transitioning into young adulthood. Method: Data are derived from a longitudinal sample of 434 predominately African American 12th graders followed-up at 2 years after high school. The data are rich in repeated measures documenting substance use and misuse and neighborhood characteristics. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine how neighborhood disorder trajectories, measured through the presence of abandoned buildings on the blocks where participants reside, influence subsequent drug use beginning in late adolescence and into young adulthood. Results: A four-class solution characterizing neighborhood growth was selected as the final model and included rapidly improving, slightly improving, always-good, and deteriorating neighborhoods. Young adults living in neighborhoods that had been deteriorating over time were 30% more likely to use marijuana 2 years after high school than adolescents living in always-good neighborhoods (odds ratio = 1.30,p = .034). There was no relationship between living in a neighborhood that was improving and marijuana use. Conclusions: This study identified a salient and malleable neighborhood characteristic, abandoned housing, which predicted elevated risk for young-adult marijuana use. This research supports environmental strategies that target abandoned buildings as a means to improve health and health behaviors for community residents, particularly young-adult substance use. PMID:21513673

  13. Marijuana use among traumatic event-exposed adolescents: posttraumatic stress symptom frequency predicts coping motivations for use.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, Sarah J; Feldner, Matthew T; Lewis, Sarah F; Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Badour, Christal L; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary comorbidity theory postulates that people suffering from posttraumatic stress symptoms may use substances to cope with negative affect generally and posttraumatic stress symptoms specifically. The present study involves the examination of the unique relation between past two-week posttraumatic stress symptom frequency and motives for marijuana use after accounting for general levels of negative affectivity as well as variability associated with gender. Participants were 61 marijuana-using adolescents (M(age)=15.81) who reported experiencing lifetime exposure to at least one traumatic event. Consistent with predictions, past two-week posttraumatic stress symptoms significantly predicted coping motives for marijuana use and were not associated with social, enhancement, or conformity motives for use. These findings are consistent with theoretical work suggesting people suffering from posttraumatic stress use substances to regulate symptoms. PMID:21958588

  14. Health and Educational Effects of Marijuana on Youth. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (October 21, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These proceedings of a hearing before the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Subcommittee include testimony about the health and educational effects of marijuana on young people. The materials describe recent findings on the extent of drug use among youth, recent changes in drug use trends, and the consequences of marijuana use on health and intellectual…

  15. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  16. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  17. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status in the Early Forties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779

  18. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  19. Factors Mediating the Association of the Recency of Parent’s Marijuana Use and their Adolescent Children’s Subsequent Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen M.; Siegel, Jason T.; Hohman, Zachary; Crano, William D.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the relation between parents’ recency of (lifetime) marijuana use (RMU) and their adolescent children’s subsequent marijuana initiation was mediated by the adolescents’ expectancies regarding the consequences of usage, their anticipated severity of punishment for use, and their evaluative attitudes toward marijuana. Parents and their initially marijuana-abstinent adolescent children drawn from the National Survey of Parents and Youth were studied (N = 1399). A bootstrapped multiple mediation analysis tested whether adolescents’ expectations, anticipated punishment, and attitudes toward marijuana collected in the first year of the longitudinal study mediated the relationship between parents’ RMU and their adolescent children’s marijuana initiation one year later. Analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the parental measure and youths’ subsequent initiation (p < .001). The three mediators were related significantly to parents’ RMU and adolescents’ usage. Individually, each variable mediated the association of the parental measure and that of their initially abstinent adolescents when usage was assessed one year later. The results offer insight into the positive association of parents’ RMU with their child’s marijuana use, and provide insights that may be useful in future prevention efforts. PMID:23586448

  20. A longitudinal examination of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette perceived norms among middle school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents tend to overestimate the prevalence of substance use among their peers and these perceived norms are associated with their current and future use. However, little is known about how perceived norms change over time during middle school, a developmental period when adolescents are at-risk for initiating substance use. Method We examined changes in perceived norms of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes over a two year period among a large and diverse sample of 6th and 7th grade youth (N = 6,097; 50.1% female; 54% Hispanic). Participants completed a baseline survey and two subsequent annual surveys. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers they believed used each substance, as well as indicated levels of personal use, offers to use from peers, and exposure to peers who were using each substance. Results Perceived norms of all three substances increased over time. Increases were somewhat attenuated when controlling for demographic factors, personal use, and peer factors, but remained significant. Female adolescents and those reporting non-Hispanic White ethnicity experienced the greatest increase in perceived norms over time. Conclusion Normative perceptions of substance use increase greatly during the middle school years, an effect which cannot be fully explained by demographics, personal use, or peer factors. Given that perceived norms are often associated with personal use, early interventions with middle school youth are warranted to prevent the growth of these influential factors during this developmental period. PMID:24012070

  1. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  2. Student Assistance Programs: New Approaches for Reducing Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…

  3. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  4. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  5. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  6. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  7. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…

  8. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  9. A Dynamical Systems Analysis of Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven M.; Graham, John

    1998-01-01

    Several competing dynamic models were applied to adolescent substance abuse using a cohort of 3,580 participants in a longitudinal study beginning in grade five. Evidence was found for an intrinsic self-regulating mechanism in adolescent smoking and drinking. Support for a dampened linear oscillator model is discussed. (SLD)

  10. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  11. Ratings of Behavior Problems in Adolescents Hospitalized for Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined usefulness of Devereux Adolescent Behavior Rating Scale (DAB) for assessing behavior problems in adolescents (n=404) hospitalized in inpatient substance abuse treatment units. From 15 original DAB scales, developed 4 scales measuring acting out behaviors, psychotic behaviors, attention-seeking/expressive behaviors, and inner…

  12. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  13. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  14. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  15. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P

    2010-11-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the "high." Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  16. Enhancing prediction of inhalant abuse risk in samples of early adolescents: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Gilbert, Cindy; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Siegel, Jason T

    2008-07-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used to estimate adolescents' vulnerability to inhalant abuse, operationalized by intentions to use or avoid inhalants. The model correctly differentiated 78% of all respondents (N=596). A second analysis highlighted variables that discriminated properly identified from misclassified youth. False positives, those defined as being at-risk, but who repudiated inhalants, were significantly less likely than their at-risk peers to have used inhalants; they used inhalants and marijuana less frequently; were monitored more closely by parents; and were less rebellious (all p<.05). False negatives, defined as not at-risk, but who had not unequivocally rejected inhalants, were significantly more likely than their similarly classed peers to have used inhalants and marijuana, and to have used both more frequently; also, they were less highly acculturated. This study reaffirmed the utility of the TRA and underscored factors that might improve classification accuracy. This approach may facilitate prevention efforts, and may be extrapolated to any context in which risk categorization is used as a basis for prevention or amelioration. PMID:18367345

  17. Enhancing prediction of inhalant abuse risk in samples of early adolescents: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Gilbert, Cindy; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Siegel, Jason T

    2008-07-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used to estimate adolescents' vulnerability to inhalant abuse, operationalized by intentions to use or avoid inhalants. The model correctly differentiated 78% of all respondents (N=596). A second analysis highlighted variables that discriminated properly identified from misclassified youth. False positives, those defined as being at-risk, but who repudiated inhalants, were significantly less likely than their at-risk peers to have used inhalants; they used inhalants and marijuana less frequently; were monitored more closely by parents; and were less rebellious (all p<.05). False negatives, defined as not at-risk, but who had not unequivocally rejected inhalants, were significantly more likely than their similarly classed peers to have used inhalants and marijuana, and to have used both more frequently; also, they were less highly acculturated. This study reaffirmed the utility of the TRA and underscored factors that might improve classification accuracy. This approach may facilitate prevention efforts, and may be extrapolated to any context in which risk categorization is used as a basis for prevention or amelioration.

  18. Relationships between personality and preferred substance and motivations for use among adolescent substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Justin B; Heath, Alisa J; Young, Susan E; Hewitt, John K; Corley, Robin P; Stallings, Michael C

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the utility of Cloninger's tridimensional personality theory (1986, 1987a) in predicting preferred substance of abuse and self-reported motivations for use among a sample of 200 adolescent substance abusers and 200 matched community control adolescents. Two primary hypotheses were tested: (1) Cloninger's type II profile is more strongly associated with stimulant use, and his type I profile is more strongly associated with substances having sedative-hypnotic effects; and 2) type II individuals will report motivations for use that focus primarily on obtaining positive rewards, whereas type I individuals will report motivations primarily concerning negative reinforcement or the avoidance of problems and negative life experiences. Our results did not show strong associations between Cloninger's Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence dimensions and preferred substance or motivations for use. However, in partial support of the hypotheses examined here, we did find that individuals low in novelty seeking (NS) tended to prefer alcohol and marijuana, whereas those high in NS endorsed a wider range of preferred substances. High NS was associated with significantly greater stimulant use and motivations focused on obtaining positive rewards, whereas low NS was associated with greater sedative use and motivations related to avoiding negative emotions or negative life experiences.

  19. Abuse, support, and depression among homeless and runaway adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bao, W N; Whitbeck, L B; Hoyt, D R

    2000-12-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of social support networks on psychological well-being among 602 homeless and runaway adolescents. The respondents were interviewed in shelters, drop-in centers, and on the streets in cities of four Midwestern states (Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas). The path model was used to test the direct effect of family abuse and precocious independence on adolescent depressive symptoms and indirect effects through social support networks. Results indicate that although abusive family origins contribute directly to depressive symptoms there are indirect effects of family abuse and early independence through social support networks. Family abuse and early independence drive homeless adolescents to rely on peers for social support. While support from friends on the street reduces depression, association with deviant peers increases depression.

  20. Frequency of Substance Abuse Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life without closest relatives, banishment and various types of war and post-war trauma. Goals: To determine the frequency of substance abuse among adolescents; Identify potentially relevant biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents; To explore adolescents attitudes towards drug use; Examine the general level of knowledge of adolescents about drugs and their effects. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on randomized sample of 502 students in two primary and three secondary schools in Sarajevo and Gracanica. To study used survey method. Survey instrument was a self-made questionnaire with the research variables. The obtained data were processed by a computer and statistically correlated. The study is of combined, retrospective, prospective and transversal type. Results: To the question “How many times have you consumed cannabis in the last 30 days” about 6% of the respondents have tried once or twice, while 1.5% use it daily, ecstasy have tried one or two times 2.25%, while 0.5% have daily use. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that students at schools in Sarajevo consumed drugs 50% more than the children in Gracanica. Analyzing the age at which the subjects consumed the drug for the first time, we came to the conclusion that in the third year of high school only 8% of adolescents have tried any drugs before they turned 15 years. This percentage among eighth graders is about three times higher. Conclusion: Presented

  1. Trajectories of Marijuana Use Beginning in Adolescence Predict Tobacco Dependence in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the “stage theory” suggests that marijuana use occurs after the initiation of tobacco smoking, substantial evidence exists that they occur concurrently, and that the use of marijuana may influence the use of tobacco. Methods This study uses trajectory analysis to examine the relationship between marijuana use and adult tobacco dependence in a 5-wave longitudinal study (mean ages in each wave: 14, 19, 24, 29, and 32). The sample consisted of 816 participants (52% African Americans, 48% Puerto Ricans), of whom 60 % were females. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict later tobacco dependence from earlier trajectories of marijuana use. Results A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the chronic marijuana use trajectory group (OR=10.93, p<.001; AOR=10.40, p <.001), for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (OR=6.94, p <.001; AOR=6.73, p <.001), and for the moderate marijuana use trajectory group (OR=3.13, p <.001; AOR=3.18, p <.001) was associated with an increased likelihood of being dependent on tobacco compared with the BPP of the no or low marijuana use trajectory group. Conclusions The results underscore the value of considering multiple patterns of marijuana use within a person-centered approach. Thus, it would be appropriate for marijuana cessation programs to incorporate the prevention, assessment, and cessation of tobacco use in their health promotion strategies. PMID:25259421

