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Sample records for adolescent meth users

  1. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of a chemical in the brain called dopamine, which carries messages between nerve cells in the ... brain gets used to the increased levels of dopamine, so meth users build up a tolerance to ...

  2. MethLAB: a graphical user interface package for the analysis of array-based DNA methylation data.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, Varun; Barfield, Richard T; Schroeder, James W; Smith, Alicia K; Conneely, Karen N

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation changes may underlie numerous complex traits and diseases. The advent of commercial, array-based methods to interrogate DNA methylation has led to a profusion of epigenetic studies in the literature. Array-based methods, such as the popular Illumina GoldenGate and Infinium platforms, estimate the proportion of DNA methylated at single-base resolution for thousands of CpG sites across the genome. These arrays generate enormous amounts of data, but few software resources exist for efficient and flexible analysis of these data. We developed a software package called MethLAB (http://genetics.emory.edu/conneely/MethLAB) using R, an open source statistical language that can be edited to suit the needs of the user. MethLAB features a graphical user interface (GUI) with a menu-driven format designed to efficiently read in and manipulate array-based methylation data in a user-friendly manner. MethLAB tests for association between methylation and relevant phenotypes by fitting a separate linear model for each CpG site. These models can incorporate both continuous and categorical phenotypes and covariates, as well as fixed or random batch or chip effects. MethLAB accounts for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at a user-specified level. Standard output includes a spreadsheet-ready text file and an array of publication-quality figures. Considering the growing interest in and availability of DNA methylation data, there is a great need for user-friendly open source analytical tools. With MethLAB, we present a timely resource that will allow users with no programming experience to implement flexible and powerful analyses of DNA methylation data.

  3. MethMarker: user-friendly design and optimization of gene-specific DNA methylation assays

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic regulation that is frequently altered in diseases such as cancer. To confirm the biological or clinical relevance of such changes, gene-specific DNA methylation changes need to be validated in multiple samples. We have developed the MethMarker http://methmarker.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ software to help design robust and cost-efficient DNA methylation assays for six widely used methods. Furthermore, MethMarker implements a bioinformatic workflow for transforming disease-specific differentially methylated genomic regions into robust clinical biomarkers. PMID:19804638

  4. Meth mouth.

    PubMed

    Heng, Christine K; Badner, Victor M; Schiop, Luminita Adela

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a drug traditionally sought by groups living on the fringes of society. But now, it has entered the mainstream. Over the last five years, meth has seen a surge in abuse, media coverage and attention from law-enforcement officers. Meth mouth is characterized by rampant caries, typically on the smooth surfaces of dentition. This article gives a history of meth use and abuse. It describes the condition of meth mouth and its etiology. Treatment options and other dental considerations are discussed.

  5. Meth mout.

    PubMed

    Heng, Christine K; Badner, Victor M; Schiop, Luminita Adela

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a drug traditionally sought by groups living on the fringes of society. But now, it has entered the mainstream. Over the last five years, meth has seen a surge in abuse, media coverage and attention from law enforcement officers. Meth mouth is characterized by rampant caries, typically on the smooth surfaces of dentition. This article gives a history of meth use and abuse. It describes the condition of meth mouth and its etiology. Treatment options and other dental considerations are discussed.

  6. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

  7. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  8. Abnormal striatal circuitry and intensified novelty seeking among adolescents who abuse methamphetamine and cannabis.

    PubMed

    Churchwell, John C; Carey, Paul D; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in striatal-mediated dopamine modulation during adolescence may increase the risk for initiating substance abuse as a result of its fundamental role in arbitrating reward sensitivity and motivation during learning and decision making. However, substance abuse during adolescence may also significantly modify striatal structure and function and concomitantly alter reward sensitivity and action control while this brain region is undergoing remodeling. In the present investigation, to assess the relationship of methamphetamine (Meth) or Meth and cannabis (CA) abuse to regional striatal morphology, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from three groups of adolescents composed of healthy controls (n = 10), Meth abusers (n = 9) and combined Meth and CA abusers (Meth+CA, n = 8). We also assessed novelty seeking using the novelty seeking subscale of Cloninger's Tridimensional Character Inventory. The results indicate that adolescent Meth+CA abusers have increased regional striatal volume and show intensified novelty seeking in contrast to the controls. The degree of Meth exposure was also positively correlated with regional striatal volume and novelty seeking in both the Meth and Meth+CA users. These preliminary findings support theories that propose a role for the striatum in adolescent substance abuse and further indicate that novelty seeking may be related to the initiation of, or sustained, drug use.

  9. Failure to Sustain Prepulse Inhibition in Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Dawes, Michael A.; Liguori, Anthony; Richard, Dawn M.; Bray, Bethany; Tong, Weiqun; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is typically initiated during adolescence, which is a critical period for neural development. Studies have reported reductions in prepulse inhibition (PPI) among adults who use marijuana chronically, although no human studies have been conducted during the critical adolescent period. Methods This study tested PPI of acoustic startle among adolescents who were either frequent marijuana Users or naïve to the drug (Controls). Adolescents were tested using two intensities of prepulses (70 and 85 dB) combined with a 105 dB startle stimulus, delivered across two testing blocks. Results There was a significant interaction of group by block for PPI; marijuana Users experienced a greater decline in the PPI across the testing session than Controls. The change in PPI of response magnitude for Users was predicted by change in urine THC/creatinine after atleast 18 hours of abstinence, the number of joints used during the previous week before testing, as well as self-reported DSM-IV symptoms of marijuana tolerance, and time spent using marijuana rather than participating in other activities. Conclusions These outcomes suggest that adolescents who are frequent marijuana users have problems maintaining of prepulse inhibition, possibly due to lower quality of information processing or sustained attention, both of may contribute to maintaining continued marijuana use as well as attrition from marijuana treatment. PMID:21196088

  10. Abnormal cerebellar morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277

  11. Beyond Effects: Adolescents as Active Media Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The articles in this special issue take a "uses and gratifications" approach that emphasizes that people make choices about the media they choose and that they differ in their interpretations of media content. The articles integrate this approach with developmental perspectives on adolescence. (SLD)

  12. ALTERED PREFRONTAL AND INSULAR CORTICAL THICKNESS IN ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa P.; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McGlade, Erin; King, Jace B.; Terry, Janine; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data regarding the impact of marijuana (MJ) on cortical development during adolescence. Adolescence is a period of substantial brain maturation and cortical thickness abnormalities may be indicative of disruptions of normal cortical development. This investigation applied cortical-surface based techniques to compare cortical thickness measures in MJ using adolescents compared to non-using controls. Methods Eighteen adolescents with heavy MJ use and 18 non-using controls similar in age received MRI scans using a 3T Siemens scanner. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with FreeSurfer. Group differences in cortical thickness were assessed using statistical difference maps covarying for age and gender. Results Compared to non-users, MJ users had decreased cortical thickness in right caudal middle frontal, bilateral insula and bilateral superior frontal corticies. Marijuana users had increased cortical thickness in the bilateral lingual, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal and left paracentral regions. In the MJ users, negative correlations were found between frontal and lingual regions for urinary cannabinoid levels and between age of onset of use and the right superior frontal gyrus. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to evaluate cortical thickness in a group of adolescents with heavy MJ use compared to non-users. Our findings are consistent with prior studies that documented abnormalities in prefrontal and insular regions. Our results suggest that age of regular use may be associated with altered prefrontal cortical gray matter development in adolescents. Furthermore, reduced insular cortical thickness may be a biological marker for increased risk of substance dependence. PMID:21310189

  13. Do adolescent Ecstasy users have different attitudes towards drugs when compared to Marijuana users?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents’ attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents: non-marijuana/ecstasy users, marijuana users (used marijuana at least once but never used ecstasy) and ecstasy users (used ecstasy at least once). Methods Data from 5,049 adolescents aged 12–18 years old who had complete weighted data information in Round 2 of the Restricted Use Files (RUF) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Results Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non-drug using youth. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non-drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs. Conclusion Information about the risks and consequences of ecstasy use need to be presented to adolescents in order to attempt to reduce adolescents’ approval of ecstasy use as well as ecstasy experimentation. PMID:18068314

  14. Profiles of Adolescent Substance Abstainers, Users, and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    Psychoactive drugs are widely available in the United States. Many, such as coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol, are used commonly and acceptably by adults. For children and adolescents sorting through the complex messages about both licit and illicit drugs is difficult. Previous research examined differences between substance users and abusers with…

  15. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  16. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  17. Meth math: modeling temperature responses to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Zaretsky, Dmitry V

    2014-04-15

    Methamphetamine (Meth) can evoke extreme hyperthermia, which correlates with neurotoxicity and death in laboratory animals and humans. The objective of this study was to uncover the mechanisms of a complex dose dependence of temperature responses to Meth by mathematical modeling of the neuronal circuitry. On the basis of previous studies, we composed an artificial neural network with the core comprising three sequentially connected nodes: excitatory, medullary, and sympathetic preganglionic neuronal (SPN). Meth directly stimulated the excitatory node, an inhibitory drive targeted the medullary node, and, in high doses, an additional excitatory drive affected the SPN node. All model parameters (weights of connections, sensitivities, and time constants) were subject to fitting experimental time series of temperature responses to 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg Meth. Modeling suggested that the temperature response to the lowest dose of Meth, which caused an immediate and short hyperthermia, involves neuronal excitation at a supramedullary level. The delay in response after the intermediate doses of Meth is a result of neuronal inhibition at the medullary level. Finally, the rapid and robust increase in body temperature induced by the highest dose of Meth involves activation of high-dose excitatory drive. The impairment in the inhibitory mechanism can provoke a life-threatening temperature rise and makes it a plausible cause of fatal hyperthermia in Meth users. We expect that studying putative neuronal sites of Meth action and the neuromediators involved in a detailed model of this system may lead to more effective strategies for prevention and treatment of hyperthermia induced by amphetamine-like stimulants.

  18. Do Australian Adolescent Female Fake Tan (Sunless Tan) Users Practice Better Sun-Protection Behaviours than Non-Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…

  19. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ+ALC) adolescents. Methods Thirty-six MJ+ALC adolescents (ages 16-19) and 36 demographically similar controls were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging (Bava et al., 2009) and neurocognitive tests. Regions of group difference in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were analyzed in relation to cognitive performance. Results In users, lower FA in temporal areas related to poorer performance on attention, working memory, and speeded processing tasks. Among regions where users had higher FA than controls, occipital FA was positively associated with working memory and complex visuomotor sequencing, whereas FA in anterior regions was negatively associated with verbal memory performance. Conclusions Findings suggest differential influences of white matter development on cognition in MJ+ALC using adolescents than in non-using peers. Neuroadaptation may reflect additive and subtractive responses to substance use that are complicated by competing maturational processes. PMID:19932550

  20. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depression) symptoms and brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Reliable raters manually traced amygdala and intracranial volumes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Female marijuana users had larger right amygdala volumes and more internalizing symptoms than female controls, after covarying head size, alcohol, nicotine and other substance use (p<0.05), while male users had similar volumes as male controls. For female controls and males, worse mood/anxiety was linked to smaller right amygdala volume (p<0.05), whereas more internalizing problems was associated with bigger right amygdala in female marijuana users. Gender interactions may reflect marijuana-related interruptions to sex-specific neuromaturational processes and staging. Subtle amygdala development abnormalities may underlie particular vulnerabilities to sub-diagnostic depression and anxiety in teenage female marijuana users. PMID:21664935

  1. Identification and Characterization of Adolescent Internet User's Profiles.

    PubMed

    Rial, Antonio; Gómez, Patricia; Picón, Eduardo; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The percentages of adolescent Internet use in general terms have been measured for nearly two decades now; however, it might be thought that not every teenager behaves online in the same way. This study aims to identify the different types or profiles of adolescents and to characterize them from an attitudinal, behavioral and socio-demographic viewpoint. A questionnaire was applied to a representative sample of 2,339 Compulsory Secondary School students (M = 13.77 years old) from Galicia (a North-Western region of Spain) for this purpose. A two-stage cluster analysis, based on the response pattern in relation to their attitudes toward Internet, was carried out. Four different segments with specific characteristics were identified: the first steppers, the trainees, the sensible users, and the heavy users. Besides the relevance of descriptive data, these results are of particular interest at an applied level, because they could lead to a better fit of programs to prevent risky behaviors and problematic Internet use in adolescents.

  2. Longitudinal Changes in White Matter Integrity Among Adolescent Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Thayer, Rachel E.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of repeated substance use during adolescent neurodevelopment remains unclear as there have been few prospective investigations. The aims of this study were to identify longitudinal changes in fiber tract integrity associated with alcohol and marijuana use severity over the course of 1.5 years. Method Adolescents with extensive marijuana and alcohol use histories by mid-adolescence (n = 41) and youth with consistently minimal if any substance use (n = 51) were followed over 18 months. Teens received diffusion tensor imaging and detailed substance use assessments with toxicology screening at baseline and 18-month follow-ups (i.e., 182 scans in all), as well as interim substance use interviews each 6 months. Results At 18-month follow-up, substance users showed poorer white matter integrity in seven tracts: (1) right superior longitudinal fasciculus, (2) left superior longitudinal fasciculus, (3) right posterior thalamic radiations, (4) right prefrontal thalamic fibers, (5) right superior temporal gyrus white matter, (6) right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and (7) left posterior corona radiata (ps< .01). More alcohol use during the interscan interval predicted higher mean diffusivity (i.e., worsened integrity) in right (p<.05) and left (p=.06) superior longitudinal fasciculi, above and beyond baseline values in these bundles. Marijuana use during the interscan interval did not predict change over time. More externalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity (i.e., poorer integrity) of the right prefrontal thalamic fibers (p<.025). Conclusion Findings add to previous cross sectional studies reporting white matter disadvantages in youth with substance use histories. In particular, alcohol use during adolescent neurodevelopment may be linked to reductions in white matter quality in association fiber tracts with frontal connections. In contrast, youth who engage in a variety of risk taking

  3. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  4. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  5. Impulsivity, Attention, Memory, and Decision-Making among Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dawes, Michael A.; Furr, R. Michael; Charles, Nora E.; Liguori, Anthony; Shannon, Erin E.; Acheson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Marijuana is a popular drug of abuse among adolescents, and they may be uniquely vulnerable to resulting cognitive and behavioral impairments. Previous studies have found impairments among adolescent marijuana users. However, the majority of this research has examined measures individually rather than multiple domains in a single cohesive analysis. This study used a logistic regression model that combines performance on a range of tasks to identify which measures were most altered among adolescent marijuana users. Objectives The purpose of this research was to determine unique associations between adolescent marijuana user and performances on multiple cognitive and behavioral domains (attention, memory, decision-making, and impulsivity) in 14- to 17-year-olds while simultaneously controlling for performances across the measures to determine which measures most strongly distinguish marijuana users from non-users. Methods Marijuana-using adolescents (n=45) and controls (n=48) were tested. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test for: (a) differences between marijuana users and non-users on each measure, (b) associations between marijuana use and each measure after controlling for the other measures, and (c) the degree to which (a) and (b) together elucidated differences among marijuana users and non-users. Results Of all the cognitive and behavioral domains tested, impaired short-term recall memory and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were associated with marijuana use after controlling for performances across all measures. Conclusions This study extends previous findings by identifying cognitive and behavioral impairments most strongly associated with adolescent marijuana users. These specific deficits are potential targets of intervention for this at-risk population. PMID:23138434

  6. Trafficking in Meth: An Analysis of the Differences between Male and Female Dealers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senjo, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Male and female meth dealers exhibit numerous common characteristics and patterns. For example, both can be relatively heavy users and both have similar (long) criminal records. However, both groups show important distinctions in their drug dealing patterns. This exploratory study compares 34 male and 26 female meth dealers (N = 60) who were…

  7. Altered cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive correlates in adolescent cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Goldenberg, Diane; Wierenga, Christina E.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Liu, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The effects of adolescent marijuana use on the developing brain remain unclear, despite its prevalence. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive imaging technique that characterizes neurovascular status and cerebral blood flow (CBF), potentially revealing contributors to neuropathological alterations. No studies to date have looked at CBF in adolescent marijuana users. Objectives This study examined CBF in adolescent marijuana users and matched healthy controls at baseline and after 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. Methods Heavy adolescent marijuana users (n=23, >200 lifetime marijuana use days) and demographically matched controls (n=23) with limited substance exposure underwent an ASL brain scan at an initial session and after 4 weeks of sequential urine toxicology to confirm abstinence. Results Marijuana users showed reduced CBF in four cortical regions including the left superior and middle temporal gyri, left insula, left and right medial frontal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus at baseline; users showed increased CBF in the right precuneus at baseline, as compared to controls (corrected p values<0.05). No between group differences were found at follow-up. Conclusions Marijuana use may influence CBF in otherwise healthy adolescents acutely; however, group differences were not observed after several weeks of abstinence. Neurovascular alterations may contribute to or underlie changes in brain activation, neuropsychological performance, and mood observed in young cannabis users with less than a month of abstinence. PMID:22395430

  8. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  9. Adolescents' Beliefs about Marijuana Use: A Comparison of Regular Users, Past Users and Never/Occasional Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Stephan, Philippe; Laget, Jacques; Chinet, Leonie; Bernard, Mathieu; Halfon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire investigating adolescents' opinions and experiences regarding marijuana use was administered to 163 adolescents and young adults (96 boys and 67 girls) aged 13 to 20 (mean age = 16.8, s.d. = 1.5). Items referred to marijuana and other substances' dangerousness, representations regarding the positive and negative consequences of…

  10. Validation of the Waterpipe Tolerance Questionnaire among Jordanian School-Going Adolescent Waterpipe Users

    PubMed Central

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Shotar, Ali M.; Pbert, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe use among adolescents has been increasing progressively. Yet no studies were reported to assess the validity and reliability of nicotine dependence scale. The current study aims to assess the validity and reliability of an Arabic version of the modified Waterpipe Tolerance Questionnaire WTQ among school-going adolescent waterpipe users. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted in Jordan, information on waterpipe use among 333 school-going adolescents aged 11-18 years was obtained using the Arabic version of the WTQ. An exploratory factor analysis and correlation matrices were conducted to assess validity and reliability of the WTQ. Results: The WTQ had a 0.73 alpha of internal consistency indicating moderate level of reliability. The scale showed multidimensionality with items loading on two factors, namely waterpipe consumption and morning smoking. Conclusion: This study report nicotine dependence level among school-going adolescents who identify themselves as waterpipe users using the WTQ. PMID:26383198

  11. Latent Classes of Substance Use in Adolescent Cannabis Users: Predictors and Subsequent Substance-Related Harm

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Brière, Frédéric N.; Janosz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is highly prevalent in late adolescence, but not all users experience significant negative consequences. Little information is available to identify the substance use patterns and risk factors of users who are at greater risk of experiencing negative consequences. In this prospective study, we aimed to empirically identify latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users and to examine how these classes relate to antecedent psychosocial predictors and subsequent substance-related outcomes. The sample was recruited from 68 high schools in Quebec and consisted of 1618 participants who reported using cannabis in grade 10. We used latent class analysis to empirically identify classes of users based on the age of onset, frequency, and typical quantity of cannabis and other substance use, as well as substance mixing behaviors. We then compared classes in terms of (a) sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors in grades 7–8 and (b) substance-related consequences in grade 11. Four distinct classes were identified: Late-Light Users (28%); Late-Heavy + Polydrug Users (14%); Early-Moderate Users (33%); Early-Heavy + Polydrug Users (26%). Late-Light Users reported the lowest levels of substance use, while Early-Heavy + Polydrug Users reported the highest levels. Intermediate levels of substance use were found in the other two classes. Sex, age, delinquency, peer delinquency, school bonding, parental monitoring, and parental conflict all helped to differentiate classes. Class membership predicted substance-related harm, with greater consequences in early- and late-onset heavy using classes. In light of results, in addition to age and sex, screening and intervention for risky cannabis use among adolescents should focus on school bonding in order to target the most risky late-onset adolescents and on peer delinquency in order to target the most risky early-onset ones. PMID:24570663

  12. Brain Responses to Musical Feature Changes in Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Sandmann, Pascale; Brattico, Elvira; Hansen, Mads; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are primarily designed to assist deaf individuals in perception of speech, although possibilities for music fruition have also been documented. Previous studies have indicated the existence of neural correlates of residual music skills in postlingually deaf adults and children. However, little is known about the behavioral and neural correlates of music perception in the new generation of prelingually deaf adolescents who grew up with CIs. With electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential to changes in musical features in adolescent CI users and in normal-hearing (NH) age mates. EEG recordings and behavioral testing were carried out before (T1) and after (T2) a 2-week music training program for the CI users and in two sessions equally separated in time for NH controls. We found significant MMNs in adolescent CI users for deviations in timbre, intensity, and rhythm, indicating residual neural prerequisites for musical feature processing. By contrast, only one of the two pitch deviants elicited an MMN in CI users. This pitch discrimination deficit was supported by behavioral measures, in which CI users scored significantly below the NH level. Overall, MMN amplitudes were significantly smaller in CI users than in NH controls, suggesting poorer music discrimination ability. Despite compliance from the CI participants, we found no effect of the music training, likely resulting from the brevity of the program. This is the first study showing significant brain responses to musical feature changes in prelingually deaf adolescent CI users and their associations with behavioral measures, implying neural predispositions for at least some aspects of music processing. Future studies should test any beneficial effects of a longer lasting music intervention in adolescent CI users. PMID:25705185

  13. Neural Correlates of Verbal Learning in Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Alcohol and marijuana are the most widely used intoxicants among adolescents, yet their potential unique and interactive influences on the developing brain are not well established. Brain regions subserving learning and memory undergo continued maturation during adolescence, and may be particularly susceptible to substance-related neurotoxic damage. Here, we characterize brain response during verbal learning among adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Design Participants performed a verbal paired associates encoding task during fMRI scanning. Setting Adolescent subjects were recruited from local public schools and imaged at a University-based fMRI Center. Participants Participants were 74 16- to 18-year-olds, divided into four groups: (1) 22 controls with limited alcohol and marijuana experience, (2) 16 binge drinkers, (3) 8 marijuana users, and (4) 28 binge drinking marijuana users. Measurements Diagnostic interview assured that all teens were free from neurologic or psychiatric disorders; urine toxicology and breathalyzer verified abstinence for 22–28 days before scanning; a verbal paired associates task was administered during fMRI. Findings Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the verbal encoding task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns. A main effect of drinking pointed to decreased inferior frontal but increased dorsal frontal and parietal fMRI response among binge drinkers (corrected p < .05). There was no main effect of marijuana use. Binge drinking × marijuana interactions were found in bilateral frontal regions (corrected p < .05), where users of either alcohol or marijuana showed greater response than non-users, but users of both substances resembled non-users. Conclusions Adolescent substance users demonstrated altered fMRI response relative to nonusing controls, yet binge drinking appeared associated with more differences in activation than marijuana use. Alcohol and marijuana may have interactive effects that

  14. Brain responses to musical feature changes in adolescent cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Sandmann, Pascale; Brattico, Elvira; Hansen, Mads; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are primarily designed to assist deaf individuals in perception of speech, although possibilities for music fruition have also been documented. Previous studies have indicated the existence of neural correlates of residual music skills in postlingually deaf adults and children. However, little is known about the behavioral and neural correlates of music perception in the new generation of prelingually deaf adolescents who grew up with CIs. With electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential to changes in musical features in adolescent CI users and in normal-hearing (NH) age mates. EEG recordings and behavioral testing were carried out before (T1) and after (T2) a 2-week music training program for the CI users and in two sessions equally separated in time for NH controls. We found significant MMNs in adolescent CI users for deviations in timbre, intensity, and rhythm, indicating residual neural prerequisites for musical feature processing. By contrast, only one of the two pitch deviants elicited an MMN in CI users. This pitch discrimination deficit was supported by behavioral measures, in which CI users scored significantly below the NH level. Overall, MMN amplitudes were significantly smaller in CI users than in NH controls, suggesting poorer music discrimination ability. Despite compliance from the CI participants, we found no effect of the music training, likely resulting from the brevity of the program. This is the first study showing significant brain responses to musical feature changes in prelingually deaf adolescent CI users and their associations with behavioral measures, implying neural predispositions for at least some aspects of music processing. Future studies should test any beneficial effects of a longer lasting music intervention in adolescent CI users.

  15. Brain responses to musical feature changes in adolescent cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Sandmann, Pascale; Brattico, Elvira; Hansen, Mads; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are primarily designed to assist deaf individuals in perception of speech, although possibilities for music fruition have also been documented. Previous studies have indicated the existence of neural correlates of residual music skills in postlingually deaf adults and children. However, little is known about the behavioral and neural correlates of music perception in the new generation of prelingually deaf adolescents who grew up with CIs. With electroencephalography (EEG), we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential to changes in musical features in adolescent CI users and in normal-hearing (NH) age mates. EEG recordings and behavioral testing were carried out before (T1) and after (T2) a 2-week music training program for the CI users and in two sessions equally separated in time for NH controls. We found significant MMNs in adolescent CI users for deviations in timbre, intensity, and rhythm, indicating residual neural prerequisites for musical feature processing. By contrast, only one of the two pitch deviants elicited an MMN in CI users. This pitch discrimination deficit was supported by behavioral measures, in which CI users scored significantly below the NH level. Overall, MMN amplitudes were significantly smaller in CI users than in NH controls, suggesting poorer music discrimination ability. Despite compliance from the CI participants, we found no effect of the music training, likely resulting from the brevity of the program. This is the first study showing significant brain responses to musical feature changes in prelingually deaf adolescent CI users and their associations with behavioral measures, implying neural predispositions for at least some aspects of music processing. Future studies should test any beneficial effects of a longer lasting music intervention in adolescent CI users. PMID:25705185

  16. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Wheelchair Users: A Provincial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims were to examine (i) adolescents' attitudes towards family members who use a wheelchair in relation to other health problems and conditions, and (ii) the association between perceived wheelchair stigma and socio-demographic factors. Data were based on surveys from 2790 seventh to 12th grade students derived from the 2007 cycle of the…

  17. Helium inhalation in adolescents: characteristics of users and prevalence of use.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Ahmed; Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Although helium-related fatalities and concerns about potentially harmful effects of helium use have increased in recent years, virtually nothing is known about the epidemiology of helium inhalation in adolescents. This exploratory investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of helium inhalation in a large sample of at-risk youth. Study participants were 723 Missouri adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2) in residential treatment for delinquent behavior. More than one-in-nine (N = 81, 11.5%) adolescents had inhaled helium with the intention of getting high, and one-third (N = 27, 34.2%) of helium users reported they actually did get high when they inhaled helium. Helium users were significantly more likely to be Caucasian, to live in rural/small town areas, and to have histories of mental illness, auditory hallucinations, and alcohol and marijuana use than nonusers. Helium users also reported significantly more current psychiatric distress, suicidality, traumatic life experiences, and antisocial attitudes, traits, and behaviors than nonusers. Helium inhalation was prevalent in this sample and many such users reported getting high while using helium. Helium users had psychosocial profiles similar to those of volatile solvent users, suggesting that they may be at substantial risk for a variety of adverse health outcomes.

  18. The Association between Internet User Characteristics and Dimensions of Internet Addiction among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Svoli, Hionia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how internet users' psychological characteristics, amount of internet use and demographic factors contribute to particular dimensions of internet addiction. The sample consisted of 384 adolescents, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years. Participants were asked to complete the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), measures of Locus of…

  19. Response inhibition and elevated parietal-cerebellar correlations in chronic adolescent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Behan, B; Connolly, C G; Datwani, S; Doucet, M; Ivanovic, J; Morioka, R; Stone, A; Watts, R; Smyth, B; Garavan, H

    2014-09-01

    The ability to successfully inhibit an inappropriate behaviour is a crucial component of executive functioning and its impairment has been linked to substance dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in adolescence and, given the accelerated neuromaturation during adolescence, it is important to determine the effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning during this developmental period. In this study, a cohort of adolescent heavy cannabis users and age-matched non-cannabis-using controls completed a Go/No-Go paradigm. Users were impaired in performance on the task but voxelwise and region-of-interest comparisons revealed no activation differences between groups. Instead, an analysis of correlation patterns between task-activated areas revealed heightened correlation scores in the users between bilateral inferior parietal lobules and the left cerebellum. The increased correlation activity between these regions was replicated with resting state fMRI data and was positively correlated with self-reported, recent cannabis usage. The results suggests that the poorer inhibitory control of adolescent cannabis users might be related to aberrant connectivity between nodes of the response inhibition circuit and that this effect is observable in both task-induced and intrinsic correlation patterns. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  20. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of synthetic cannabinoid use among adolescent cannabis users: Characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC), particularly use among adolescent substance users who may be at higher risk. The present exploratory study seeks to describe SC use and subjective effects among cannabis-using adolescents as well as compare the characteristics of cannabis users who do and do not use SC. Exploratory analyses evaluated cannabis treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Participants enrolled in a randomized, controlled intervention for cannabis-using high school students aged 14-19 (N=252) completed questionnaires regarding their use of SC and other substances. Those who used SC in the past 60days reported subjective effects of SC, consequences, and SC use disorder symptoms. Baseline characteristics, alcohol and other drug use, and treatment outcomes of SC users were compared to participants who never tried SC. Within this sample 29% had tried SC, and 6% used SC recently. Although most reported use at a relatively low rate, 43% of recent SC users reported SC use-disorder symptoms. Positive and negative subjective effects of SC were endorsed, with positive subjective effects reported more often. SC use was associated with more cannabis use, but not more alcohol or other (non-SC and non-cannabis) drug use. SC users did not differ from non-users on cannabis treatment outcomes. This exploratory study described SC use, and compared characteristics and treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Negative subjective effects of SC were reported as occurring less often, but SC use was associated with use disorder psychopathology. SC use was associated with more problematic cannabis use at baseline, but was not associated with use of other substances or differences in treatment outcome.

