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Sample records for adolescent nutritional physiological phenomena

  1. Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Thornburg, Kent L; Prentice, Andrew M; Campisi, Susan; Lassi, Zohra S; Koletzko, Berthold; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. Adolescence is characterized by a rapid pace of growth that is second only to that of infancy. Nutrition and the adolescent transition are closely intertwined, since eating patterns and behaviors are influenced by many factors, including peer influences, parental modeling, food availability, food preferences, cost, convenience, personal and cultural beliefs, mass media, and body image. Here, we describe the physiology, metabolism, and nutritional requirements for adolescents and pregnant adolescents, as well as nutrition-related behavior and current trends in adolescent nutrition. We conclude with thoughts on the implications for nutrition interventions and priority areas that would require further investigation. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  3. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.

  4. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager.

  5. Nutritional Physiology of Captive Fishes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...

  6. Early adolescent nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Gulati, Divesh

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate early adolescents with nutritional rickets and their responses to treatment. 203 adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years) presenting with clinical features of lower-limb deformity, carpopedal spasm, joint swelling, a significant limp, or non-traumatic joint pain were screened for nutritional rickets. Multi-specialty examinations were performed. Family size, number of earning members, number and gender of children, preference for vegetarian food, composition of the meals, and the amount of milk consumed in a day were recorded. Radiographs of wrists, knees, ankles, and pelvis, as well as serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels were evaluated. The diagnosis of nutritional rickets was made based on a combination of clinical, radiological, and biochemical criteria, and confirmed by the responses to treatment. Children with nutritional rickets were treated by a single large intramuscular dose of vitamin D (600,000 IU) along with oral calcium and supplementary vitamin D as well as advice on diet and sunlight exposure. 40 females and 11 males were diagnosed as having nutritional rickets. 65% presented with bilateral knee pain with aggravation at night, 37% presented with lower-limb deformity, 24% had joint swelling especially at the wrist and ankle, 6% had a significant limp and walked with an antalgic gait secondary to pathological fractures. No patient reported carpopedal spasm. All patients had rachitic changes on radiographs in some but not all bones (100% in the ulna, 45% in the radius, 37% in the upper tibia, 37% in the lower fibula and 22% in the lower tibia). Three patients had pathological fractures. 55% had hypocalcaemia, 41% had hypophosphataemia and 100% had raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean time for biochemical resolution was 12 (range, 3-24) weeks. For radiological resolution it was 5 (range, 2-6) months, with the lower end of ulna being last to resolve. Radiographs of the lower end of ulna and serum alkaline

  7. Obesity and nutrition in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Kate

    2009-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of life that encompasses rapid physical growth and dramatic psychosocial change. Over the centuries, humans have evolved an energy balance system that is biased toward fat storage. Obesity has become the most prevalent nutritional concern in adolescents, and clearly it has a complex etiology that includes both genetic and lifestyle aspects. The greatest impact of overweight and obesity in adolescents is the appearance of related physical and psychosocial comorbidity and the tracking of these into adulthood. Thus, there is a strong imperative to treat adolescent overweight and obesity before lifestyles become entrenched and significant comorbidity intervenes. Anorexia nervosa, at the opposite end of the weight spectrum, exhibits many older evolutionary traits that attempt to protect against undernutrition. Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are common in adolescents, both of which have important nutritional aspects.

  8. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  10. Nutrition Information Sources Used by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Patrice A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Sources from which adolescents receive general nutrition information and from which they are most likely to seek specific information were examined. Data were collected from 163 14- to 18-year-old subjects; over 90 percent reported having learned about nutrition in a school course. Other frequently cited sources were television, parents, labels on…

  11. Nutrition Information Sources Used by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Patrice A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Sources from which adolescents receive general nutrition information and from which they are most likely to seek specific information were examined. Data were collected from 163 14- to 18-year-old subjects; over 90 percent reported having learned about nutrition in a school course. Other frequently cited sources were television, parents, labels on…