  2. Predicting continued use of marijuana among adolescents: the relative influence of drug-specific and social context factors.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S L; Flewelling, R L; Rachal, J V

    1992-03-01

    Most research on the determinants of adolescent drug use has focused on predictors of either initiation or current use. Little attention has been given to the determinants of continued use of drugs after initiation, even though some researchers have found that the consequences of continued use are more serious than those associated with experimental or occasional use. In this study, a longitudinal sample of 456 secondary and high school students who had already tried marijuana was used to examine the determinants of continued use of marijuana. Nearly 38 percent of those who had tried marijuana continued using, according to the definition operationalized in this study. Potential predictor measures were grouped in a drug-specific domain and a social context domain, and their effects on continued use, controlling for background characteristics, were examined in logistic regression models. Results showed that only the drug-specific domain had a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of continued use. Students who felt that the adverse physical and psychological effects of marijuana were not very important reasons for discontinuing use and those who had gotten stoned during their experimental stage of use were the most likely to continue use after initiation. The results suggest that the perceived physical and psychological effects of the drug are more important determinants of continued use than are social factors or benefits related to use. Any relationships between social factors and continued use are mediated by the perceived effects and risks of the drug. PMID:1619258

  3. Treatment for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…

  4. Adolescent substance use and abuse: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Kim S; Aronoff, Helen; Kernan, Joan B; Kahn, Linda S

    2008-02-01

    Substance abuse in adolescents is undertreated in the United States. Family physicians are well positioned to recognize substance use in their patients and to take steps to address the issue before use escalates. Comorbid mental disorders among adolescents with substance abuse include depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Office-, home-, and school-based drug testing is not routinely recommended. Screening tools for adolescent substance abuse include the CRAFFT questionnaire. Family therapy is crucial in the management of adolescent substance use disorders. Although family physicians may be able to treat adolescents with substance use disorders in the office setting, it is often necessary and prudent to refer patients to one or more appropriate consultants who specialize specifically in substance use disorders, psychology, or psychiatry. Treatment options include anticipatory guidance, brief therapeutic counseling, school-based drug-counseling programs, outpatient substance abuse clinics, day treatment programs, and inpatient and residential programs. Working within community and family contexts, family physicians can activate and oversee the system of professionals and treatment components necessary for optimal management of substance misuse in adolescents.

  5. Small Molecule Detection in Saliva Facilitates Portable Tests of Marijuana Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Rok; Choi, Joohong; Shultz, Tyler O; Wang, Shan X

    2016-08-01

    As medical and recreational use of cannabis, or marijuana, becomes more prevalent, law enforcement needs a tool to evaluate whether drivers are operating vehicles under the influence of cannabis, specifically the psychoactive substance, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, the cutoff concentration of THC that causes impairment is still controversial, and current on-site screening tools are not sensitive enough to detect trace amounts of THC in oral fluids. Here we present a novel sensing platform that employs giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors integrated with a portable reader system and smartphone to detect THC in saliva using competitive assays. With a simple saliva collection scheme, we have optimized the assay to measure THC in the range from 0 to 50 ng/mL, covering most cutoff values proposed in previous studies. This work facilitates on-site screening for THC and shows potential for testing of other small molecule drugs and analytes in point-of-care (POC) settings. PMID:27434697

  6. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  7. The Relationship Between Friends' Marijuana Use, Family Cohesion, School Interest and Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babst, Dean V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of students respond to various drug abuse prevention areas. This study is based on a school survey completed by 4,000 rural students and 2,700 suburban students. Students most involved with drugs were those least receptive to traditional educational programs. (Author)

  8. Use of Marijuana and Blunts among Adolescents: 2005. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…

  9. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood Predicting Unemployment in the Mid-Thirties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Unemployment (5.5% as of 2015) is a serious social and economic problem in our society. Since marijuana use is an important factor related to unemployment, identifying the trajectory of the use of marijuana may aid intervention programs and research on unemployment. Methods 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans) were surveyed (60% females) from age 14 to 36. The first data collection was held when the participants were students attending schools in the East Harlem area of New York City. Results We found that the chronic marijuana use (OR=4.07, p<.001; AOR=2.58, p<.05) and the late marijuana quitter (OR=2.91, p<.05) trajectory groups were associated with an increased likelihood of unemployment compared with the no marijuana use trajectory group. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results suggest that those who use marijuana chronically are at greater risk for being unemployed. Consequently, these individuals should have access to and participate in marijuana cessation treatment programs in order to reduce their risk of unemployment. Unemployment intervention programs should also consider focusing on the cessation of the use of marijuana to decrease the likelihood of unemployment. PMID:25955962

  10. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  11. Advances in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents has been a public health problem for decades. Although some substance use may be developmentally routine, a concerning number of adolescents meet criteria for a substance use disorder and could greatly benefit from a quality treatment experience. However, parents and health care providers want evidence of the efficacy of adolescent-specific treatment programs. This review summarizes four factors surrounding the efficacy of current adolescent treatment programs: 1) adolescent-specific treatment services; 2) the variety of therapeutic modalities; 3) relapse and recovery rates; and 4) the need for evidence-based, quality assessments and research. Current adolescent treatment efforts are summarized, and the recent literature regarding the efficacy of adolescent treatment and recovery rates is discussed. PMID:21701838

  12. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    PubMed Central

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161

  13. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    PubMed

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013-2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the "gateway drugs." PMID:26844161

  14. Relapse Contexts for Substance Abusing Adolescents with Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…

  15. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  16. Profiles of Adolescent Substance Abstainers, Users, and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    Psychoactive drugs are widely available in the United States. Many, such as coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol, are used commonly and acceptably by adults. For children and adolescents sorting through the complex messages about both licit and illicit drugs is difficult. Previous research examined differences between substance users and abusers with…

  17. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  19. Images from Purgatory: Art Therapy with Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazloomian, Hoda; Moon, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the clinical practice of two male art therapists and their work with male adolescent sex offenders in a residential treatment facility. The authors share experiences of working with clients who, in addition to being offenders, were diagnosed with a mental illness and were themselves victims of sexual abuse. The function of…

  20. Gender-specific relationships between depressive symptoms, marijuana use, parental communication and risky sexual behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.

  1. Gender-Specific Relationships Between Depressive Symptoms, Marijuana Use, Parental Communication and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7 % female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions. PMID:22927009

  2. Developmental trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood: relationship with using weapons including guns.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the associations between the trajectories of marijuana use and other predictors of violent behavior with the use of guns or other weapons as well as stealing without the use of weapons among inner-city African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838). Logistic regression analyses examined whether the longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use compared with the trajectory of no/low marijuana use predicted violent behavior. A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (AOR = 3.37, P < .001), the moderate use of marijuana trajectory group (AOR = 1.98, P < .01), and the quitter trajectory group (AOR = 1.70, P < .05) was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in violence (i.e., shooting or hitting someone with a weapon) compared with the BPP of the no use of marijuana trajectory group. Our results address a number of important public health and clinical issues. Public health funds might be spent on prevention programs focused on decreasing the use of marijuana, increasing educational retention, and decreasing contact with deviant associates. Understanding the psychosocial conditions related to the use of weapons is critical for individuals involved in the criminal justice system, physicians, and other health care providers in managing individuals who engage in violent behavior.

  3. An adolescent with a different substance abuse: case report.

    PubMed

    Hocaoglu, Cicek

    2004-12-01

    From the beginning of history, it is a well known fact that some people admire to substances making them tipsy and stories about them were told and heard in everywhere and in every time. As shown in several studies, psychiatric disorders related to substance abuse especially in adolescents are becoming more prevalent in all countries including Turkey every year and this is another well-known reality of our time. There are many known psychoactive substances affecting the mental well being of young people and disturbing their social adaptation skills. Inhalants are the preferred psychoactive substances between the young people because of the factors making their abuse become widespread such as cheapness, ease of availability and frequent use in daily life. Here we report an adolescent with a different substance abuse.

  4. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  5. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  6. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  8. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values <.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Conclusions Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657

  9. Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-05-01

    Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.

  10. Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-05-01

    Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth. PMID:26906058

  11. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  12. Inhalant and Prescription Medication Abuse among Adolescents: An Inexpensive, Accessible, and Misperceived Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Cole, Rebekah F.; Lauka, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Inhalant and prescription medication abuse, particularly among adolescents, are serious problems in our society. Several risk factors associated with inhalant and medication abuse among adolescents have been identified. As a result, adolescents may suffer multiple consequences in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article is to…

  13. Childhood Abuse and Adolescent Sexual Re-Offending: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…

  14. Adolescent ischemic stroke associated with anabolic steroid and cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    El Scheich, Tarik; Weber, Artur-Aron; Klee, Dirk; Schweiger, Daniel; Mayatepek, Ertan; Karenfort, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old body builder who suffered from an acute ischemic stroke. In the urine, cannabis metabolites as well as metabolites of the oral androgenic-anabolic steroid methandrostenolone were detected, both known to be associated with stroke events. This report highlights the role of cannabis and steroid abuse that induce strokes in the absence of arteriopathy, cardioembolism or thrombophilia. Owing to new upcoming socio-behavioral aspects of late childhood and early adolescent life, this formally rare abuse of cannabis and/or anabolic steroids as well as their associations with strokes becomes more current than ever. PMID:23382306

  15. Generation Z: Adolescent Xenobiotic Abuse in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, William; Stork, Christine

    2015-12-01

    NMDA receptor antagonists include the prescription medication ketamine, the illicit xenobiotics PCP, MXE, and other novel PCP analogs, and the OTC medication DXM. The NMDA receptor antagonist most commonly abused by adolescents in the United States is DXM. These xenobiotics cause dissociative effects by non-competitively inhibiting the action of glutamate at the NMDA receptor. Additionally, these agents modulate the actions of monoamine neurotransmitters, agonize opioid receptors, and inhibit nitric oxide synthase. Patients typically present with sympathomimetic and neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations after abuse of NMDA receptor antagonists. Treatment is generally symptomatic and supportive. Interventions include benzodiazepines, propofol, fluids, antiemetics, aggressive cooling, and respiratory support. PMID:27282013

  16. Adolescents in Public Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: The Impacts of Sex and Race on Referrals and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of study on adolescents in publicly funded treatment programs present sex and ethnic differences. Among some of the findings: females were more likely to report methamphetamine use, males reported marijuana use; Hispanics and African Americans were referred to treatment from criminal justice; reported marijuana as primary drug; mandated…

  17. Adolescent Alcohol Abuse. Fastback Series No. 217.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    This booklet examines the problem of alcohol use among American teenagers. The role that alcohol plays in adult society is presented and its potential danger for causing teenage alcohol addiction is considered. A discussion on why some teenagers abuse alcohol focuses on familial, peer, sociocultural, environmental, personality, and behavioral…

  18. Adolescent Drug Abuse and Alcoholism: Directions for the School and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extent of adolescent drug abuse and alcoholism, psychological factors that lead to drug abuse and drinking, and treatment approaches that have been used with young people. Focuses on drug-abusing family systems and the roles of the school and the community in combatting drug abuse. (Author/GC)

  19. Clinical consequences of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Jag H; Genser, Sander; Francis, Henry; Martin, Billy

    2002-11-01

    As documented in national surveys, for the past several years, marijuana has been the most commonly abused drug in the United States, with approximately 6% of the population 12 years and older having used the drug in the month prior to interview. The use of marijuana is not without significant health hazards. Marijuana is associated with effects on almost every organ system in the body, ranging from the central nervous system to the cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory/pulmonary, and immune systems. Research presented in this special supplement will show that in addition to marijuana abuse/dependence, marijuana use is associated in some studies with impairment of cognitive function in the young and old, fetal and developmental consequences, cardiovascular effects (heart rate and blood pressure changes), respiratory/pulmonary complications such as chronic cough and emphysema, impaired immune function leading to vulnerability to and increased infections, and the risk of developing head, neck, and/or lung cancer. In general, acute effects are better studied than those of chronic use, and more studies are needed that focus on disentangling effects of marijuana from those of other drugs and adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  1. The relations among abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca J; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included measures of depression and autobiographical memory for childhood experiences. Memory problems were more consistently related to current circumstances than childhood abuse history. For instance, depressive symptoms were associated with increased rates of "overgeneral" childhood memories. Recent exposure to family violence predicted more overgeneral memories, shorter memories, and lower rates of negative memories. The patterns suggest that adolescents currently stressed by depression or family violence might strategically avoid the details of past experiences to regulate affect.