  2. The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    TERZIC SUPIC, Zorica; SANTRIC MILICEVIC, Milena; SBUTEGA, Isidora; VASIC, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption. Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft) during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user. Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05). Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture. PMID:23641402

  3. Risk perceptions of smokeless tobacco among adolescents and adult users and nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sherry T.; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth in smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has raised questions about consumer risk perceptions of ST products, especially in high-risk vulnerable populations. This qualitative study examined risk perceptions of ST among adolescent and adult users and non-users in Ohio Appalachia. Focus groups and interviews were held with adolescents (n=53; mean age of 17 years) and adults (n=63; mean age of 34 years) from four Ohio Appalachian counties. Participants were asked about their perceptions of ST-related health risks, ST safety, and the relative safety of ST compared to cigarettes. Transcriptions were coded independently by two individuals. Overall, participants were knowledgeable about health problems from ST use (e.g., oral cancers, periodontal disease). Nearly all participants stated that ST use is not safe; however, there was disagreement about its relative safety. Some perceived all tobacco products as equally harmful; others believed that ST is safer than cigarettes for either the user or those around the user. Disagreements about ST relative safety may reflect mixed public health messages concerning the safety of ST. Comprehensive consumer messages about the relative safety of ST compared to cigarettes are needed. Messages should address the effect of ST on the health of the user as well as those exposed to the user. PMID:25832126

  4. A comparison of adolescent methamphetamine and other substance users in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard J; Jackson, David S

    2008-11-01

    Methamphetamine use continues to be a significant problem for adolescents in Hawai'i, especially among Native Hawaiians and other Asian and Pacific Islanders. However, no research has compared the unique characteristics of these methamphetamine (MA) users to other substance users, which could contribute to enhanced treatment approaches. Utilizing a sample of adolescent treatment clients, this study compared those who have ever used and those who have never used methamphetamines on various domains. Results showed that girls were significantly more likely to use methamphetamines than other substances. Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders were more likely to use methamphetamines as well, although the difference was not statistically significant. MA users reported significantly more homelessness and prior treatment episodes. While no differences were found in arrest rates or days in jail/prison/juvenile detention in the past 90 days, MA users scored significantly higher on all self-reported crime indices. MA users also scored significantly higher on all substance problem and mental health indices, and reported significantly poorer health. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed.

  5. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  6. Follow-up of adolescent oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Delmore, T; Kalagian, W F; Loewen, I R

    1991-01-01

    Clients in birth control centers (St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, and Welland) in Ontario, Canada were profiled in 1989; factors affecting compliance with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) were investigated. Compliance was assessed for those 16 years and after 3 months of OC use. A control group and 2 study groups were randomly formed. 1 group was told about a follow up telephone call if the 3-month checkup appointment was not kept and the other not told. Compliance was determined by keeping the follow-up appointment and taking the pill as directed. Self-administered questionnaires were obtained at the 1st appointment and the 2nd study group was interviewed at the 3-month appointment time. Of the 334 intake interviews, 28.4% were adolescents 16 years old. Information on birth control came most frequently from friends (78.7%; then high school classmates, 61.4% grade school classmates, 61.4%; and family, 38.0%). 94.3% had a boyfriend, primarily a steady one. 82.4% were sexually active before the Center visit. 21.3% had had sex when 15 years old. 9.2% of those sexually active had never used birth control. 85.2% of those using contraception had used a condom at least once, and 33.9% used withdrawal. In the preceding month, birth control was used 60% of the time. 46% of mothers and 25% of fathers were considered supportive of birth control. 228 16 years participated in the compliance study. The 2 study groups and the control group were not significantly different in their compliance. The only statistically significant predictor of compliance (from the intake interview) was the previous use of the condom. Those more likely to be compliant were the 10.9% sexually active who had never used a condom. Continuing with the family doctor, not sexually active, advice to stop, side effects concerns, and remembering to take the pill were the most common reasons for noncompliance. The implication for health and sex education is that emphasis needs to the placed on the risks taken

  7. Snus user identity and addiction. A Swedish focus group study on adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus. Methods Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis. Results Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students’ opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as – for the boys – development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour. Conclusions The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents. PMID:23148521

  8. The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Susan Harrington; Meyers, Robert J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Karvinen, Tracy; Titus, Janet C.; Godley, Mark D.; Dent, George; Passetti, Lora; Kelberg, Pamela

    This publication was written for therapists and their supervisors who may want to implement the adolescent community reinforcement approach intervention, which was one of the five interventions tested by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Project. The CYT Project provided funding to support a study…

  9. A Statewide Profile of Frequent Users of School-Based Health Centers: Implications for Adolescent Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kevin T.; Ramos, Mary M.; Fowler, Tara T.; Oreskovich, Kristin; McGrath, Jane; Fairbrother, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to describe patterns of care and service use among adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users in New Mexico and contrast patterns and services between frequent and infrequent users. Methods: Medical claims/encounter data were analyzed from 59 SBHCs located in secondary schools in New Mexico during…

  10. The effect of design on the usability and real world effectiveness of medical devices: a case study with adolescent users.

    PubMed

    Lang, Alexandra R; Martin, Jennifer L; Sharples, Sarah; Crowe, John A

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents are currently overlooked in many fields of healthcare research and as a result are often required to use medical devices that have been designed for use by either children or adults. This can lead to poor adherence and a reduction in health outcomes. This study examines the role of device design in the real-world effectiveness of a medical device used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis from the perspective of adolescent users. Interactive design interviews were carried out with 20 adolescent users of the acapella(®) physiotherapy device to investigate user requirements and themes about the user-device relationship that are important to this user group. This study found that adolescent users of the acapella(®) device do not use the device as regularly and correctly as is recommended by clinicians. A number of aspects of the current design of the acapella(®) device were identified that affect how and how often it is used. Five factors are identified that may improve the real world effectiveness of the acapella(®) device for adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: engagement, information, confidence, aesthetics and compatibility with lifestyle. PMID:23453773

  11. Does Information Matter? The Effect of the Meth Project on Meth Use among Youths*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP’s apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana’s youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use. PMID:20638737

  12. Does information matter? The effect of the Meth Project on meth use among youths.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark

    2010-09-01

    Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP's apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana's youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use. PMID:20638737

  13. Influence of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion Training in Adolescent Wheelchair Users, A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L.; Rice, Ian M.; Rice, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13–18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury. PMID:26042217

  14. Influence of handrim wheelchair propulsion training in adolescent wheelchair users, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dysterheft, Jennifer L; Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.

  15. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  16. The Meth Project and Teen Meth Use: New Estimates from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David

    2015-12-01

    In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students. PMID:25294722

  17. Effects of Parental Use of Meth on Children in My Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKellar, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    Of all the videos that the author shows in psychopathology class, the one that her graduate students invariably find the most disturbing is "Crank: Made in America" (Yates, 2003). Long-time users of methamphetamine (meth) candidly tell their stories in this HBO film. The author still finds it very unsettling to watch it, even though she has seen…

  18. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G.; Lundberg, Kelly J.; McGlade, Erin C.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; Fiedler, Kristen K.; Harrell, Renee E.; Nickerson, Bethany R.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with highenergy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. METHODS Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. RESULTS METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=0.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=0.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0 gram) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7 gram), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. PMID:23084413

  19. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of a brief motivational enhancement for non-treatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    de Gee, Elisabeth A; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Bransen, Els; de Jonge, Jannet M; Schippers, Gerard M

    2014-09-01

    Evidence for negative effects of early-onset cannabis use has led to a need for effective interventions targeting adolescent cannabis users. A randomized controlled trial of an Australian two-session intervention based on motivational interviewing (the ACCU, or Weed-Check in Dutch) was replicated in a larger Dutch sample of 119 non-treatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users. Outcome measures at the 3-month follow-up were quantity and frequency of cannabis use, symptoms of dependence, stage of change, and psychosocial functioning. Changes in all measures were in the expected direction, yet not significant. In moderation analyses, heavier cannabis users at baseline receiving the Weed-Check had greater reductions in cannabis use than those in the control condition. These results suggest that the Weed-Check might be beneficial for heavier cannabis-using adolescents. Further research is needed to confirm these results in a sample of adolescent heavy cannabis users and to examine the relationship between MI skills of prevention workers and outcome.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a brief motivational enhancement for non-treatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    de Gee, Elisabeth A; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Bransen, Els; de Jonge, Jannet M; Schippers, Gerard M

    2014-09-01

    Evidence for negative effects of early-onset cannabis use has led to a need for effective interventions targeting adolescent cannabis users. A randomized controlled trial of an Australian two-session intervention based on motivational interviewing (the ACCU, or Weed-Check in Dutch) was replicated in a larger Dutch sample of 119 non-treatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users. Outcome measures at the 3-month follow-up were quantity and frequency of cannabis use, symptoms of dependence, stage of change, and psychosocial functioning. Changes in all measures were in the expected direction, yet not significant. In moderation analyses, heavier cannabis users at baseline receiving the Weed-Check had greater reductions in cannabis use than those in the control condition. These results suggest that the Weed-Check might be beneficial for heavier cannabis-using adolescents. Further research is needed to confirm these results in a sample of adolescent heavy cannabis users and to examine the relationship between MI skills of prevention workers and outcome. PMID:24969735

  2. Brain Microstructure and Impulsivity Differ between Current and Past Methamphetamine Users.

    PubMed

    Andres, Tamara; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi; Greenstein, David; Nakama, Helenna; Chang, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorder continues to be highly prevalent worldwide. Meth users have higher impulsivity and brain abnormalities that may be different between current and past Meth users. The current study assessed impulsivity and depressive symptoms in 94 participants (27 current Meth users, 32 past Meth users and 35 non-drug user controls). Additionally, brain microstructure was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in the striatum, and FA, MD, radial and axial diffusivity were quantified in five white matter structures using DtiStudio.Across the three subject groups, current users had the highest self-reported impulsivity scores, while both Meth user groups had larger striatal structures than the controls. Past Meth users had the highest FA and lowest MD in the striatum, which is likely due to greater magnetic susceptibility from higher iron content and greater dendritic spine density. In white matter tracts, current Meth users had higher AD than past users, indicating greater water diffusion along the axons, and suggesting inflammation with axonal swelling. In contrast, past users had the lowest AD, indicating more restricted diffusion, which might have resulted from reactive gliosis. Although current Meth users had greater impulsivity than past users, the brain microstructural abnormalities showed differences that may reflect different stages of neuroinflammation or iron-induced neurodegeneration. Combining current and past Meth users may lead to greater variability in studies of Meth users. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between recency of Meth use and brain microstructure.

  3. Brain Microstructure and Impulsivity Differ between Current and Past Methamphetamine Users.

    PubMed

    Andres, Tamara; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi; Greenstein, David; Nakama, Helenna; Chang, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorder continues to be highly prevalent worldwide. Meth users have higher impulsivity and brain abnormalities that may be different between current and past Meth users. The current study assessed impulsivity and depressive symptoms in 94 participants (27 current Meth users, 32 past Meth users and 35 non-drug user controls). Additionally, brain microstructure was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in the striatum, and FA, MD, radial and axial diffusivity were quantified in five white matter structures using DtiStudio.Across the three subject groups, current users had the highest self-reported impulsivity scores, while both Meth user groups had larger striatal structures than the controls. Past Meth users had the highest FA and lowest MD in the striatum, which is likely due to greater magnetic susceptibility from higher iron content and greater dendritic spine density. In white matter tracts, current Meth users had higher AD than past users, indicating greater water diffusion along the axons, and suggesting inflammation with axonal swelling. In contrast, past users had the lowest AD, indicating more restricted diffusion, which might have resulted from reactive gliosis. Although current Meth users had greater impulsivity than past users, the brain microstructural abnormalities showed differences that may reflect different stages of neuroinflammation or iron-induced neurodegeneration. Combining current and past Meth users may lead to greater variability in studies of Meth users. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between recency of Meth use and brain microstructure. PMID:27137938

  4. Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users with Co-Occurring Alcohol Use: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Infante, M. Alejandra; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Meruelo, Alejandro D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. Method Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n=59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then re-assessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. Results MJ+ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps<.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps≤.02). Conclusions Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. PMID:25938918

  5. Identifying Problematic Internet Users: Development and Validation of the Internet Motive Questionnaire for Adolescents (IMQ-A)

    PubMed Central

    Bischof-Kastner, Christina; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Internationally, up to 15.1% of intensive Internet use among adolescents is dysfunctional. To provide a basis for early intervention and preventive measures, understanding the motives behind intensive Internet use is important. Objective This study aims to develop a questionnaire, the Internet Motive Questionnaire for Adolescents (IMQ-A), as a theory-based measurement for identifying the underlying motives for high-risk Internet use. More precisely, the aim was to confirm the 4-factor structure (ie, social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives) as well as its construct and concurrent validity. Another aim was to identify the motivational differences between high-risk and low-risk Internet users. Methods A sample of 101 German adolescents (female: 52.5%, 53/101; age: mean 15.9, SD 1.3 years) was recruited. High-risk users (n=47) and low-risk users (n=54) were identified based on a screening measure for online addiction behavior in children and adolescents (Online-Suchtverhalten-Skala, OSVK-S). Here, “high-risk” Internet use means use that exceeds the level of intensive Internet use (OSVK-S sum score ≥7). Results The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the IMQ-A’s 4-factor structure. A reliability analysis revealed good internal consistencies of the subscales (.71 up to .86). Moreover, regression analyses confirmed that the enhancement and coping motive groups significantly predicted high-risk Internet consumption and the OSVK-S sum score. A mixed-model ANOVA confirmed that adolescents mainly access the Internet for social motives, followed by enhancement and coping motives, and that high-risk users access the Internet more frequently for coping and enhancement motives than low-risk users. Low-risk users were primarily motivated socially. Conclusions The IMQ-A enables the assessment of motives related to adolescent Internet use and thus the identification of populations at risk. The questionnaire enables the development of preventive

  6. Social Representations Used by the Parents of Mexican Adolescent Drug Users under Treatment to Explain Their Children's Drug Use: Gender Differences in Parental Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Rodriguez-Cerda, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social representations used by the parents of adolescent drug users to explain the onset of drug use. Differences in explanations between the parents of male and female adolescents were also explored. Sixty parents who accompanied their children to four rehabilitation centers in 2004 completed two…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Perception Skills and Device Characteristics of Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Davidson, Lisa S.; Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Brenner, Christine M.; Geers, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Background For pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users, CI processor technology, map characteristics and fitting strategies are known to have a substantial impact on speech perception scores at young ages. It is unknown whether these benefits continue over time as these children reach adolescence. Purpose To document changes in CI technology, map characteristics, and speech perception scores in children between elementary grades and high school, and to describe relations between map characteristics and speech perception scores over time. Research Design A longitudinal design with participants 8–9 years old at session 1 and 15–18 years old at session 2. Study Sample Participants were 82 adolescents with unilateral CIs, who are a subset of a larger longitudinal study. Mean age at implantation was 3.4 years (range: 1.7 – 5.4), and mean duration of device use was 5.5 years (range: 3.8–7.5) at session 1 and 13.3 years (range: 10.9–15) at session 2. Data Collection and Analysis Speech perception tests at sessions 1 and 2 were the Lexical Neighborhood word Test (LNT-70) and Bamford-Kowal-Bench sentences in quiet (BKB-Q), presented at 70 dB SPL. At session 2, the LNT was also administered at 50 dB SPL (LNT-50) and BKB sentences were administered in noise with a +10 dB SNR (BKB-N). CI processor technology type and CI map characteristics (coding strategy, number of electrodes, map threshold levels [T levels], and map comfort levels [C levels]) were obtained at both sessions. Electrical dynamic range [EDR] was computed [C level – T level], and descriptive statistics, correlations, and repeated-measures ANOVAs were employed. Results Participants achieved significantly higher LNT and BKB scores, at 70 dB SPL, at ages 15-18 than at ages 8-9 years. Forty-two participants had 1-3 electrodes either activated or deactivated in their map between test sessions, and 40 had no change in number of active electrodes (mean change: -0.5; range: -3 to +2). After conversion from

  8. Individual Characteristics of Adolescent Methamphetamine Users in Relation to Self-Reported Trouble with the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman, Ruth; Nowicke, Carole E.; Jun, Mi Kung

    2010-01-01

    Survey responses by nonexperimental drug users in grades 6-12 were examined to determine whether MA users and nonusers with shared individual characteristics experience differential rates of police trouble, and whether specific factors place some users at greater risk than others. Findings showed that police trouble is pronounced for MA users,…

  9. Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Adolescent Marijuana Users: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James

    2006-01-01

    This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…

  10. Surrender To Win: How Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Users Change Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Courtney; Long, Wesley

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the uniqueness and complexity of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse recovery, particularly the early years and events catalyzing the surrender process. Offers individual interviews of seven adolescents who surrendered their alcohol and drug addictions and constructed sober identities through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous. (GCP)

  11. Family Support Network for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Nancy L.; Brantley, Laura Bunch; Tims, Frank M.; Angelovich, Nancy; McDougall, Barbara

    Substance-abusing adolescents experiencing inadequate family structure and functioning will be at a serious disadvantage with regard to recovery. The family support network (FSN) intervention seeks to extend the focus of treatment beyond the world of the adolescent by engaging the family, a major system in his or her life. Designed to increase…

  12. Are Adolescent Substance Users Less Satisfied with Life as Young Adults and if so, Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Laura M.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether adolescent cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use predicts life satisfaction in young adulthood. Survey data were used from a longitudinal cohort of 2376 adolescents at ages 18 and 29, originally recruited from California and Oregon middle schools at age 13. Results of multivariate models indicated…

  13. Defining the Boundaries of Early Adolescence: A User's Guide to Assessing Pubertal Status and Pubertal Timing in Research with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Woodward, Hermi Rojahn; Biro, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses pragmatic issues regarding the assessment of puberty in research on adolescent health and development. Because pubertal processes have a major effect on physical, psychological, and social development, we posit that the assessment of pubertal status is at least as important as the specification of age for characterizing…

  14. The color of meth: is it related to adverse health outcomes? An exploratory study in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Case, Patricia; Lozada, Remedios; Mantsios, Andrea R; Alvelais, Jorge; Pu, Minya; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Miller, Cari L; Patterson, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    In a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, logistic regression identified factors associated with injection of colored vs. clear methamphetamine in the prior six months (N = 613). Colors injected most often were clear (50%), white (47%), yellow (2%), and pink (1%). IDUs injecting colored meth were more likely to experience recent abscesses (34%) compared to those injecting clear meth (24%; p = 0.008), an association that persisted after adjusting for confounders. Market characteristics, possibly relating to purity or adulterants, may be associated with abscesses among methamphetamine injectors. Further study is needed to confirm and determine the mechanism of this association to better inform prevention messages.

  15. Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554

  16. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  17. (R)-2,2'-Bis(meth-oxy-meth-oxy)-1,1'-binaphth-yl.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Eli, Wumanjiang

    2012-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(24)H(22)O(4), contains two independent mol-ecules in both of which the naphthalene ring systems adopts a transoid arrangement. The dihedral angles between the naphthalene ring system in the two mol-ecules are 83.0 (1) and 89.0 (1)°. There are slight differences in the C(H(3))-O-C(H(2))-O- torsion angles of the eqivalent meth-oxy-meth-oxy groups. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present.

  18. Bis[2-(cyclo-pentyl-imino-meth-yl)-5-meth-oxy-phenolato]copper(II).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Hui; Lu, Jiu-Fu

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C(13)H(16)NO(2))(2)], is a mononuclear copper(II) complex derived from the Schiff base ligand 2-(cyclo-pentyl-imino-meth-yl)-5-meth-oxy-phenol and copper acetate. The Cu(II) atom is four-coordinated by the phenolate O atoms and imine N atoms from two Schiff base ligands, in a highly distorted square-planar geometry. The O- and N-donor atoms are mutually trans and the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 55.8 (3)°. PMID:21588128

  19. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  20. Service Users' Experiences of a Brief Intervention Service for Children and Adolescents: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Jen; Schlösser, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Ten per cent of young people experience mental health difficulties at any one time. Prevention and early intervention leads to better prognosis for young people's mental well-being in the short and long term. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) must be able to provide swift and effective interventions for a range of difficulties to…

  1. Reduction in Emergency Presentations by Adolescent Poly-Drug Users: A Case-Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Robert J.; Hulse, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives were, firstly, to describe the frequency and type of hospital emergency department (ED) admissions in a small number of alcohol and other drug (AOD) using adolescents who accounted for a high number of ED and other hospital presentations. Secondly, to identify interventions that impacted on these repeat ED presentations. An earlier…

  2. Alcohol Abstainers, Experimenters, Regular and Heavy Users: Value Differences among Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M.

    Values are a central concept in understanding and predicting human behavior. Value priority differences have been shown to predict important political, social, and economic attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify differences and similarities among the value hierarchies of adolescents who have never tried alcohol,…

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Health Care-Seeking Patterns Among Female Users of Urban Adolescent Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Marable, Danelle; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and associations with health care-seeking patterns among female patients of adolescent clinics, and to examine screening for IPV and IPV disclosure patterns within these clinics. A self-administered, anonymous, computerized survey was administered to female clients ages 14–20 years (N = 448) seeking care in five urban adolescent clinics, inquiring about IPV history, reasons for seeking care, and IPV screening by and IPV disclosure to providers. Two in five (40%) female urban adolescent clinic patients had experienced IPV, with 32% reporting physical and 21% reporting sexual victimization. Among IPV survivors, 45% reported abuse in their current or most recent relationship. IPV prevalence was equally high among those visiting clinics for reproductive health concerns as among those seeking care for other reasons. IPV victimization was associated with both poor current health status (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03–2.40) and having foregone care in the past year (AOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.20–5.58). Recent IPV victimization was associated only with past 12 month foregone care (AOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.18–3.46). A minority (30%) reported ever being screened for IPV in a clinical setting. IPV victimization is pervasive among female adolescent clinic attendees regardless of visit type, yet IPV screening by providers appears low. Patients reporting poor health status and foregone care are more likely to have experienced IPV. IPV screening and interventions tailored for female patients of adolescent clinics are needed. PMID:19760162

  4. MethBank: a database integrating next-generation sequencing single-base-resolution DNA methylation programming data.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dong; Sun, Shixiang; Li, Rujiao; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation plays crucial roles during embryonic development. Here we present MethBank (http://dnamethylome.org), a DNA methylome programming database that integrates the genome-wide single-base nucleotide methylomes of gametes and early embryos in different model organisms. Unlike extant relevant databases, MethBank incorporates the whole-genome single-base-resolution methylomes of gametes and early embryos at multiple different developmental stages in zebrafish and mouse. MethBank allows users to retrieve methylation levels, differentially methylated regions, CpG islands, gene expression profiles and genetic polymorphisms for a specific gene or genomic region. Moreover, it offers a methylome browser that is capable of visualizing high-resolution DNA methylation profiles as well as other related data in an interactive manner and thus is of great helpfulness for users to investigate methylation patterns and changes of gametes and early embryos at different developmental stages. Ongoing efforts are focused on incorporation of methylomes and related data from other organisms. Together, MethBank features integration and visualization of high-resolution DNA methylation data as well as other related data, enabling identification of potential DNA methylation signatures in different developmental stages and accordingly providing an important resource for the epigenetic and developmental studies. PMID:25294826

  5. Independent and co-morbid HIV infection and Meth use disorders on oxidative stress markers in the cerebrospinal fluid and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Panee, Jun; Pang, Xiaosha; Munsaka, Sody; Berry, Marla J; Chang, Linda

    2015-03-01

    Both HIV infection and Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorders are associated with greater depressive symptoms and oxidative stress; whether the two conditions would show additive or interactive effects on the severity of depressive symptoms, and whether this is related to the level of oxidative stress in the CNS is unknown. 123 participants were evaluated, which included 41 HIV-seronegative subjects without substance use disorders (Control), 25 with recent (<6 months) moderate to severe Meth use disorders (Meth), 34 HIV-seropositive subjects without substance use disorders (HIV) and 23 HIV+Meth subjects. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and oxidative stress markers were evaluated with glutathione (GSH), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Compared with Controls, HIV subjects had higher levels of HNE (+350%) and GGT (+27%), and lower level of GSH (-34%), while Meth users had higher levels of GPx activity (+23%) and GSH (+30 %). GGT correlated with GPx, and with age, across all subjects (p < 0.0001). CES-D scores correlated with CSF HNE levels only in Control and HIV groups, but not in Meth and HIV+Meth groups. HIV and Meth use had an interactive effects on depressive symptoms, but did not show additive or interactive effects on oxidative stress. The differential relationship between depressive symptoms and oxidative stress response amongst the four groups suggest that depressive symptoms in these groups are mediated through different mechanisms which are not always related to oxidative stress.

  6. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  7. Altered Frontal Cortical Volume and Decision Making in Adolescent Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Churchwell, John C.; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI), using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16–19 years), and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16–19 years). In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC) morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p = 0.01, d = 0.92, CI0.95 = 0.21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS non-planning subscale, when compared to controls, p = 0.01, d = 0.89, CI0.95 = 0.23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use r (18) = 0.49, p < 0.03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume

  8. Frequent users of pornography. A population based epidemiological study of Swedish male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Svedin, Carl Göran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-08-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often "turned on" viewing pornography and viewed more often advanced forms of pornography. Frequent use was also associated with many problem behaviours. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that frequent users of pornography were more likely to be living in a large city, consuming alcohol more often, having greater sexual desire and had more often sold sex than other boys of the same age. High frequent viewing of pornography may be seen as a problematic behaviour that needs more attention from both parents and teachers and also to be addressed in clinical interviews.

  9. Higher diffusion in striatum and lower fractional anisotropy in white matter of methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Alicata, Daniel; Chang, Linda; Cloak, Christine; Abe, Kylie; Ernst, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) users showed structural and chemical abnormalities on magnetic resonance (MRI) studies, particularly in the frontal and basal ganglia brain regions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may provide further insights regarding the microstructural changes in METH users. We investigated diffusion tensor measures in frontal white matter and basal ganglia of 30 adult METH users and 30 control subjects using a 3 T MR scanner. Compared with healthy control subjects, METH users showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in right frontal white matter, and higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in left caudate and bilateral putamen. Higher left putamen ADC was associated with earlier initiation of METH use, greater daily amounts, and a higher cumulative lifetime dose. Similarly, higher right putamen ADC was associated with greater daily amounts and a higher cumulative lifetime dose. The lower FA in the right frontal white matter suggests axonal injury in these METH users. The higher ADC in the basal ganglia suggests greater inflammation or less myelination in these brain regions of those with younger age of first METH use and greater METH usage. PMID:19782540

  10. [Satisfaction with child and adolescent mental health services by user and clinician sex].

    PubMed

    Bunge, Eduardo L; Barilá, Carina V; Sánchez, Natalia A; Maglio, Ana L

    2014-01-01

    Client Satisfaction with mental health services is an important aspect in the evaluation of quality of those services. In youth mental health field, a few studies had being made about this characteristic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between satisfaction of parents, children and adolescents according to sex of patients and therapists. The sample included 382 subjects who attended to Buenos Aires private services who completed the questionnaire of experiences with the service. The results in teenagers' group showed differences in the satisfaction with the service matching the sex of teenagers with the sex of therapist, however in children and parent groups we haven't found significant differences. We discuss the implications of the results in order to improve the services given in youth area.

  11. [Satisfaction with child and adolescent mental health services by user and clinician sex].

    PubMed

    Bunge, Eduardo L; Barilá, Carina V; Sánchez, Natalia A; Maglio, Ana L

    2014-01-01

    Client Satisfaction with mental health services is an important aspect in the evaluation of quality of those services. In youth mental health field, a few studies had being made about this characteristic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between satisfaction of parents, children and adolescents according to sex of patients and therapists. The sample included 382 subjects who attended to Buenos Aires private services who completed the questionnaire of experiences with the service. The results in teenagers' group showed differences in the satisfaction with the service matching the sex of teenagers with the sex of therapist, however in children and parent groups we haven't found significant differences. We discuss the implications of the results in order to improve the services given in youth area. PMID:25546536

  12. Zwitterionic 4-bromo-6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)methyl]-iminiumyl-meth-yl}phenolate: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, See Mun; Lo, Kong Mun; Tan, Sang Loon; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-08-01

    In the solid state, the title compound, C12H16BrNO5 [systematic name: 4-bromo-2-((1E)-{[1,3-dihy-droxy-2-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propan-2-yl]iminium-yl}meth-yl)-6-meth-oxy-benzen-1-olate], C12H16BrNO5, is found in the keto-amine tautomeric form, with an intra-molecular iminium-N-H⋯O(phenolate) hydrogen bond and an E conformation about the C=N bond. Both gauche (two) and anti relationships are found for the methyl-hydroxy groups. In the crystal, a supra-molecular layer in the bc plane is formed via hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(hy-droxy) and charge-assisted hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(phenolate) hydrogen-bonding inter-actions; various C-H⋯O inter-actions provide additional cohesion to the layers, which stack along the a axis with no directional inter-actions between them. A Hirshfeld surface analysis confirms the lack of specific inter-actions in the inter-layer region. PMID:27536419

  13. "CAN Stop" - Implementation and evaluation of a secondary group prevention for adolescent and young adult cannabis users in various contexts - study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current research shows that overall numbers for cannabis use among adolescents and young adults dropped in recent years. However, this trend is much less pronounced in continuous cannabis use. With regard to the heightened risk for detrimental health- and development-related outcomes, adolescents and young adults with continuous cannabis use need special attention. The health services structure for adolescents and young adults with substance related problems in Germany, is multifaceted, because different communal, medical and judicial agencies are involved. This results in a rather decentralized organizational structure of the help system. This and further system-inherent characteristics make the threshold for young cannabis users rather high. Because of this, there is a need to establish evidence-based low-threshold help options for young cannabis users, which can be easily disseminated. Therefore, a training programme for young cannabis users (age 14-21) was developed in the "CAN Stop" project. Within the project, we seek to implement and evaluate the training programme within different institutions of the help system. The evaluation is sensitive to the different help systems and their specific prerequisites. Moreover, within this study, we also test the practicability of a training provision through laypersons. Methods/Design The CAN Stop study is a four-armed randomized wait-list controlled trial. The four arms are needed for the different help system settings, in which the CAN Stop training programme is evaluated: (a) the drug addiction aid and youth welfare system, (b) the out-patient medical system, (c) the in-patient medical system and (d) prisons for juvenile offenders. Data are collected at three points, before and after the training or a treatment as usual, and six months after the end of either intervention. Discussion The CAN Stop study is expected to provide an evidence-based programme for young cannabis users seeking to reduce or quit

  14. The Uses and Effects of Video Viewing among Swedish Adolescents. An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Video Users. Media Panel Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Keith; Salomonsson, Karin

    This report is one in a series dealing with Swedish adolescents' uses of video based upon the Media Panel research program, a three-wave, longitudinal research program on video use conducted at the Department of Sociology, the University of Lund, and the Department for Information Techniques, the University College of Vaxjo, Sweden. Data were…

  15. Randomized controlled trial of motivational enhancement therapy with nontreatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users: a further test of the teen marijuana check-up.