  12. Adolescent bariatric surgery: review on nutrition considerations.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Isadora; Hrovat, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adolescents has dramatically increased over the past 3 decades in the United States. Weight loss surgery is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. The number of surgeries being performed yearly is rising, and this trend is likely to continue. Adolescent patients present a unique challenge to clinicians. There are currently best-practice recommendations and evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the treatment of the adolescent bariatric patient. A review of the current literature was performed to discuss bariatric surgery and nutrition for the adolescent patient. Studies show that most adolescents with obesity will become obese adults, thus increasing their risk of developing serious and debilitating health conditions. It is recommended that the candidates for surgery be referred to a practice that has a multidisciplinary team experienced in meeting the distinct physical and psychological needs of adolescents. Specific nutrition concerns for the adolescent bariatric patient include preoperative educational pathway, postoperative dietary progression, female reproduction, compliance with vitamin/supplementation recommendations, laboratory tests, and long-term monitoring. The medical literature has reported positive outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. Before surgery is offered as an option, unique factors to adolescents must be addressed. The multidisciplinary clinical team must consider the adolescents' cognitive, social, and emotional development when considering their candidacy for surgery. As the number of adolescent bariatric surgery programs increases, continued research and long-term outcome data need to be collected and shared to base future treatment decisions. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. Determinants of Nutritional Anemia in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deena; Chandra, Jagdish; Sharma, Sunita; Jain, Anju; Pemde, Harish K

    2015-10-01

    To associate the severity of nutritional anaemia with serum levels of ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate; and to determine demographic, socio-economic and nutritional correlates for nutritional anemia in adolescents. Cross-sectional hospital-based study among 200 adolescents (10-18 y) with anemia. Dietary intake (24-h recall), and serum levels of folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin were estimated. Iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency was present in 30.5% 79.5% and 50% of adolescents, respectively. Statistically significant association was observed between severity of anemia and serum vitamin B12 levels, iron intake, folate intake, Vitamin B12 intake, vegetarian diet, attainment of menarche and history of worm infestation. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies are more common than iron deficiency in anemic adolescents. Low dietary intake of these nutrients seems to be a significant determinant of their deficiencies.

  14. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  15. Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of healthy dietary behaviors in youth. Lists many ways in which diet can significantly affect the health of adolescents including: nutrition and learning, chronic disease risk, overweight and obesity, unhealthy weight management practices and eating disorders, barriers to healthy eating habits, and overcoming barriers in…

  16. Nutrition & Adolescent Pregnancy: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography on nutrition and adolescent pregnancy is intended to be a source of technical assistance for nurses, nutritionists, physicians, educators, social workers, and other personnel concerned with improving the health of teenage mothers and their babies. It is divided into two major sections. The first section lists selected…

  17. Physiological and public health basis for assessing micronutrient requirements in children and adolescents. The EURRECA network.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Iris; Doets, Esmée L; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Román, Blanca; Hermoso, Maria; Peña Quintana, Luis; García-Luzardo, María del Rosario; Santana-Salguero, Beatriz; García-Santos, Yurena; Vucic, Vesna; Andersen, Lene Frost; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Aranceta, Javier; Cavelaars, Adrienne; Decsi, Tamas; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge relating to the nutritional requirements and corresponding recommended nutrient intake values of children and adolescents for micronutrients and specificities related to these requirements in the course of childhood and adolescence in Europe. Aspects that can influence micronutrient requirements, such as physiological requirements and bioavailability of the nutrients in the organism, are discussed. The methodology used to obtain the data and also the main knowledge gaps regarding these concepts are emphasized. Methodological critical points in achieving the data and physiological aspects of children and adolescents are important in order to standardize the reference values for micronutrients among Europe for these stages of life.

  18. A beginner's guide to nutritional profiling in physiology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Frost, Paul C; Song, Keunyea; Wagner, Nicole D

    2014-11-01

    The nutritional history of an organism is often difficult to ascertain. Nonetheless, this information on past diet can be particularly important when explaining the role of nutrition in physiological responses and ecological dynamics. One approach to infer the past dietary history of an individual is through characterization of its nutritional phenotype, an interrelated set of molecular and physiological properties that are sensitive to dietary stress. Comparisons of nutritional phenotypes between a study organism and reference phenotypes have the potential to provide insight into the type and intensity of past dietary constraints. Here, we describe this process of nutritional profiling for ecophysiological research in which a suite of molecular and physiological responses are cataloged for animals experiencing known types and intensities of dietary stress and are quantitatively compared with those of unknown individuals. We supplement this delineation of the process of nutritional profiling with a first-order analysis of its sensitivity to the number of response variables in the reference database, their responsiveness to diet, and the size of reference populations. In doing so, we demonstrate the considerable promise this approach has to transform future studies of nutrition by its ability to provide more and better information on responses to dietary stress in animals and their populations.