  2. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  3. Jimson "Loco" Weed Abuse in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shervette, Robert E., III; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 29 adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Jimson weed ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of atropine/scopolamine toxicity, clinical course, treatment, and outcome. Journal availability: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue,…

  4. Bringing Justice to Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, M. Katherine; Vicary, Judith R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of articles by adolescent treatment experts and leading thinkers in the juvenile, restorative, and community justice movements. Articles offer broad overviews of the state of the art within these areas; commentary on challenges, opportunities, and changes such programming would entail; and case examples showing real-world…

  5. The Temporal Association Between Traditional and Cyber Dating Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna

    2016-02-01

    While research has explored adolescents' use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58 % female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration 1 year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts.

  6. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence into Adulthood: Environmental and Individual Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…

  7. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  8. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  9. Policy statement--children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-10-01

    The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom. PMID:20876181

  10. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have not had relief from other treatments. Unlike medical marijuana, the active ingredient in these drugs can be ... American Academy of Neurology. Medical Marijuana in Certain Medical Disorders. ... . Accessed August 24, 2015. ...

  11. Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and marijuana misuse interactions on white matter and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2011-05-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk.

  12. Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Method: Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Results: Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Conclusion: Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals’ towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents PMID:24772122

  13. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  14. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  15. Outpatient Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Quality of Evidence Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous reviews of outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse have been limited in the extent to which they considered the methodological quality of individual studies. The authors assessed 31 randomized trials of outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse on 14 attributes of trial quality. A quality of evidence score…

  16. The Social Ecology of Adolescent-Initiated Parent Abuse: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  18. Identifying Victims of Abuse Using the Personality Inventory for Children: I. Applications for Adolescent Runaways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Michael E.; And Others

    The physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents has been gaining attention as a national problem of social and clinical significance. In this study a model was developed in order to identify abuse (victimization) in an adolescent population (n=52). Four scales (Adjustment, Delinquency, Family Relations, and Anxiety) of the Personality…

  19. Adolescent Clients of Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andris, Lydia M.; And Others

    Many adolescent clients of the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse (DASA) in Washington come also with psychiatric problems, are involved with the legal system, live with someone who abuses drugs or alcohol, have poor social support networks, or live in poverty. This report describes a sample of adolescent clients who received treatment and/or…

  20. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  1. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  2. The At-risk Adolescent Marijuana Nonuser: Expanding the Standard Distinction

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jason T.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Lac, Andrew; Hemovich, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This research expands the user/nonuser dichotomy commonly used in research on marijuana. By conceptualizing nonusers as homogeneous, vital nuances in susceptibility to risk and protective factors may be overlooked. Research operations tested the predictive validity of a brief measure that divided nonusers into resolute and vulnerable subcategories; determined whether variables that distinguished nonusers and users were more informative when a tripartite classification was used; and with an eye on future prevention, examined variables on which resolute nonusers were similar to vulnerable nonusers or users, and on which they differed from both. A nationally representative sample of respondents (N=2,111; ages 12−16 years) from the National Survey of Parents and Youth was used in this secondary analysis. Panel data gathered yearly over four rounds included information on intentions and use of marijuana and other illicit substances, along with social, demographic, intrapersonal, and parental variables. The three groups differed significantly on associates’ marijuana use, participants’ approval of others’ use, and cigarette and alcohol use. Resolute nonusers differed from vulnerable nonusers and users alike on religiosity, delinquency (self and friends’), refusal strength, sensation seeking, parental monitoring and warmth, and adult supervision. Results support the utility of distinguishing vulnerable from resolute nonusers, counsel against considering nonusers as a homogeneous group, and provide insight into variables that might prove useful in future prevention efforts. PMID:18516682

  3. [Consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Badmaeva, V D

    2009-01-01

    To establish clinical and age peculiarities of psychogenic disorders in children and adolescence, victims of non-family abuse, 90 victims, aged from 5 to 18 years (29 boys and 61 girls) have been studied. On different stages of legally significant situation, they developed marked psychogenic states which met the following ICD-10 diagnosis: acute reaction to stress (item F43.0) in 84% of patients, PTSD (F42.1) in 14%; short-term depressive reaction (F43.20) in 34%; prolonged depressive reaction (F43.21)--in 24%; phobic anxiety disorders (F40)--in 16% minors (9-13 years); mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct (F43.25)--in 12% of minors. The age specifics of mental disorders included the domination of disorders of neurotic level and rudimentary psychopathological signs. The author emphasizes the double (nonspecific and specific) nature of sexual abuse in the formation of psychogenic disorders in children. PMID:20037518

  4. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  5. Internal States Language in the Childhood Recollections of Adolescents with and without Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Johnson, Rebecca; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the representation of internal states in childhood recollections of male and female adolescents with and without abuse histories. Participants' (N = 71) exposure to spousal violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and 6 years later when they were 12 to 18 years old. At the Year…

  6. The Relationship between Mental Health and Substance Abuse among Adolescents. Analytic Series: A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragin, Ann; Rasinski, Kenneth A.; Cerbone, Felicia Gray; Johnson, Robert A.

    This report presents an examination of the association between psychological functioning and substance abuse among adolescents aged 12 to 17 using data from the 1994-1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The survey, conducted annually by Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA), provides estimates of the…

  7. The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

  8. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  9. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  10. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  11. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths. PMID:25035183

  12. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.

  13. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  14. Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence As a Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Spiegelman, Donna; Lividoti Hibert, Eileen N.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Todd, Tamarra James; Kawachi, Ichiro; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although child abuse is associated with obesity, it is not known whether early abuse increases risk of type 2 diabetes. Purpose To investigate associations of child and adolescent abuse with adult diabetes Methods Proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of lifetime abuse reported in 2001 with risk of diabetes from 1989 to 2005 among 67,853 women in the Nurses Health Study II. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Child or teen physical abuse was reported by 54% and sexual abuse by 34% of participants. Models were adjusted for age, race, body type at age 5 years, and parental education and history of diabetes. Compared to women who reported no physical abuse, the hazards ratio (HR) was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.17) for mild physical abuse, 1.26 (1.14, 1.40) for moderate physical abuse, and 1.54 (1.34, 1.77) for severe physical abuse. Compared with women reporting no sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence, the HR was 1.16 (1.05, 1.29) for unwanted sexual touching, 1.34 (1.13, 1.59) for one episode of forced sexual activity, and 1.69 (1.45, 1.97) for repeated forced sex. Adult BMI accounted for 60% (32%, 87%) of the association of child and adolescent physical abuse and 64% (38%, 91%) of the association of sexual abuse with diabetes. Conclusions Moderate to severe physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence have dose response associations with risk of type 2 diabetes among adult women. This excess risk is partially explained by the higher BMI of women with a history of early abuse. PMID:21084073

  15. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  16. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  17. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  18. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  19. Performance-based testing for drugs of abuse: dose and time profiles of marijuana, amphetamine, alcohol, and diazepam.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Emurian, C S; Fischman, M W

    1993-09-01

    The time courses of the effects of acute doses of amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), alcohol (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg), diazepam (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), and marijuana (2.0% and 3.5% delta 9-THC) on performance engendered by each of four computerized behavioral tasks were evaluated in six human subjects. These performance-based tasks have potential commercial utility for drug-use detection in the workplace. Alcohol and marijuana effects were reliably detected for up to three hours following dose administration with most procedures. Amphetamine and diazepam effects were also detected, but the dose effects and time courses were variable. The profile of behavioral effects varied across drugs, suggesting that performance-based testing procedures might be useful in discriminating which drug was administered and the time course of the drug's effects. Results indicate that repeated measurement with performance-based drug detection procedures can provide immediate indications of performance impairment in a cost-effective and noninvasive manner and, as such, would be a useful supplement to biological sample testing for drug-use detection.

  20. The ecology of adolescent substance abuse service utilization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana L; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Saunders, Robert C

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an ecological-community model toward the explanation of variation in patterns of substance abuse (SA) service utilization among adolescents who are enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program (TennCare). Guided by a theoretical framework that draws from the social ecology work of Bronfenbrenner and health services utilization models promoted by Aday and Andersen, we apply a social indicators approach toward explaining the impact of community ecology on identification of SA and treatment engagement. Both county-level rates and individual-level treatment utilization are examined and hierarchical linear modeling is incorporated to examine the individual-in-community phenomenon. This study is an expansion of previous service utilization research and suggests that explanations of youth's service utilization must necessarily include not only individual, familial, and service system characteristics, but community factors, as well.

  1. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559

  2. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  3. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:25624385

  4. Expectancies and marijuana use frequency and severity among young females.

    PubMed

    Hayaki, Jumi; Hagerty, Claire E; Herman, Debra S; de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    This study examined associations between the endorsement of drug use expectancies and the frequency and severity of marijuana use in a community sample of 332 women aged 18-24years who were not explicitly seeking treatment for their marijuana use. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention study of motivational interviewing for various health behaviors and provided self-reports of their current and past marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence symptoms, and marijuana use expectancies. Marijuana use expectancies were measured using the six subscales of the Marijuana Effects Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ). Use frequency was defined as the number of use days in the past month, severity as the total number of DSM-IV marijuana abuse or dependence symptom criteria met. Replicating and extending prior research, expectations regarding Relaxation and Tension Reduction emerged as a robust belief in this cohort, predicting not only frequency (p<.01) but also severity (p<.01) of marijuana use in multivariate analyses. Severity of marijuana use was further predicted by expectations regarding loss of control, affective changes following marijuana use, and other aspects of emotion dysregulation (Global Negative Effects, p<.01). These findings document meaningful associations between substance-related cognitions and use behavior and suggest that marijuana users who hold certain beliefs regarding marijuana use may be particularly susceptible to clinically significant problems associated with their substance use. As such, marijuana use expectancies may represent a clinical target that could be incorporated into future interventions.

  5. Nicotine, adolescence, and stress: A review of how stress can modulate the negative consequences of adolescent nicotine abuse.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse.

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie M; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age = 16): N = 14,101; Wave 4 (mean age = 29): N = 11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents' highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: Is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S.; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age=16): N=14,101; Wave 4 (mean age=29): N=11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents’ highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in cigarette and

  8. Initial Steps in Treating Child and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, William E.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines and discusses the rationale for each of the 10 steps recommended in the initial stages of treatment for survivors of sexual abuse, especially when victimization occurred in childhood or adolescence, and offers abbreviated case illustrations. (Author/LKS)

  9. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  10. Toward Excellence in Treatment Services for Adolescents. Submitted by Adolescent Study Group to the Center for Substance Abuse Services, Michigan Department of Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Center for Substance Abuse Services.