    PubMed

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger; Demarce, Josephine; Lozano, Brian; Towe, Sheri; Berg, Belinda

    2011-09-01

    Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those who were assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to four optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. The research was conducted in high schools in Seattle, Washington. The participant s included 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. The main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to those in the DFC. The frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but it did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reductions in use and problems were sustained at 12 months, but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and did not differ by condition. Brief interventions can attract adolescent cannabis users and have positive impacts on them, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified.

  16. They Only See It when the Sun Shines in My Ears: Exploring Perceptions of Adolescent Hearing Aid Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Bruce; Smith, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Hard-of-hearing (HOH) young people may encounter multiple challenges to their educational, social, and emotional development. The benefits of wearing hearing aids to enhance communication may be countered by negative stigma associated with hearing aids. This study explored the experience of 16 bilaterally, moderately to severely HOH adolescents in…

  17. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  18. Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions. Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald

    This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…

  19. Effects of hyperthermia and calcium channel blocker co-therapy on mice injected with Meth A solid of Meth A ascites tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effectiveness of treating tumor-injected mice with verapamil, a calcium antagonist, and hyperthermia. The co-treatment reduced the incidence of tumors in animals injected with Meth A solid cells. It was shown that the decrease in tumors corresponded to increases in natural killer (NK) cell activity measured in a /sup 51/Cr release assay, in the amount of anti-Meth A antibody measured in an immunofluorescence assay, and a decrease in the amount of intra-tumor cyclic AMP measured by radioimmunoassay in co-treated compared to untreated sarcoma-injected animals. A role of the immune system for mediating the prevention of sarcoma growth was indicated by Winn assays. Splenocytes sensitized in vivo against Meth A solid cells for 14 days exhibited an enhanced cytotoxic activity against syngeneic target cells compared to untreated tumor-sensitized splenocytes following heat-drug co-treatment. It was established that the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells against a histocompatibility antigen (H-2/sup d/) present on Meth A sarcoma cells resulted in tumor cell lysis. Animals bearing established Meth A solid sarcomas did not manifest tumor regressions following the administration of co-treatment alone or the adoptive transfer of co-treated tumor-sensitized splenocytes. The growth of Meth A ascites and Meth A ascites-derived solid sarcomas, unlike Meth A solid cell tumors, were not prevented in Winn assays. Additionally, the lifespan of animals injected with Meth A ascites cells was reduced by 50% compared to animals injected with Meth A solid sarcoma cells.

  20. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Drug Users and Religion on Drug Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Joon; Johnson, Byron R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research finds drug-using peers and religiosity to be key predictors of drug use among youth, but the effects of childhood exposure to drug users and religion on later drug use have been understudied. The authors hypothesize a child's exposure to parental drug use and religious upbringing have a causal influence on drug use in youth…

  1. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  2. Criminality among Rural Stimulant Users in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oser, Carrie; Leukefeld, Carl; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Garrity, Thomas; Stoops, William; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert; Sexton, Rocky; Wright, Patricia; Booth, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increase in media attention on "meth cooking" in rural areas of the United States, little is known about rural stimulant use--particularly, the criminality associated with stimulant use. Data were collected from community stimulant users in rural Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky (N = 709). Findings from three logistic regression models…

  3. Methamphetamine abuse and oral health: a pilot study of "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Ravenel, Michele C; Salinas, Carlos F; Marlow, Nicole M; Slate, Elizabeth H; Evans, Zachary P; Miller, Peter M

    2012-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (meth), a potent central nervous system stimulant, has been associated with significant dental disease. Current descriptions of "meth mouth" are limited in their scope and fail to illuminate the potential pathogenic mechanisms of meth for oral disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the oral health of subjects with a history of meth abuse as compared to nonabusing control subjects. A total of 28 meth abusers and 16 control subjects were enrolled. Interviews and surveys regarding meth abuse, dental history, oral hygiene, and diet were collected. A comprehensive oral cavity examination including salivary characterization was completed. We observed significantly higher rates of decayed surfaces, missing teeth, tooth wear, plaque, and calculus among meth abusers. No significant difference in salivary flow rates were noted, yet results showed significant trends for lower pH and decreased buffering capacity. These findings suggest that salivary quality may play a more important role in meth mouth than previously considered. Salivary analysis may be useful when managing a dental patient with history of methamphetamine abuse.

  4. 40 CFR 721.4840 - Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. 721.4840 Section 721.4840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4840 Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4840 - Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. 721.4840 Section 721.4840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4840 Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4840 - Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. 721.4840 Section 721.4840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4840 Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4840 - Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. 721.4840 Section 721.4840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4840 Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  8. Methamphetamine Users in a Community-Based Drug Court: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jennifer L.; Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines men and women methamphetamine (meth) users who participated in a community-based drug court. The treatment of female drug users is a particularly salient issue because of the concerns with relapse and recidivism. For the current study, we studied the impact of the drug court by gender on a group of high-risk/high-need meth…

  9. Octaploid Meth-A cells are established from a highly polyploidized cell population.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa-Yamamoto, Kohzaburo; Yamagishi, Hiroko; Miyagoshi, Minoru

    2003-04-01

    Tetraploid Meth-A cells were polyploidized by demecolcin, an inhibitor of spindle fibre formation in M phase, and then released from the drug 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after the addition. Octaploid cells were successfully established from cell populations including hexadecaploid cells produced by 2, 3 and 4 days of exposure to demecolcin. One-day-treated cells were polyploidized octaploid cells, but they returned to tetraploid cells. All of the octaploid Meth-A cells showed essentially the same features. The octaploid Meth-A cells had eight homologous chromosomes and double the DNA content of the parent tetraploid cells. The doubling time of octaploid Meth-A cells was 30.2 h, somewhat longer than the 28.3 and 24.0 h of tetraploid and diploid cells, respectively. The fractions of cells in the G1, S and G2/M phases were essentially the same in diploid, tetraploid and octaploid Meth-A cells. The cell volume of octaploid Meth-A cells was about two times that of the tetraploid cells. It was concluded that octaploid Meth-A cells were established from transient hexadecaploid cells produced by the polyploidization of tetraploid cells that had been established from diploid cells. PMID:12680876

  10. Crystal structure of 2-[chloro-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)meth-yl]-2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-5,5-di-methyl-cyclo-hexane-1,3-dione.

    PubMed

    Chelli, Saloua; Troshin, Konstantin; Lakhdar, Sami; Mayr, Herbert; Mayer, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, C23H25ClO4, the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with the 4-meth-oxy-phenyl substituent in an axial position and the chloro-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methyl substituent in an equatorial position. The packing features inversion dimers formed by pairs of C-H⋯O contacts and strands along [100] and [010] established by further C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl contacts, respectively. PMID:27006792

  11. Crystal structure of 3,4-di-meth-oxy-phenol.

    PubMed

    Mills-Robles, Heather A; Desikan, Vasumathi; Golen, James A; Manke, David R

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C8H10O3, has two planar mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit possessing mean deviations from planarity of 0.051 and 0.071 Å. In the crystal, there are two distinct infinite chains, both along [010]. The chains are formed by O-H⋯O inter-actions between the phenol and both the 3-meth-oxy and the 4-meth-oxy groups. PMID:26870474

  12. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  13. Spallation Characteristics of Poly-Methyl Meth-Acrylic (PMMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowski, Peter; Dandekar, D. P.

    1999-06-01

    This work describes the results derived from plane shock wave spallation experiments performed on Poly-Methyl Meth-Acrylic (PMMA) Polymer. These experiments were conducted using the Army Research Laboratories 102 mm Bore, 8 m long Light Gas Gun located at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. The PMMA used in this work was manufactured by Rohm & Haas as their Ultra-Violet Absorbing (UVA), Type II Plexiglass. Its density is 1.188 Mg/m3 and longitudinal shock velocity is 2.72 mm/μ s. Spallation experiments were conducted at impact stresses between 0.2 and 2.0 GPa. The PMMA appears to exhibit a constant tensile strength of 0.15 GPa up to an impact stress of 0.75 GPa. Unlike metal and ceramic materials, the PMMA exhibits a dwell time in the spallation inversly proportional to the impact stress. At a low impact stress of 0.40 GPa, spallation of the PMMA occurs over a time period of 0.80 micro-seconds. At an impact stress of 0.75 GPa, the spallation occurs over 0.40 micro-seconds. This variation in time required to spall the PMMA will be analyzed and theories discussed.

  14. Predicting attitude toward methamphetamine use: the role of antidrug campaign exposure and conversations about meth in Montana.

    PubMed

    Richards, Adam S

    2014-01-01

    This investigation utilized the integrative model of behavioral prediction to assess the Montana Meth Project (MMP) campaign by testing theoretical antecedents of attitude toward methamphetamine (meth) use. College students in Montana (N = 403) were surveyed about their exposure to MMP ads and communication about meth in conversation. Structural equation modeling showed that the data fit the specified model well. Significant parameters indicated that only beliefs about the negative relational outcomes of meth use, and not about personal well-being or physical appearance, were related to attitude. Attention, rather than encoded exposure, to MMP ads related to each belief about meth use. Conversation frequency related to engagement with MMP ads, and a conversational partner's conveyed attitude toward meth use related to personal and physical beliefs as well as attitudes. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains. PMID:27308017

  16. The long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure during pre-adolescence on depressive-like behaviour in a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Moné; Harvey, Brian H; Cockeran, Marike; Brink, Christiaan B

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant and drug of abuse, commonly used early in life, including in childhood and adolescence. Adverse effects include psychosis, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as increased risk of developing a mental disorder later in life. The current study investigated the long-term effects of chronic METH exposure during pre-adolescence in stress-sensitive Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats (genetic model of depression) and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. METH or vehicle control was administered twice daily from post-natal day 19 (PostND19) to PostND34, followed by behavioural testing at either PostND35 (early effects) or long-lasting after withdrawal at PostND60 (early adulthood). Animals were evaluated for depressive-like behaviour, locomotor activity, social interaction and object recognition memory. METH reduced depressive-like behaviour in both FSL and FRL rats at PostND35, but enhanced this behaviour at PostND60. METH also reduced locomotor activity on PostND35 in both FSL and FRL rats, but without effect at PostND60. Furthermore, METH significantly lowered social interaction behaviour (staying together) in both FRL and FSL rats at PostND35 and PostND60, whereas self-grooming time was significantly reduced only at PostND35. METH treatment enhanced exploration of the familiar vs. novel object in the novel object recognition test (nORT) in FSL and FRL rats on PostND35 and PostND60, indicative of reduced cognitive performance. Thus, early-life METH exposure induce social and cognitive deficits. Lastly, early-life exposure to METH may result in acute antidepressant-like effects immediately after chronic exposure, whereas long-term effects after withdrawal are depressogenic. Data also supports a role for genetic predisposition as with FSL rats.

  17. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  18. The Feasibility of Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk and Drug Use among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Karen F.; Lehman, Wayne E.; Min, Sung-Joon; Lance, Shannon P.; Speer, Nicole; Booth, Robert E.; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a feasibility study that examined contingency management among out-of-treatment, heterosexual methamphetamine users and the reduction of drug use and HIV risk. Fifty-eight meth users were recruited through street outreach in Denver from November 2006 through March 2007. The low sample size reflects that this was a pilot study to see if CM is feasible in an out-of-treatment, street-recruited population of meth users. Secondary aims were to examine if reductions and drug use and risk behavior could be found. Subjects were randomly assigned to contingency management (CM) or CM plus strengths-based case management (CM/SBCM), with follow-up at 4 and 8 months. Participants were primarily White (90%), 52% male and averaged 38 years old. Eighty-three percent attended at least one CM session, with 29% attending at least fifteen. All participants reduced meth use significantly at follow-up. Those who attended more sessions submitted more stimulant-free urines than those who attended fewer sessions. Participants assigned to CM/SBCM attended more sessions and earned more vouchers than clients in CM. Similarly, participants reported reduced needle-sharing and sex risk. Findings demonstrate that CM and SBCM may help meth users reduce drug use and HIV risk. PMID:23493796

  19. THE MULTIPLE TRUTHS ABOUT CRYSTAL METH AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE ENTRENCHED IN AN URBAN DRUG SCENE: A LONGITUDINAL ETHNOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Danya; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Transitions into more harmful forms of illicit drug use among youth have been identified as important foci for research and intervention. In settings around the world, the transition to crystal methamphetamine (meth) use among youth is considered a particularly dangerous and growing problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that, particularly among young, street-involved populations, meth use is associated with numerous sex- and drug-related “risks behaviors” and negative health outcomes. Relatively few studies, however, have documented how youth themselves understand, experience and script meth use over time. From 2008 to 2012, we conducted over 100 in-depth interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth in Vancouver, Canada, as well as ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, in order to examine youth's understandings and experiences of meth use in the context of an urban drug scene. Our findings revealed positive understandings and experiences of meth in relation to other forms of drug addiction and unaddressed mental health issues. Youth were simultaneously aware of the numerous health-related harms and social costs associated with heavy meth use. Over time, positive understandings of meth may become entirely contradictory to a lived reality in which escalating meth use is a factor in further marginalizing youth, although this may not lead to cessation of use. Recognition of these multiple truths about meth, and the social structural contexts that shape the scripting of meth use among youth in particular settings, may help us to move beyond moralizing debates about how to best educate youth on the “risks” associated with meth, and towards interventions that are congruent with youth’s lived experiences and needs across the lifecourse. PMID:24721446

  20. Zwitterionic 4-bromo-6-meth­oxy-2-{[tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)methyl]­iminiumyl­meth­yl}phenolate: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, See Mun; Lo, Kong Mun; Tan, Sang Loon; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    In the solid state, the title compound, C12H16BrNO5 [systematic name: 4-bromo-2-((1E)-{[1,3-dihy­droxy-2-(hy­droxy­meth­yl)propan-2-yl]iminium­yl}meth­yl)-6-meth­oxy­benzen-1-olate], C12H16BrNO5, is found in the keto–amine tautomeric form, with an intra­molecular iminium-N—H⋯O(phenolate) hydrogen bond and an E conformation about the C=N bond. Both gauche (two) and anti relationships are found for the methyl­hydroxy groups. In the crystal, a supra­molecular layer in the bc plane is formed via hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(hy­droxy) and charge-assisted hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(phenolate) hydrogen-bonding inter­actions; various C—H⋯O inter­actions provide additional cohesion to the layers, which stack along the a axis with no directional inter­actions between them. A Hirshfeld surface analysis confirms the lack of specific inter­actions in the inter-layer region. PMID:27536419

  1. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  2. Comparisons between Thai Adolescent Voices and Thai Adolescent Health Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.

    2006-01-01

    Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…

  3. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  4. (E)-4-Meth­oxy-N′-(2,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)benzohydrazide hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Boonnak, Nawong; Horkaew, Jirapa; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    The title compound crystallizes as a hemihydrate, C18H20N2O5·0.5H2O. The mol­ecule exists in an E conformation with respect to the C=N imine bond. The 4-meth­oxy­phenyl unit is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.54 (2):0.46 (2). The dihedral angles between the benzene rings are 29.20 (9) and 26.59 (9)°, respectively, for the major and minor components of the 4-meth­oxy-substituted ring. All meth­oxy substituents lie close to the plane of the attached benzene rings [the Cmeth­yl—O—C—C torsion angles range from −4.0 (12) to 3.9 (2)°]. In the crystal, the components are linked into chains propagating along [001] via N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:24764873

  5. tert-Butyl 6-amino-5-cyano-2-(2-meth-oxy-eth-yl)nicotinate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Zhao, Xing-Dong; Deng, Jie; Li, Qin-Geng

    2012-05-01

    The title compound, C(14)H(19)N(3)O(3), was synthesized by the reaction of 3-meth-oxy-propionitrile, tert-butyl bromo-acetate and eth-oxy-methyl-enemalononitrile. In the crystal, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into chains propagating along the b axis.

  6. Conversion of (Meth)acrylic acids to methane granular sludge: Initiation by specific anerobic microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Shtarkman, N.B.; Obraztova, A.Y.; Laurinavichyus, K.S.; Galushko, A.S.; Akimenko, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The role of a specific anaerobic microflora in the initiation of degradation of (meth)acrylic acids to methane by granular sludge from a UASB reactor was investigated. Associations of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the anaerobic sludge, which was used for a long time for treatment of wastewater from (meth)acrylate production, were able to realize the initial stage of (meth)acrylic acid decomposition, i.e., a conversion of acrylic and methacrylic acids to propionic and isobutyric acids, respectively. When added to granules, these association played a role of an {open_quotes}initiator{close_quotes} of the degradation process, which was then continued by the granular sludge microflora utilizing propionate and isobutyrate. Some characteristics of the granules adapted to propionate or isobutyrate are presented. The rates of propionate and isobutyrate consumption by adapted granules is, respectively, 21 and 53 times higher than the values obtained for nonadapted granules. A combined use of {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria and adapted granules provided degradation of (meth)acrylic acids with a maximum methane yield. The possibility is discussed of employing the granules, which are adapted to short-chain fatty acids, and the {open_quotes}initiating{close_quotes} bacteria, which accomplish the initial steps of the organic material decomposition to lower fatty acids, for the conversion of various chemical compounds to methane. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Relational Inquiry: Generating New Knowledge with Adolescent Girls Who Use Crystal Meth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Janet; Hoskins, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research is continuously evolving and expanding as researchers seek methodologies that reflect the intersubjective nature of experience. "Relational inquiry" is an approach which considers the relationships (a) between researchers and participants, (b) among multiple dimensions of the participant's lived experience, and (c) between the…

  8. The association between psychopathology and substance use: adolescent and young adult substance users in inpatient treatment in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie; Morojele, Neo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that comorbid psychopathology can negatively affect treatment outcomes in substance users. In South Africa, limited information exists regarding the prevalence, nature and role of psychiatric comorbidity in substance users. This study examined psychiatric comorbidity and its association with specific substance use, and young adult substance users in treatment for substance use. Methods Male and female inpatient substance users (n=95; ages 17-30 years) were sampled consecutively in order of admission from three clinics in Cape Town. An interview schedule was administered to elicit patients’ sociodemographic and substance use history details. The computer-assisted Diagnostic Interview Schedule DSM IV (C-DIS IV) was administered to screen patients for current psychiatric disorders. Resuls The sample was largely male, Coloured, Muslim and single. Cannabis (51.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (17.9%) were the most common first substances of use. Heroin (53.7%) and crystal methamphetamine (33.7%) were the most common substances for which treatment was sought (primary substances). The most common comorbid psychopathologies were anti-social personality disorder (ASPD 87.4%) and conduct disorder (CD 67.4%). Regression analyses showed a marginally significant association between specific phobia and first use of cannabis, but indicated no statistically significant associations between psychopathology and substance use. Conclusion The results demonstrated a high proportion of previously unidentified comorbid psychopathology in inpatient substance users. Further research is needed to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in inpatient substance users. PMID:24643118

  9. The effects of GABAA and NMDA receptors in the shell-accumbens on spatial memory of METH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Heysieattalab, Soomaayeh; Naghdi, Nasser; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Haghparast, Abbas; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive and neurotoxic psychostimulant. Its use in humans is often associated with neurocognitive impairment and deficits in hippocampal plasticity. Striatal dopamine system is one of the main targets of METH. The dopamine neurons in the striatum directly or indirectly regulate the GABA and glutamatergic signaling in this region and thus their outputs. This is consistent with previous reports showing modification of neuronal activity in the striatum modulates the expression of hippocampal LTP and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks such as Morris water maze (MWM). Therefore, reversing or preventing METH-induced synaptic modifications via pharmacological manipulations of the shell-nucleus accumbens (shell-NAc) may introduce a viable therapeutic target to attenuate the METH-induced memory deficits. This study is designed to investigate the role of intra-shell NAc manipulation of GABAA and NMDA receptors and their interaction with METH on memory performance in MWM task. Pharmacological manipulations were performed in rats received METH or saline. We found systemic saline plus intra-shell NAc infusions of muscimol dose-dependently impaired performance, while bicuculline had no effect. Surprisingly, the intra-NAc infusions of 0.005μg/rat muscimol that has no effect on memory performance (ineffective dose) prevented METH-induced memory impairment. In the contrary, the intra-NAc infusions of bicuculline (0.2μg/rat) increased METH-induced memory impairment. However, pre-training intra-NAc infusions of D-AP5 dose-dependently impaired performance, while NMDA had no effect in rats received systemic saline (control group). The intra-NAc infusions with an ineffective dose of NMDA (0.1μg/rat) increased METH-induced memory impairment. Furthermore, intra-NAc infusions of D-AP5 with an ineffective dose (0.1μg/rat) prevented METH-induced memory impairment. Our result is consistent with the interpretation that METH-mediated learning deficit

  10. Adolescent exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate cross-sensitizes adults to methamphetamine with drug- and sex-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Ryan A; Ross, Jordan M; Doyle, Hillary H; Helton, Amanda K; Picou, Brittany N; Schulz, Jordyn; Tavares, Chris; Bryant, Sarah; Dawson, Bryan L; Lloyd, Steven A

    2015-03-15

    The increasing availability, over-prescription, and misuse and abuse of ADHD psychostimulant medications in adolescent populations necessitates studies investigating the long-term effects of these drugs persisting into adulthood. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), methylphenidate (MPD) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), or cocaine (COC) (5.0 mg/kg) from postnatal day 22 to 31, which represents an early adolescent period. After an extended period of drug abstinence, adult mice were challenged with a subacute methamphetamine (METH) dose (0.5 mg/kg), to test the long-term effects of adolescent drug exposures on behavioral cross-sensitization using an open field chamber. There were no sex- or dose-specific effects on motor activity in adolescent, saline-treated controls. However, AMPH, MPD, and COC adolescent exposures induced cross-sensitization to a subacute METH dose in adulthood, which is a hallmark of addiction and a marker of long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. Of additional clinical importance, AMPH-exposed male mice demonstrated increased cross-sensitization to METH in contrast to the female-specific response observed in MPD-treated animals. There were no sex-specific effects after adolescent COC exposures. This study demonstrates differential drug, dose, and sex-specific alterations induced by early adolescent psychostimulant exposure, which leads to behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood.

  11. A kryptoracemic salt: 2-{[2,8-bis-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)quinolin-4-yl](hy-droxy)meth-yl}piperidin-1-ium (+)-3,3,3-tri-fluoro-2-meth-oxy-2-phenyl-propanoate.

    PubMed

    Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C17H17F6N2O(+)·C10H8F3O3 (-), comprises two piperidin-1-ium cations and two carboxyl-ate anions. The cations, each having an l-shaped conformation owing to the near orthogonal relationship between the quinolinyl and piperidin-1-ium residues, are pseudo-enanti-omeric. The anions have the same absolute configuration but differ in the relative orientations of the carboxyl-ate, meth-oxy and benzene groups. Arguably, the most prominent difference between the anions occurs about the Cq-Om bond as seen in the Cc-Cq-Om-Cm torsion angles of -176.1 (3) and -67.1 (4)°, respectively (q = quaternary, m = meth-oxy and c = carboxyl-ate). The presence of Oh-H⋯Oc and Np-H⋯Oc hydrogen bonds leads to the formation of a supra-molecular chain along the a axis (h = hy-droxy and p = piperidin-1-ium); weak intra-molecular Np-H⋯Oh hydrogen bonds are also noted. Chains are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C-H⋯F inter-actions. Based on a literature survey, related mol-ecules/cations adopt a uniform conformation in the solid state based on the letter L. PMID:27308063

  12. Methamphetamine and cannabis abuse in adolescence: a quasi-experimental study on specific and long-term neurocognitive effects

    PubMed Central

    Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791

  13. Continuous process of preparation of n-butyl(meth)acrylate by esterification of (meth)acrylic acid by butanol on thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Lunin, A.F.; Magadov, R.S.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    The authors propose an effective thermostable sulfo-cation exchanger based on polymers with a system of conjugated bonds, sulfopolyphenylene ketone (SPP) differing from the known cation exchangers by the high thermostability (up to 250/sup 0/C), and also having the effect of the stabilization of the double bond in unsaturated monomers. The combination of inhibiting and cation exchange properties makes it also possible to use these sulfo-cation exchangers in the processes of esterification of (meth)acrylic acids by alcohols without addition of special inhibitors. The SPP catalyst was tested in esterification processes of acrylic an methacrylic acid by butanol at a pilot plant.

  14. 2-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1-pentyl-4,5-di-phenyl-1H-imidazole.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jim; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Marzouk, Adel A; Talybov, Avtandil H; Abdelhamid, Antar A

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C27H28N2O, is a lophine (2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazole) derivative with an n-pentyl chain on the amine N atom and a 4-meth-oxy substituent on the benzene ring. The two phenyl and meth-oxy-benzene rings are inclined to the imidazole ring at angles of 25.32 (7), 76.79 (5) and 35.42 (7)°, respectively, while the meth-oxy substituent lies close to the plane of its benzene ring, with a maximum deviation of 0.126 (3) Å for the meth-oxy C atom. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R2(2)(22) loops. These dimers are stacked along the a-axis direction. PMID:23476433

  15. "...you would probably want to do it. Cause that's what made them popular": Exploring perceptions of inhalant utility among young adolescent nonusers and occasional users.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Patel, Neil; Crano, William D

    2009-01-01

    With an eye toward future primary prevention efforts, this study explores perceptions of inhalant utility among young adolescents in the United States. The study makes use of data gathered via nine focus groups conducted in Tucson, Arizona in 2004 (N = 47, mean age = 13.2 years). Three main themes emerged concerning the perceived utility of inhalant use: (1) Inhalant use as a means of mental escape, (2) Inhalant use as a social tool, and (3) Inhalant use as a parental relations tool. Additionally, participants discussed an interaction hypothesis regarding inhalant use and popularity. Implications for future research are suggested and limitations described.

  16. 3,5-Bis[(pyridin-4-yl)meth-oxy]benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Zhang, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, C19H16N2O4, were obtained under hydro-thermal conditions by an unintended recrystallization of the employed microcrystalline starting material. The [(pyridin-4-yl)meth-oxy]benzoic acid unit is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation from the least-squares plane of 0.194 (2) Å. This plane is inclined by 35.82 (6)° to that defined by the second (pyridin-4-yl)meth-oxy group [in which the largest deviation from the least-squares plane is 0.013 (2) Å]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the acid hy-droxy group and a pyridine N atom into chains parallel to [-201]. PMID:23476458

  17. Crystal structures of 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phenyl)benzene-sulfonamide and N-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vinola Z; Preema, C P; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A

    2015-11-01

    Crystal structures of two N-(ar-yl)aryl-sulfonamides, namely, 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide, C14H15NO3S, (I), and N-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide, C13H12FNO3S, (II), were determined and analyzed. In (I), the benzene-sulfonamide ring is disordered over two orientations, in a 0.516 (7):0.484 (7) ratio, which are inclined to each other at 28.0 (1)°. In (I), the major component of the sulfonyl benzene ring and the aniline ring form a dihedral angle of 63.36 (19)°, while in (II), the planes of the two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 44.26 (13)°. In the crystal structure of (I), N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form infinite C(4) chains extended in [010], and inter-molecular C-H⋯πar-yl inter-actions link these chains into layers parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure of (II) features N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite one dimensional C(4) chains along [001]. Further, a pair of C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions consolidate the crystal packing of (II) into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. PMID:26594517

  18. Bis[4-bromo-2-(cyclo-pentyl-imino-meth-yl)phenolato]copper(II).

    PubMed

    Cai, Bang-Hong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C(12)H(13)BrNO)(2)], was prepared by the reaction of 5-bromo-salicylaldehyde, cyclo-pentyl-amine and copper(II) acetate in an ethanol solution. The Cu(II) atom lies on an inversion center and is four-coordinated in a square-planar geometry by two N and two O atoms from two 4-bromo-2-(cyclo-pentyl-imino-meth-yl)phenolate Schiff base ligands. PMID:21582106

  19. The neurotoxicity of amphetamines during the adolescent period.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Gomes, Armanda; Costa, Vera Marisa; Feio-Azevedo, Rita; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Amphetamine-type psychostimulants (ATS), such as amphetamine (AMPH), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methamphetamine (METH) are psychoactive substances widely abused, due to their powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulation ability. Young people particularly use ATS as recreational drugs. Moreover, AMPH is used clinically, particularly for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and has the ability to cause structural and functional brain alterations. ATS are known to interact with monoamine transporter sites and easily diffuse across cellular membranes, attaining high levels in several tissues, particularly the brain. Strong evidence suggests that ATS induce neurotoxic effects, raising concerns about the consequences of drug abuse. Considering that many teenagers and young adults commonly use ATS, our main aim was to review the neurotoxic effects of amphetamines, namely AMPH, MDMA, and METH, in the adolescence period of experimental animals. Reports agree that adolescent animals are less susceptible than adult animals to the neurotoxic effects of amphetamines. The susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of ATS seems roughly located in the early adolescent period of animals. Many authors report that the age of exposure to ATS is crucial for the neurotoxic outcome, showing that the stage of brain maturity has a strong importance. Moreover, recent studies have been undertaken in young adults and/or consumers during adolescence that clearly indicate brain or behavioural damage, arguing for long-term neurotoxic effects in humans. There is an urgent need for more studies during the adolescence period, in order to unveil the mechanisms and the brain dysfunctions promoted by ATS. PMID:25482046

  20. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  1. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6...-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos. P-92-343 and P-92-344) are subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  3. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  4. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  5. 2-{(E)-[(3-Iodo-4-methyl­phen­yl)imino]­meth­yl}-4-(trifluoro­meth­oxy)phenol

    PubMed Central

    Pekdemir, Merve; Işık, Şamil; Alaman Ağar, Ayşen

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C15H11F3INO2, adopts the enol–imine tautomeric form. The mol­ecule displays an E conformation with respect to the imine C=N double bond. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 12.4 (2)°. The mol­ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6) ring motif. The trifluoro­meth­oxy­phenyl group is disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.621 (6):0.379 (6). The crystal structure features C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22798821

  6. Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and…

  7. Monthly oceanic rainfall based on METH techniques: DMSP SSM/I V6 and SSMIS continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, L. S.; Gao, S.; Shin, D.-B.; Cho, Y.-J.; Adler, R. F.; Huffman, G.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), our group have been producing oceanic rainfall over 2.5 and 5 degree boxes by applying the Microwave Emission brightness Temperature (Tb) Histogram, or METH technique to the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data taken on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite series. Recently, the rainfall series have been updated using the V6 SSM/I provided by RSS (Chiu and Chokngamwong., 2010). With the demise of the F15 SSM/I sensor, we examine the use of the SSMIS series to continue the DMSP time series. With its long duration, the DMSP satellite sensors constitute a unique data set capable of producing microwave-based products for climate studies. We compared the F13 SSM/I and F17 SSMIS for the period January 2008 - September 2009. The METH technique matches the histogram of Tb (twice 19V minus 22V) to a mixed-distribution of rain rates and estimates the parameters of the rain rate distribution. Mathematical convergence of the matching procedure is reached when a certain Chi-square threshold is reached. The important parameters are the Tb of the non-raining pixels (To) and the freezing level (FL) of the grid box considered. The sample size of the SSMIS is much larger than the SSM/I, hence the convergence criteria is relaxed by changing the Chi-square threshold. Preliminary results show a slight shift of the To (~0.8K). By adjusting To by a constant, the domain average SSMIS rain rates and FL are computed to within 2% and 1% of the SSM/I rain rates, respectively. Further investigation of the SSMIS METH rain rate will involve the comparison of the 19V and 22V and fine tuning the Chi-square parameter.