  19. Developing a Strategy for Understanding Adolescent Nutrition Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Rosalie J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents to record personal situations they experienced concerning food, nutrition, and/or eating. Situation "movement states" were identified to determine qualitative ways in which adolescents perceived themselves as dealing with situations described. Data indicated that this theoretical base may be used by nutrition educators to…

  20. The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-08-01

    This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low somatization scores and their mothers completed a discussion task, from which observed parenting behavior scores were derived. Skin conductance in adolescents was measured before and during the discussion. For adolescents with high levels of physiological responses, unadaptive parenting was related to a higher chance of high somatization scores. For low physiologically responsive adolescents, the relation between parenting behavior and somatization was not significant. Parenting behavior is not univocally related to somatization in adolescents, but the association depends on physiological responses in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  3. Nutritional systems biology modeling: from molecular mechanisms to physiology.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Albert A; Freidig, Andreas P; De Roos, Baukje; Jamshidi, Neema; Heinemann, Matthias; Rullmann, Johan A C; Hall, Kevin D; Adiels, Martin; van Ommen, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the consideration and interpretation of experimental data at widely differing scales of space and time. In this review, we discuss a selection of available modeling approaches and applications relevant for nutrition. We then put these models into perspective by categorizing them according to their space and time domain. Through this categorization process, we identified a dearth of models that consider processes occurring between the microscopic and macroscopic scale. We propose a "middle-out" strategy to develop the required full-scale, multilevel computational models. Exhaustive and accurate phenotyping, the use of the virtual patient concept, and the development of biomarkers from "-omics" signatures are identified as key elements of a successful systems biology modeling approach in nutrition research--one that integrates physiological mechanisms and data at multiple space and time scales.

  4. History of nutrition and acid-base physiology.

    PubMed

    Manz, F

    2001-10-01

    In the 17th century the notion of nutrition and diet changed in northern European countries. First chemical experiments fostered the idea that salts resulted from a union of acids and bases. Digestion was no more regarded as a process of cooking but a succession of fermentations controlled by a balanced production of acids and alkali. Life seemed to depend on the equilibrium of acids and alkalis. In the 19th century food was systematically analysed for the content of energy and macronutrients and first scientifically based nutritional standards were formulated. The preferred use of processed food from the new food industry resulted in epidemics of nutritional disorders. Acidosis seemed to be a plausible pathogenic factor. Practitioners (S Ishizuka, H Hay, FX Mayr) formulated holistic doctrines integrating the concept of balance of acids and bases and recommending food with an excess of alkali. New micromethods to determine the concentration of electrolytes and blood acid-base status promoted physiological and clinical research into acid-base metabolism in the 1960s. In the new physiologically based terminology of systemic acid-base status, the relationship between blood acid-base status and net acid intake or excretion was, however, incorrectly simplified. In the 1970s metabolic acidosis was observed in patients on chemically defined diets and parenteral nutrition. Based on the data of comprehensive acid-base balance studies, calculation models were used to estimate renal net acid excretion from nutrient intake and to predict the potential renal acid load of single foods. Extrapolating current trends to the future, one can say that acid-base physiology will probably remain a challenge in nutrition and functional medicine over the next few years. The challenge will include new concepts for the manipulation of nutritional acid load in sports, dietetics and preventive medicine as well as new definitions of the upper intake level of potential renal acid load in

  5. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  6. Physiological links between circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms, metabolism and nutrition are closely interlinked. A great deal of recent research has investigated not only how aspects of metabolic physiology are driven by circadian clocks, but also how these circadian clocks are themselves sensitive to metabolic change. At the cellular level, novel feedback loops have been identified that couple circadian 'clock genes' and their proteins to expression of nuclear receptors, regulation of redox state and other major pathways. Using targeted disruption of circadian clocks, mouse models are providing novel insight into the role of tissue-specific clocks in glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation. The relationship between circadian rhythms and obesity appears complex, with variable alteration of rhythms in obese individuals. However, it is clear from animal studies that the timing and nutritional composition of meals can regulate circadian rhythms, particularly in peripheral tissues. Translation of these findings to human physiology now represents an important goal.