    An Adolescent Study Group was established by the Michigan Department of Public Health/Center for Substance Abuse Services (MCPH/CSAS) to examine the current delivery system of substance abuse treatment services for adolescents. The primary focus was on treatment services for alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) problems among adolescents in…

  11. The prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and the association with BMI status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE) analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50) and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12). Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49) and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69), and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83). Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Longitudinal

  12. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  13. Risk and resilience for substance abuse among adolescents and adults with LD.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.

  14. Abnormal striatal circuitry and intensified novelty seeking among adolescents who abuse methamphetamine and cannabis.

    PubMed

    Churchwell, John C; Carey, Paul D; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in striatal-mediated dopamine modulation during adolescence may increase the risk for initiating substance abuse as a result of its fundamental role in arbitrating reward sensitivity and motivation during learning and decision making. However, substance abuse during adolescence may also significantly modify striatal structure and function and concomitantly alter reward sensitivity and action control while this brain region is undergoing remodeling. In the present investigation, to assess the relationship of methamphetamine (Meth) or Meth and cannabis (CA) abuse to regional striatal morphology, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from three groups of adolescents composed of healthy controls (n = 10), Meth abusers (n = 9) and combined Meth and CA abusers (Meth+CA, n = 8). We also assessed novelty seeking using the novelty seeking subscale of Cloninger's Tridimensional Character Inventory. The results indicate that adolescent Meth+CA abusers have increased regional striatal volume and show intensified novelty seeking in contrast to the controls. The degree of Meth exposure was also positively correlated with regional striatal volume and novelty seeking in both the Meth and Meth+CA users. These preliminary findings support theories that propose a role for the striatum in adolescent substance abuse and further indicate that novelty seeking may be related to the initiation of, or sustained, drug use.

  15. Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691

  16. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse through a Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Results of a 3-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students (N=4,466) in 56 schools participated in 3-year study on effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Students who received at least 60 percent of prevention program (N=3,684) were included in analyses of program effectiveness. Significant prevention effects were found for cigarette smoking, marijuana use,…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  18. The Efficacy of a Systematic Substance Abuse Program for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A school-based substance abuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substance abuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…

  19. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  20. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  1. Factors Facilitating the Disclosure of Sexual Abuse by Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mont'Ros-Mendoza, Theresa; Hecht, Michael L.

    A study was conducted to apply and test a model of privacy regulation and disclosure of risky, private information such as sexual abuse. Eight sexually abused children and adolescents, each of whom had initiated disclosure, were interviewed about the disclosure process. A two-part interview was constructed based on the findings in the literature…

  2. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  3. Adolescent-to-Parent Abuse: A Qualitative Overview of Common Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Barbara; Monk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Adolescent-to-parent abuse is a serious social problem that has received limited attention from researchers and service providers. Most knowledge about this type of violence in the family comes from quantitative studies that focus on intrafamilial characteristics, demographic factors, and overall rates of abuse. The aim of this article is to…

  4. Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…

  5. An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muck, Randolph; Zempolich, Kristin A.; Titus, Janet C.; Fishman, Marc; Godley, Mark D.; Schwebel, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes current approaches to adolescent substance abuse treatment, including the 12-step treatment approach, behavioral treatment approach, family-based treatment approach, and therapeutic community approach. Summarizes research that assesses the effectiveness of these models, offering findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's…

  6. A Qualitative Study of Educator and Counselor Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding Adolescent Substance Abusers' Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henegar, LaTrica Y.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…

  7. Addressing the Needs of Substance Abusing Adolescents: A Guide for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Cole, Rebekah F.; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Lauka, Justin

    2009-01-01

    As individuals with multiple needs, substance abusing adolescents may seek the support and assistance of school counselors. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to assist students with substance abuse issues. Specifically, this article examines (a) complexity of addressing substance…

  8. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  9. Attributions and Coping in Sexually Abused Adolescents Referred for Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to assess the predictive value of two sets of variables, self-attributions, and coping behaviors, on sexually abused (SA) teenagers' functioning, while controlling for abuse-related and family variables. A total of 103 female adolescents completed self-report measures to assess their psychological functioning in terms of anxiety,…

  10. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  11. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  12. Emotional Disturbance and Substance Abuse/Addiction Special Education Programming for the Dually-Diagnosed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdaniak, Roman C.

    Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…

  13. Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abusers: a multi-site effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Szapocznik, José; Horigian, Viviana E; Feaster, Daniel J; Puccinelli, Marc; Jacobs, Petra; Burlew, Kathy; Werstlein, Robert; Bachrach, Ken; Brigham, Greg

    2009-05-01

    Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) is a manualized treatment designed to address aspects of family functioning associated with adolescent drug use and behavior problems (J. Szapocznik, U. Hervis, S. Schwartz, (2003). Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. (NIH Publication No. 03-4751). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse). Within the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) Clinical Trials Network, BSFT is being compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a multisite, prospective randomized clinical trial for drug using adolescents and their families in outpatient settings. The effectiveness of BSFT is being compared to TAU in reducing adolescent drug use, conduct problems, and sexually risky behaviors as well as in improving family functioning and adolescent prosocial behaviors. This paper describes the following aspects of the study: specific aims, research design and study organization, assessment of primary and secondary outcomes, study treatments, data analysis plan, and data monitoring and safety reporting.

  14. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  15. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  16. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Marmor, J B

    1998-06-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects.

  17. Substance Abuse and Dependency Risk: The Role of Peer Perceptions, Marijuana Involvement, and Attitudes toward Substance Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…

  18. Assertive Outreach Strategies for Narrowing the Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Gap: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    2009-01-01

    In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540

  19. Differences between adolescents who complete and fail to complete residential substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Anne; Ojong, Tambetta N.; Yanes, Paula K.; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene; Daigler, Gerald E.; Blondell, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the admission characteristics associated with failure to complete residential substance abuse treatment among male adolescents. Of 160 admissions, 48 (30%) completed treatment. Having commercial health insurance (P = 0.005), having a family history of a substance use disorder (P = 0.05), and living with only one biological parent (P = 0.015) were admission characteristics associated with non-completion. Those reporting a history of physical or sexual abuse also appeared to be at risk for non-completion (P = 0.014); none of these patients completed the treatment. Interventions that improve residential substance abuse treatment retention for adolescents are needed. PMID:20924878

  20. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  1. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  2. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  3. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  4. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  5. Alcohol Abuse and Truancy among Spanish Adolescents: A Count-Data Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, R.; Escario, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and truancy are two widespread problems among the adolescent Spanish population. Given the negative consequences of both behaviours for human capital acquiring and their origin in adolescence, our study lies in analysing the relationship between these risk behaviours. From a methodological point of view, our contribution consists of…

  6. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  7. An Experimental Test of a Craving Management Technique for Adolescents in Substance-Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florsheim, Paul; Heavin, Sarah; Tiffany, Stephen; Colvin, Peter; Hiraoka, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to test an imagery-based craving management technique with a sample of adolescents diagnosed with substance-use disorders. Seventy adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 (41 males) were recruited through two substance-abuse treatment programs. The experimental procedure involved stimulating craving…

  8. The Relationship between Adolescent Depression and a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of depression among adolescents attending family planning clinics, and to determine the relationship among depression, a history of sexual abuse, and other risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 279 minority females. Results of the study indicated that 40 adolescents (14.3%) scored at or…

  9. Handicapped Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use/Abuse: Some Causes for Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dennis

    The paper examines the literature concerning drug and alcohol abuse among handicapped adolescents. An introductory section noting the relative lack of research on this problem is followed by a review of adolescent drug research identifying longitudinal studies involving more than 70,000 subjects, studies of associated personality variables, and…

  10. The Relationship between Family Variables and Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Rhonda E.; Kampfe, Charlene M.

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on relationship between adolescent chemical dependency and family factors yielded two broad categories: family drug usage patterns and family atmosphere. Found strong relationship between adolescent substance abuse and family drug usage, family composition, family interaction patterns, and discrepancies in family perceptions.…

  11. Brief Substance Abuse Treatment with Urban Adolescents: A Translational Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Posner, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this translational research study was to test a brief, manualized adolescent substance abuse treatment protocol's effects in an urban community setting compared to a sample in an experimental study from which the treatment was first employed. One hundred two adolescents who were treated with a manualized protocol of five sessions of…

  12. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  13. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

  14. Adolescent mothers and child abuse potential: an evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, T L; Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L

    1996-11-01

    This research examines maternal and child factors that place adolescent mothers at risk for abusing their children. Using a longitudinal design, relationships among four risk factors (social supports, maternal psychological adjustment, maternal preparation for parenting, and child temperament), maternal psychological predisposition for aggressive coping (perceptions of stress and endorsements of punitive parenting), and maternal abuse potential were examined in a sample of 75 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Preparation for parenting, a construct which included knowledge and attitudes about children's development, was the strongest direct predictor of abuse potential; however, its effects were also partially mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the effects of child temperament on abuse were mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and identifying at-risk adolescents, were also discussed. PMID:8958454

  15. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  16. Perceived abuse and neglect as risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, D S; Winegar, R K; Nicolaou, A L; Hartnick, E; Wolfson, M; Southwick, S M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relative risk of histories of different types of abuse (sexual, physical, and emotional) and neglect (physical and emotional) for suicidal behavior (attempts, ideation, and self-mutilation) in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Seventy-one adolescent inpatients (34 boys, 37 girls) completed self-report measures of abuse and neglect, current suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicide and self-mutilation attempts. The prevalence of sexual and physical abuse was 37.5% and 43.7%, respectively, with 31.3% and 61% of youngsters reporting emotional and physical neglect. Fifty-one percent of youngsters had made suicide attempts, and 39% had self-mutilated. Suicide attempters were significantly more likely to be female, Latino, to report sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and to endorse emotional neglect. In multivariate analyses, female gender, sexual abuse, and emotional neglect remained significant predictors of self-mutilation and suicidal ideation. Female gender and sexual abuse remained significant predictors of suicide attempts. These findings suggest that emotional neglect is an important and deleterious component of maltreatment experiences and may be a more powerful predictor of suicidal behavior in hospitalized adolescents than physical abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. PMID:9952251

  17. The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research.

  18. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning.

  19. Gender identification and sex role attribution in sexually abused adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Aiosa-Karpas, C J; Karpas, R; Pelcovitz, D; Kaplan, S

    1991-03-01

    An exploratory study of the association between child sexual abuse and subsequent gender identification and sex role attribution was conducted with 93 adolescent females. Victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse with a history of psychotherapeutic treatment were compared with nonabused subjects with a history of treatment and nonabused control subjects with no treatment history. Measures of gender identity found that sexually abused and nonabused treatment groups differed significantly from the no-treatment controls. Distinct patterns of gender identification emerged for the sexually abused victims. Hypothesized differences in sex role attribution were not found. Potential directions for future research are proposed and implications and recommendations for treatment are discussed.