  8. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network.

  9. Crystal structure of ammonium bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 +·NH4 +·2Cl−, the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  10. Crystal structure of 4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-oxy)benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Andreas; Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Gilke, Stefan; Kossmann, Paul; Preut, Hans; Hiersemann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C14H12O3, was synthesized via the nucleophilic addition of 4-meth-oxy-phenol to 4-fluoro-benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the least-squares planes of the benzene rings is 71.52 (3)° and the C-O-C angle at the central O atom is 118.82 (8)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to generate supra-molecular layers in the bc plane. The layers are linked by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:26870476

  11. Crystal structure of 4-(4-meth­oxy­phen­oxy)benzaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Andreas; Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Gilke, Stefan; Kossmann, Paul; Preut, Hans; Hiersemann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C14H12O3, was synthesized via the nucleophilic addition of 4-meth­oxy­phenol to 4-fluoro­benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the least-squares planes of the benzene rings is 71.52 (3)° and the C—O—C angle at the central O atom is 118.82 (8)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to generate supra­molecular layers in the bc plane. The layers are linked by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:26870476

  12. 2-(Anthracen-9-yl)-10-meth-oxy-benzo[h]quinoline acetone hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhenming; Liu, Bo; Cui, Xinxin; Liu, Yufang

    2012-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title structure, C(28)H(19)NO·0.5C(3)H(6)O, comprises one 2-(anthracen-9-yl)-10-meth-oxy-benzo[h]-quinoline mol-ecule and an acteone mol-ecule with an occupany of 0.5. The solvent mol-ecule is disordered around a centre of symmetry. Its occupancy was determined from NMR data and kept fixed during the refinement. The two conjugated ring systems of the mol-ecule are almost perpendicular to each other; the inter-planar angle between the anthracene and quinoline ring systems is 84.9 (2)°. PMID:22904968

  13. Bis[(E)-4-(hydroxy­imino­meth­yl)pyridinium] oxalate

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Winter, Manuela V.; Oppel, Iris M.

    2008-01-01

    The formula unit of the title compound, 2C6H7N2O+·C2O4 2−, comprises two symmetry-equivalent 4-(hydroxy­imino­meth­yl)­pyridinium cations on general positions, linked through hydrogen bonding via an oxalate anion that resides on a crystallographic centre of symmetry. The crystal structure consists of infinite chains of cations and oxalate anions directed by O—H⋯O and multicentre N—H⋯O inter­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. PMID:21200745

  14. 1,5-Di­meth­oxy­naphthalene

    PubMed Central

    Marfo-Owusu, Emmanuel; Thompson, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C12H12O2, lies across an inversion centre. The mol­ecular structure suggests that the meth­oxy groups in the 1- and 5-positions of the naphthalene moiety do not significantly distort the planar conformation of the ring system, which has a maximum deviation of 0.0025 (9) Å. In the crystal, mol­ecules pack in a herringbone arrangement in layers parallel to (100) and with chains propagating along [101] formed by very weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. PMID:24454094

  15. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  16. Crystal structure of 4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-oxy)benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Andreas; Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Gilke, Stefan; Kossmann, Paul; Preut, Hans; Hiersemann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C14H12O3, was synthesized via the nucleophilic addition of 4-meth-oxy-phenol to 4-fluoro-benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the least-squares planes of the benzene rings is 71.52 (3)° and the C-O-C angle at the central O atom is 118.82 (8)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to generate supra-molecular layers in the bc plane. The layers are linked by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  17. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  18. Establishment of a tetraploid Meth-A cell line through polyploidization by demecolcine but not by staurosporine, K-252A and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa-Yamamoto, K; Wang, S; Yamagishi, H; Ohdoi, C; Murano, H; Ikeda, T

    2001-08-01

    Polyploid cells are made by DNA reduplication without cell division, however, it is not easy to establish polyploid mammalian cell lines. It is worth studying the difference in cell character between hyperploid and parent cell lines. Meth-A cells were polyploidized by demecolcine, K-252a, staurosporine and paclitaxel. The cell-cycle responses of highly polyploid Meth-A cells after the removal of the drugs were examined by flow cytometry (FCM). Meth-A cells were highly polyploidized by these drugs. The polyploid Meth-A cells gradually decreased in ploidy after the drug release. A tetraploid Meth-A cell line was established only from the demecolcine-induced polyploid Meth-A cells. The duration of G1, S and G2/M phases of the tetraploid cell line were mostly the same as those of the parent diploid cells, except that the G2/M phase was 1.5 h longer. The chromosome number of tetraploid Meth-A cell line was about twice of the diploidy. A tetraploid Meth-A cell line was established. PMID:11529879

  19. 40 CFR 721.2275 - N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N,N,Nâ²,Nâ²-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. 721.2275 Section 721.2275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2275 - N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N,N,Nâ²,Nâ²-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. 721.2275 Section 721.2275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1)...

  1. Crystal Meth

    MedlinePlus

    ... your path to success. Like one of my NA counselor told me “why are you going to ... Pinterest Reddit LinkedIn Tumblr Related Tags / Family , Methamphetamine , NA , and recovery 3 Responses to this article Leave ...

  2. Methamphetamine (Meth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects, similar to those of other stimulants like cocaine. These include: Feeling very awake and active Fast ... Methamphetamine is a stimulant, with effects similar to cocaine, but longer-lasting. It does not cause illness ...

  3. Bis{2-meth­oxy-6-[(E)-(4-methyl­benz­yl)imino­meth­yl]phenolato}palladium(II) chloro­form monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Bahron, Hadariah; Tajuddin, Amalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah Wan; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    In the title complex, [Pd(C16H16NO2)2]·CHCl3, the PdII cation lies on an inversion center. One Cl atom of the CHCl3 solvent mol­ecule lies on a twofold axis and the C—H group is disordered with equal occupancies about this axis with the other Cl atom in a general position with full occupancy. The PdII cation is four-coordinate and adopts a square-planar geometry via coordination of the imine N and phenolic O atoms of the two bidentate Schiff base anions. The N and O atoms of these ligands are mutually trans. The plane of the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 73.52 (10)° with that of the meth­oxy­phenolate ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules of the PdII complex are arranged into sheets parallel to the ac plane, and the chloro­form solvent mol­ecules are located in the inter­stitial areas between the complex mol­ecules. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions stabilize the packing. PMID:25249876

  4. Health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents are the future adults of the world. While adolescence is typically regarded as a period of life relatively free from health problems, adolescents are actually in need of the attention of health professionals and health services, especially with regard to sexual health. A trend of decreasing age at menarche and increasing age at marriage presents adolescents with a substantial number of years in which they will experiment with their developing reproductive organs and sexuality. Substantial psychological and physical change takes place during this period. Inconsistent and suboptimal users of contraception, youths are at high risk for reproductive health problems and sexually transmitted diseases. Substance abuse, unintentional and intentional injuries and their sequelae, academic underachievement and illiteracy, and obesity may also be problematic for adolescents. Adolescents are, however, most damaged by internalized and externalized homophobia. The authors point out that adolescents may be persuaded to learn and change their behaviors more readily than adults. Appropriate messages could be conveyed through targeted information, education, and communication strategies to complement medical and health care services which are available, accessible, and acceptable. PMID:12318653

  5. 2-Hy­droxy-3-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde (o-vanillin) revisited

    PubMed Central

    Shin, David; Müller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The structure of ortho-vanillin, C8H8O3, has been revisited with modern methods and at low temperature (100 K). The previous structure [Iwasaki et al. (1976 ▶). Acta Cryst. B32, 1264–1266] is confirmed, but geometric precision is improved by an order of magnitude. The C atom of the meth­oxy group lies close to the benzene ring plane, which is the most common geometry for –OMe groups lying ortho to –OH groups on an aromatic ring. The crystal structure displays one intra­molecular O—H⋯O and three weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22904806

  6. 2-(4-Meth­oxy­phenyl)-2-oxoethan­aminium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Loh, Wan-Sin; Viveka, S.; Dinesha; Nagaraja, G. K.

    2012-01-01

    In the cation of the title compound, C9H12NO2 +·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the 2-oxoethanaminium N—C—C(=O)– plane [maximum deviation = 0.0148 (12) Å] and the benzene ring is 7.98 (8)°. The meth­oxy group is approximately in-plane with the benzene ring, with a C—O—C—C torsion angle of −2.91 (18)°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride anions are connected by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to the bc plane. A C—H⋯π inter­action further links the layers. PMID:23125762

  7. Novel (meth)acrylate monomers for ultrarapid polymerization and enhanced polymer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beckel, E. R.; Berchtold, K. A.; Nie, J.; Lu, H.; Stansbury, J. W.; Bowman, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is known to be one of the most efficient methods to initiatc polymeric reactions in the presence of a photonitiator. Photopolymerizations are advantageous because the chemistry of the materials can be tailored to design liquid monomers for ultrarapid polymerization into a solid polymer material. One way to achieve rapid photopolymerizations is to utilize multifunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. which form highly crosslinked polymers; however, these monomers typically do not achieve complete functional group conversion. Recently, Decker et al. developed novel monovinyl acrylate monomers that display polyriicrization kinetics that rival those of multifunctional acrylate monomers. These novel acrylate monomers incorporate secondary functionalities and end groups such as carbonates, carbamates, cyclic carbonates and oxazolidone which promote the increased polymerization kinetics of these monomers. In addition to thc polynierization kinetics, these novel monovinyl monomers form crosslinked polymers, which are characterized by having high strength and high flexibility. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the polymerization kinetics and crosslinking are not well understood.

  8. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. Findings MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. Conclusions The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org. PMID:21159174

  9. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  10. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  12. Crystal structure of 3-{[4-(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)piperazin-1-yl]meth-yl}-5-(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2(3H)-thione.

    PubMed

    Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A; Abuelizz, Hatem A; El-Emam, Ali A; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S M; Garcia-Granda, Santiago

    2016-02-01

    The title compound, C18H20N4O2S2, is a new 1,3,4-oxa-diazole and a key pharmacophore of several biologically active agents. It is composed of a meth-yl(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2(3H)-thione moiety linked to a 2-meth-oxy-phenyl unit via a piperazine ring that has a chair conformation. The thio-phene ring mean plane lies almost in the plane of the oxa-diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 4.35 (9)°. The 2-meth-oxy-phenyl ring is almost normal to the oxa-diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 84.17 (10)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and slipped parallel π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.6729 (10) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. The thio-phene ring has an approximate 180° rotational disorder about the bridging C-C bond. PMID:26958404

  13. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  14. Crystal structure of (E)-2-hy­droxy-4′-meth­oxy­aza­stilbene

    PubMed Central

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Kaewmanee, Narissara; Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Kan; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The title aza­stilbene derivative, C14H13NO2 {systematic name: (E)-2-[(4-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)amino]­phenol}, is a product of the condensation reaction between 4-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde and 2-amino­phenol. The mol­ecule adopts an E conformation with respect to the azomethine C=N bond and is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two substituted benzene rings being 3.29 (4)°. The meth­oxy group is coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is attached, the Cmeth­yl—O—C—C torsion angle being −1.14 (12)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond generating an S(5) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along [10-1]. The chains are linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:26090124

  15. Justine user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  16. PDBDiff user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.A.

    1992-01-07

    The SABrE system provides a number of tools for working with PDB files in a fairly generic fashion. In particular, PDBDiff compares the contents of two PDB files and displays the differences (in a manner similar but not identical to the UNIX utility diff). PDBDiff can also be run in an interactive mode which lets a user compare two PDB files on an item by item basis. The PDB tools, PDBView, PDBLS, PDBDiff, and PDBComp, are all SX programs. SX is a dialect of the LISP programming language which consists of extensions to the SCHEME dialect of LISP. The extensions provide functionality for graphics, binary data handling, and other areas of functionality. PDBDiff has a {open_quotes}help{close_quotes} command which lists its commands.

  17. PST user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Cebull, M.J.; Gilbert, B.G.

    1996-10-01

    The Parametric Source Term (PST) software allows estimation of radioactivity release fractions for Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). PST was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program. PST contains a framework of equations that model activity transport between volumes in the release pathway from the core, through the vessel, through the containment, and to the environment. PST quickly obtains exact solutions to differential equations for activity transport in each volume for each time interval. PST provides a superior method for source term estimation because it: ensures conservation of activity transported across various volumes in the release pathway; provides limited consideration of the time-dependent behavior of input parameter uncertainty distributions; allows input to be quantified using state-of-the-art severe accident analysis code results; increases modeling flexibility because linkage between volumes is specified by user input; and allows other types of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant designs to be evaluated with minimal modifications. PST is a microcomputer-based system that allows the analyst more flexibility than a mainframe system. PST has been developed to run with both MS DOS and MS Windows 95/NT operating systems. PST has the capability to load ASP Source Term Vector (STV) information, import pre-specified default input for the 6 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) initially analyzed in the NRC ASP program, allow input value modifications for release fraction sensitivity studies, export user-specified default input for the LWR being modeled, report results of radioactivity release calculations at each time interval, and generate formatted results that can interface with other risk assessment codes. This report describes the PST model and provides guidelines for using PST.

  18. Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Brushes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhenyuan; Xu, Hong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-07-15

    Poly((meth)acrylic acid) (P(M)AA) brushes possess a number of distinctive properties that are particularly attractive for biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes recent advances in the synthesis and biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes and brushes containing P(M)AA segments. First, we review different surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) methods, with a focus on recent progress in the surface-initiated controlled/living radical polymerization (SI-CLRP) techniques used to generate P(M)AA brushes with a tailored structure. Next, we discuss biomolecule immobilization methods for P(M)AA brushes, including physical adsorption, covalent binding, and affinity interactions. Finally, typical biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes are reviewed, and their performance is discussed based on their unique properties. We conclude that P(M)AA brushes are promising biomaterials, and more potential biomedical applications are expected to emerge with the further development of synthetic techniques and increased understanding of their interactions with biological systems.

  19. 2-Amino-4-meth­oxy-6-methyl­pyrimidin-1-ium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.; Prakash Kamath, K.

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H10N3O+·C6H2N3O7 −, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the benzene and pyridine rings is 3.1 (1)°. In the cation, the meth­oxy group is almost coplanar with the pyridine ring [C—O—C—N = −0.6 (2)°]. The p-nitro [C—C—N—O = −1.17 (19)°] and one o-nitro [C—C—N—O = 1.83 (19)°] group in the anion are essentially coplanar with the benzene ring. The other disordered o-nitro group containing the major occupancy [0.868 (6)] O atom is twisted −29.0 (2)° from the mean plane of the benzene ring. A bifurcated N—H⋯(O.O) hydrogen bond and weak C—H⋯O intermolecular inter­action between the cation and anion produce a network of infinite O—H⋯O—H⋯O—H chains along the c axis in the [101] plane which helps to establish crystal packing. Comparison to a DFT computational calculation indicates that significant conformational changes occur in the free state. PMID:21579227

  20. Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Poly(meth)acrylates with Bent-Core Mesogens

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,X.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Bai, Y.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of side-chain liquid crystalline (LC) poly(meth)acrylates with end-on bent-core liquid crystalline (BCLC) mesogens. Both conventional free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization have been used to synthesize these liquid crystalline polymers (LCP). The resulting polymers exhibit thermotropic LC behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermopolarized light microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering were used to characterize the LC structure of both monomers and polymers. The electro-optic (EO) measurement was carried out by applying a triangular wave and measuring the LC EO response. SmCP (Smectic C indicates the LC molecules are tilted with respect to the layer normal; P denotes polar ordering) phases were observed for both monomers and polymers. In LC monomers, typical antiferroelectric switching was observed. In the ground state, SmCP{sub A} (A denotes antiferroelectric) was observed which switched to SmCP{sub F} (F denotes ferroelectric) upon applying an electric field. In the corresponding LCP, a unique bilayer structure was observed, which is different from the reported BCLC bilayer SmCG (G denotes generated) phase. Most of the LCPs did not switch upon applying electric field while weak AF switching was observed in a low molecular weight poly{l_brace}3'-[4-(4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyloxy)benzoyloxy]-4-(12-acryloyloxydodecyloxy)benzoyloxybiphenyl{r_brace} sample.

  1. The effects of D3R on TLR4 signaling involved in the regulation of METH-mediated mast cells activation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Geng, Yan; Li, Ming; Jin, Yao-Feng; Ren, Hui-Xun; Li, Xia; Wu, Feng; Wang, Biao; Cheng, Wei-Ying; Chen, Teng; Chen, Yan-Jiong

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating studies have revealed that the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) plays an important role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. However, the action of D3R on METH-mediated immune response and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Mast cells (MCs) are currently identified as effector cells in many processes of immune responses, and MC activation is induced by various stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, CD117 and FcεRI are known as MC markers due to their specific expression in MCs. To investigate the effects of D3R on METH-mediated alteration of LPS-induced MCs activation and the underlying mechanism, in this study, we examined the expression of CD117 and FcεRI in the intestines of wild-type (D3R(+/+)) and D3R-deficient (D3R(-/-)) mice. We also measured the production of MC-derived cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-13 and CCL-5, in the bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) of WT and D3R(-/-) mice. Furthermore, we explored the effects of D3R on METH-mediated TLR4 and downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling induced by LPS in mouse BMMCs. We found that METH suppressed MC activation induced by LPS in the intestines of D3R(+/)mice. In contrast, LPS-induced MC activation was less affected by METH in D3R(-/-) mice. Furthermore, METH altered LPS-induced cytokine production in BMMCs of D3R(+/+) mice but not D3R(-/-) mice. D3R was also involved in METH-mediated modulation of LPS-induced expression of TLR4 and downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling molecules in mouse BMMCs. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the effect of D3R on TLR4 signaling may be implicated in the regulation of METH-mediated MCs activation induced by LPS. PMID:27156126

  2. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC)

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by 1H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  3. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Helmut; Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  4. Skateboard injuries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, R A

    1990-09-01

    Data from the Consumer Product Safety Commission show an increase in skateboard injuries since 1984. This study analyzed reports of injuries in children and adolescents who use skateboards and the use of protective clothing by skateboard users. A convenience sample of 94 users, aged 6-18 years, in a metropolitan HMO was evaluated by questionnaire. Significant injuries associated with skateboard use (lacerations, unconsciousness, fractures, or other) were reported by 13% of the subjects. Frequency of skateboard use was strongly associated (p less than 0.01) with significant injury. Use of protective clothing was not associated with a lower proportion of injured users. Older adolescents reported a higher proportion of injuries than younger adolescents or children did. These findings suggest a high injury prevalence among skateboard users. Prevention strategies should be critically evaluated and should not rely solely on the use of protective clothing.

  5. Crystal structure of (E)-1-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethanone O-de-hydro-abietyloxime.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Jian-Qiang

    2014-09-01

    In the title compound, C29H37NO3 {systematic name: (E)-1-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethanone O-[(1R,4aS,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octa-hydro-phenanthrene-1-carbon-yl]oxime}, a new derivative of de-hydro-abietic acid, the two cyclo-hexane rings exhibit a trans-ring junction and are in chair and half-chair conformations. The C=N double bond exhibits an E conformation.

  6. Crystal structure of poly[{μ-N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)meth-yl]oxalamide}-μ-oxalato-cobalt(II)].

    PubMed

    Zou, Hengye; Qi, Yanjuan

    2014-09-01

    In the polymeric title compound, [Co(C2O4)(C14H14N4O2)] n , the Co(II) atom is six-coordinated by two N atoms from symmetry-related bis-[(pyridin-4-yl)meth-yl]oxalamide (BPMO) ligands and four O atoms from two centrosymmetric oxalate anions in a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. The Co(II) atoms are linked by the oxalate anions into a chain running parallel to [100]. The chains are linked by the BPMO ligands into a three-dimensional architecture. In addition, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:25309173

  7. Crystal structures of 4-meth­oxy-N-(4-methyl­phenyl)benzene­sulfonamide and N-(4-fluoro­phenyl)-4-meth­oxy­benzene­sulfonamide

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Vinola Z.; Preema, C. P.; Naveen, S.; Lokanath, N. K.; Suchetan, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Crystal structures of two N-(ar­yl)aryl­sulfonamides, namely, 4-meth­oxy-N-(4-methyl­phen­yl)benzene­sulfonamide, C14H15NO3S, (I), and N-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-4-meth­oxy­benzene­sulfonamide, C13H12FNO3S, (II), were determined and analyzed. In (I), the benzene­sulfonamide ring is disordered over two orientations, in a 0.516 (7):0.484 (7) ratio, which are inclined to each other at 28.0 (1)°. In (I), the major component of the sulfonyl benzene ring and the aniline ring form a dihedral angle of 63.36 (19)°, while in (II), the planes of the two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 44.26 (13)°. In the crystal structure of (I), N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form infinite C(4) chains extended in [010], and inter­molecular C—H⋯πar­yl inter­actions link these chains into layers parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure of (II) features N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite one dimensional C(4) chains along [001]. Further, a pair of C—H⋯O inter­molecular inter­actions consolidate the crystal packing of (II) into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:26594517

  8. Crystal structure of ethyl (E)-4-(4-chlorophen­yl)-4-meth­oxy-2-oxobut-3-enoate

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Darlene Correia; Vicenti, Juliano Rosa de Menezes; Pereira, Bruna Ávila; da Silva, Gabriele Marques Dias; Zambiazi, Priscilla Jussiane

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H13ClO4, the dihedral angle between the chloro­benezene ring and the least-squares plane through the 4-meth­oxy-2-oxobut-3-enoate ethyl ester residue (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0975 Å) is 54.10 (5)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by meth­oxy–ketone and benzene–carboxyl­ate carbonyl C—H⋯O inter­actions, generating a supra­molecular layer in the ac plane. PMID:25309205

  9. Crystal structure of 4-[(2E)-3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)prop-2-eno­yl]phenyl benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, S.; Reuben Jonathan, D.; Prathebha, K.; Jovita, J.; Usha, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C23H18O4, the meth­oxy­benzene ring and attached C=C grouping are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.823 (5):0.177 (5) ratio. The dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the pendant phenyl and meth­oxy­benzene ring (major orientation) are 51.21 (1) and 51.6 (1)°, respectively. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(28) loops. PMID:25309194

  10. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  11. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  12. Adolescent contraception: review and guidance for pediatric clinicians.

    PubMed

    Potter, J; Santelli, J S

    2015-02-01

    The majority of adolescents initiate sexual activity during their teenage years, making contraception an important aspect of routine adolescent health care. Despite common misperceptions, all available methods of reversible contraception are appropriate for adolescent use. Contraceptive side effects profiles and barriers to use of certain methods should be considered when providing contraceptives to adolescents. In particular, ease of use, confidentiality, and menstrual effects are main concerns of adolescents. Contraceptive counseling with adolescents should describe method efficacy, discuss user preferences, explore barriers to use, counsel regarding sexually transmitted infection prevention, and consider what to do if contraception fails. Emergency contraception should be widely discussed with adolescents, as it is appropriate for use during gaps in other contraceptive use, method failure, and adolescents who are not using another form of contraception. Dual method use (condom plus a highly effective method of contraception) is the gold standard for prevention of both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

  13. Crystal structures of two bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing.

    PubMed

    McAdam, C John; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim

    2015-12-01

    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di-bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis-ects the C-C bond between the two iodo-methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π-π stacking inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C-H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure. PMID:26870415

  14. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-bromopyridin-3-yl)methyl-idene]-6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-naphthalen-1(2H)-one and 3-[(E)-(6-meth-oxy-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naphthalen-2-ylidene)meth-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one.

    PubMed

    Zingales, Sarah K; Moore, Morgan E; Goetz, Andrew D; Padgett, Clifford W

    2016-07-01

    The title compounds C17H14BrNO2, (I), and C17H15NO3, (II), were obtained from the reaction of 6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one and 2-bromo-nicotinaldehyde in ethanol. Compound (I) was the expected product and compound (II) was the oxidation product from air exposure. In the crystal structure of compound (I), there are no short contacts or hydrogen bonds. The structure does display π-π inter-actions between adjacent benzene rings and adjacent pyridyl rings. Compound (II) contains two independent mol-ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; both are non-planar, the dihedral angles between the meth-oxy-benzene and 1H-pyridin-2-one mean planes being 35.07 (9)° in A and 35.28 (9)°in B. In each mol-ecule, the 1H-pyridin-2-one unit participates in inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding to another mol-ecule of the same type (A to A or B to B). The structure also displays π-π inter-actions between the pyridyl and the benzene rings of non-equivalent mol-ecules (viz., A to B and B to A). PMID:27555939

  15. A kryptoracemic salt: 2-{[2,8-bis­(tri­fluoro­meth­yl)quinolin-4-yl](hy­droxy)meth­yl}piperidin-1-ium (+)-3,3,3-tri­fluoro-2-meth­oxy-2-phenyl­propanoate

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C17H17F6N2O+·C10H8F3O3 −, comprises two piperidin-1-ium cations and two carboxyl­ate anions. The cations, each having an l-shaped conformation owing to the near orthogonal relationship between the quinolinyl and piperidin-1-ium residues, are pseudo-enanti­omeric. The anions have the same absolute configuration but differ in the relative orientations of the carboxyl­ate, meth­oxy and benzene groups. Arguably, the most prominent difference between the anions occurs about the Cq—Om bond as seen in the Cc—Cq—Om—Cm torsion angles of −176.1 (3) and −67.1 (4)°, respectively (q = quaternary, m = meth­oxy and c = carboxyl­ate). The presence of Oh—H⋯Oc and Np—H⋯Oc hydrogen bonds leads to the formation of a supra­molecular chain along the a axis (h = hy­droxy and p = piperidin-1-ium); weak intra­molecular Np—H⋯Oh hydrogen bonds are also noted. Chains are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H⋯F inter­actions. Based on a literature survey, related mol­ecules/cations adopt a uniform conformation in the solid state based on the letter L. PMID:27308063

  16. The pedestrian behaviour of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sullman, M J M; Gras, M E; Font-Mayolas, S; Masferrer, L; Cunill, M; Planes, M

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the data, but an acceptable fit was obtained for the shortened 21-item version of the scale. In line with research from the UK, the present study found that males reported more unsafe road crossing behaviour and playing on the roads, but there was no gender difference for engaging in planned protective behaviour. This research also confirmed that unsafe road crossing behaviour increased with age, while dangerous playing on the road and planned protective behaviours both decreased with age. The present study also confirmed that the ARBQ is a useful tool for investigating the safety-related behaviour of adolescents on the road.

  17. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. PMID:25460036

  18. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence.