  20. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  1. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  2. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  3. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  4. Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

  5. A novel application in the study of client language: Alcohol and marijuana-related statements in substance-using adolescents during a simulation task.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Benjamin O; Garcia, Tracey A; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-09-01

    The current study explored whether laboratory-based techniques can provide a strategy for studying client language as a mechanism of behavior change. Specifically, this study examined the potential of a simulation task to elicit healthy talk, or self-motivational statements in favor of healthy behavior, related to marijuana and alcohol use. Participants (N = 84) were adolescents reporting at least 10 lifetime substance use episodes recruited from various community settings in an urban Pacific Northwest setting. Participants completed the Adolescent Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation (A-SIDE), a validated paradigm for assessing substance use decision making in peer contexts. Participants responded to 4 types of offers in the A-SIDE: (a) marijuana, (b) food (marijuana control), (c) alcohol, and (d) soda (alcohol control). Using a validated coding scheme adapted for the current study, client language during a structured interview assessing participants' response to the simulated offers was evaluated. Associations between percent healthy talk (PHT, calculated by dividing the number of healthy statements by the sum of all substance-related statements) and cross-sectional outcomes of interest (previous substance use, substance use expectancies, and behavioral willingness) were explored. The frequency of substance-related statements differed in response to offer type; rate of PHT did not. PHT was associated with behavioral willingness to accept the offer. However, PHT was not associated with decontextualized measures of substance use. Associations between PHT and global expectancies were limited. Simulation methods may be useful in investigating the impact of context on self-talk and to systematically explore client language as a mechanism of change. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454368

  6. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  7. Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana.

  8. The influence of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent outcomes: the roles of gender, poverty, and revictimization.

    PubMed

    Matta Oshima, Karen M; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Seay, Kristen D

    2014-01-01

    Research on child sexual abuse has focused on adult revictimization and outcomes. This article examines the rate of child maltreatment revictimization among male and female children reported to child protective services for child sexual abuse and whether revictimization impacts outcomes. Using longitudinal administrative data, Cox regressions were used to examine relationships between initial report of child sexual abuse, maltreatment revictimization, and adolescent outcomes among children from poor and nonpoor families. Despite no significant differences in child sexual abuse rates between poor and nonpoor families, poor child sexual abuse victims were significantly more likely to have re-reports for maltreatment. Children with multiple reports were more likely to have negative outcomes. Interventions for child sexual abuse survivors should focus on preventing maltreatment recurrence generally and not ignore needs of male victims.

  9. Gender Differences in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys. PMID:27266537

  10. A multi-dimensional model of groupwork for adolescent girls who have been sexually abused.

    PubMed

    Lindon, J; Nourse, C A

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls using a group work model. The model incorporates three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. The group ran for 16 sessions over a 6-month period and each girl was assessed prior to joining the group. The girls were again assessed at the end of treatment and a 6-months follow-up; all of them showed improvement on self-statements (outcome) and on behavioral measures assessed by others (follow-up). Girls who had been sexually abused demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives following abuse. These problems related to their feelings of guilt and helplessness in relation to both themselves and their abuser. Sexually abused children often have poor knowledge of sexual matters and demonstrate confusion over their own body image. Using a multidimensional model the problems following abuse can be addressed. PMID:8187019

  11. Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Alcohol Use and Abuse: Stability and Change of Predictive Value across Early and Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Merline, Alicia; Jager, Justin; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine age-18 risk factors for alcohol use and heavy drinking during early (ages 22 and 26) and middle (age 35) adulthood, and for symptoms of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in middle adulthood. Design Nationally representative samples of U.S. adolescents in their senior year of secondary school (age 18) were followed into middle adulthood. Structural equation models estimated the associations between age-18 characteristics and current drinking and heavy drinking at ages 22, 26 and 35 and symptoms of AUDs at age 35. Participants The sample consisted of 21,137 respondents from 11 senior year cohorts (1976–1986) from the Monitoring the Future study. Findings Many predictor variables had stable associations with alcohol use over time, although their ability to explain variance in alcohol use declined with increasing time lags. Being White predicted alcohol use, but not symptoms of AUDs. Parental drinking, risk taking, and use of cigarettes and marijuana predicted heavy drinking through age 35. Planning to attend college predicted more heavy drinking at age 22 and less frequent heavy drinking by midlife. High school theft and property damage predicted later AUD symptoms. Most associations were invariant across gender, with variations typically taking the form of stronger associations between predictors and alcohol use for men. Invariance in findings across cohorts indicates that results reflect general developmental trends rather than specific historically bounded ones. Conclusions Many adolescent individual and contextual characteristics remain important predictors of adult alcohol use and abuse, and their predictive impact varies as a function of age and type of alcohol outcome. These associations are largely equivalent across gender and cohort, thus reflecting robust developmental linkages. PMID:18426542

  12. Communication About Sexually-Related Topics Among Hispanic Substance-Abusing Adolescents and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Mena, Maite P; Dillon, Frank R; Mason, Craig A; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2008-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control talk between 108 Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that Hispanic parents who had older adolescents, reported more involvement, were less concerned of possible negative reactions from their child, and felt more knowledgeable and confident regarding sex and birth control also reported greater frequency of birth control talk. Hispanic parents with a daughter, who reported more involvement, or whose child reported more communication were more likely to report greater frequency of talking about moral issues.

  13. Organizational Predictors and Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Maria; Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance abuse remains a significant problem in the United States, yet treatment centers do not always admit adolescent clients. In this article, we first determine the extent to which treatment is available for adolescents in general and whether or not adolescent-specific (segregated) tracks are offered. Second, we examine the organizational characteristics associated with adolescent treatment. Third, we illuminate how the adolescent caseload in a treatment center is related to offering evidence-based practices (EBPs). Methods Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of U.S. treatment programs, we use logistic regression to assess how organizational characteristics are associated with the provision of adolescent treatment. Using ordinal logistic regression, we analyze how the treatment center’s adolescent caseload and organizational characteristics affect the extent to which a treatment center offers medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and psychosocial treatment. Results Half (49.5%) of treatment programs admitted adolescents and 41.8% offered an adolescent-specific track. Findings from the logistic regression suggested several organizational characteristics that were significantly associated with treating adolescents and/or having an adolescent-only track. Our findings from the ordinal models indicated a negative relationship between the percent of adolescents in a treatment center and the extent of MAT, and a positive relationship between the percent of adolescent clients and the extent of psychosocial treatment offered. Conclusions This paper highlights organizational barriers to treatment entry for adolescents, who remain a small proportion of clients in treatment centers. When treatment centers serve adolescents, however, those adolescents are likely to receive care in adolescent-only tracks and/or services and in programs that offer several psychosocial EBPs. Finally, adolescents are less likely to receive treatment in centers

  14. Adolescent health-risk sexual behaviors: effects of a drug abuse intervention.

    PubMed

    Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Waldron, Holly B; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W; Brody, Janet L; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk. PMID:21833690

  15. Adolescent Health-Risk Sexual Behaviors: Effects of a Drug Abuse Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk. PMID:21833690

  16. Adolescent health-risk sexual behaviors: effects of a drug abuse intervention.

    PubMed

    Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Waldron, Holly B; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W; Brody, Janet L; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk.

  17. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Turner, Win C; Muck, Randolph D; Muck, Rebekah J; Stephens, Robert L; Sukumar, Bhuvana

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number of grant programs providing substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The data from these programs underscores the need for the use of systematic, validated, biopsychosocial assessment instruments for all youth entering either the substance abuse or mental health treatment systems. The current evidence base for models of co-occurring treatment for youth is discussed and recommendations made for future activity related to adolescent co-occurring treatment.

  18. Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179

  19. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Hong, Hyokyoung Grace; Hazen, Andrea L

    2010-06-01

    Children who have exposure to child sexual abuse (CSA) are at particular risk for developing substance abuse in adolescence, but the extent to which CSA may shape patterns of adolescent substance use remains uncertain. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in patterns of adolescent substance use and to examine the association between CSA and qualitatively distinct patterns of adolescent substance use. Latent class analyses identified homogenous groups of adolescents with similar patterns of substance use using a sample of 1019 adolescents (mean age: 15.9 years; range: 13-18) who were selected from five publicly funded service systems. Different patterns of latent class structures were identified in boys and girls (a 4-class solution for girls and a 3-class solution for boys). CSA was associated with an increased risk of being a heavy polysubstance user in girls, even after adjustment of age, race/ethnicity, parental substance use, sibling use, peer use, psychopathology and other forms of childhood maltreatment including physical abuse and neglect. Findings indicate that female victims of CSA who are involved with public service systems are at high risk for developing multiple-substance use in adolescence.

  1. Self-reported marijuana effects and characteristics of 100 San Francisco medical marijuana club members.

    PubMed

    Harris, D; Jones, R T; Shank, R; Nath, R; Fernandez, E; Goldstein, K; Mendelson, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other drugs, particularly stimulants. History of substance abuse or dependence and other psychiatric disorders was common. Those with greater past dependence on other drugs thought marijuana to be more effective but also reported worse side effects and quality of life. Quality of life was associated more with marijuana side effects rating than effectiveness. Patients reported potentially serious marijuana side effects on some questionnaires but not others. Inconsistencies in reporting made interpretation of results difficult. Physician supervision of medical marijuana use would allow more effective monitoring of therapeutic and unwanted effects, some unrecognized by patients.

  2. Influences of behavior and academic problems at school entry on marijuana use transitions during adolescence in an African American sample

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Green, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine how patterns of academic and behavior problems in first grade relate to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use from middle school through entry into high school among African Americans. Methods: Latent class and latent transition analyses were conducted on a community sample of 458 low-income, urban-dwelling African-Americans. Results: Two behavior problem classes emerged at school entry; externalizing and attention/concentration. Academic problems co-occurred with both problem behavior classes although more strongly with attention/concentration. Youth in the attention/ concentration problem class were more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to use and problems beginning in 7th grade and to use and problems given the opportunity to use marijuana early in high school compared to youth with no problems. Youth in the externalizing behavior problem class were significantly more likely to transition from no involvement to having a marijuana opportunity during the transition to high school compared to youth in the attention/concentration problems class. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of developing prevention programs and providing school services that address the co-occurrence of academic and behavior problems, as well as their subtype specific risks for marijuana involvement, particularly for low-income minority youth who may be entering school less ready than their non-minority peers. These findings also provide evidence for a need to continue to deliver interventions in middle and high school focused on factors that may protect youth during these critical transition periods when they may be especially vulnerable to opportunities to use marijuana based on their academic and behavioral risk profile. PMID:25305658

  3. Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Suicidality Among Adolescents: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Monti, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a cognitive behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with a co-occurring alcohol or other drug use disorder (AOD) and suicidality in a randomized clinical trial. Method Forty adolescents (Mage = 15; 68% females, 89% Caucasian) and their families recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital were randomly assigned to an integrated outpatient cognitive behavioral intervention for co-occurring AOD and suicidality (I-CBT) or enhanced treatment-as-usual (E-TAU). Primary measures include the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, Columbia Impairment Scale, Timeline Followback, Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, and the Rutgers Marijuana Problem Index. Assessments were completed at pre-treatment as well as 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-enrollment. Results Using intent-to-treat analyses, I-CBT was associated with significantly fewer heavy drinking days and days of marijuana use relative to E-TAU, but not drinking days. Those randomized to I-CBT in comparison to E-TAU also reported significantly less global impairment as well as fewer suicide attempts, inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and arrests. Adolescents across groups showed equivalent reductions in suicidal ideation. Conclusions I-CBT for adolescents with co-occurring AOD and suicidality is associated with significant improvement in both substance use and suicidal behavior, as well as markedly decreased use of additional health services including inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Further testing of integrated protocols for adolescent AOD and suicidality with larger and more diverse samples is warranted. PMID:22004303

  4. [Psychosocial aspects of risk behaviour of adolescents in respect of drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Klein, M

    2004-02-01

    Children and adolescents in Germany show a high rate of substance use, esp. concerning tobacco and alcohol. Taking these and other drugs can be seen as a juvenile risk behaviour associated with adverse effects, e. g. violence, unsafe sexuality, early pregnancy, underachievement in school. Prevention and intervention measures should begin early and be designed comprehensively in order to gain decisive and long-lasting effects. Children and adolescents of addicted parents and those with substance abusing peers have to be viewed as especially in danger for increased substance abuse and associated risk behaviours. One of the main preventive tasks is the acquisition of affective self-control and self-management competences.