  19. Crystal structure of 2-(2,3-di­meth­oxy­naphthalen-1-yl)-3-hy­droxy-6-meth­oxy-4H-chromen-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seunghyun; Lim, Yoongho; Koh, Dongsoo

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C22H18O6, the dimeth­oxy-substituted naphthalene ring system is twisted relative to the 4H-chromenon skeleton by 88.96 (3)°. The two meth­oxy substituents are tilted from the naphthalene ring system by 1.4 (4) and 113.0 (2)°, respectively. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond closes an S(5) ring motif. In the crystal, pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form inversion dimers with R 2 2(10) loops and C—H⋯O inter­actions connect the dimers into [010] chains. PMID:26594556

  20. Peer Approach in Adolescent Reproductive Health Education: Some Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This package is one of a series of repackaged products aimed at alerting UNESCO users to a wealth of highly valuable educational resources that exist in the field of adolescent reproductive and sexual health. This document focuses on what research says is the impact of peer education in promoting necessary changes among adolescents in attitudes…

  1. Adolescents and Cyber Bullying: The Precaution Adoption Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John

    2016-01-01

    A survey of adolescents (N = 1,488) documented Facebook use and experience with cyber bullying. The study found that 84% of adolescents (middle school through college undergraduates) use Facebook, and that most users log on daily. While 30% of the sample reported being cyber bullied, only 12.5% quit using the site, and only 18% told a parent or…

  2. Perceived Messages from Schools Regarding Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Anderson, Robert; Williams, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    Interviews 8th- and 12th-grade adolescent tobacco users, as part of a larger study on adolescents' reasons for tobacco use. Finds that: students perceive school systems to be hypocritical and to be sending contradictory messages regarding the use of tobacco; and the reward/punishment structure of public school systems may not be effective in…

  3. Crystal structure of 2-((1E)-{2-[bis­(2-methyl­benzyl­sulfan­yl)methyl­idene]hydrazin-1-yl­idene}meth­yl)-6-meth­oxy­phenol

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira Begum S. A.; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C25H26N2O2S2, the central CN2S2 atoms are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0058 Å). One phenyl ring clearly lies to one side of the central plane, while the other is oriented in the plane but splayed. Despite the different relative orientations, the phenyl rings form similar dihedral angles of 64.90 (3) and 70.06 (3)° with the central plane, and 63.28 (4)° with each other. The benzene ring is twisted with respect to the central plane, forming a dihedral angle of 13.17 (7)°. The S2C=N, N—N and N—N=C bond lengths of 1.2919 (19), 1.4037 (17) and 1.2892 (19) Å, respectively, suggest limited conjugation over these atoms; the configuration about the N—N=C bond is E. An intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond is noted. In the crystal, phen­yl–meth­oxy C—H⋯O and phen­yl–phenyl C—H⋯π inter­actions lead to supra­molecular double chains parallel to the b axis. These are connected into a layer via meth­yl–phenyl C—H⋯π inter­actions, and layers stack along the a axis, being connected by weak π–π inter­actions between phenyl rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.9915 (9) Å] so that a three-dimensional architecture ensues. PMID:26029435

  4. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Program through the EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS) Project and the Langley ASDC, located at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ...

  5. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  6. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  7. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  8. Crystal structure of 4-meth­oxy-N-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)carbo­thio­yl]benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Suhud, Khairi; Heng, Lee Yook; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Ahmad, Musa; Kassim, Mohammad B.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H16N2O2S, the pyrrolidine ring has a twisted conformation on the central –CH2–CH2– bond. Its mean plane is inclined to the 4-meth­oxy­benzoyl ring by 72.79 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the same O-atom acceptor, forming chains along [001]. The chains are linked via slipped parallel π–π inter­actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.7578 (13) Å], forming undulating slabs parallel to (100). PMID:26029426

  9. Crystal structure of dimethyl 4,4'-di-meth-oxy-biphenyl-3,3'-di-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Lundvall, Fredrik; Dietzel, Pascal D C; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, C18H18O6, the benzene rings are coplanar due to the centrosymmetric nature of the mol-ecule, with an inversion centre located at the midpoint of the C-C bond between the two rings. Consequently, the methyl carboxyl-ate substituents are oriented in a trans fashion with regards to the bond between the benzene rings. The methyl carboxyl-ate and meth-oxy substituents are rotated slightly out of plane relative to their parent benzene rings, with dihedral and torsion angles of 18.52 (8) and -5.22 (15)°, respectively. The shortest O⋯H contact between neighbouring mol-ecules is about 2.5 Å. Although some structure-directing contributions from C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions are possible, the crystal packing seems primarily directed by weak van der Waals forces. PMID:27006799

  10. Crystal structure of 2-(5-meth-oxy-1-benzo-furan-3-yl)acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Ramakrishna; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Reddy, M Keshava; Basanagouda, Mahantesha

    2015-12-01

    The benzo-furan residue in the title compound, C11H10O4, is essentially planar (the r.m.s. deviation for the nine non-H atoms = 0.011 Å). While the meth-oxy group is coplanar with the fused ring system [C-C-O-C torsion angle = 3.1 (3)°], the acetic acid residue occupies a position almost prime [C-C-C-C = 77.0 (2)°]. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form eight-membered {⋯HOCO}2 synthons. The dimeric aggregates assemble into supra-molecular layers in the ab plane via benzene-C-H⋯O(ring) inter-actions. PMID:26870494

  11. 4-Chloro-6-meth­oxy­pyrimidin-2-amine–succinic acid (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C5H6ClN3O·C4H6O4, consists of one 4-chloro-6-meth­oxy­pyrimidin-2-amine mol­ecule and one half-mol­ecule of succinic acid which lies about an inversion centre. In the crystal, the acid and base mol­ecules are linked through N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a tape along [1-10] in which R 2 2(8) and R 4 2(8) hydrogen-bond motifs are observed. The tapes are further inter­linked through a pair of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a sheet parallel to (11-2). PMID:23476180

  12. Crystal structure of non-centrosymmetric bis-(4-meth-oxy-benzyl-ammonium) tetra-chlorido-zincate.

    PubMed

    Mahbouli Rhouma, Najla; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The structure of the title non-centrosymmetric organic-inorganic hybrid salt, (C8H12NO)2[ZnCl4], consists of two 4-meth-oxy-benzyl-ammonium cations sandwiched between anionic layers, formed by isolated tetra-chlorido-zincate tetra-hedra. The double layers extend parallel to the ac plane. The crystal packing is assured by Coulombic inter-actions and by a complex N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding system mostly involving the positively charged ammonium groups and the chloride ligands of the isolated tetra-hedral [ZnCl4](2-) units. One of the methyl-ene-ammonium groups is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.48 (2):0.52 (2) ratio. The crystal investigated was twinned by non-merohedry with a twin component ratio of 0.738 (2):0.262 (2). PMID:27555961

  13. Crystal structure of 1-meth­oxy-2,2,2-tris­(pyrazol-1-yl)ethane

    PubMed Central

    Lyubartseva, Ganna; Parkin, Sean; Coleman, Morgan D.; Mallik, Uma Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C12H14N6O, consists of three pyrazole rings bound via nitro­gen to the distal ethane carbon of meth­oxy ethane. The dihedral angles between the three pyrazole rings are 67.62 (14), 73.74 (14), and 78.92 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by bifurcated C—H,H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming double-stranded chains along [001]. The chains are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework structure. The crystal was refined as a perfect (0.5:0.5) inversion twin. PMID:25309218

  14. NASCAP user's manual, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. J., III

    1978-01-01

    NASCAP simulates the charging process for a complex object in either tenuous plasma (geosynchronous orbit) or ground test (electron gun source) environment. Program control words, the structure of user input files, and various user options available are described in this computer programmer's user manual.

  15. Atmoshperic Science User Forum

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-26

    article title:  Atmospheric Science User Forum     View Larger Image ... ASDC is pleased to announce the release of the Atmospheric Science User Forum. The purpose of this forum is to improve user service, quality, and efficiency of NASA atmospheric science data by providing a quick and easy way to facilitate scientific ...

  16. Helping Users Help Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Claire E.

    This discussion of the design of user-initiated help systems in computers focuses on the information that users actively seek to help them with their tasks, with emphasis on how to help users ask the questions that will bridge the gap between the initial internal (mental) form of the query and their information need as expressed by the system.…

  17. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Adolescent drug misuse treatment and use of medical care services.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, D K; Polen, M R; Mullooly, J P

    1995-05-01

    Research on adults has documented that use of medical services decreases after initiation of treatment for alcohol problems, but little is known about this relationship among adolescents. We studied utilization and costs of care following participation in the Adolescent Chemical Health Program (ACHP) of Kaiser Permanente, Northwest Region, in 1986-88. Three groups of adolescents (and their parents) were identified: adolescents who were assessed and initiated treatment in ACHP (n = 561), adolescents who were assessed and recommended for treatment but did not return for treatment (n = 278), and adolescents with no known substance use problems (n = 381). Medical records were reviewed for 1 year pre- and 1.5 years postassessment. After adjusting for preassessment medical visits, severity of alcohol and drug use, gender, and age, analyses suggested that substance user treatment was not associated with reduced use of medical services or costs by either adolescents or parents. PMID:7558471

  19. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  20. The road user behaviour of school students in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Amir Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Khanjani, Narges; Zirak Moradlou, Hossein; Sullman, Mark J M

    2015-02-01

    The present study developed a Persian version of the Adolescent Road User Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) and investigated the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of school students in the province of Tehran (Iran). In total 1111 adolescents completed the Persian version of the ARBQ. Exploratory factor analysis, using the shortened 21-item version of the scale revealed the presence of three reliable factors which were also supported using confirmatory factor analysis. According to this research, engagement in dangerous playing in the road was significantly higher among males, residents of large urban areas, students from private schools, students in the south of Tehran, those who reported relatives or friends had been killed in a road crash and those with a personal history of road accidents. Moreover, older adolescents, those who reported relatives or friends having been killed in a road crash and those with a traffic accident history reported higher involvement in unsafe crossing behaviour. Females, older adolescents, residents of small urban areas, students from schools in small urban areas and those with an accident history also reported less frequent engagement in planned protective behaviours. This study confirms that the ARBQ is a useful framework for investigating adolescents' on-road behaviours in Iran. This research also showed that adolescents put themselves at risk by engaging in hazardous behaviours. As is the case in most countries, this study revealed the need for interventions, such as education and enforcement to improve the on-road safety culture amongst Iranian adolescents.

  1. Adolescent immunization.

    PubMed

    Handal, G A

    2000-06-01

    The dramatic improvements achieved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in children have only been shared partially by adolescents and young adults, as today several million adolescents are not receiving the full complement of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This article discusses the reasons for this problem and the tools to bridge this gap. In particular, medical societies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a close assessment of the adolescentís immunization status between 11 and 12 years of age, inclusion of school immunization, and providing missing immunizations at any opportunity. The article also addresses other vaccines recommended for groups of adolescents with special needs, reporting information, and provides an update on the vaccines of the future.

  2. Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S

    2009-06-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension, probing whether pornography consumers differed from other Internet users, as well as the social characteristics of adolescent frequent pornography consumers. Data from a 2004 survey of a national representative sample of the adolescent population in Israel were used (n=998). Adolescent frequent users of the Internet for pornography were found to differ in many social characteristics from the group that used the Internet for information, social communication and entertainment. Weak ties to mainstream social institutions were characteristic of the former group but not of the latter. X-rated material consumers proved to be a distinct sub-group at risk of deviant behaviour. PMID:18694593

  3. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  4. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  5. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  6. User Registration in EOSDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the lifetime of EOSDIS the topic of user registration has received varied attention. Initially, for example, users ordering data from the Earth Science Data Gateway were required to register for delivery of media orders, to check order status and save profile information for future interactions. As EOSDIS embraced evolution of its data systems, the mostly centralized search and order system was replaced with a more diverse set of interfaces allowing (mostly) anonymous online access to data, tools and services. The changes to EOSDIS were embraced by users but the anonymous nature of the interaction made it more difficult to characterize users, capture metrics and provide customized services that benefit users. Additionally, new tools and interfaces have been developed without a centralized registration system. Currently a patchwork of independent registration systems exists throughout EOSDIS for ordering data and interacting with online tools and services. Each requires a separate username and password that must be managed by users. A consolidation of registration systems presents an opportunity to improve not only the user experience through tool customization and simplification of password management, but the understanding of users. This work discusses the options for implementing a common user registration for the EOSDIS, anticipated benefits and pitfalls.

  7. Preliminary ISIS users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Interactive Software Invocation (ISIS), an interactive data management system, was developed to act as a buffer between the user and host computer system. The user is provided by ISIS with a powerful system for developing software or systems in the interactive environment. The user is protected from the idiosyncracies of the host computer system by providing such a complete range of capabilities that the user should have no need for direct access to the host computer. These capabilities are divided into four areas: desk top calculator, data editor, file manager, and tool invoker.

  8. Online Social Networking: Usage in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nevil Johnson; Valsaraj, Blessy Prabha; Noronha, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) has played a significant role on the relationship among college students. It is becoming a popular medium for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. Young adults and adolescents are the most prolific users of OSN sites. The frequent use of OSN sites results in addiction toward these sites and…

  9. Crystal structure of bis-(1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolin-2-yl-idene)silver(I) hexa-fluorido-phosphate, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex.

    PubMed

    Rietzler, Barbara; Laus, Gerhard; Kahlenberg, Volker; Schottenberger, Herwig

    2015-12-01

    The title salt, [Ag(C5H8N2O2)2]PF6, was obtained by deprotonation and metalation of 1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolium hexa-fluorido-phosphate using silver(I) oxide in methanol. The C-Ag-C angle in the cation is 178.1 (2)°, and the N-C-N angles are 101.1 (4) and 100.5 (4)°. The meth-oxy groups adopt an anti conformation. In the crystal, anions (A) are sandwiched between cations (C) in a layered arrangement {C…A…C} n stacked along [001]. Within a C…A…C layer, the hexafluoridophosphate anions accept several C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds from the cationic complex. PMID:26870450

  10. 3-(4-Meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)-1,5-dioxa-spiro-[5.5]undecane-2,4-dione.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wu-Lan; Suo, Jin-Long; Jian, Fang-Fang

    2010-01-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C(17)H(18)O(5), which was prepared by the reaction of (R)-1,5-dioxaspiro-[5.5]undecane-2,4-dione and 4-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde with ethanol, the 1,3-dioxane ring is in a distorted envelope conformation with the spiro C atom forming the flap. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21589023

  11. 6-Meth­oxy-4-(2,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2,2′-bi­pyridine-5-carbo­nitrile

    PubMed Central

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Suwunwong, Thitipone; Ruanwas, Pumsak; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In the title 3-cyano­pyridine derivative, C21H19N3O4, the 3-cyano-substituted pyridine ring forms dihedral angles of 2.35 (5) and 41.60 (5)° with the unsubstituted pyridine and 2,4,5-trimeth­oxy-substituted benzene rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the unsubstituted pyridine and benzene rings is 39.84 (5)°. The meth­oxy groups form Cmeth­yl—O—C—(C,N) torsion angles in the range 0.80 (15)–11.45 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules related by 21 screw axes are linked by weak C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds along [010]. In addition, weak C—H⋯π inter­actions and π–π stacking inter­actions between pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.6448 (6) Å, are observed. PMID:24098197

  12. Crystal structure of bis­{2-[(E)-(4-meth­oxy­lbenz­yl)imino­meth­yl]phenolato-κ2 N,O 1}nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Bahron, Hadariah; Tajuddin, Amalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah Wan; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(C15H14NO2)2], comprises an NiII cation, lying on an inversion centre, and a Schiff base anion that acts as a bidentate ligand. The NiII cation is in a square-planar coordination environment binding to the imine N and phenolate O atoms of the two Schiff base ligands. The N- and O-donor atoms of the two ligands are mutually trans, with Ni—N and Ni—O bond lengths of 1.9191 (11) and 1.8407 (9) Å, respectively. The plane of the meth­oxy­benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 84.92 (6)° with that of the phenolate ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into screw chains by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Additional C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with C—H⋯π contacts, arrange the mol­ecules into sheets parallel to the ac plane. PMID:25249867

  13. 2-[(1,3-Benzo­thia­zol-2-yl)imino­meth­yl]-6-meth­oxy­phenol: a new monoclinic polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md. Abu; Jessop, Philip G.; Salam, Md. Abdus; Halim, Siti Nadiah Binti Abdul; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C15H12N2O2S, is a P21/c polymorph of a previously reported P21/n polymorph [Büyükgüngör et al. (2004 ▶). Acta Cryst. E60, o1414–o1416]. The dihedral angle between the benzo­thia­zole (r.m.s. deviation = 0.010 Å) and the benzene ring of 7.86 (6)° compares with 10.76 (10)° in the literature structure. The meth­oxy substituent is almost coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is attached [C—O—C—C torsion angle = 178.31 (14)°] and the conformation about the imine bond [1.287 (2) Å] is E. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond and the hy­droxy O and thio­ether S atoms are syn. In the crystal, columns are formed along the b axis as centrosymmetric dimeric aggregates, mediated by C—H⋯O inter­actions and linked by π–π inter­actions between the thia­zole and benzene rings [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.8256 (10) Å]. PMID:24109355

  14. Online User Group Directory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Mary

    1978-01-01

    This list of U.S. and international online user groups includes contact persons and their addresses. The U.S. regions are divided according to the Medlars regional geographical breakdown. The user groups were formed so that data base producers or search service vendors could be invited to do training or give educational programs. (JPF)

  15. User's Guide for SKETCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgley, David R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program SKETCH is presented on this disk. SKETCH solves a popular problem in computer graphics-the removal of hidden lines from images of solid objects. Examples and illustrations are included in the guide. Also included is the SKETCH program, so a user can incorporate the information into a particular software system.

  16. MIRADS-2 user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An on-line data storage and retrieval system which allows the user to extract and process information from stored data bases is described. The capabilities of the system are provided by a general purpose computer program containing several functional modules. The modules contained in MIRADS are briefly described along with user terminal operation procedures and MIRADS commands.

  17. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  18. LANES 1 Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.

    1985-01-01

    This document is intended for users of the Local Area Network Extensible Simulator, version I. This simulator models the performance of a Fiber Optic network under a variety of loading conditions and network characteristics. The options available to the user for defining the network conditions are described in this document. Computer hardware and software requirements are also defined.

  19. KDYNA user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Levatin, J.A.L.; Attia, A.V.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1990-09-28

    This report is a complete user's manual for KDYNA, the Earth Sciences version of DYNA2D. Because most features of DYNA2D have been retained in KDYNA much of this manual is identical to the DYNA2D user's manual.

  20. SOSS User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Gridnev, Sergei; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This User Guide describes SOSS (Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler) software build and graphic user interface. SOSS is a desktop application that simulates airport surface operations in fast time using traffic management algorithms. It moves aircraft on the airport surface based on information provided by scheduling algorithm prototypes, monitors separation violation and scheduling conformance, and produces scheduling algorithm performance data.

  1. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  2. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  3. User`s guide to MIDAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C.; Chun, K.C.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  4. Aztec user`s guide. Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Aztec is an iterative library that greatly simplifies the parallelization process when solving the linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. Aztec is intended as a software tool for users who want to avoid cumbersome parallel programming details but who have large sparse linear systems which require an efficiently utilized parallel processing system. A collection of data transformation tools are provided that allow for easy creation of distributed sparse unstructured matrices for parallel solution. Once the distributed matrix is created, computation can be performed on any of the parallel machines running Aztec: nCUBE 2, IBM SP2 and Intel Paragon, MPI platforms as well as standard serial and vector platforms. Aztec includes a number of Krylov iterative methods such as conjugate gradient (CG), generalized minimum residual (GMRES) and stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) to solve systems of equations. These Krylov methods are used in conjunction with various preconditioners such as polynomial or domain decomposition methods using LU or incomplete LU factorizations within subdomains. Although the matrix A can be general, the package has been designed for matrices arising from the approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, the Aztec package is oriented toward systems arising from PDE applications.

  5. Quality user support: Supporting quality users

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  6. Therapeutic effect of adriamycin encapsulated in long-circulating liposomes on Meth-A-sarcoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Oku, N; Doi, K; Namba, Y; Okada, S

    1994-08-01

    Long-circulating liposomes modified with a uronic-acid derivative, palmityl-D-glucuronide (PGIcUA), have been developed previously for the passive targeting of liposomes to tumor tissues. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect of adriamycin (ADM) encapsulated in PGIcUA liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol (Chol) and PGIcUA (molar ratio, 40/40/10) since this amount of PGIcUA was enough to endow liposomes with long-circulating activity. Long-circulating activity was also observed with palmityl-D-galacturonide (PGalUA) modified liposomes, suggesting that uronic acid plays an important role in preventing liposomes from being trapped in the reticuloendothelial system (RES). ADM was loaded in liposomes by a remote-loading method. Free or liposomal ADM was injected i.v. into BALB/c mice bearing s.c.-implanted Meth-A sarcoma. The liposomal formulation was efficient for reducing tumors, prolonging survival time and curing the animals, especially in the case of large tumors where free ADM was not. Furthermore, PGlcUA liposomes were more effective than conventional liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) instead of PGlcUA for prolonging survival time in mice. It might therefore be appropriate to use PGlcUA liposomes as the carriers of anticancer drugs. PMID:8050822

  7. Investigation of fluorinated (Meth)acrylate monomers and macromonomers suitable for a hydroxy-containing acrylate monomer in UV nanoimprinting.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shunya; Kaneko, Shu; Yun, Cheol Min; Kobayashi, Kei; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2014-06-24

    We investigated reactive fluorinated (meth)acrylate monomers and macromonomers that caused segregation at the cured resin surface of a viscous hydroxy-containing monomer, glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate (GDD), and decreased the demolding energy in ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting with spin-coated films under a condensable alternative chlorofluorocarbon gas atmosphere. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements used to determine the surface free energy suggested that a nonvolatile silicone-based methacrylate macromonomer with fluorinated alkyl groups segregated at the GDD-based cured resin surface and decreased the surface free energy, while fluorinated acrylate monomers hardly decreased the surface free energy because of their evaporation during the annealing of the spin-coated films. The average demolding energy of GDD-based cured resins with the macromonomer having fluorinated alkyl groups was smaller than that with the macromonomer having hydrocarbon alkyl groups. The fluorinated alkyl groups were responsible for decreasing the demolding energy rather than the polysiloxane main chains. We demonstrated that the GDD-based UV-curable resin with the fluorinated silicone-based macromonomer was suitable for step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting with a bare silica mold, in addition to silica molds treated by chemical vapor surface modification with trifluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydropropyltrimethoxysilane (FAS3) and tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrimethoxysilane (FAS13). PMID:24892792

  8. Selection of di(meth)acrylate monomers for low pollution of fluorinated mold surfaces in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Kei; Hattori, Azusa N; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Kubo, Shoichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-04-14

    We used fluorescence microscopy to show that low adsorption of resin components by a mold surface was necessary for continuous ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprinting, as well as generation of a low release energy on detachment of a cured resin from a template mold. This is because with low mold pollution, fracture on demolding occurred at the interface between the mold and cured resin surfaces rather than at the outermost part of the cured resin. To achieve low mold pollution, we investigated the radical photopolymerization behaviors of fluorescent UV-curable resins and the mechanical properties (fracture toughness, surface hardness, and release energy) of the cured resin films for six types of di(meth)acrylate-based monomers with similar chemical structures, in which polar hydroxy and aromatic bulky bisphenol moieties and methacryloyl or acryloyl reactive groups were present or absent. As a result, we selected bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BPAGDM), which contains hydroxy, bisphenol, and methacryloyl moieties, which give good mechanical properties, monomer bulkiness, and mild reactivity, respectively, as a suitable base monomer for UV nanoimprinting under an easily condensable alternative chlorofluorocarbon (HFC-245fa) atmosphere. The fluorescent UV-curable BPAGDM resin was used for UV nanoimprinting and lithographic reactive ion etching of a silicon surface with 32 nm line-and-space patterns without a hard metal layer. PMID:25793911

  9. 4-Bromo-N-(4-meth­oxy-2-nitro­phen­yl)benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Sripet, Weerawat; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Ruanwas, Pumsak; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H11BrN2O4, the amide segment makes dihedral angles of 23.4 (2) and 20.5 (2)° with the benzene rings, while the dihedral angle between the bezene rings is 2.90 (8)°. The nitro and meth­oxy groups are almost coplanar with their bound benzene ring, with the r.m.s. deviation for the 11 non-H atoms being 0.0265 (1) Å. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into [2-10] chains by weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Br inter­actions, which form an R 2 2(8) motif between pairs of mol­ecules in the chain. A Br⋯O [3.2018 (12) Å] short contact also occurs. PMID:22606167

  10. Application of Targeted Molecular and Material Property Optimization to Bacterial Attachment-Resistant (Meth)acrylate Polymers.

    PubMed

    Adlington, Kevin; Nguyen, Nam T; Eaves, Elizabeth; Yang, Jing; Chang, Chien-Yi; Li, Jianing; Gower, Alexandra L; Stimpson, Amy; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Hook, Andrew L; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Irvine, Derek J

    2016-09-12

    Developing medical devices that resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is highly desirable. In this paper, we report the optimization of the molecular structure and thus material properties of a range of (meth)acrylate copolymers which contain monomers reported to deliver bacterial resistance to surfaces. This optimization allows such monomers to be employed within novel coatings to reduce bacterial attachment to silicone urinary catheters. We show that the flexibility of copolymers can be tuned to match that of the silicone catheter substrate, by copolymerizing these polymers with a lower Tg monomer such that it passes the flexing fatigue tests as coatings upon catheters, that the homopolymers failed. Furthermore, the Tg values of the copolymers are shown to be readily estimated by the Fox equation. The bacterial resistance performance of these copolymers were typically found to be better than the neat silicone or a commercial silver containing hydrogel surface, when the monomer feed contained only 25 v% of the "hit" monomer. The method of initiation (either photo or thermal) was shown not to affect the bacterial resistance of the copolymers. Optimized synthesis conditions to ensure that the correct copolymer composition and to prevent the onset of gelation are detailed. PMID:27461341

  11. 1-(2-Furo-yl)-3-(2-meth-oxy-4-nitro-phen-yl)thio-urea.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Seema; Singh, Durga P; Gupta, Sushil K; Yildirim, Sema Öztürk; Butcher, Ray J

    2013-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C13H11N3O5S, contains two independent mol-ecules, which are linked by a pair of inter-molecular N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming an R2(2)(8) ring motif. The central thio-urea core forms dihedral angles of 3.02 (12) and 14.00 (10)° with the essentially planar furoyl groups [maximum deviations = 0.030 (2) and 0.057 (2) Å] in the two mol-ecules and dihedral angles of 2.43 (13) and 8.03 (12)° with the benzene rings. The dihedral angles between the furoyl and benzene rings in the two mol-ecules are 3.97 (10) and 5.98 (9)°. The trans-cis geometry of the thio-urea group is stabilized by three intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving carbonyl and meth-oxy O atoms with the H atom of the cis-thio-amide group and between furan O atom and the other thio-amide H atom. There is also a weak intra-molecular C-H⋯S inter-action in each mol-ecule. PMID:23476526

  12. 2,3-Diamino­pyridinium 4-meth­oxy­quinoline-2-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In the 4-meth­oxy­quinoline-2-carboxyl­ate anion of the title salt, C5H8N3 +·C11H8NO3 −, the dihedral angle between the quinoline ring system and the carboxyl­ate group is 16.54 (15)°. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric 2 + 2 aggregate with R 2 2(9) and R 4 2(8) ring motifs. These units are further connected via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a layer parallel to the bc plane. The crystal structure is also stabilized by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π inter­actions between pyridine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5886 (8) Å] and between pyridine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6328 (8) Å]. PMID:23476259

  13. Recrystallization of water in non-water-soluble (meth)acrylate polymers is not rare and is not devitrification.

    PubMed

    Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Ohya, Atsushi; Kitano, Hiromi

    2012-02-16

    Change in the state of water sorbed into four kinds of non-water-soluble poly(meth)acrylates with low water content by temperature (T) perturbation was examined on the basis of T variable mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Many studies using differential scanning calorimetry suggested that there was no change in the state. T dependence of their MIR spectra, however, clearly demonstrated various changes in the state. Furthermore, recrystallization, which was crystallization during heating, was observed in all four polymers. The recrystallization observed in this study was not devitrification, which is the change in the state from glassy water to crystalline water, but vapor deposition during heating (vapor re-deposition). There were only two reports about recrystallization of water in a non-water-soluble polymer before this report; therefore, it might be considered to be a rare phenomenon. However, as demonstrated in this study, it is not a rare phenomenon. Recrystallization (vapor re-deposition) of water in the polymer matrices is related to a balance between flexibility and strength of the electrostatic interaction sites of polymer matrices but might not be related to the biocompatibility of polymers.

  14. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  15. Radiological Toolbox User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, KF

    2004-07-01

    A toolbox of radiological data has been assembled to provide users access to the physical, chemical, anatomical, physiological and mathematical data relevant to the radiation protection of workers and member of the public. The software runs on a PC and provides users, through a single graphical interface, quick access to contemporary data and the means to extract these data for further computations and analysis. The numerical data, for the most part, are stored within databases in SI units. However, the user can display and extract values using non-SI units. This is the first release of the toolbox which was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  16. Predisposition to and effects of methamphetamine use on the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Lyoo, I K; Yoon, S; Kim, T S; Lim, S M; Choi, Y; Kim, J E; Hwang, J; Jeong, H S; Cho, H B; Chung, Y A; Renshaw, P F

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability both to addictive behaviors and drug-induced brain damage. Yet, only limited information exists on the brain mechanisms underlying these adolescent-specific characteristics. Moreover, distinctions in brain correlates between predisposition to drug use and effects of drugs in adolescents are unclear. Using cortical thickness and diffusion tensor image analyses, we found greater and more widespread gray and white matter alterations, particularly affecting the frontostriatal system, in adolescent methamphetamine (MA) users compared with adult users. Among adolescent-specific gray matter alterations related to MA use, smaller cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal cortex was associated with family history of drug use. Our findings highlight that the adolescent brain, which undergoes active myelination and maturation, is more vulnerable to MA-related alterations than the adult brain. Furthermore, MA-use-related executive dysfunction was greater in adolescent MA users than in adult users. These findings may provide explanation for the severe behavioral complications and relapses that are common in adolescent-onset drug addiction. Additionally, these results may provide insights into distinguishing the neural mechanisms that underlie the predisposition to drug addiction from effects of drugs in adolescents.

  17. Bevalac user's handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment.

  18. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  19. Interactive Office user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Lowers, Benjamin; Nabors, Terri L.

    1990-01-01

    Given here is a user's manual for Interactive Office (IO), an executive office tool for organization and planning, written specifically for Macintosh. IO is a paperless management tool to automate a related group of individuals into one productive system.

  20. Substance use disorders in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Deas-Nesmith, D; Campbell, S; Brady, K T

    1998-04-01

    This study examined the comorbidity of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders in adolescent populations. The study population was comprised of 100 consecutive admissions, ages 13 to 17, to an acute care adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit for substance use disorders. Patients were assessed using the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) and the substance-use disorder portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID-R). Thirty-three (33%) patients were identified as having a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the age between substance users and nonsubstance users. There were significantly more whites in the substance-using group. Sixty percent of all adolescents interviewed had histories of sexual or physical trauma, with trauma being significantly more common in the substance-using group. There were no significant differences in the number or type of other Axis I or Axis II diagnoses between the two groups. While substance users and nonsubstance users had no significant difference in the number of past psychiatric hospitalizations, nonsubstance users had significantly more past medical hospitalizations. These results indicate that high rates of comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders exist in adolescents, and more in-depth study of comorbidity among adolescents is warranted. PMID:9581443

  1. Substance use disorders in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population.

    PubMed Central

    Deas-Nesmith, D.; Campbell, S.; Brady, K. T.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the comorbidity of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders in adolescent populations. The study population was comprised of 100 consecutive admissions, ages 13 to 17, to an acute care adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit for substance use disorders. Patients were assessed using the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) and the substance-use disorder portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID-R). Thirty-three (33%) patients were identified as having a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the age between substance users and nonsubstance users. There were significantly more whites in the substance-using group. Sixty percent of all adolescents interviewed had histories of sexual or physical trauma, with trauma being significantly more common in the substance-using group. There were no significant differences in the number or type of other Axis I or Axis II diagnoses between the two groups. While substance users and nonsubstance users had no significant difference in the number of past psychiatric hospitalizations, nonsubstance users had significantly more past medical hospitalizations. These results indicate that high rates of comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders exist in adolescents, and more in-depth study of comorbidity among adolescents is warranted. PMID:9581443

  2. ULDA user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Charleen; Driessen, Cornelius; Pasian, Fabio

    1989-01-01

    The Uniform Low Dispersion Archive (ULDA) is a software system which, in one sitting, allows one to obtain copies on one's personal computer of those International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) low dispersion spectra that are of interest to the user. Overviews and use instructions are given for two programs, one to search for and select spectra, and the other to convert those spectra into a form suitable for the user's image processing system.

  3. FAST User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system

  4. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  5. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, RK; Sengupta, SN

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  6. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, RK; Sengupta, SN

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace. PMID:19570251

  7. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  8. Metadata: A user`s view

    SciTech Connect

    Bretherton, F.P.; Singley, P.T.

    1994-12-31

    An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.

  9. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  10. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  11. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  12. Crystal structures of (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole and (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Yadlapalli, Jaishankar K B; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    (Z)-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-2-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide via a [3 + 2]cyclo-addition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole, C20H18N4O3S, (II), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide. Crystals of (I) have two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2), whereas crystals of (II) have Z' = 1. The benzo-thio-phene rings in (I) and (II) are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I) and 0.0084 Å in (II). The tetra-zole rings of (I) and (II) make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzo-thio-phene rings of 88.81 (13) and 88.92 (13)° in (I), and 60.94 (6)° in (II). The di-meth-oxy-phenyl and tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzo-thio-phene rings of 23.91 (8) and 24.99 (8)° in (I) and 84.47 (3)° in (II). In both structures, mol-ecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I), these chains involve both tetra-zole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II), mol-ecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetra-zole rings. PMID:27308011

  13. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  14. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version. PMID:23981147

  15. Investigating Reasons for CPAP Adherence in Adolescents: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prashad, Priya S.; Marcus, Carole L.; Maggs, Jill; Stettler, Nicolas; Cornaglia, Mary A.; Costa, Priscilla; Puzino, Kristina; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Bradford, Ruth; Barg, Frances K.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) represent an important but understudied subgroup of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) users. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors related to adherence from the perspective of adolescents and their caregivers. Methods: Individual open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 21) and caregivers (n = 20). Objective adherence data from the adolescents' CPAP machines during the previous month was obtained. Adolescents with different adherence levels and their caregivers were asked their views on CPAP. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we identified themes and developed theories that explained the adolescents' adherence patterns. Results: Adolescent participants (n = 21) were aged 12-18 years, predominantly male (n = 15), African American (n = 16), users of CPAP for at least one month. Caregivers were mainly mothers (n = 17). Seven adolescents had high use (mean use 381 ± 80 min per night), 7 had low use (mean use 30 ± 24 min per night), and 7 had no use during the month prior to being interviewed. Degree of structure in the home, social reactions, mode of communication among family members, and perception of benefits were issues that played a role in CPAP adherence. Conclusions: Understanding the adolescent and family experience of using CPAP may be key to increasing adolescent CPAP adherence. As a result of our findings, we speculate that health education, peer support groups, and developmentally appropriate individualized support strategies may be important in promoting adherence. Future studies should examine these theories of CPAP adherence. Citation: Prashad PS; Marcus CL; Maggs J; Stettler N; Cornaglia MA; Costa P; Puzino K; Xanthopoulos M; Bradford R; Barg FK. Investigating reasons for CPAP adherence in adolescents: a qualitative approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1303-1313. PMID:24340293

  16. TWEAT `95: User`s documentation update

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, B.; Lambert, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report is designed to be a supplement to TWEAT`94 (PVTD-C94-05.01K Rev.1). It is intended to describe the primary features of the Ternary Waste Envelope Assessment Tool software package that have been added in FY`95 and how to use them. It contains only minimal duplication of information found in TWEAT`94 even though all features of TWEAT`94 will still be available. Emphasis on this Update is the binary plotting capability and the OWL Import modifications. Like it`s predecessors, this manual does not provide instructions for modifying the program code itself. The user of TWEAT`95 is expected to be familiar with the basic concepts and operation of the TWEAT software as discussed in TWEAT`94. Software and hardware requirements have not changed since TWEAT`94. TWEAT has now been tested using Macintosh System software versions 6.05 through 7.5.

  17. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  18. Adolescents Who Wouldn't Have Smoked May Be Drawn to E-Cigarettes

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog post on a recent study that suggest adolescents are not just using e-cigarettes as a substitute for conventional cigarettes but that e-cigarettes are attracting new users to tobacco products.

  19. GRSAC Users Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  1. TIA Software User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-01-01

    This user's manual describes the installation and operation of TIA, the Thermal-Imaging acquisition and processing Application, developed by the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. TIA is a user friendly graphical interface application for the Macintosh 2 and higher series computers. The software has been developed to interface with the Perceptics/Westinghouse Pixelpipe(TM) and PixelStore(TM) NuBus cards and the GW Instruments MacADIOS(TM) input-output (I/O) card for the Macintosh for imaging thermal data. The software is also capable of performing generic image-processing functions.

  2. CARE 3 User's Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A user's workshop for CARE 3, a reliability assessment tool designed and developed especially for the evaluation of high reliability fault tolerant digital systems, was held at NASA Langley Research Center on October 6 to 7, 1987. The main purpose of the workshop was to assess the evolutionary status of CARE 3. The activities of the workshop are documented and papers are included by user's of CARE 3 and NASA. Features and limitations of CARE 3 and comparisons to other tools are presented. The conclusions to a workshop questionaire are also discussed.

  3. GLAST User Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, David L.; Science Support Center, GLAST

    2006-12-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission will provide the user community with many scientific opportunities. The mission's interface with the user community is the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). Yearly guest investigator (GI) cycles will support research related to GLAST. After the first year GIs may propose pointed observations; however, as a consequence of the large field-of-view of GLAST's instruments, pointed observations will rarely have an advantage over the default survey mode. Data, analysis software and documentation will be provided through the GSSC website (http://glast.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/); the website also includes a library of scientific results, and a helpdesk.

  4. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  5. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  6. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  7. Crystal structure of 2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-6-nitro-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Koudad, Mohamed; Elaatiaoui, Abdelmalik; Benchat, Noureddine; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C15H11N3O4, the imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine ring system is almost planar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.028 (2) Å]. Its mean plane makes dihedral angles of 33.92 (7) and 34.56 (6)° with the meth-oxy-phenyl ring and the nitro group, respectively. The cohesion of the crystal structure is ensured by C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers almost parallel to the ac plane. PMID:26870561

  8. Understanding Adolescent Caffeine Use: Connecting Use Patterns with Expectancies, Reasons, and Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant; Wolfson, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about adolescents' caffeine use, yet caffeinated soda, and more recently coffee and energy drinks, are part of youth culture. This study examines adolescents' caffeine use and, using cluster analysis, identifies three groups of caffeine users who differed in their reasons for use, expectancies, and sleep behaviors. In this high…

  9. Factors Associated with Homelessness of Adolescents under Supervision of the Youth Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…

  10. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  11. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment in the United States: Exemplary Models from a National Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sally J.; Morral, Andrew R.

    This book provides detailed descriptions of exemplary adolescent drug treatment models and gives the latest information on substance use and its consequences. The examinations of treatment models included in this book include programs serving adolescent substance users from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Chapters include: (1)…

  12. Adolescents with Mental Health Problems: What Do They Say about Health Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, Katie

    2002-01-01

    Explores the health-related views and experiences of adolescent users of mental health services through interviews with adolescents who had been diagnosed with a mental illness. The majority of respondents had both negative and positive things to say about their contact with health services. These relate to: the doctor-patient relationship,…

  13. Perspectives on User Satisfaction Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena

    2001-01-01

    Discusses academic libraries, digital environments, increasing competition, the relationship between service quality and user satisfaction, and user surveys. Describes the SERVQUAL model that measures service quality and user satisfaction in academic libraries; considers gaps between user expectations and managers' perceptions of user…

  14. Adolescent Development: Workshop II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; And Others

    Workshops concerning adolescent development explored problems of adolescents, schooling and adolescence, preparation for adulthood, leisure and recreation, as well as values, culture, and change in relation to the development of youth. The discussion of adolescents' problems identified major problem areas, (emphasizing problems of communicating…

  15. Hostel User Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Phyllis

    Findings from a study of living accommodations for young people are given in the first part. Features are identified that are regarded as important by management and residents. Suggestions are made as to how user response may be predicted and the responses of the residents to eight schemes are examined in detail. Also considered are--(1) the…

  16. User Oriented Product Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Wingard, Joseph

    While the educational product development field has expanded tremendously over the last 15 years, there is a paucity of conveniently assembled and readily interpretable information that would enable users to make accurate and informed evaluations of different, but comparable, instructional products. Minimum types of validation data which should be…

  17. Educating the Music User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  18. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  19. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  20. The User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The first of three articles on the design of user interfaces for information retrieval systems discusses the need to examine types of display, prompting, and input as separate entities. The second examines the use of artificial intelligence in creating natural language interfaces, and the third outlines standards for case studies in human computer…

  1. Our Deming Users' Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinklocker, Christina

    1992-01-01

    After training in the Total Quality Management concept, a suburban Ohio school district created a Deming Users' Group to link agencies, individuals, and ideas. The group has facilitated ongoing school/business collaboration, networking among individuals from diverse school systems, mentoring and cooperative learning activities, and resource…

  2. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  3. User's guide to SSARRMENU

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.; Le, Thanh

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County Department of Public Works, Washington, has developed an operational tool called the Puyallup Flood-Alert System to alert users of impending floods in the Puyallup River Basin. The system acquires and incorporates meteorological and hydrological data into the Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) hydrologic flow-routing model to simulate floods in the Puyallup River Basin. SSARRMENU is the user-interactive graphical interface between the user, the input and output data, and the SSARR model. In a companion cooperative project with Pierce County, the SSARR model for the Puyallup River Basin was calibrated and validated. The calibrated model is accessed through SSARRMENU, which has been specifically programed for the Puyallup River and the needs of Pierce County. SSARRMENU automates the retrieval of data from ADAPS (Automated DAta Processing System, the U.S. Geological Survey?s real-time hydrologic database), formats the data for use with SSARR, initiates SSARR model runs, displays alerts for impending floods, and provides utilities to display the simulated and observed data. An on-screen map of the basin and a series of menu items provide the user wi

  4. HEMPDS user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.H.

    1983-02-01

    HEMPDS, the double-slide version of two-dimensional HEMP, allows the intersection of slide lines and slide lines in any direction, thus making use of triangular zones. this revised user's manual aids the physicist, computer scientist, and computer technician in using, maintaining, and coverting HEMPDS. Equations, EOS models, and sample problems are included.

  5. EREP users handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Revised Skylab spacecraft, experiments, and mission planning information is presented for the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) users. The major hardware elements and the medical, scientific, engineering, technology and earth resources experiments are described. Ground truth measurements and EREP data handling procedures are discussed. The mission profile, flight planning, crew activities, and aircraft support are also outlined.

  6. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  7. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and substance offer-response episodes. Rural youths’ resistance strategies were similar to previous findings with urban adolescents – refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (the REAL typology) – while unique features of these strategies were identified including the importance of personal narratives, the articulation of a non-user identity, and being “accountable” to self and others. PMID:21552345

  8. Exploring adolescents' intentions regarding the online learning courses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Feng-Cheng; Chang, Su-Chao

    2007-10-01

    This research combines computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, innovation diffusion theory, the technology acceptance model, and a proposed new hybrid technology acceptance model to study adolescents' behavioral intentions to use online learning courses. The results of the study show computer self-efficacy, compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use have a great positive effect, and computer anxiety has a great negative effect, on the behavioral intention to use online learning courses. By explaining adolescents' behavioral intentions from a user's perspective, the findings of this research provide insight into the best way to promote new e-learning tools for adolescents.

  9. Family-Based Treatments for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Horigian, Viviana E; Anderson, Austen R; Szapocznik, José

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent substance use is a major risk factor for negative outcomes, including substance dependence later in life, criminal behavior, school problems, mental health disorders, injury, and death. This article provides a user-friendly, clinically focused, and pragmatic review of current and evidence-based family treatments, including multisystemic therapy, multidimensional family therapy, functional family therapy, brief strategic family therapy, ecologically based family therapy, family behavior therapy, culturally informed flexible family treatment for adolescents, and strengths-oriented family therapy. Outcomes, treatment parameters, adolescent characteristics, and implementation factors are reviewed. PMID:27613341

  10. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  11. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  12. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-bromopyridin-3-yl)methyl­idene]-6-meth­oxy-3,4-di­hydro­naphthalen-1(2H)-one and 3-[(E)-(6-meth­oxy-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­naphthalen-2-ylidene)meth­yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Zingales, Sarah K.; Moore, Morgan E.; Goetz, Andrew D.; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds C17H14BrNO2, (I), and C17H15NO3, (II), were obtained from the reaction of 6-meth­oxy-3,4-di­hydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one and 2-bromo­nicotinaldehyde in ethanol. Compound (I) was the expected product and compound (II) was the oxidation product from air exposure. In the crystal structure of compound (I), there are no short contacts or hydrogen bonds. The structure does display π–π inter­actions between adjacent benzene rings and adjacent pyridyl rings. Compound (II) contains two independent mol­ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; both are non-planar, the dihedral angles between the meth­oxy­benzene and 1H-pyridin-2-one mean planes being 35.07 (9)° in A and 35.28 (9)°in B. In each mol­ecule, the 1H-pyridin-2-one unit participates in inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding to another mol­ecule of the same type (A to A or B to B). The structure also displays π–π inter­actions between the pyridyl and the benzene rings of non-equivalent mol­ecules (viz., A to B and B to A). PMID:27555939

  13. Enabling User to User Interactions in Web Lectures with History-Aware User Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Wiesen, Christoph; Vornberger, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a user interface for web lectures for engaging with other users while working with video based learning content. The application allows its users to ask questions about the content and to get answers from those users that currently online are more familiar with it. The filtering is based on the…

  14. Anti-tumor activity of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 on Meth-A tumor cells in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ryoichi; Itoh, Yukie; Kataoka, Motoyuki; Iino-Miura, Shiori; Miura, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeo; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    Probiotics exert numerous effects on human well-being. Here, heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 (H-Lp) was isolated as a potent immuno-modulator among 15 strains of lactobacilli in terms of TNF-α induction ability in peritoneal macrophages. In vitro TNF-α and IFN-γ induction in Peyer's patch (PP) cells was higher when incubated with H-Lp than with live L. plantarum BF-LP284 (L-Lp). Suppression of syngeneic Meth-A tumors in a murine model by oral administration of H-Lp was also greater than that of L-Lp and of controls. H-Lp stimulated IFN-γ production in spleen cells, which displayed inhibited tumor growth in Winn assays when treated with H-Lp. Moreover, H-Lp increased the ratio of CD3(+ )cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Meth-A tumor-bearing mice, suggesting an H-Lp-mediated anti-tumor mechanism whereby immune cells that are activated by H-Lp in PP and acquire anti-tumor activity in the spleen migrate to tumor sites through lymphocyte homing to inhibit tumor growth. PMID:27198983

  15. Crystal structure of benzyl (E)-2-(3,4-di­meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)hydrazine-1-carbodi­thio­ate

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yew-Fung; Break, Mohammed Khaled bin; Tahir, M. Ibrahim M.; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C17H18N2O2S2, synthesized via a condensation reaction between S-benzyl di­thio­carbazate and 3,4-di­meth­oxy­benzaldehyde, crystallized with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. Both mol­ecules have an L-shape but differ in the orientation of the benzyl ring with respect to the 3,4-di­meth­oxy­benzyl­idine ring, this dihedral angle is 65.59 (8)° in mol­ecule A and 73.10 (8)° in mol­ecule B. In the crystal, the A and B mol­ecules are linked via pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The dimers are linked via pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, giving inversion dimers of dimers. These units are linked by C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming ribbons propagating in the [100] direction. PMID:25878829

  16. The Pressured World of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the adolescent experience and why adolescents engage in self-destructive behavior. He suggests some changes in the way that adults treat adolescents that could reduce adolescent behavior problems and self-abuse. (CH)

  17. Marital Conflict and Adolescent Distress: The Role of Adolescent Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Conger, Rand D.

    1997-01-01

    Studied role of adolescents' awareness in relationship between marital conflict and adolescent distress. Found marital conflict was related to parental hostility toward adolescents and adolescents' awareness of conflict; parental hostility and adolescents' awareness of marital conflict were related to adolescent-perceived parental hostility. Found…

  18. CSTEM User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, M.; McKnight, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    This manual is a combination of a user manual, theory manual, and programmer manual. The reader is assumed to have some previous exposure to the finite element method. This manual is written with the idea that the CSTEM (Coupled Structural Thermal Electromagnetic-Computer Code) user needs to have a basic understanding of what the code is actually doing in order to properly use the code. For that reason, the underlying theory and methods used in the code are described to a basic level of detail. The manual gives an overview of the CSTEM code: how the code came into existence, a basic description of what the code does, and the order in which it happens (a flowchart). Appendices provide a listing and very brief description of every file used by the CSTEM code, including the type of file it is, what routine regularly accesses the file, and what routine opens the file, as well as special features included in CSTEM.

  19. ASSIST user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all the states and transitions in a complex system model can be devastatingly tedious and error prone. The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) computer program allows the user to describe the semi-Markov model in a high-level language. Instead of listing the individual model states, the user specifies the rules governing the behavior of the system, and these are used to generate the model automatically. A few statements in the abstract language can describe a very large, complex model. Because no assumptions are made about the system being modeled, ASSIST can be used to generate models describing the behavior of any system. The ASSIST program and its input language are described and illustrated by examples.

  20. Trilinos users guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Willenbring, James M.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2003-08-01

    The Trilinos Project is an effort to facilitate the design, development, integration and ongoing support of mathematical software libraries. A new software capability is introduced into Trilinos as a package. A Trilinos package is an integral unit usually developed by a small team of experts in a particular algorithms area such as algebraic preconditioners, nonlinear solvers, etc. The Trilinos Users Guide is a resource for new and existing Trilinos users. Topics covered include how to configure and build Trilinos, what is required to integrate an existing package into Trilinos and examples of how those requirements can be met, as well as what tools and services are available to Trilinos packages. Also discussed are some common practices that are followed by many Trilinos package developers. Finally, a snapshot of current Trilinos packages and their interoperability status is provided, along with a list of supported computer platforms.

  1. RELAP-7 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Zou, Ling; Andrs, David; Berry, Ray Alden; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2014-12-01

    The document contains a user's guide on how to run the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. RELAP-7 will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for the LWRS (Light Water Reactor Sustainability) program’s RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) effort and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. A number of example problems and their associated input files are presented in this document to guide users to run the RELAP-7 code starting with simple pipe problems to problems with increasing complexity.

  2. Outside users payload model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  3. IAC user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Gregg, J.

    1984-01-01

    The User Manual for the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) Level 1 system is presented. The IAC system currently supports the thermal, structures, controls and system dynamics technologies, and its development is influenced by the requirements for design/analysis of large space systems. The system has many features which make it applicable to general problems in engineering, and to management of data and software. Information includes basic IAC operation, executive commands, modules, solution paths, data organization and storage, IAC utilities, and module implementation.

  4. Magnetic tape user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. B.; Lee, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    This User Guide provides a general introduction to the structure, use, and handling of magnetic tapes at Langley Research Center (LaRC). The topics covered are tape terminology, physical characteristics, error prevention and detection, and creating, using, and maintaining tapes. Supplementary documentation is referenced where it might be helpful. The documentation is included for the tape utility programs, BLOCK, UNBLOCK, and TAPEDMP, which are available at the Central Scientific Computing Complex at LaRC.

  5. Salinas - User's Notes

    SciTech Connect

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; BHARDWAJ,MANOJ K.; DRIESSEN,BRIAN; REESE,GARTH M.; SEGALMAN,DANIEL J.

    1999-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Salinas. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  6. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  7. AVRAM user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    McGrady, P.W.

    1988-02-01

    This document details the use of the reliability code for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project. This code was designed by Tom Anklam and John Harris. In late 1984 Patrick McGrady and Elena Koontz of C and TD/TA were assigned the task of improving the code and converting it for use on the DEC-10 system. In early 1986, Patric McGrady converted it to the CRAY. The AVRAM code is divided into distinct parts (often referred to as programs in this document). There is a COSMOS file that controls the execution of the FORTRAN code and controls the naming of output datasets and the deletion of temporary datasets created by the code. The FORTRAN code consists of a main program as a driver and of three main subroutines: EDIT, PARAM, and AVRAM. The EDIT program allows the user to create a new user defined system or add to an existing system or to change certain parameters. The PARAM program allows the user to alter system parameters and to select options such as economics run, criticality analysis or sensitivity studies. The AVRAM program does a reliability analysis of the system.

  8. PARFUME User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Hamman

    2010-09-01

    PARFUME, a fuel performance analysis and modeling code, is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for evaluating gas reactor coated particle fuel assemblies for prismatic, pebble bed, and plate type fuel geometries. The code is an integrated mechanistic analysis tool that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of coated fuel particles (TRISO) and the probability for fuel failure given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise during the fuel fabrication process. Using a robust finite difference numerical scheme, PARFUME is capable of performing steady state and transient heat transfer and fission product diffusion analyses for the fuel. Written in FORTRAN 90, PARFUME is easy to read, maintain, and modify. Currently, PARFUME is supported only on MS Windows platforms. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME User Guide, a supplement to the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report which describes the theoretical aspects of the code. User information is provided including: 1) code development, 2) capabilities and limitations, 3) installation and execution, 4) user input and output, 5) sample problems, and 6) error messages. In the near future, the INL plans to release a fully benchmarked and validated beta version of PARFUME.

  9. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Alexandra R; Martin, Jennifer L; Sharples, Sarah; Crowe, John A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents’ needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. PMID:24669187

  10. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  11. Tobacco point of sale advertising increases positive brand user imagery

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, R; Jancey, J; Jones, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the potential impact of point of sale advertising on adolescents so as to inform changes to the Tobacco Control Act. Design: Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control condition, students were exposed to a photograph of a packet of cigarettes; in the intervention condition, students were exposed to an ad for cigarettes, typical of point of sale advertising posters. All students then rated the brand user on a set of 12 bipolar adjectives. Two brands were used in the study: Benson & Hedges, and Marlboro. Subjects: One hundred year (grade) 6 and 7 students (age range 10–12 years), from four Western Australian metropolitan primary schools, participated in the study. Results: In a majority of the brand user descriptions, the cigarette advertisements increased brand user imagery in a positive way, especially for Benson & Hedges. For example, participants viewing the Benson & Hedges advertisement, as distinct from those viewing the Benson & Hedges pack only, were more likely to describe the Benson & Hedges user as relaxed, interesting, cool, rich, adventurous, and classy. Relative to the Marlboro pack only, the Marlboro ad increased positive perceptions of the Marlboro user on adventurous, interesting, and relaxed. Conclusions: The results presented here support restrictions being placed on advertising at point of sale, since such ads have the potential to increase positive brand user imagery directly in the situation where a product purchase can take place, and hence the potential to increase the likelihood of impulse purchasing. PMID:12198267

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use

  13. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use.

  14. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

  15. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  16. Ximconv User`s Guide Version 1.0.1

    SciTech Connect

    McClurg, F.R.

    1992-06-01

    This user`s guide is the documentation for ximconv: a motif interface to the Image Tools developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC). The ximconv utility offers the user a point and click interface for converting from one file format to another.

  17. Managing End User Computing for Users with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Services Administration, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Computer Accommodation.

    This handbook presents guidelines to assist federal Information Resources Managers in applying computer and related information technology to accommodate users with disabilities. It discusses managing the end user environment, assessing accommodation requirements, and providing end user tools and support. The major portion of the document consists…

  18. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (N = 164), ages 14–18 (x□ age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Results Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared to those who did not use medical marijuana. Conclusions Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. PMID:22721592

  19. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:25977175

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Passarotti, A.M.; Crane, Natania A.; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is increasingly widespread among adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use during this important developmental period. As such, we examined adolescent trajectories of marijuana use and the psychosocial factors that may differentiate individuals who escalate their marijuana use over adolescence and young adulthood from those who do not. Methods Participants were 1,204 9th and 10th graders at baseline who were over-sampled for cigarette use and were followed over 6-years, as part of an extensive longitudinal study, the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) was used to model trajectories of marijuana use and Mixed Effects Regression analyses were used to examine psychosocial correlates of marijuana use escalation over time. Results Our results revealed three trajectories of non-escalating users (low users, medium users, and high users) and one escalating user trajectory. We found that relative to Non-escalators the Escalators had higher cigarette smoking (p<.0001), novelty-seeking (p=.02), aggressive and anti-social behavior (p<.007), and problem behavior related to peer context (p=.04). Moreover, there were important time and group by time interactions in some of these relationships. On the other hand, parental control and depression did not differ between escalators and low and medium non-escalating users. Conclusions Cigarette smoking, novelty-seeking, aggressive and anti-social behavior, and peer influence are related to ‘escalating’ marijuana use throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25792233

  1. Long-Term Agonist and Antagonist Therapy for Adolescent Opioid Dependence: A Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents constitute only a small percentage of treatment seekers in drug dependence treatment settings. Little research evidence is available for pharmacological treatment of adolescent opioid dependence and no prior case report is available from India. We discuss two adolescent patients with opioid (heroin) dependence visiting a tertiary care center who have been stabilized on agonist (sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone) and antagonist (oral naltrexone) respectively for a substantial period of time. A comprehensive management approach, including intensive psychosocial interventions and family involvement, was followed in addition to pharmacotherapies. More research is needed on the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in adolescent opioid users. PMID:25336782

  2. Distributed user services for supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    User-service operations at supercomputer facilities are examined. The question is whether a single, possibly distributed, user-services organization could be shared by NASA's supercomputer sites in support of a diverse, geographically dispersed, user community. A possible structure for such an organization is identified as well as some of the technologies needed in operating such an organization.

  3. User computer system pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Eimutis, E.C.

    1989-09-06

    The User Computer System (UCS) is a general purpose unclassified, nonproduction system for Mound users. The UCS pilot project was successfully completed, and the system currently has more than 250 users. Over 100 tables were installed on the UCS for use by subscribers, including tables containing data on employees, budgets, and purchasing. In addition, a UCS training course was developed and implemented.

  4. User Program Performance Monitor

    1983-09-30

    PROGLOOK makes it possible to monitor the execution of virtually any OS/MVT or OS/VS2 Release 1.6 load module. The main reason for using PROGLOOK is to find out which portions of a code use most of the CPU time so that those parts of the program can be rewritten to reduce CPU time. For large production programs, users have typically found it possible to reduce CPU time by 10 to 30 percent without changing themore » program''s function.« less

  5. XTV users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J.F.; Johns, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    XTV is an X-Windows based Graphical User Interface for viewing results of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) calculations. It provides static and animated color mapped visualizations of both thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction components in a TRAC model of a nuclear power plant, as well as both on-screen and hard copy two-dimensional plot capabilities. XTV is the successor to TRAP, the former TRAC postprocessor using the proprietary DISSPLA graphics library. This manual describes Version 2.0, which requires TRAC version 5.4.20 or later for full visualization capabilities.

  6. XMGR5 users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Fisher, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    ACE/gr is XY plotting tool for workstations or X-terminals using X. A few of its features are: User defined scaling, tick marks, labels, symbols, line styles, colors. Batch mode for unattended plotting. Read and write parameters used during a session. Polynomial regression, splines, running averages, DFT/FFT, cross/auto-correlation. Hardcopy support for PostScript, HP-GL, and FrameMaker.mif format. While ACE/gr has a convenient point-and-click interface, most parameter settings and operations are available through a command line interface (found in Files/Commands).

  7. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  8. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The program LP1 calculates outbound and return trajectories between low earth orbit (LEO) and libration point no. 1 (L1). Libration points (LP) are defined as locations in space that orbit the Earth such that they are always stationary with respect to the Earth-Moon line. L1 is located behind the Moon such that the pull of the Earth and Moon together just cancel the centrifugal acceleration associated with the libration point's orbit. The input required from the user to define the flight is described. The contents of the six reports produced as outputs are presented. Also included are the instructions needed to execute the program.

  9. Prism users guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Weirs, V. Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Prism is a ParaView plugin that simultaneously displays simulation data and material model data. This document describes its capabilities and how to use them. A demonstration of Prism is given in the first section. The second section contains more detailed notes on less obvious behavior. The third and fourth sections are specifically for Alegra and CTH users. They tell how to generate the simulation data and SESAME files and how to handle aspects of Prism use particular to each of these codes.