  5. Social role negotiation skills for substance-abusing adolescents: a group model.

    PubMed

    Blume, T W; Green, S; Joanning, H; Quinn, W S

    1994-01-01

    A group model for therapeutic early intervention (secondary prevention) with nonaddicted adolescent substance abusers is proposed, based on a Social Role Negotiation model of substance abuse integrating concepts form role theory and cognitive developmental theory. The description of the group model, a structured short-term approach, includes a variety of exercises which promote developmental improvement in the essential skills of role-taking, role-making, and definition of the situation. An individualized intervention strategy is proposed for each group member, based on a theory-based taxonomy of substance-related problems. Strategies for using family involvement to support an adolescent group are described.

  6. Neuroimaging of the dopamine/reward system in adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine (DA) system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana's interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977

  7. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  8. [Sexual abuse of children and adolescents: characteristics of sexual victimization in family relations].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Márcia Aparecida; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Reis, Jair Naves dos

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of sexual abuse committed within the family against age groups classified according to the Brazilian Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on matters pertaining to minors) and treated at the Reference Center for Children and Adolescents and the Guardianship Councils in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000. Some 234 abuses were identified, committed by 217 aggressors, against 210 families and a total of 226 victims. A total of 131 children (48.7%) and 95 adolescents (41.2%), predominantly females, were victimized. Children ranging from 10 to 12 years were the most frequently abused (19.5%), as well as adolescents from 12 to 14 years old (17.3%). The majority of the victims live in families with 3 (19.9%) or 4 children (177%), and the firstborn are the most frequently abused (33.6%). The majority of aggressors who acted alone victimized only one individual (86.7%). Fathers (34.2%) and stepfathers (30.3%) were the most frequent aggressors, with the former victimizing more children (19.7%) and the latter adolescents (17.1%). PMID:15073625

  9. Personal and interpersonal characteristics related to resilient developmental pathways of sexually abused adolescents.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc

    2007-04-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent and important social problem. In this article the authors' main objective is the exploration of resilience among sexually abused adolescents under child protection services care in Quebec, Canada. The introduction provides an overview of the impact of childhood sexual abuse and conceptualizations of trauma, resilience, recovery, and factors linked to resilience profiles. The remainder of the article discusses a study of resilience and factors predicting resilience over a 5-month period for a sample of 86 teenage girls under child protection services care. PMID:17349516

  10. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  11. Decriminalizing Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Jon

    1989-01-01

    Argues for the decriminalization of marijuana and claims this action would provide a number of policy options. Cautions that a policy of total prohibition has unattainable goals. Points to the failure of recriminalization policies of the past 10 years as the most persuasive argument for decriminalization. (KO)

  12. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  13. Development of an adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale: Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Winters, K C

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse screening scale is summarized. The Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) is intended to meet the need for a quick, psychometrically adequate adolescent screening tool to measure the need for a comprehensive assessment. The development of the questionnaire's problem severity scale and evidence related to its reliability (internal consistency) and validity are described. PMID:1332434

  14. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  15. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  16. Drug Abuse in the Military: An Adolescent Misbehavior Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beary, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes drug abuse in the military. Survey data of military personnel (N=15,268) revealed that single, enlisted males under age 25 were the population most at risk. Alcohol and cannabis were the most common substances of abuse. Some work impairment and dependence were reported but were not typical. (Author/JAC)

  17. Risk Behaviors and Resiliency within Physically Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and several risk behaviors, and thriving behaviors, and the relationship between potential protective factors and engagement in risk and thriving behaviors among victims of physical abuse. Three categories of potential protective factors were examined: (1) individual…

  18. Emergence of Sex Differences in the Development of Substance Use and Abuse during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025

  19. Emergence of sex differences in the development of substance use and abuse during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Cynthia

    2015-09-01

    Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use.

  20. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  1. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  2. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  3. Childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality features: The role of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect = 0.04, standard error (SE) = 0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed. PMID:25940514

  4. Reducing Adolescent Substance Abuse and Delinquency Pilot Research of a Family-Oriented Psychoeducation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Edward; Sells, Scott P.; Rodman, Jeffrey; Reynolds, Lisa Rene

    2006-01-01

    Ninety-three parents and 102 adolescents were referred by juvenile court and treated for substance abuse and a co-morbid diagnosis of either oppositional defiant or conduct disorder using a parent education program over a six-week period. The goals of this study were to assess whether or not active parent involvement and the concurrent treatment…

  5. Caring for Young Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims in a Hospital-Based Children's Advocacy Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…

  6. The Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program: A Mental Health-Law Enforcement Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Schlessinger, Kari M.; DiCicco, Tina M.; Anzalone, William F.; Leslie, Tricia L.; George, John A.; Werder, Edward J.; Massey, Larry L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study provides preliminary data concerning the efficacy of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program, a collaborative effort involving mental health and law enforcement. ADAPT is a multi-component, cognitive-behavioral outpatient intervention serving children and youth referred directly from local police…

  7. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  8. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…

  9. Interpartner Conflict and Child Abuse Risk among African American and Latino Adolescent Parenting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.; Florsheim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Methods: Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant…

  10. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  11. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…

  12. Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Abuse: Fears, Needs and Impediments to Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisma, M.; Bascelli, E.; Paci, D.; Romito, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Understanding the impediments that prevented sexually abused adolescents from disclosure to their family or to professionals, and analyzing the responses they received when they did disclose. Methods:: In depth anonymous interviews were conducted in Italy through a toll-free telephone line with 36 young people who experienced sexual…

  13. Similarities and differences in adolescence-onset versus adulthood-onset sexual abuse incidents.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Nadine; Brown, Sarah; Smallbone, Stephen; Pritchard, Karlyn

    2015-08-01

    A sample of males who had first committed sexual offences against children in either adolescence (n=230; M=14.0 years, SD=1.5) or adulthood (n=280; M=34.4 years, SD=11.7) were compared on measures relating to the circumstances of their first known sexual abuse incident. Considerable diversity in the circumstances of these first incidents was observed for both groups. However, adulthood-onset sexual abuse most often occurred following a long-standing familial relationship with a female victim, and in a home setting. The first incident for adolescence-onset offenders also tended to occur in the context of a long-term relationship and against a female child in a home setting, but more commonly against a nonfamilial victim. Adulthood-onset offenders abused older children, were more likely to engage in penetrative sexual behaviors, and went on to abuse over a longer duration than adolescence-onset offenders. Adolescence-onset offences were more likely to be witnessed by a third party. Findings and their implications for prevention are considered from a situational crime prevention perspective.

  14. Are Adolescents Who Report Prior Sexual Abuse at Higher Risk for Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David Y.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…

  15. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  16. The Effects of Family Therapies for Adolescent Delinquency and Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…

  17. Bridging Worlds: Understanding and Facilitating Adolescent Recovery from the Trauma of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joycee; McCarthy, Carol J.

    Descriptions of past social attitudes and policies that influence the present structure and thinking in the areas of child protection, juvenile justice, education, and mental health are provided by this handbook designed to aid in understanding and helping adolescents traumatized by abuse. This foundation is interwoven with current news examples…

  18. Social and Psychological Factors of Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.

    This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…

  19. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  20. Multidimensional Implementation Evaluation of a Residential Treatment Program for Adolescent Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Leyla; Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors applied contemporary methods from the evaluation literature to measure implementation in a residential treatment program for adolescent substance abuse. A logic model containing two main components was measured. Program structure (adherence to the intended framework of service delivery) was measured using data from daily activity logs…

  1. Residential Treatment of Substance Abusing Adolescents: Trends in the Post-Managed Care Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Ellis, Rodney A.; Cooper, Lyle

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores historical and recent trends in the delivery of residential adolescent substance abuse treatment, looking specifically at the impact of managed care on the service delivery system. Three historical eras are conceptualized by the authors: (1) an era prior to managed care in which services were provided on a fee for service basis…

  2. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  3. Why Is Childhood Maltreatment Associated with Adolescent Substance Abuse? A Critical Review of Explanatory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdestad, Wendy E.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Thornton, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance abuse are important health issues that have been linked by research and theory for at least 50 years. Considering the intricacies of child maltreatment research, this paper aims to answer the question: which models show the most promise to explain why child maltreatment is a risk indicator for…

  4. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  5. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  6. Prospective Relations between Bulimic Pathology, Depression, and Substance Abuse: Unpacking Comorbidity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily M.; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the processes that contribute to the comorbidity between bulimic pathology, depression, and substance abuse, the authors tested the temporal relations between these disturbances with prospective data from adolescent girls (N = 496). Multivariate analyses indicated that depressive symptoms predicted onset of bulimic pathology but not…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  8. Aberrant function of frontoamygdala circuits in adolescents with previous verbal abuse experiences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Won; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ko Woon; Lee, Jong-Sun; Kim, Dongchan; Park, HyunWook; Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies reported an association of depressive disorder and structural alteration of frontolimbic brain regions in subjects with emotional abuse experiences during childhood and adolescence. The results suggest that aberrant function of the frontolimbic circuit and its relation with psychiatric symptoms can be found in adolescents with preclinical status. We investigated functional changes of frontolimbic networks during implicit negative emotional face processing and their relationships with depressive symptoms in adolescents with previous verbal abuse experiences. We designed a gender discrimination task using emotional faces to induce an implicit level of emotional exposure, and was completed by 31 preclinical male adolescents during an fMRI scan. The right amygdala activity and its functional connectivity with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during implicit processing of negative emotional faces showed a significant relationship with previous verbal abuse experiences. The hierarchical regression analyses showed that their current depressive symptoms were associated with aberrant functional interaction between the right amygdala activity and right amygdala-rostral ACC connectivity. Our findings of verbal abuse-related functional changes in the right frontoamygdala circuit may be related to vulnerability to future mood disorder. PMID:26514618

  9. A multiple case study comparison of normal private preparatory school and substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L S; Hedgespeth, J

    1995-01-01

    This multiple case study of ten families of normal private preparatory school adolescents and five families of substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents was an effort to identify factors that may suggest a relationship between the abuse of substances in adolescents who also have mood disorders and the following family factors: parental marital discord, degree of family satisfaction, and family problem-solving styles. The fifteen families completed four assessment instruments and participated in a videotaped problem-solving exercise. The results of this study showed that all members of the substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents' families rated themselves as dysfunctional in all major areas of family life. In contrast, the normal private preparatory school families reported satisfaction with most areas of family functioning. Communication styles also differed considerably between the two small groups of families. These results appear to support the importance of family evaluation and treatment when addressing the issue of adolescent substance abusers with mood disorders.