  10. BLOCKAGE 2.5 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.V.; Brideau, J.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Bernahl, W.

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code described in this User`s Manual was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate licensee compliance with NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors.`` As such, BLOCKAGE 2.5 provides a generalized framework into which a user can input plant-specific and insulation-specific data for performing analyses in accordance with Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 2. This user`s manual describes the capabilities of BLOCKAGE 2.5 along with a description of the graphics user`s interface provided for data entry. Each input/output dialog is described in detail along with special considerations related to developing and executing BLOCKAGE. Also, several sample problems are provided such that user can easily modify them to suit a particular plant of interest. The models used in BLOCKAGE 2.5 and their validation are presented in the accompanying NUREG/CR-6371. The BLOCKAGE models were designed to be parametric in nature, allowing the user flexibility to examine the impact of several modeling assumptions and to conduct sensitivity analyses. As a result, BLOCKAGE 2.5 results are known to be very sensitive to the user provided input. It is therefore strongly recommended that users become thoroughly familiar with BLOCKAGE models and their limitations as described in NUREG/CR-6224.

  11. The Co-Use of Tobacco and Cannabis among Adolescents over a 30-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…

  12. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  13. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  14. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.

  15. [Contraception and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  16. 1-(2,4-Di­nitro­phen­yl)-2-[(E)-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)]hydrazine

    PubMed Central

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Ruanwas, Pumsak; Boonnak, Nawong; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Mol­ecules of the title compound, C16H16N4O7, are not planar with a dihedral angle of 5.50 (11)° between the substituted benzene rings. The two meta-meth­oxy groups of the 3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzene moiety lie in the plane of the attached ring [Cmeth­yl–O–C–C torsion angles −0.1 (4)° and −3.7 (3)°] while the para-meth­oxy substituent lies out of the plane [Cmeth­yl—O—C—C, −86.0 (3)°]. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the 2-nitro substituent generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions into screw chains, that are arranged into a sheet parallel to the bc plane. These sheets are connected by π–π stacking inter­actions between the nitro and meth­oxy substituted aromatic rings with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.9420 (13) Å. C—H⋯π contacts further stabilize the two-dimensional network. PMID:24764900

  17. A Trajectory Analysis of Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hubbard, Alan; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14–19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership. Results The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership. Conclusions Urban Latino adolescents’ substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention. PMID:21094433

  18. Studying Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Young people in their teens constitute the largest age group in the world, in a special stage recognized across the globe as the link in the life cycle between childhood and adulthood. Longitudinal studies in both developed and developing countries and better measurements of adolescent behavior are producing new insights. The physical and psychosocial changes that occur during puberty make manifest generational and early-childhood risks to development, in the form of individual differences in aspects such as growth, educational attainment, self-esteem, peer influences, and closeness to family. They also anticipate threats to adult health and well-being. Multidisciplinary approaches, especially links between the biological and the social sciences, as well as studies of socioeconomic and cultural diversity and determinants of positive outcomes, are needed to advance knowledge about this stage of development. PMID:16809526

  19. Belt scales user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.I. )

    1993-02-01

    A conveyor-belt scale provides a means of obtaining accurate weights of dry bulk materials without delaying other plant operations. In addition, for many applications a belt scale is the most cost-effective alternative among many choices for a weighing system. But a number of users are not comfortable with the accuracy of their belt scales. In cases of unsatisfactory scale performance, it is often possible to correct problems and achieve the accuracy that was expected. To have a belt scale system that is accurate, precise, and cost effective, practical experience has shown that certain basic requisites must be satisfied. These requisites include matching the scale capability to the needs of the application, selecting durable scale equipment and conveyor idlers, adopting improved conveyor support methods, employing superior scale installation and alignment techniques, and establishing and practicing an effective scale testing and performance monitoring program. The goal of the Belt Scale Users' Guide is to enable utilities to reap the benefits of consistently accurate output from their new or upgraded belt scale installations. Such benefits include eliminating incorrect payments for coal receipts, improving coal pile inventory data, providing better heat rate results to enhance plant efficiency and yield more economical power dispatch, and satisfying regulatory agencies. All these benefits can reduce the cost of power generation.

  20. User and technical documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The program LIBRATE calculates velocities for trajectories from low earth orbit (LEO) to four of the five libration points (L2, L3, L4, and L5), and from low lunar orbit (LLO) to libration points L1 and L2. The flight to be analyzed departs from a circular orbit of any altitude and inclination about the Earth or Moon and finishes in a circular orbit about the Earth at the desired libration point within a specified flight time. This program produces a matrix of the delta V's needed to complete the desired flight. The user specifies the departure orbit, and the maximum flight time. A matrix is then developed with 10 inclinations, ranging from 0 to 90 degrees, forming the columns, and 19 possible flight times, ranging from the flight time (input) to 36 hours less than the input value, in decrements of 2 hours, forming the rows. This matrix is presented in three different reports including the total delta V's, and both of the delta V components discussed. The input required from the user to define the flight is discussed. The contents of the three reports that are produced as outputs are also described. The instructions are also included which are needed to execute the program.

  1. ARDS User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Personal computers (PCs) are now used extensively for engineering analysis. their capability exceeds that of mainframe computers of only a few years ago. Programs originally written for mainframes have been ported to PCs to make their use easier. One of these programs is ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) which was developed at Arizona State University (ASU) by Nelson et al. to quickly and accurately analyze rotor steady state and transient response using the method of component mode synthesis. The original ARDS program was ported to the PC in 1995. Several extensions were made at ASU to increase the capability of mainframe ARDS. These extensions have also been incorporated into the PC version of ARDS. Each mainframe extension had its own user manual generally covering only that extension. Thus to exploit the full capability of ARDS required a large set of user manuals. Moreover, necessary changes and enhancements for PC ARDS were undocumented. The present document is intended to remedy those problems by combining all pertinent information needed for the use of PC ARDS into one volume.

  2. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  3. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  4. The LATDYN user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Mcgowan, P. E.; Abrahamson, A. L.; Powell, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The LATDYN User's Manual presents the capabilities and instructions for the LATDYN (Large Angle Transient DYNamics) computer program. The LATDYN program is a tool for analyzing the controlled or uncontrolled dynamic transient behavior of interconnected deformable multi-body systems which can undergo large angular motions of each body relative other bodies. The program accommodates large structural deformation as well as large rigid body rotations and is applicable, but not limited to, the following areas: (1) development of large flexible space structures; (2) slewing of large space structure components; (3) mechanisms with rigid or elastic components; and (4) robotic manipulations of beam members. Presently the program is limited to two dimensional problems, but in many cases, three dimensional problems can be exactly or approximately reduced to two dimensions. The program uses convected finite elements to affect the large angular motions involved in the analysis. General geometry is permitted. Detailed user input and output specifications are provided and discussed with example runstreams. To date, LATDYN has been configured for CDC/NOS and DEC VAX/VMS machines. All coding is in ANSII-77 FORTRAN. Detailed instructions regarding interfaces with particular computer operating systems and file structures are provided.

  5. A user's Perspective on Software

    SciTech Connect

    Isadoro T. Carlino

    2006-10-24

    The user is often the most overlooked component of control system design. At Jefferson Lab the control system is almost entirely digital in nature, with little feedback except that which is deliberately designed into the control system. In the complex control room environment a good design can enhance the user's abilities to preform good science. A bad design can leave the user frustrated and contribute significantly to down time, when science is not being done. Key points of use and design from the user's perspective are discussed, along with some techniques which have been adopted at Jefferson Lab to improve the user experience and produce better, more usable software.

  6. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures. PMID:9831888

  7. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  8. Association between maltreatment and polydrug use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alonso, M J; Jurado-Barba, R; Martinez-Martin, N; Espin-Jaime, J C; Bolaños-Porrero, C; Ordoñez-Franco, A; Rodriguez-Lopez, J A; Lora-Pablos, D; de la Cruz-Bértolo, J; Jimenez-Arriero, M A; Manzanares, J; Rubio, G

    2016-01-01

    Different studies have related sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescence to the development of substance abuse disorders. Nevertheless, we are not aware of the role that other more common maltreatment types, such as neglect, will play among the most risky pattern of consumption: the polydrug use. A clinical sample of 655 adolescents, divided into two groups: polydrug users and non-polydrug users, were assessed on their pattern of drug consumption, history of childhood maltreatment, current psychopathology and their family history of alcoholism. Polydrug users had a greater prevalence of all types of maltreatment, although the most associated to this group were sexual abuse and emotional neglect. Other relevant variables to adolescent consumption were: the diagnosis of depressive disorder, the presence of anxiety traits and the family history of alcohol dependence. Polydrug users have higher risks of having had problems during infancy and adolescence, such as maltreatment and other psychopathological conditions, with the addition of family history of alcoholism. Accordingly, practitioners should take into account that those variables may influence polydrug abuse because it is the most risky pattern for subsequent dependence of substances, and they should always be considered during treatment. PMID:26318780

  9. Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…

  10. An Investigation of Alcohol Use among Turkish High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursoy, Figen; Bicacki, Mudriye Yildiz; Aral, Neriman

    2007-01-01

    Among the chief reasons for adolescent alcohol use are demographic characteristics, family relationships, social relationships, peer relationships, low self-esteem, social pressure, rebellion, and depression. It has been shown that alcohol users display a tendency for violence and aggressive behavior. The present study explores the relationship…

  11. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  12. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  13. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  14. Rivet user manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  15. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  16. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  17. Adolescence and Mythology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  18. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…

  19. Update on Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Rebecca; Halady, Tasia; Bishop, Nina; Chatterjee, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Timely and complete adolescent vaccination remains an elusive public health goal. Three infections for which routine adolescent vaccination is recommended in the U.S. are pertussis, meningococcal disease and human papillomavirus (HPV). These infections and the Tdap, meningococcal and HPV vaccines recommended for adolescents are reviewed in this article. PMID:26999915

  20. Demystifying the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…

  1. The Adolescent Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, William A., Jr.

    Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…

  2. Adolescents and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburgber, Victor C., Ed.; Comstock, George A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1990s, the media represent the single most easily modifiable influence on children and adolescents. This series of articles offers medically oriented practitioners a review of current research on the influence of the media on children and adolescents. The 13 articles are: (1) "Children, Adolescents, and the Media: Five Crucial Issues"…

  3. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local findings with…

  4. Crystal structure of 3-amino-1-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbo­nitrile

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Horton, Peter N.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Younes, Sabry H. H.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H16N2O2, the meth­oxy­benzene ring is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the naphthalene ring system, making a dihedral angle of 83.62 (5)°. The 4H-pyran ring fused with the naphthalene ring system is almost planar [maximum deviation = 0.033 (1) Å]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into inversion dimers by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the dimers, forming a helical supra­molecular chain along the a-axis direction. The crystal packing also features C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:26279912

  5. A redetermination from the original data of the crystal structure of 2-amino-4,6-di-meth-oxy-pyrimidin-1-ium 4-amino-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The title structure, C6H9.5N3O2 (0.5+)·C7H6.5NO2 (0.5-), which might be named schematically as 2-amino-4,6-di-meth-oxy-pyrimidine-(μ2-hydrogen)-4-amino-benzoate to indicate a bridging H atom, has been redetermined from the data published by Thanigaimani, Mu-thiah & Lynch [Acta Cryst. (2006), E62, o2976-o2978]. The improvement of the present redetermination consists in a released geometry of the primary amine groups, which were originally assumed to be planar, as well as in a redetermination of the position of the hy-droxy H atom. This H atom, whose parameters were originally constrained, turns out to be situated about the centre of the O⋯N hydrogen bond in two disordered positions with occupancies of 0.5 each. PMID:27375878

  6. Crystal structure of 2-amino-3-cyano-4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-4H-1-benzo-thieno[3,2-b]pyran.

    PubMed

    Bakhouch, Mohamed; El Yazidi, Mohamed; Kerbal, Abdelali; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-12-01

    The three fused five- and six-membered rings in the title compound, C19H14N2O2S, are virtually coplanar, with the maximum deviation from the mean plane being 0.060 (1) Å. This benzothieno[3,2-b]pyran ring system is nearly perpendic-ular to the plane of the 4-meth-oxy-phenyl ring, forming a dihedral angle of 83.65 (5)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into inversion dimers. The dimeric units are further connected by an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond into a tape running along the b axis. The tapes are linked together by C-H⋯N and π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.7743 (8) Å], forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870489

  7. Crystal structure of {bis-[(1H-benzimid-azol-2-yl-κN (3))meth-yl]sulfane}dichloridomercury(II).

    PubMed

    Bouchouit, Mehdi; Benzerka, Saida; Bouraiou, Abdelmalek; Merazig, Hocine; Belfaitah, Ali; Bouacida, Sofiane

    2015-12-01

    In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, [HgCl2(C16H14N4S)], the Hg(II) cation is linked to two Cl atoms and two imidazole N atoms of the chelating bis-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)meth-yl]sulfane ligand, forming a slightly distorted tetra-hedral environment. The substitued imidazole rings of the ligand are almost perfectly planar [with maximum deviations of 0.017 (3) and 0.012 (3) Å] and form a dihedral angle of 42.51 (5)°. The crystal packing can be described as alternating layers parallel to (010). In this arrangement, N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds between the N-H groups of the benzimidazole moieties and chloride ligands are responsible for the formation of the chain-like packing pattern along [010] exhibiting a C(6) graph-set motif. PMID:26870451

  8. Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-4H-benzo[g]chromene-3-carbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Mague, Joel T; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Akkurt, Mehmet; Younes, Sabry H H; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C21H16N2O2, the naphthalene fragment is twisted slightly, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 3.2 (2)° between the two six-membered rings. The pendant 4-meth-oxy-phenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 86.08 (6)° with the central six-membered ring of the 4H-benzo[g]chromene ring system. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers which are linked into chains propagating in the b-axis direction by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26870473

  9. Crystal structure of poly[{μ-N,N′-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)meth­yl]oxalamide}-μ-oxalato-cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hengye; Qi, Yanjuan

    2014-01-01

    In the polymeric title compound, [Co(C2O4)(C14H14N4O2)]n, the CoII atom is six-coordinated by two N atoms from symmetry-related bis­[(pyridin-4-yl)meth­yl]oxalamide (BPMO) ligands and four O atoms from two centrosymmetric oxalate anions in a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry. The CoII atoms are linked by the oxalate anions into a chain running parallel to [100]. The chains are linked by the BPMO ligands into a three-dimensional architecture. In addition, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:25309173

  10. Crystal structure of (E)-4-ethyl-2-(4-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)-3,4-di-hydro-naphthalen-1(2H)-one.

    PubMed

    Akhazzane, Mohamed; Al Houari, Ghali; El Yazidi, Mohamed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-06-01

    In the title compound, C20H20O2, the exocyclic C=C double bond has an E conformation. The ethyl substituent on the cyclo-hexa-none ring is in an axial orientation. The cyclo-hexa-none ring adopts a screw-boat conformation, with the methyl-ene C atom and the C atom bearing the 4-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene group displaced from the other atoms by 0.812 (1) and 0.334 (1) Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 42.20 (8)°. In the crystal, no directional inter-actions beyond van der Waals contacts are observed. PMID:26090211

  11. Bis[(E)-4-bromo-2-(ethoxy­imino­meth­yl)phenolato-κ2 N,O 1]copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shang-Sheng; Dong, Wen-Kui; Tong, Jun-Feng; Li, Li; Wu, Jian-Chao

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C9H9BrNO2)2], is a centrosymmetric mononuclear copper(II) complex. The Cu atom is four-coordinated in a trans-CuN2O2 square-planar geometry by two phenolate O and two oxime N atoms from two symmetry-related N,O-bidentate (E)-4-bromo-2-(ethoxy­imino­meth­yl)phenolate oxime-type ligands. An inter­esting feature of the crystal structure is the centrosymmetric inter­molecular Cu⋯O inter­action [3.382 (1) Å], which establishes an infinite chain structure along the b axis. PMID:21578195

  12. 4-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-6-methyl-amino-5-nitro-2-phenyl-4H-pyran-3-carbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Vishnupriya, R; Suresh, J; Sivakumar, S; Kumar, R Ranjith; Lakshman, P L Nilantha

    2013-03-01

    In the title compound, C20H17N3O4, the central pyran ring adopts a boat conformation with the O atom and diagonally opposite C atoms displaced by 0.1171 (1) and 0.1791 (1) Å, respectively, from the mean plane defined by the other four atoms. The coplanar atoms of the pyran ring and the meth-oxy-benzene ring are nearly perpendicular, as evidenced by the dihedral angle 87.01 (1)°. The amine H atom forms an intra-molecular N-H⋯O(nitro) hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into dimeric aggregates by N-H⋯O(nitro) hydrogen bonds, generating an R2(2)(12) graph-set motif. PMID:23476619

  13. Crystal structure of 2-(3,4-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)-3-hy­droxy-4H-chromen-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jin Sil; Lim, Yoongho; Koh, Dongsoo

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H14O5, the dimeth­oxy-substituted benzene ring is twisted relative to the 4H-chromenon skeleton (r.m.s. deviation = 0.015 Å) by 5.2 (4)°. The C atoms of the meth­oxy groups lie close to the plane of their attached benzene ring [deviations = 0.036 (3) and 0.290 (3)Å for the meta and para substituents, respectively]. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond closes an S(5) ring. In the cystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(10) loops and C—H⋯O inter­actions connect the dimers into [010] chains. PMID:25309302

  14. (2E)-1-(Pyridin-2-yl)-3-(2,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)prop-2-en-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Suwunwong, Thitipone; Boonnak, Nawong; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-01-01

    The title heteroaryl chalcone derivative, C17H17NO4, is close to planar: the dihedral angle between the pyridine and benzene rings is 3.71 (11)° and the meth­oxy C atoms deviate from their attached ring by 0.046 (3), −0.044 (2) and 0.127 (3) Å. The disposition of the pyridine N atom and the carbonyl group is anti [N—C—C—O = −177.7 (2)°]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions into (100) sheets and an aromatic π–π stacking inter­action between the pyridine and benzene ring, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.7036 (14) Å also occurs. PMID:24046643

  15. Crystal structure of (E)-4,4'-(but-2-ene-1,4-di-yl)bis-(2-meth-oxy-phenol).

    PubMed

    Knight, Kyle S; Carey, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, C18H20O4, was synthesized via the ruthenium-catalyzed alkene methathesis dimerization of eugenol. The whole mol-ecule is generated by inversion symmetry; the center of inversion being located at the mid-point of the trans C=C bond. The phenol ring is inclined to the mean plane of the central C-C=C-C unit (r.m.s. deviation = 0.014 Å) by 68.83 (16)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving the hy-droxy and meth-oxy groups, forming undulating sheets parallel to (010). PMID:26279930

  16. {μ-2-[(3-Amino-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl)imino­meth­yl]-6-meth­oxy­phenolato-1:2κ5 O 1,O 6:N,N′,O 1}{2-[(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl)imino­meth­yl]-6-meth­oxy­phenolato-1κ3 N,N′,O 1}-μ-azido-1:2κ2 N:N-azido-2κN-methanol-2κO-dinickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemi, Akbar; Rayati, Saeed; Fayyazi, Kazem; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct coordination geometries are found in the binuclear title complex, [Ni2(C13H19N2O2)2(N3)2(CH3OH)], as one Schiff base ligand is penta­dentate, coordinating via the anti­cipated oxide O, imine N and amine N atoms (as for the second, tridentate, ligand) but the oxide O is bridging and coordination also occurs through the meth­oxy O atom. The NiII atoms are linked by a μ2-oxide atom and one end of a μ2-azide ligand, forming an Ni2ON core. The coordination geometry for the NiII atom coordinated by the tridentate ligand is completed by the meth­oxy O atom derived from the penta­dentate ligand, with the resulting N3O3 donor set defining a fac octa­hedron. The second NiII atom has its cis-octa­hedral N4O2 coordination geometry completed by the imine N and amine N atoms of the penta­dentate Schiff base ligand, a terminally coordinated azide N and a methanol O atom. The arrangement is stabilized by an intra­molecular hydrogen bond between the methanol H and the oxide O atom. Linear supra­molecular chains along the a axis are formed in the crystal packing whereby two amine H atoms from different amine atoms hydrogen bond to the terminal N atom of the monodentate azide ligand. PMID:22904709

  17. smesh User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, K K

    2003-05-05

    ''smesh'' is a general purpose, interactive, 2D unstructured mesh generator based on Overture. It supports three kinds of mesh generation techniques: structured patches with transfinite interpolation (TFI); unstructured triangles based on an advancing front technique; and a Cartesian cutcell/triangle hybrid method. Meshes are generated in a generalized ''multi-block'' manner where each ''block'', or region, can be one of the three mesh types. Geometry definitions can be created interactively by placing points and interpolating curves. Spacing information is provided by both the curve discretization (which can be stretched) and a user specified preferred grid spacing for a region. A mesh optimization procedure is available for the non-TFI regions for mesh quality improvement. Each mesh region is given an unique identifier and an optional string name. Meshes are exported to a modified ''ingrid'' format including mesh region identifiers and names. Facilities for command scripting and batch running are available.

  18. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  19. PDBDiff user's manual. [PDBDiff

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.A.

    1992-01-07

    The SABrE system provides a number of tools for working with PDB files in a fairly generic fashion. In particular, PDBDiff compares the contents of two PDB files and displays the differences (in a manner similar but not identical to the UNIX utility diff). PDBDiff can also be run in an interactive mode which lets a user compare two PDB files on an item by item basis. The PDB tools, PDBView, PDBLS, PDBDiff, and PDBComp, are all SX programs. SX is a dialect of the LISP programming language which consists of extensions to the SCHEME dialect of LISP. The extensions provide functionality for graphics, binary data handling, and other areas of functionality. PDBDiff has a [open quotes]help[close quotes] command which lists its commands.

  20. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups. PMID:2085532

  1. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups.

  2. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  3. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  4. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  5. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  6. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions. PMID:25266435

  7. TMAP7 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-12-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it was upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT under solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions. That difficulty has been overcome. TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the

  8. TMAP7 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2006-09-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it has been upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT. That has been removed. Under pre-specified boundary enclosure conditions and solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions, such as Sieverts' law, TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface

  9. TAILSIM Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltner, Dale W.

    2000-01-01

    The TAILSIM program uses a 4th order Runge-Kutta method to integrate the standard aircraft equations-of-motion (EOM). The EOM determine three translational and three rotational accelerations about the aircraft's body axis reference system. The forces and moments that drive the EOM are determined from aerodynamic coefficients, dynamic derivatives, and control inputs. Values for these terms are determined from linear interpolation of tables that are a function of parameters such as angle-of-attack and surface deflections. Buildup equations combine these terms and dimensionalize them to generate the driving total forces and moments. Features that make TAILSIM applicable to studies of tailplane stall include modeling of the reversible control System, modeling of the pilot performing a load factor and/or airspeed command task, and modeling of vertical gusts. The reversible control system dynamics can be described as two hinged masses connected by a spring. resulting in a fifth order system. The pilot model is a standard form of lead-lag with a time delay applied to an integrated pitch rate and/or airspeed error feedback. The time delay is implemented by a Pade approximation, while the commanded pitch rate is determined by a commanded load factor. Vertical gust inputs include a single 1-cosine gust and a continuous NASA Dryden gust model. These dynamic models. coupled with the use of a nonlinear database, allow the tailplane stall characteristics, elevator response, and resulting aircraft response, to be modeled. A useful output capability of the TAILSIM program is the ability to display multiple post-run plot pages to allow a quick assessment of the time history response. There are 16 plot pages currently available to the user. Each plot page displays 9 parameters. Each parameter can also be displayed individually. on a one plot-per-page format. For a more refined display of the results the program can also create files of tabulated data. which can then be used by other

  10. A second monoclinic polymorph of {bis­[5-methyl-3-(trifluoro­meth­yl)pyrazol-1-yl]borato}{tris­[5-methyl-3-(trifluoro­meth­yl)pyrazol-1-yl]borato}cobalt(II): a structure containing a B—H⋯Co agostic inter­action

    PubMed Central

    Stibrany, Robert T.; Potenza, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H10BF6N4)(C15H13BF9N6)], is a polymorph of the previously reported neutral cobalt(II) complex [Stibrany & Potenza (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. E66, m506–m507], which contains one each of the monoanionic ligands, bis­[5-methyl-3-(trifluoro­meth­yl)pyrazol-1-yl]borate (Bp) and tris­[5-methyl-3-(trifluoro­meth­yl)pyrazol-1-yl]borate (Tp). A distorted octahedral coordination geometry of the CoII atom results from ligation of an H atom, which is part of an agostic B—H⋯Co inter­action [H⋯Co = 2.12 (3) Å], and by five imine N atoms, two from a Bp ligand and three from a Tp ligand. Weak intra- and inter­molecular C—F⋯π inter­actions with F⋯centroid distances ranging from 3.025 (4) to 3.605 (4) Å are observed. PMID:21836897

  11. Graphical User Interfaces and Library Systems: End-User Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Margaret; Marshall, Lucy

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study by Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research Library to determine user satisfaction with the graphical user interface-based (GUI) Dynix Marquis compared with the text-based Dynix Classic Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC). Results show that the GUI-based OPAC was preferred by endusers over the text-based OPAC. (eight references) (DGM)

  12. PROFILE user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L.; Saunders, D.

    1986-01-01

    User information for program PROFILE, an aerodynamics design utility for refining, plotting, and tabulating airfoil profiles is provided. The theory and implementation details for two of the more complex options are also presented. These are the REFINE option, for smoothing curvature in selected regions while retaining or seeking some specified thickness ratio, and the OPTIMIZE option, which seeks a specified curvature distribution. REFINE uses linear techniques to manipulate ordinates via the central difference approximation to second derivatives, while OPTIMIZE works directly with curvature using nonlinear least squares techniques. Use of programs QPLOT and BPLOT is also described, since all of the plots provided by PROFILE (airfoil coordinates, curvature distributions) are achieved via the general purpose QPLOT utility. BPLOT illustrates (again, via QPLOT) the shape functions used by two of PROFILE's options. The programs were designed and implemented for the Applied Aerodynamics Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, and written in FORTRAN and run on a VAX-11/780 under VMS.

  13. SVX4 User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hoff, J.; Kreiger, B.; Rapidis, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Utes, M.; Weber, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and describe the operation of the SVX4 chip. The SVX4 is a custom 128-channel analog to digital converter chip used by D0 and CDF in Run IIb to read out their respective silicon strip detectors. Each channel consists of an integrator (Front-End device, or FE) and a digitize/readout section (Back-End device, or BE). The input to each channel is sampled and temporarily stored in its own storage capacitor. Upon receiving a trigger signal, the relevant pipeline cell is reserved. Subsequent signals cause reserved cells to be digitized by a 128 parallel channel Wilkinson type 8-bit ADC, and then readout in byte-serial mode with optional zero suppression (sparsification). Salient features include (1) operation in either D0 mode or CDF mode (CDF mode features ''dead timeless operation'' or continued acquisition during digitization and readout) with an additional mixed mode of operation, (2) adjustable, loadable control parameters, including the integrator bandwidth and ADC polarity (only one input charge polarity will be used for Run IIb, but this feature remains for diagnostic purposes), (3) sparsified readout with nearest neighbor logic, (4) built-in charge injection with the ability for external voltage overriding for testing and calibration, and (5) a channel mask that is used for either charge injection or for masking of channels with excessive DC current input during chip operation. This document is meant to familiarize the user with the functionality of the SVX4 and goes on to include specifications, pin outs, timings and electrical information. Additional information on the SVX4 can be found in Ref [1].

  14. Scientific customer needs - NASA user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Some requirements for scientific users of the Space Station are considered. The use of testbeds to evaluate design concepts for information systems, and for interfacing between designers and builders of systems is examined. The need for an information system that provides an effective interaction between ground-based users and their space-based equipment is discussed.

  15. Microfiche 1969 -- A User Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Harold

    An informal survey of microfiche users was conducted by correspondence, resulting in over 300 letters. Industrial libraries led all others in their acceptance of fiche, with a ratio of 2:1 in favor. Half of the individual users despised fiche; 25% liked it with some reservations and 25% were strongly in favor. Half of those who liked fiche had…

  16. Crystal structures of (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio­phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetra­zole and (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio­phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetra­zole

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Yadlapalli, Jaishankar K. B.; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    (Z)-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thio­phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio­phen-2-yl)-2-(3,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acrylo­nitrile with tri­butyl­tin azide via a [3 + 2]cyclo­addition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio­phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetra­zole, C20H18N4O3S, (II), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio­phen-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acrylo­nitrile with tri­butyl­tin azide. Crystals of (I) have two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2), whereas crystals of (II) have Z′ = 1. The benzo­thio­phene rings in (I) and (II) are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I) and 0.0084 Å in (II). The tetra­zole rings of (I) and (II) make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzo­thio­phene rings of 88.81 (13) and 88.92 (13)° in (I), and 60.94 (6)° in (II). The di­meth­oxy­phenyl and tri­meth­oxy­phenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzo­thio­phene rings of 23.91 (8) and 24.99 (8)° in (I) and 84.47 (3)° in (II). In both structures, mol­ecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I), these chains involve both tetra­zole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II), mol­ecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetra­zole rings. PMID:27308011

  17. Do users ruin design intentions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantrowitz, M.

    1983-11-01

    The approach to examining the relationship between occupants and energy use currently being implemented through the U.S. Department of Energy Passive Solar Commercial Buildings Program is described. Preliminary findings related to how occupant behavior influences energy use and how users respond to these passive solar commercial buildings are presented. Most building users seem to be satisfied with conditions in the buildings-the patterns of the relatively few complaints about comfort reveal cool, sometimes drafty mornings and warm afternoons. Some concern about acoustics was also expressed. The issue of user operations in the buildings is a more pervasive one-there are many instances of improper operations of the buildings, due to a variety of factors. There is a need for clear, well managed user orientation programs, and an explicit transfer of responsibility for certain building operations to the users.