  10. Parallel Demand-Withdraw Processes in Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Kristina N.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Shoham, Varda

    2013-01-01

    Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (TD/AW) cycles observed early in treatment would predict poor adolescent outcomes at follow-up for families who exhibited entrenched parent-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (PD/AW) before treatment began. Participants were 91 families who received at least 4 sessions of BSFT in a multi-site clinical trial on adolescent drug abuse (Robbins et al., 2011). Prior to receiving therapy, families completed videotaped family interaction tasks from which trained observers coded PD/AW. Another team of raters coded TD/AW during two early BSFT sessions. The main dependent variable was the number of drug use days that adolescents reported in Timeline Follow-Back interviews 7 to 12 months after family therapy began. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses supported the main hypothesis, showing that PD/AW and TD/AW interacted to predict adolescent drug use at follow-up. For adolescents in high PD/AW families, higher levels of TD/AW predicted significant increases in drug use at follow-up, whereas for low PD/AW families, TD/AW and follow-up drug use were unrelated. Results suggest that attending to parallel demand-withdraw processes in parent/adolescent and therapist/adolescent dyads may be useful in family therapy for substance-using adolescents. PMID:23438248

  11. Parallel demand-withdraw processes in family therapy for adolescent drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Rynes, Kristina N; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Shoham, Varda

    2014-06-01

    Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (TD/AW) cycles observed early in treatment would predict poor adolescent outcomes at follow-up for families who exhibited entrenched parent-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (PD/AW) before treatment began. Participants were 91 families who received at least four sessions of BSFT in a multisite clinical trial on adolescent drug abuse (Robbins et al., 2011). Prior to receiving therapy, families completed videotaped family interaction tasks from which trained observers coded PD/AW. Another team of raters coded TD/AW during two early BSFT sessions. The main dependent variable was the number of drug-use days that adolescents reported in timeline follow-back interviews 7 to 12 months after family therapy began. Zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses supported the main hypothesis, showing that PD/AW and TD/AW interacted to predict adolescent drug use at follow-up. For adolescents in high PD/AW families, higher levels of TD/AW predicted significant increases in drug use at follow-up, whereas for low PD/AW families, TD/AW and follow-up drug use were unrelated. Results suggest that attending to parallel demand-withdraw processes in parent-adolescent and therapist-adolescent dyads may be useful in family therapy for substance-using adolescents.

  12. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  13. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits.

  14. A Multilevel Study of the Role of Environment in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relationships between county-level characteristics and adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. The study consisted of a hierarchical generalized linear analysis of secondary data from the Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. Variables on the county level included the percent of adolescents…

  15. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    PubMed Central

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence. PMID:20883588

  16. Treating paternal drug abuse using Learning Sobriety Together: effects on adolescents versus children.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Fals-Stewart, William

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study was whether couples-based treatment for substance abuse had comparable secondary benefits on the internalizing and externalizing behaviors of adolescent versus child siblings living in their homes. Couples took part in a couples-based treatment for substance abuse that combines Behavioral Couples Therapy and individual counseling (i.e., Learning Sobriety Together). During a 17-month assessment period, the relationship between parents' functioning (i.e., fathers' drug use as determined by percent days abstinent and parents' dyadic adjustment) as rated by mothers, fathers, and children's teachers and internalizing behavior (as rated by mothers' only) was stronger for children than their adolescent siblings, particularly in terms of children's externalizing behaviors. Interventions that reduce paternal drug use and improve couple functioning may reduce internalizing and externalizing symptoms for children in their homes; however, adolescents may need more intensive interventions to address internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

  17. Making sense of medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M S; Kleber, H D

    1999-01-01

    The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects.

  18. Immunomodulation by morphine and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Yahya, M D; Watson, R R

    1987-12-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and the active components of marijuana, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol, on various aspects of the host immune parameters include alterations in humoral, cell-mediated and innate immunity. Most studies have shown immunosuppressive effects due to use of these abused substances, although there are reports that they may not produce any deleterious effect and may even enhance some aspects of host immunity. They reduce resistance to cancer growth and microbial pathogens in animals.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction due to marijuana smoking in a young man: guilty should not be underestimated.

    PubMed

    Velibey, Yalcin; Sahin, Sinan; Tanık, Ozan; Keskin, Muhammed; Bolca, Osman; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction with chronic total occlusion of left main coronary artery due to marijuana smoking in a 27-year-old man, which was not previously reported. This case illustrate that marijuana abuse can lead to serious cardiovascular events.

  20. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum. PMID:16199491

  1. Protecting Against Intergenerational Problem Behavior: Mediational Effects of Prevented Marijuana Use on Second-Generation Parent-Child Relationships and Child Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aims of the study were to identify pathways from parent marijuana use to child problem behavior and parent-child relationships, and to evaluate whether effects of an earlier prevention program delivered to parents when they themselves were early adolescents would have a protective effect on these relationships one generation later. METHODS Structural equation models were applied to the data of a second generation study of a drug abuse prevention trial. Models assessed whether there were sustained marijuana prevention effects on adults who had at least one school-age child at the end of the emerging adulthood period (age 26, N=257), and whether these effects mediated subsequent parent-child relationships and child impulsivity when parents were between the ages of 28 and 34. RESULTS Participants originally assigned to the program group used significantly less marijuana in early adulthood than did controls. In turn, parental marijuana use was positively related to child impulsivity and negatively to parental warmth, but not significantly related to parental aggression. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest both a direct relationship from parental marijuana use to child impulsivity, as well as indirect relationships through parent-child interactions. Results also strongly support a role for early adolescent prevention programs for drug use, both for participants’ own long-term benefit, as well as for the benefit of their future children. PMID:19036535

  2. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  3. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors.

  4. Can Marijuana Make It Better? Prospective Effects of Marijuana and Temperament on Risk for Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  5. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects. PMID:25776110

  6. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  7. Trajectories of Marijuana Use and Psychological Adjustment Among Urban African American and Puerto Rican Women

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Koppel, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Background The current longitudinal study examined the developmental patterns of marijuana use, as well as their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment in a community-based sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican women. Method Participants were interviewed five times over a period ranging from adolescence (mean age 14.0 years) to adulthood (mean age 32.5). Outcome measures included depressive symptoms, anger/hostility, as well as the presence of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence). Results Three distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: nonusers, increasers, and quitters. Increasers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and anger/hostility than did nonusers, and were more likely to meet criteria for a substance use disorder at age 32.5 years. Conclusions Findings indicated that early-starting long-term use of marijuana is associated with psychological maladjustment among women. Prevention efforts should emphasize the long-term cost associated with marijuana use, and that the best psychological health is reported by those who abstain from the drug. PMID:21205359

  8. The role of dissociation in self-injurious behavior among female adolescents who were sexually abused.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history. PMID:25101954

  9. Medicinal and recreational marijuana: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Van Gerpen, Shawn; Vik, Tamara; Soundy, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    With the recent legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado, Washington, Alaska, the District of Columbia and legislation pending for both medical and recreational marijuana in several other states, it is important for the facts regarding its potential for serious mental health consequences to be known. Little has been said about the psychiatric risks of this substance, particularly in youth. Several studies have shown increased rates of depression, anxiety and schizophrenia among those who use marijuana on a regular basis. In addition, permanent loss of IQ and structural changes in the brain have been demonstrated with habitual use. Legalization of marijuana for recreational use can influence an adolescent's perception of this substance as "safe." In states that have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, there is the very real problem of "diversion." As many as 34 percent of 12th-graders who use marijuana in states with legalized marijuana had obtained it from a person who had received it through a prescription.

  10. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  11. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  12. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  13. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way.

  14. Twitter Chatter about Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299

  15. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.

  16. What they tell you to forget: from child sexual abuse to adolescent motherhood.

    PubMed

    Erdmans, Mary Patrice; Black, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between child sexual abuse and adolescent motherhood, using a life story interview method. The sample consists of 27 mothers participating in a home-visitation parenting program for mothers at risk of child maltreatment. The failure to articulate the violation of child sexual abuse and to appropriately construct blame resulted in a range of self-destructive behaviors, some of which placed mothers at greater risk of teen pregnancy. Repressed feelings associated with the trauma often resurfaced with motherhood as victims re-experienced their innocence and vulnerability as children.

  17. Signs of resilience in sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Tonya; Auslander, Wendy; Elze, Diane; Bowland, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 99 sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system (64% in congregate living situations and 36% in family/foster care homes), nearly half were psychologically functioning well despite having experienced moderate-to-severe emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. It was hypothesized that these girls with resilient trajectories would differ from the currently symptomatic girls on several protective factors: education, future orientation, family support, peer influence, and religion. The results revealed that the girls with resilient trajectories were significantly more certain of their educational plans and optimistic about their future and had more positive peer influences.

  18. Trajectories of Peer Social Influences as Long-Term Predictors of Drug Use from Early through Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Lei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed the long-term effects of perceived friend use and perceived peer use on adolescents' own cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as a series of parallel growth curves that were estimated in two developmental pieces, representing middle and high school (N = 1,040). Data were drawn from a large drug abuse prevention trial,…

  19. Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana.

  20. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  1. The Association of Physical and Sexual Abuse with HIV Risk Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Implications for Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Renee M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews conducted with 602 youths at public health clinics revealed that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape was related to engaging in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. (Author/JDD)

  2. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  3. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  4. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  5. Maternal versus Paternal Physical and Emotional Abuse, Affect Regulation and Risk for Depression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…

  6. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  7. Intervention with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents and their Families: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088

  8. Abuse, depressive symptoms, executive functioning, and overgeneral memory among a psychiatric sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized.

  9. One-Year Outcomes and Mediators of a Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Lee, Susanne; Botzet, Andria; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Nicholson, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two manually-guided brief interventions were evaluated with a randomized controlled trial. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) suspected of abusing alcohol and other drugs and their parent were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Adolescents were identified in a school setting and the intervention was delivered by trained counselors. Outcome analyses (N=284; 90% of those enrolled) of relative change (from intake to 12-months) and absolute status (at 12-months) revealed a general pattern of reductions in drug use behaviors, particularly with the cannabis outcome measures, in both active conditions (BI-A and BI-AP). Students in the control condition showed worse outcome compared to the BI-A and BI-AP groups. Among the four mediating variables measured at 6-months, use of additional services, motivation to change and parenting practices had significant influences on 12-month outcome; problem solving skills approached significance as a mediator. The potential value of a brief intervention for drug abusing adolescents is discussed. PMID:24955669

  10. Consulting for substance abuse: mental disorders among adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, S; Tengström, A; Bylin, S; Göranson, M; Hagen, L; Janson, M; Larsson, A; Lundgren-Andersson, C; Lundmark, C; Norell, E; Pedersen, H

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted outside of Scandinavia indicate that most adolescents with substance misuse problems suffer from co-morbid mental disorders. The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents seeking help for substance misuse problems in a large Swedish city. Parents' mental health was also examined. The sample included 97 girls with their 90 mothers and 52 fathers, and 81 boys with their 72 mothers and 37 fathers. The adolescents completed a diagnostic interview, either the Kiddie-SADs or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) depending on their age. Their parents underwent diagnostic interviews with the SCID. Ninety per cent of the girls and 81% of the boys met criteria for at least one disorder other than substance misuse, and on average, they suffered from three other disorders, most of which had onset before substance misuse began. Almost 80% of the mothers and 67% of the fathers met criteria for at least one mental disorder other than alcohol and drug-related disorders. The findings concur with those reported from studies conducted in North America. The results suggest that in Sweden mental disorders are not being identified and effectively treated among some children and young adolescents who subsequently abuse alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Adolescents who consult for substance abuse problems require assessments and treatment by mental health professionals.

  11. Adolescent substance-use assessment: methodological issues in the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD).

    PubMed

    Chinet, Léonie; Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Holzer, Laurent; Halfon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    During the past twenty years, various instruments have been developed for the assessment of substance use in adolescents, mainly in the United States. However, few of them have been adapted to, and validated in, French-speaking populations. Consequently, although increasing alcohol and drug use among teenagers has become a major concern, the various health and social programs developed in response to this specific problem have received little attention with regard to follow-up and outcome assessment. A standardized multidimensional assessment instrument adapted for adolescents is needed to assess the individual needs of adolescents and assign them to the most appropriate treatment setting, to provide a single measurement within and across health and social systems, and to conduct treatment outcome evaluations. Moreover, having an available instrument makes it possible to develop longitudinal and transcultural research studies. For this reason, a French version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) was developed and validated at the University Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. This article aims to discuss the methodological issues that we faced when using the ADAD instrument in a 4-year longitudinal study including adolescent substance users. Methodological aspects relating to the content and format of the instrument, the assessment administration and the statistical analyses are discussed.

  12. Impact of Childhood Abuse on the Risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Mainland Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuhui; Chen, Jing; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood abuse has been associated with significant increases in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in adolescents; however, only general definitions of this risk indicator have been examined. This study identified relationships between specific forms of childhood abuse and NSSI in mainland Chinese adolescents. Method A total of 14,221 cases were retained from an epidemiological study involving adolescents from junior and senior middle schools. Information relating to the perpetrator, perceived harm, timing of exposure to different types of childhood abuse, and NSSI were obtained. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between each form of childhood abuse and NSSI. Results Approximately 51.0% of the students reported at least one abusive childhood experience. Nearly one in four students (24.9%) reported that they had engaged in NSSI in the past 12 months. Each type of childhood abuse, occurring at any time within the first 16 years of life, especially in situations of continuous exposure, was significantly associated with NSSI. A significant graded relationship was found between number of abusive childhood experiences and NSSI. Students maltreated by parents or others were at high risk of engaging in NSSI, the risk was greater in students maltreated by both; students who had been exposed to childhood abuse with no perceived harm still demonstrated an elevated risk for NSSI. The pattern of associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiencing any of various forms of childhood abuse should be considered a risk factor for NSSI during adolescence. Further research should focus upon psychosocial, neural, and genetic factors that might moderate or mediate the onset of NSSI in adolescents who have experienced childhood abuse. PMID:26114574

  13. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females with Substance Abusing Parents

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218

  14. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Carmen P.; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse. PMID:25089075

  15. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    McLean, Carmen P; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse.

  16. Impact of Substance Abuse on Academic Performance among Adolescent Students of Colleges of Education in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  18. Effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy with Higher Severity Substance-Abusing Adolescents: Report from Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Craig E.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used growth mixture modeling to examine heterogeneity in treatment response in a secondary analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials testing multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), an established evidence-based therapy for adolescent drug abuse and delinquency. Method: The first study compared 2 evidence-based adolescent substance…

  19. Prevention of Substance Abuse and AIDS Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: Is any Real Progress Being Made? Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.

    Although a great deal of effort has been devoted to the prevention of substance abuse and AIDS risk behaviors in adolescents, the success of such programs can be difficult to measure. This study, in Northeast Houston-Harris County, Texas, examines adolescent attitudes and behaviors toward sexual activity and AIDS and discusses barriers facing…

  20. Approaches in the Treatment of Adolescents with Emotional and Substance Abuse Problems. Technical Assistance Publication Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm

    This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…

  1. Reliability of use, abuse, and dependence of four types of inhalants in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Ty A; Bray, Bethany C; Cottler, Linda B

    2007-11-01

    Inhalants, as a class of drugs, consists of heterogeneous substances that increase the probability of many serious illnesses and death. Research on inhalant abuse has lagged behind other drugs partly because of the need for a diagnostic instrument of different types of inhalants. This study was conducted to obtain reliability estimates for the new Substance Abuse Module DSM-IV inhalants diagnoses for four types of inhalants: aerosols, gases, nitrites, and solvents as well as different diagnostic configurations of inhalant-related criteria. Participants were 162 community sample adolescents or young adults (mean age=20.3 years, S.D.=2.4). Two-thirds of the sample was male and 83.3% was Caucasian. Kappas and intraclass correlation coefficients were computed to estimate test-retest reliabilities. Results suggested (a) abuse was more common than dependence (34.6% versus 12.3%), (b) reliabilities of abuse criteria and diagnosis were good to excellent across subtypes, and (c) reliabilities of dependence criteria and diagnoses were poor to good across subtypes. Alternative configurations of DSM-IV criteria that were consistent with previous research on adolescents provided excellent reliabilities across subtypes of inhalants. Moreover, 11.1% of participants experienced inhalants withdrawal.

  2. Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

  3. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  4. MMPI Profiles of Adolescent Substance Abusers in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walfish, Steven; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined non-K-corrected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles of 243 adolescents presenting themselves for chemical dependency treatment in a residential setting. Results suggest general lack of psychopathology in this population, although significant elevation on Pd scale did emerge. Compared data to findings of previous studies…

  5. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  6. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  7. Abuse and neglect in adolescents of Jammu, India: the role of gender, family structure, and parental education.

    PubMed

    Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental education. Participants were 702 adolescents from Jammu in the age range of 13-17 years (41.5% female). We found acceptance for a four-factor intercorrelated model for the CTQ with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (5 emotional neglect and 2 physical neglect items) factors following a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Forty-one to sixty-one percent of adolescents reported maltreatment which is higher in comparison with CTQ based studies from the West. Analysis of CFA with covariates (MIMIC model) indicated that males, and adolescents of less educated mothers' and from joint families reported higher abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse, respectively, while fathers' education level was not associated with abuse or neglect. Implications of these findings are highlighted.

  8. Neuroimaging of the Dopamine/Reward System in Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by heightened risk-taking, including substance misuse. These behavioral patterns are influenced by ontogenic changes in neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system, which is fundamentally involved in the neural coding of reward and motivated approach behavior. During adolescence, this system evidences a peak in activity. At the same time, the dopamine system is neuroplastically altered by substance abuse, impacting subsequent function. Here, we describe properties of the dopamine system that change with typical adolescent development and that are altered with substance abuse. Much of this work has been gleaned from animal models due to limitations in measuring dopamine in pediatric samples. Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to examine structures that are heavily DA-innervated; they measure morphological and functional changes with age and with drug exposure. Presenting marijuana abuse as an exemplar, we consider recent findings that support an adolescent peak in DA-driven reward-seeking behavior and related deviations in motivational systems that are associated with marijuana abuse/dependence. Clinicians are advised that (1) chronic adolescent marijuana use may lead to deficiencies in incentive motivation, (2) that this state is due to marijuana’s interactions with the developing DA system, and (3) that treatment strategies should be directed to remediating resultant deficiencies in goal-directed activity. PMID:26095977

  9. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  10. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts.

  11. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students. PMID:26990389

  12. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  13. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse.

  14. Effects of volatile substance abuse on the respiratory system in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed to assess pulmonary functions and anatomy. Results Thirty-one male volatile substance abusers and 19 control subjects were included in the study. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 14.6 ± 2.2 (9-18) years and duration of drug use was 3.7 ± 1.7 years. The most common respiratory symptoms in volatile substance abusers were nasal congestion (45.2%), sputum (38.7%), exercise intolerance (32.3%) and cough (22.6%). Results of spirometric studies showed 12 (41.4%) subjects with low FVC values < 80% of predicted, indicative of restrictive ventilatory pattern in the study group. Although the difference was not statistically significant, restrictive ventilatory pattern was higher in the study group. There was no statistically significant correlation between restrictive ventilatory pattern and the age of onset/duration/frequency of inhalant abuse, respiratory symptoms and scintigraphic abnormalities. Subjects who had restrictive pattern in their pulmonary function tests were more likely to have abnormal findings at HRCT (p < 0.01). Conclusion This study has shown a positive correlation between volatile substance abuse and the development of restrictive ventilatory pattern, but more comprehensive studies are needed for more precise conclusions. PMID:22958270

  15. Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents in a School Setting: Outcomes and Mediating Factors

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne; Lalone, Britani

    2011-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the use of two brief intervention conditions for adolescents (aged 12–18 years) who have been identified in a school setting as abusing alcohol and other drugs. Adolescents and their parent (N = 315) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Interventions were manually guided and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents and parents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Analyses of relative (change from intake to 6-months) and absolute (status at 6-months) outcome variables indicated that for the most part, adolescents in the BI-A and BI-AP conditions showed significantly more reductions in drug use behaviors compared to the CON group. Also, youth receiving the BI-AP condition showed significantly better outcomes compared to the BI-A group on several variables. Problem-solving skills and utilization of additional counseling services mediated outcome. The value of a school-based brief intervention for students is discussed. PMID:22000326

  16. Parent-Adolescent Relations and Adolescent Functioning: Self-Esteem, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…

  17. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Visits Among Adolescents Presenting to US Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Jahan; Aurrecoechea, Adrian; Anderson, Erik; Herring, Andrew; Alter, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) visits for substance abuse, including those complicated by mental health (dual diagnosis), and to analyze their effect on ED length of stay (LOS) and disposition. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of ED visits by adolescents (aged 11-24) using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1997-2010), identifying visits for mental health, substance use, and dual diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyze demographic and visit-level factors, factors associated with substance use and dual diagnosis visits, and the effects of substance use and mental health conditions on emergency department LOS and disposition. Results Substance use and mental health accounted for 2.1% and 4.3% of all adolescent visits, respectively, with 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.3-23.5%) of substance abuse visits complicated by mental health. Factors significantly associated with substance use include: male gender, urban location, West region, ambulance arrival, night and weekend shift, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders. Additional LOS was 89.77 minutes for mental health, 71.33 minutes for substance use, and 139.97 minutes for dual diagnosis visits, as compared to visits where these conditions were not present. Both mental health and substance use were associated with admission/transfer as compared to other dispositions: mental health, odds ratio (OR) 5.93 (95% CI 5.14-6.84), illicit drug use, OR 3.56 (95% CI 2.72-4.64), and dual diagnosis, OR 6.86 (95% 4.67-10.09). Conclusions Substance abuse and dual diagnosis are common among adolescent ED visits and are strongly associated with increased use of prehospital resources, emergency department length of stay, and need for hospitalization. PMID:25875990

  18. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  19. Ecologically based family therapy outcome with substance abusing runaway adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L

    2005-04-01

    Runaway youth report a broader range and higher severity of substance-related, mental health and family problems relative to non-runaway youth. Most studies to date have collected self-report data on the family and social history; virtually no research has examined treatment effectiveness with this population. This study is a treatment development project in which 124 runaway youth were randomly assigned to (1) ecologically based family therapy (EBFT) or (2) service as usual (SAU) through a shelter. Youth completed an intake, posttreatment, 6 and 12 months follow-up assessment. Youth assigned to EBFT reported greater reductions in overall substance abuse compared to youth assigned to SAU while other problem areas improved in both conditions. Findings suggest that EBFT is an efficacious intervention for this relatively severe population of youth.

  20. Genetic Polymorphism in the Promoter Region of Serotonin Transporter: Implications for Ethanol Abuse in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Guembarovski, Roberta Losi; Hirata, Bruna Karina Banin; de Almeida, Felipe Campos; André, Nayara Delgado; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a review of published literature regarding genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene, named as 5-HTTLPR, and its potential role as a susceptibility marker for ethanol abuse in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A literature review of several databases was conducted with the following keywords: 5-HTTLPR, children or adolescents or teenagers, susceptibility, alcohol or ethanol, abuse or misuse. Results: Alcohol interacts with serotonergic synaptic transmission in several ways, and the reduced availability of serotonin transporters might foster brain dysfunction, driving to alcohol abuse. The initial use of ethanol in children and adolescents is determined primarily by environmental influences, whereas the establishment of drinking patterns is strongly controlled by genetic factors. Functional polymorphic variants in the promoter region of the 5-HTTLPR gene have age-dependent effects in alcohol abuse. This polymorphism, mapped to the 5′ region of the SLC6A4, is a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and involves a direct repeat of 20–23 base pairs GC-rich sequences, comprising a short (S) allele, consisting of 14 repeats, and a long (L) allele, with 16 repeats. Additional variants have been described, although their influences on childhood and adolescence ethanol use are not clear. Conclusion: The influence of the 5-HTTLPR allelic variants in children and adolescent misuse of alcohol might be considered for clinical management, preventing long-term behavior problem. Identifying genetic markers associated to the potential alcohol misuse or abuse could be useful in guiding management and formulating effective coping strategies. PMID:27047556