  18. The TIMS Data User's Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B. (Editor); Abbott, Elsa (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A workshop was held to bring together all users of data from NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). The purpose was to allow users to compare results, data processing algorithms, and problems encountered; to update the users on the latest instrument changes and idiosyncracies, including distribution of the TIMS investigation guide; to inform the users of the wide range of problems that are currently being tackled by other TIMS investigators; to explore ways to expand the user community; to discuss current areas where more basic research is required; and to discuss the future directions of NASA's thermal infrared remote sensing programs. Also discussed were: geology, land use, archeology; and data processing and noise research.

  19. Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos E; Dafouli, Evaggelia D; Braimiotis, Dimitrios A; Mouzas, Odysseas D; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V

    2008-12-01

    This research aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students, ages 12 to 18. The sample of 2,200 students was recruited from 120 classes among 85 schools in Thessaly, Greece. The sample included 10% of all classes in schools of Thessaly. The method of randomized stratified selection in every school was used for its constitution. Participants were asked to complete the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), based on eight criteria, as well as an inventory that included sociodemographic factors and questions about the use of Internet, their social life, and their habits. In Greece, 70.8% of adolescents had access to the Internet. The consistency of the YDQ was tested with Cronbach's alpha (0.719), with standardized item alpha (0.728). Proportions are also calculated only on the frequent Internet users, which results in 11% fulfilling five YDQ criteria. The most frequent type of Internet use is online games, representing 50.9% of Internet users, and information services, representing 46.8%. The prevalence of Internet addiction among Internet users of Central Greece is 8.2%, and it concerns mainly the male students who play online games and visit Internet cafés. PMID:18991535

  20. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users. PMID:23909006

  1. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  2. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  3. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  4. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  5. Bis[6-meth­oxy-2-[(4-methyl­phen­yl)iminiometh­yl]phenolate-κO 1]tris­(nitrato-κ2 O,O′)ytterbium(III) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Jia-Lu; Zhao, Guo-Liang

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of title compound, [Yb(NO3)3(C15H15NO2)2]·H2O, contains two Schiff base 2-[(4-methyl­phen­yl)imino­meth­yl]-6-methoxy­phenol (HL) ligands, three independent nitrate ions that chelate to the ytterbium(III) ion in an O,O′-bidentate manner and an uncoordinated water mol­ecule. The coordination number of the YbIII ion is eight. The HL ligands chelate with a strong Yb—O(phenolate) bond and a weak Yb—O(meth­oxy) contact. The latter augments the coordination polyhedron to give a YbO10 bicapped square antiprism. Classical inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as weak C—H⋯O contacts contribute to the stability of the structure. PMID:21578132

  6. The relationship between psychological distress and adolescent polydrug use.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Mason, W Alex; Williams, Joanne W

    2015-09-01

    Polydrug use is relatively common among adolescents. Psychological distress is associated with the use of specific drugs, and may be uniquely associated with polydrug use. The purpose of this study was to test the association of psychological distress with polydrug use using a large adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 10,273 students aged 12-17 years from the State of Victoria, Australia. Participants completed frequency measures of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, inhalant, and other drug use in the past 30 days, and psychological distress. Control variables included age, gender, family socioeconomic status, school suspensions, academic failure, cultural background, and peer drug use. Drug-use classes were derived using latent-class analysis, then the association of psychological distress and controls with drug-use classes was modeled using multinomial ordinal regression. There were 3 distinct classes of drug use: no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%), and polydrug use (8.2%). Independent of all controls, psychological distress was higher in polydrug users and alcohol users, relative to nondrug users, and polydrug users reported more psychological distress than alcohol users. Psychological distress was most characteristic of polydrug users, and targeted prevention outcomes may be enhanced by a collateral focus on polydrug use and depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26415064

  7. STS pilot user development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdowell, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Full exploitation of the STS capabilities will be not only dependent on the extensive use of the STS for known space applications and research, but also on new, innovative ideas of use originating with both current and new users. In recognition of this, NASA has been engaged in a User Development Program for the STS. The program began with four small studies. Each study addressed a separate sector of potential new users to identify techniques and methodologies for user development. The collective results established that a user development function was not only feasible, but necessary for NASA to realize the full potential of the STS. This final report begins with a description of the overall pilot program plan, which involved five specific tasks defined in the contract Statement of Work. Each task is then discussed separately; but two subjects, the development of principal investigators and space processing users, are discussed separately for improved continuity of thought. These discussions are followed by a summary of the primary results and conclusions of the Pilot User Development Program. Specific recommendations of the study are given.

  8. CARE 3 user-friendly interface user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martensen, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    CARE 3 predicts the unreliability of highly reliable reconfigurable fault-tolerant systems that include redundant computers or computer systems. CARE3MENU is a user-friendly interface used to create an input for the CARE 3 program. The CARE3MENU interface has been designed to minimize user input errors. Although a CARE3MENU session may be successfully completed and all parameters may be within specified limits or ranges, the CARE 3 program is not guaranteed to produce meaningful results if the user incorrectly interprets the CARE 3 stochastic model. The CARE3MENU User Guide provides complete information on how to create a CARE 3 model with the interface. The CARE3MENU interface runs under the VAX/VMS operating system.

  9. Design and evaluation: end users, user datasets and personas.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Russell; Cook, Sharon; Mitchell, Val; Summerskill, Steve; Haines, Victoria; Maguire, Martin; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane; Case, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the needs and aspirations of a suitable range of users during the product design process is an extremely difficult task. Methods such as ethnographic studies can be used to gain a better understanding of users needs, but they are inherently time consuming and expensive. The time pressures that are evident in the work performed by design consultancies often make these techniques impractical. This paper contains a discussion about the use of 'personas', a method used by designers to overcome these issues. Personas are descriptive models of archetypal users derived from user research. The discussion focuses on two case studies, the first of which examines the use of personas in the car design process. The second examines the use of personas in the field of 'inclusive design', as demonstrated by the HADRIAN system. These case studies exemplify the benefits 'data rich' personas contribute as opposed to 'assumption based' personas.

  10. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  11. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  12. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  13. ESO's User Portal: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Peron, M.; Sogni, F.; Dorigo, D.; Nass, P.; Fourniol, N.; Sforna, D.; Haggouchi, K.; Dolensky, M.

    2008-07-01

    ESO introduced a User Portal for its scientific services in November 2007. Registered users have a central entry point for the Observatory's offerings, the extent of which depends on the users' roles - see [1]. The project faced and overcame a number of challenging hurdles between inception and deployment, and ESO learned a number of useful lessons along the way. The most significant challenges were not only technical in nature; organization and coordination issues took a significant toll as well. We also indicate the project's roadmap for the future.

  14. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. 1-(2,4-Di­nitro­phen­yl)-2-[(E)-2,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­benzyl­idene]hydrazine

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Nilwanna, Boonlerd; Kobkeatthawin, Thawanrat; Boonnak, Nawong

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C16H16N4O7, is close to being planar, with a dihedral angle of 3.15 (11)° between the benzene rings. The meth­oxy groups at the ortho- and para-positions of the 2,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phenyl group are almost coplanar with the ring [deviations of the C atoms = 0.017 (2) and −0.025 (2) Å, respectively], whereas the meta-meth­oxy group deviates slightly [C-atom displacement = 0.162 (2) Å]. Both the ortho- and para-nitro groups are close to being coplanar with their attached ring [dihedral angles = 7.81 (12) and 8.56 (11)°, respectively]. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the same H atom as the intra­molecular bond generate R 2 2(12) loops. The dimers are linked by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions into sheets parallel to the (10-4) plane and the sheets are stacked by π–π inter­actions, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.5974 (14) Å. PMID:24109301

  16. Galaxy Zoo User Behaviors 1: User classification trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, Brian; Gay, P. L.; CS390/490 Class, SIUE; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    In this poster we examine patterns of classification behavior among Galaxy Zoo users. The Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott 2008) asks users to look at images of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to classify them based on their appearance. The success of this project, measured through 14 scientific journal articles, comes in large part from the dedicated contributions from over 230,000 registered users. These users have each contributed anywhere from a small handful of galaxy classifications to a few tens-of-thousands of classifications. While user behaviors vary greatly, we find that there are certain patterns of behavior that predict which individuals will make significant numbers of classifications over the course of their involvement in the project. Specifically, we study how the number of classifications a person makes shortly after they register for the site can predict future classification behavior. We also look for patterns in what events trigger users registering for the site and returning to site. Where possible, we break patterns of behavior down by gender, and study differences between populations who join at pivotal moments (site launch, major announcement, etc), join as the result of one-on-one contact with a member of the Galaxy Zoo collaboration, and the remaining population. The research was funded by NASA ROSES NNX09AD34G.

  17. Internet use among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca G; Uzel, Mehtap; Ozcan, Neslihan; Avci, Ayse

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Internet use habits and problematic Internet use (PIU) in Turkish adolescents. Participants were 3,975 undergraduate students, 7.6% of whom used the Internet for more than 12 hours weekly. The Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used. The most common purpose for using the Internet was playing games, followed by general information search. Female users mostly preferred searching for general information; male users preferred playing games (p < 0.001, gamma = 995.205). The most preferred type of game was violent games. While preference for strategy and fantasy role-play (FRP) games increased with age, preference for other games decreased (p < 0.0001, gamma = 283.767). Participants who used the Internet mostly for general information searches and school-related searches had lower OCS scores (p < 0.0001). The highest OCS scores were related to violent games, followed by FRP, strategy, and sports and motor racing games. Computers and the Internet are useful, important inventions, but like other inventions, if used improperly, they may be harmful. Risk of harm raises concerns about who should use the Internet and computers, and where, when, and why the Internet and computers should be used. PMID:18785800

  18. Understanding adolescent caffeine use: connecting use patterns with expectancies, reasons, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Bryant Ludden, Alison; Wolfson, Amy R

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about adolescents' caffeine use, yet caffeinated soda, and more recently coffee and energy drinks, are part of youth culture. This study examines adolescents' caffeine use and, using cluster analysis, identifies three groups of caffeine users who differed in their reasons for use, expectancies, and sleep behaviors. In this high school student sample (N = 197), 95% of participants reported recent caffeine use-most often soda-where typical first use of the day was in the evening. Results reveal that adolescents in the mixed use and high soda use groups consumed similar amounts of soda, reporting significantly more use than the low caffeine use group. In contrast with high soda users, mixed users drank more coffee, expected more dependence symptoms and energy enhancement from caffeine, and were more likely to report getting up early, daytime sleepiness, and using caffeine to get through the day.

  19. Exploring the Usability of a Mobile App for Adolescent Obesity Management

    PubMed Central

    Dowdall, Grainne; Burls, Amanda; Perry, Ivan J; Curran, Noirin

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global epidemic. Behavioral change approaches towards improving nutrition, increasing physical activity level, improving sleep, and reducing sitting time are recommended as best practices in adolescent obesity management. However, access to evidence-based treatment is limited and portable technologies such as mobile apps may provide a useful platform to deliver such lifestyle interventions. No evidence-based validated app exists for obesity intervention; therefore, a novel mobile app (Reactivate) was developed for use in the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles Program (W82GO). Objective This study aimed to test the usability (technical effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) of the Reactivate mobile app in obese adolescents. Methods Ten adolescents (7 males and 3 females, aged 12-17 years) who had been treated for obesity (>98th percentile for body mass index) at the Temple Street Children's University Hospital were recruited. Participants were given 8 tasks to complete in order to test the technical effectiveness of the app. A research assistant timed the user while completing each task in order to test the relative user efficiency of the app (time-on-task). The tasks fell into 5 categories and required the user to enter personal settings, find and answer surveys, create a message, use the goal setting feature, and enter details regarding their weight and height. In exploration of user satisfaction, each participant completed the standardized software usability measurement inventory (SUMI), which measures 5 aspects of user satisfaction: efficiency, effect, helpfulness, controllability, and learnability. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the mean relative user efficiency and SUMI scores. Results Mean age was 14.26 (SD 1.58) years. All adolescents completed each of the tasks successfully. The mean relative user efficiency scores were two to three times that of an expert user. Users responded that they would use

  20. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  1. Adolescent Literature, Adolescent Reading and the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…

  2. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  3. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  4. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2016-07-12

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  5. NASTRAN user's guide: Level 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The NASTRAN structural analysis system is presented. This user's guide is an essential addition to the original four NASTRAN manuals. Clear, brief descriptions of capabilities with example input are included, with references to the location of more complete information.

  6. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  7. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. The Exploitation of Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Shirley; Montagne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drug users have been exploited in research studies and clinical practice. We explore ways in which exploitation has occurred and strategies to help patients, research subjects and communities to prevent or avoid exploitation.

  9. Durability to oxygen reactive ion etching enhanced by addition of synthesized bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shunya; Sato, Hiroki; Tasaki, Yuhei; Watanuki, Kimihito; Nemoto, Nobukatsu; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the selection of bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates as additives to improve the durability to oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) of sub-50 nm imprint resist patterns suitable for bubble-defect-free UV nanoimprinting with a readily condensable gas. 2,5-Bis(2-acryloyloxyethoxy)-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a diacrylate chemical structure similar to that of glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate used as a base monomer, and 3-(2-methacryloyloxyethoxy)-1-(hydroxylethoxy)-2-propoxy-3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a hydroxy group similar to the base monomer, were synthesized taking into consideration the Ohnishi and ring parameters, and the oxidization of the trimethylsilyl moiety to inorganic species during O2 RIE. The addition of the latter liquid additive to the base monomer decreased etching rate owing to the good miscibility of the additive in the base monomer, while the addition of the former crystalline additive caused phase separation after UV nanoimprinting. The latter additive worked as a compatibilizer to the former additive, which is preferred for etching durability improvement. The coexistence of the additives enabled the fabrication of a 45 nm line-and-space resist pattern by UV nanoimprinting, and its residual layer could be removed by O2 RIE.

  10. Crystal structure of tri-hydrogen bis-{[1,1,1-tris-(2-oxido-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)ethane]-cobalt(III)} trinitrate.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Waqas; Johannesen, Heini V; Morsing, Thorbjørn J; Piligkos, Stergios; Weihe, Høgni

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, [Co2(L)2](3+)·3NO3 (-) [where L = CH3C(CH2NHCH2CH2OH1/2)3], has been synthesized from the ligand 1,1,1-tris-(2-hy-droxy-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)ethane. The cobalt(III) dimer has an inter-esting and uncommon O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding motif with the three bridging hy-droxy H atoms each being equally disordered over two positions. In the dimeric trication, the octa-hedrally coordinated Co(III) atoms and the capping C atoms lie on a threefold rotation axis. The N atoms of two crystallographically independent nitrate anions also lie on threefold rotation axes. N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the complex cations and nitrate anions leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. The compound is a racemic conglomerate of crystals containing either d or l mol-ecules. The crystal used for this study is a d crystal. PMID:26870462

  11. Crystal structure of tri-hydrogen bis-{[1,1,1-tris-(2-oxido-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)ethane]-cobalt(III)} trinitrate.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Waqas; Johannesen, Heini V; Morsing, Thorbjørn J; Piligkos, Stergios; Weihe, Høgni

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, [Co2(L)2](3+)·3NO3 (-) [where L = CH3C(CH2NHCH2CH2OH1/2)3], has been synthesized from the ligand 1,1,1-tris-(2-hy-droxy-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)ethane. The cobalt(III) dimer has an inter-esting and uncommon O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding motif with the three bridging hy-droxy H atoms each being equally disordered over two positions. In the dimeric trication, the octa-hedrally coordinated Co(III) atoms and the capping C atoms lie on a threefold rotation axis. The N atoms of two crystallographically independent nitrate anions also lie on threefold rotation axes. N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the complex cations and nitrate anions leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. The compound is a racemic conglomerate of crystals containing either d or l mol-ecules. The crystal used for this study is a d crystal.

  12. Ethyl 1-phenyl-2-[4-(trifluoro­meth­oxy)phen­yl]-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeong Keng; Ali, Mohamed Ashraf; Choon, Tan Soo; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C23H17F3N2O3, an intra­molecular C—H⋯F hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. The essentially planar 1H-benzimidazole ring system [maximum deviation = 0.021 (2) Å] forms dihedral angles of 25.00 (10) and 62.53 (11)° with the trifluoro­meth­oxy-substituted benzene and phenyl rings, respectively. The twist of the ethyl acetate group from the least-squares plane of the 1H-benzimidazole ring system is defined by a C(=O)—O—C—C torsion angle of 79.5 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane by weak C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Weak C—H⋯π inter­actions also observed. PMID:22969602

  13. (E)-N′-(4-Meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)-2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chia, Tze Shyang; Frank, Priya V.; Poojary, Mahesha; Kalluraya, Balakrishna

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H15N5O4, the central –C=N—N—C(=O)—C– bridge is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.037 (1) Å] and forms dihedral angles of 7.37 (9) and 73.33 (5)°, respectively, with the benzene and imidazole rings. The dihedral angle between the benzene and imidazole rings is 66.08 (9)°. The meth­oxy and nitro groups are nearly coplanar with the benzene and imidazole rings, respectively, with a C—O—C—C torsion angle of 5.9 (2)° and an O—N—C—C angle of −0.2 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with an R 2 2(8) ring motif, forming an inversion dimer. The dimers are further inter­connected by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a sheet parallel to the (111) plane. A C—H⋯π inter­action is also observed between the sheets. PMID:23125763

  14. Adipic acid–2,4-diamino-6-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-1,3,5-triazine (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul; Arshad, Suhana; Jagatheesan, Rathinavel; Santhanaraj, Kulandaisamy Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C10H11N5O·C6H10O4, consists of a 2,4-diamino-6-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-1,3,5-triazine mol­ecule and one-half mol­ecule of adipic acid which lies about an inversion center. The triazine ring makes a dihedral angle of 12.89 (4)° with the adjacent benzene ring. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, thus generating a centrosymmetric 2 + 1 unit of triazine and adipic acid mol­ecules with R 2 2(8) motifs. The triazine mol­ecules are connected to each other by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) motif and a supra­molecular ribbon along the c axis. The 2 + 1 units and the supra­molecular ribbons are further inter­linked by weak N—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:23125724

  15. Dichloridobis{2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth­yl]-1H-benzimidazole-κN 3}­zinc(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Peng; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Hao, Bao-Lian; Yang, Huai-Xia

    2013-01-01

    In the title complex, [ZnCl2(C10H9N5)2], the ZnII ion is coordinated by two N atoms from two 2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth­yl]-1H-benzimidazole (tmb) ligands and by two chloride ligands in a slightly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. In the tmb ligands, the benzimidazole rings systems are essentially planar, with maximum deviations from the mean plane of 0.021 (3) and 0.030 (3) Å, and form dihedral angles of 73.2 (2) and 83.5 (2)° with the triazole rings. In the crystal, N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link complex mol­ecules into chains along [010]. In addition, weak C—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds complete a three-dimensional network. Two weak intra­molecular C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds are also observed. PMID:23723759

  16. Crystal structure of non-centrosymmetric bis­(4-meth­oxy­benzyl­ammonium) tetra­chlorido­zincate

    PubMed Central

    Mahbouli Rhouma, Najla; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title non-centrosymmetric organic–inorganic hybrid salt, (C8H12NO)2[ZnCl4], consists of two 4-meth­oxy­benzyl­ammonium cations sandwiched between anionic layers, formed by isolated tetra­chlorido­zincate tetra­hedra. The double layers extend parallel to the ac plane. The crystal packing is assured by Coulombic inter­actions and by a complex N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding system mostly involving the positively charged ammonium groups and the chloride ligands of the isolated tetra­hedral [ZnCl4]2− units. One of the methyl­ene­ammonium groups is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.48 (2):0.52 (2) ratio. The crystal investigated was twinned by non-merohedry with a twin component ratio of 0.738 (2):0.262 (2). PMID:27555961

  17. Adolescent substance-use assessment: methodological issues in the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD).

    PubMed

    Chinet, Léonie; Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Holzer, Laurent; Halfon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    During the past twenty years, various instruments have been developed for the assessment of substance use in adolescents, mainly in the United States. However, few of them have been adapted to, and validated in, French-speaking populations. Consequently, although increasing alcohol and drug use among teenagers has become a major concern, the various health and social programs developed in response to this specific problem have received little attention with regard to follow-up and outcome assessment. A standardized multidimensional assessment instrument adapted for adolescents is needed to assess the individual needs of adolescents and assign them to the most appropriate treatment setting, to provide a single measurement within and across health and social systems, and to conduct treatment outcome evaluations. Moreover, having an available instrument makes it possible to develop longitudinal and transcultural research studies. For this reason, a French version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) was developed and validated at the University Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. This article aims to discuss the methodological issues that we faced when using the ADAD instrument in a 4-year longitudinal study including adolescent substance users. Methodological aspects relating to the content and format of the instrument, the assessment administration and the statistical analyses are discussed.

  18. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Ida Heimly; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2015-01-01

    AAS users and contemplators were investigated for differences in aggression and body image concern. Prevalence rates were sought as a secondary aim. 396 male adolescents at Norwegian high schools completed a questionnaire battery during school hours. Prevalence of AAS use showed 4.0%; AAS contemplation showed 5.1%. No significant differences between the AAS users and contemplators were found on levels of aggression and body image concern. AAS users and contemplators reported significantly higher levels of aggression and body image concern compared nonusing controls. AAS contemplators enhance understanding of AAS use by representing psychosocial factors contributing to increased aggression, and AAS use or risk thereof indicative of an aggressive personality profile. Body image concerns for AAS users and contemplators may indicate that AAS use does not diminish body image concern, and that body image concern is a risk factor for AAS use. This is supportive of previous research.

  19. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  20. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  1. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  2. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  3. The Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…

  4. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document comprises two issues of a new UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Both issues contain news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the subject.…

  5. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  6. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  7. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  8. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  9. Adolescence Education Newsletter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…

  10. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined.

  11. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  12. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  13. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  14. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  15. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  16. The Changing Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaron M.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, a period during which an individual acquires the skills necessary to survive on his or her own, away from parents or other caregivers. Adolescence can be a very confusing time. They experience changes in sleep, diet, mood, weight and attitude and a decreased pleasure from daily activities.…

  17. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  18. Key Data on Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John

    In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom including…

  19. Adolescent Development Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizes necessity of reconsideration of adolescent development, for these reasons: the view of childhood has changed; females have not been systematically studied; theories of cognitive development favor mathematical and scientific thinking over the humanities; and because the psychology of adolescence is anchored in separation and independence…

  20. Relationship violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alison J; Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    Previous experience with violence or a deficit in interpersonal skills may lead to violence in adolescent relationships. In this article we focus on various forms of interpersonal violence (bullying, sexual harassment, coercion, and relationship violence) that adolescents may experience and pay special attention to risk factors, help-seeking behaviors, and sequelae.

  1. Adolescent Attraction to Cults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1998-01-01

    Details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. and distinguishes functions of cults and the term "cult." Identifies various cults, and describes the process of involvement. Notes that in the absence of authentic, stabilizing standards, some youth are especially vulnerable. Provides recommendations for adults working with adolescents.…

  2. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  3. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  4. Motivating Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…

  5. Wellness Factors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; Dane, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Content for wellness-learning games aimed at youth was derived from the professional judgment of an advisory panel composed of experts in preventive medicine, health education, and adolescent development using a Delphi-like series of structured inquiries. Thirty-nine attributes considered important in the development of healthy adolescents were…

  6. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  7. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  8. Adolescent depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Edith Emma

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.

  9. Neighborhoods and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in identifying specific aspects of adolescents' lives that are positively or adversely affected by their place of residence. This body of work suggests that it is important to consider neighborhoods when examining their 1) engagement in risk-related behaviors; 2) educational outcomes; 3) physical and mental health; and 4) their integration within social institutions. To date, however, no existing work has simultaneously considered the range of outcomes in which neighborhoods are believed to be important within and across these four domains. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine the extent to which neighborhoods influence adolescent outcomes across 34 characteristics nested within these four areas. The findings suggest that for adolescents, residential area is equally important in terms of risk behaviors, educational outcomes, and their integration within their families, schools, and churches. However, we find no evidence that neighborhoods are associated with adolescents' physical health or emotional well-being. PMID:21984874

  10. Adolescent bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Labuschagne, Zandre; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) typically occurs in adolescence and is frequently accompanied by medical and psychiatric sequelae that may have detrimental effects on adolescent development. Potentially serious medical consequences and high comorbid rates of mood disorders and suicidality underscore the need for early recognition and effective treatments. Research among adolescents with BN has lagged behind that of adults, although evidence is accumulating to support the efficacy of family-based interventions and cognitive behavioral treatments that are adapted for use with adolescent populations. The aim of the current article is to provide an overview of recent research on epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic issues, and treatment interventions focusing on adolescent BN, and to highlight areas for future research.

  11. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  12. Androgenetic alopecia in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Vera H

    2003-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or hereditary hair thinning, is a common and unwelcome cause of hair loss in men and women. AGA also occurs in adolescents, though its prevalence in this younger population is not known. Physical appearance is extremely important to most adolescents, and early onset of hair loss can have a definite negative effect on self-image and self-esteem. Minoxidil topical solution is widely used by adults for hair loss, but its use by adolescents has not been systematically evaluated. This article provides an overview of AGA and presents new information on the prevalence and age at onset of hereditary hair thinning in adolescents. In addition, data are presented on the efficacy and proper use of minoxidil topical solution in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:12635889

  13. Residual Neural Processing of Musical Sound Features in Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Agrawal, Deepashri; Debener, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing in general and music perception in particular are hampered in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. To examine the residual music perception skills and their underlying neural correlates in CI users implanted in adolescence or adulthood, we conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral study comparing adult CI users with normal-hearing age-matched controls (NH controls). We used a newly developed musical multi-feature paradigm, which makes it possible to test automatic auditory discrimination of six different types of sound feature changes inserted within a musical enriched setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants’ attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes but not to changes of rhythm, whereas we obtained MMNs for all the feature changes in the NH controls. Furthermore, the MMNs to deviants of pitch of CI users were reduced in amplitude and later than those of NH controls for changes of pitch and guitar timber. No other group differences in MMN parameters were found to changes in intensity and saxophone timber. Furthermore, the MMNs in CI users reflected the behavioral scores from a respective discrimination task and were correlated with patients’ age and speech intelligibility. Our results suggest that even though CI users are not performing at the same level as NH controls in neural discrimination of pitch-based features, they do possess potential neural abilities for music processing. However, CI users showed a disrupted ability to automatically discriminate rhythmic changes compared with controls. The current behavioral and MMN findings highlight the residual neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. Highlights: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes

  14. The brain effects of cannabis in healthy adolescents and in adolescents with schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony; James, Christine; Thwaites, Thomas

    2013-12-30

    Cannabis is widely used in adolescence; however, the effects of cannabis on the developing brain remain unclear. Cannabis might be expected to have increased effects upon brain development and cognition during adolescence. There is extensive re-organisation of grey (GM) and white matter (WM) at this time, while the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is involved in the normal physiological regulation of neural transmission, is still developing. In healthy adolescent cannabis users there is a suggestion of greater memory loss and hippocampal volume changes. Functional studies point to recruitment of greater brain areas under cognitive load. Structural and DTI studies are few, and limited by comorbid drug and alcohol use. The studies of cannabis use in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) differ, with one study pointing to extensive GM and WM changes. There is an intriguing suggestion that the left parietal lobe may be more vulnerable to the effects of cannabis in AOS. As in adult schizophrenia cognition does not appear to be adversely affected in AOS following cannabis use. Given the limited number of studies it is not possible to draw firm conclusions. There is a need for adequately powered, longitudinal studies.

  15. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…

  16. GXQ program user`s guide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, B.E.

    1995-05-10

    This report documents the program user`s guide of a general purpose atmospheric dispersion code named GXQ. GXQ is an IBM Compatible microcomputer based program for calculating atmospheric dispersion coefficients using Hanford site specific joint frequency data. It uses the Gaussian straight line model to calculate either an atmospheric dispersion coefficient (X/Q{prime}) or a maximum normalized air concentration (X/Q). Several options are available to the user which alter the standard Gaussian model to allow for plume depletion, building wake, plume meander, sector averaging, gravitational settling and plume rise. Additional options control handling of the joint frequency data and output. Combinations of the above allow calculation of X/Q{prime} in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.145.

  17. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  18. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  19. Substance use and the adolescent brain: a toxic combination?

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Hall, Wayne D

    2007-11-01

    Early onset substance use has consistently been associated with increased risk for a range of adverse outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood. However, the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are not fully understood. Recent advances in developmental neuro-science, together with emerging literature on early onset substance use, suggest that the adolescent brain may be more vulnerable to the effects of addictive substances because of the extensive neuromaturational processes that are occurring during this period. Such findings are suggestive of disrupted developmental trajectories in early onset users, although there is growing evidence that high-risk youths have premorbid neurobiological vulnerabilities. Prospective studies investigating neurobiological correlates and sequelae of early adolescent drug use are urgently required to inform appropriate public health responses. PMID:17984159

  20. Adolescents' over-use of the cyber world--Internet addiction or identity exploration?

    PubMed

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Kim, Taejin; Bukobza, Gabriel

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Internet can serve as a valuable tool assisting adolescents in pursuing the developmentally-related need for self concept clarity. Participants in the study were 278 adolescents (48.5% girls; 7th-9th graders) who completed questionnaires relating to their levels of Internet use, Internet addiction, ego development, self consciousness, self-concept clarity, and personal demographic data. The study results support the general notion that adolescents' level of self-clarity is negatively related to Internet addiction and over-use. Hence, it is suggested that future studies on adolescents' Internet over-use should use qualitative rather than quantitative conceptualization and measurements in order to properly explore such a behavior and its, either positive or negative, implications. A differentiation is proposed between over-users, heavy users, and addicted users. Namely, over-users and heavy users utilize the Internet for age-related and modern-life-related purposes, and hence should not be labeled as addicted. Implications for the measurement, definition, and treatment of Internet over-use are suggested.