  7. Improving Nutrition in Pregnant Adolescents: Recommendations for Clinical Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy represents an ideal time for health promotion activities. Many women, including adolescents, are interested and willing to change health behaviors to improve the chance that they will deliver a healthy infant. This paper focuses on improving nutrition in pregnant adolescents. Seven recommendations are presented to help achieve this goal: 1) Focus on foods, not nutrients; 2) individualize and work within the pregnant adolescent's current eating habits; 3) consider the context of family and peer groups; 4) reward efforts; 5) make it easy; 6) focus on weight gain patterns for optimal birth outcomes; and 7) refer to a dietician, as needed. Use of these recommendations comprehensively addresses adolescent developmental needs to improve nutrition during pregnancy. These recommendations are not meant to be all-inclusive; rather, they are meant to serve as a guide for clinical management of nutrition for pregnant adolescents. PMID:17273337

  8. A physiological and nutritional profile of young female figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Delistraty, D A; Reisman, E J; Snipes, M

    1992-06-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a physiological and nutritional profile of 13 female figure skaters, aged 9-17 years. Compared with previous published data, skaters in this study were younger and smaller with a higher percent body fat. Skaters in this study were less experienced and trained less than skaters in other studies but attained similar levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), handgrip strength, and vertical jump power. Relative VO2max (ml/kg/min) was significantly negatively correlated (p less than 0.0033) with body weight and percent body fat, while body weight was significantly positively correlated (p less than 0.0003) with handgrip strength and vertical jump power. In terms of nutritional recommendations, skaters in this study consumed comparatively high amounts of fat and protein with low amounts of carbohydrate, calcium, and iron. Despite suboptimal nutrition and a relatively low training volume, skaters in this study exhibited physiological characteristics similar to those reported for female figure skaters in the literature.

  9. Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Euser, Anja S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related) of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. Method In a stratified sample of 363 children (7–12 years) and 344 adolescents (13–20 years) from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. Results Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. Conclusions As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness. PMID:23620785

  10. Delivering an action agenda for nutrition interventions addressing adolescent girls and young women: priorities for implementation and research.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lassi, Zohra S; Bergeron, Gilles; Koletzko, Berthold; Salam, Rehana; Diaz, Angela; McLean, Mireille; Black, Robert E; de Rigil, Luz Maria; Christian, Parul; Prentice, Andrew M; Klein, Jonathan D; Keenan, William; Hanson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Adolescent nutritional behaviors are assuming considerable importance in nutrition interventions given their important relationships with medium- and long-term outcomes. This is the period when young people undergo major anatomical and physiological maturational changes in preparation for adulthood. Nutritional requirements during puberty are higher during adolescence than during the prepubertal stage and during adulthood. A significant proportion of adolescents also become parents, and hence the importance of their health and nutritional status before as well as during pregnancy has its impact on their own health, fetal well-being, and newborn health. In this paper, we describe the evidence-based nutrition recommendations and the current global guidance for nutrition actions for adolescents. Despite the limitations of available information, we believe that a range of interventions are feasible to address outcomes in this age group, although some would need to start earlier in childhood. We propose packages of preventive care and management comprising nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to address adolescent undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. We discuss potential delivery platforms and strategies relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Beyond the evidence synthesis, there is a clear need to translate evidence into policy and for implementation of key recommendations and addressing knowledge gaps through prioritized research. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Sleep in adolescent depression: physiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Urrila, A S; Paunio, T; Palomäki, E; Marttunen, M

    2015-04-01

    Depression and disturbed sleep are intimately and bidirectionally related. During adolescence, the incidence of both insomnia and major depression increases simultaneously, in a gender-specific manner. The majority of depressed adolescents suffer from different types of subjective sleep complaints. Despite these complaints, the results from polysomnographic studies in depressed adolescents remain inconsistent. In general, similar features to those seen among adults with depressive disorder (e.g. abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep and difficulties in sleep onset) have been reported, but expressed to a lesser degree. The inconsistency in findings may be linked with maturational factors, factors related to the stage of illness and greater heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of depression among adolescents. The exact neurobiological mechanisms by which sleep alterations and depression are linked during adolescence are not fully understood. Aberrations in brain maturation, expressed at different levels of organization, for example gene expression, neurotransmitter and hormone metabolism, and activity of neuronal networks have been suggested. The circadian systems may change in adolescent depression beyond that observed during healthy adolescent development (i.e. beyond the typical circadian shift towards eveningness). A number of therapeutic approaches to alleviate sleep disruption associated with depression have been proposed, but research on the efficacy of these interventions in adolescents is lacking. Knowledge of the neurobiological links between sleep and depression during adolescence could lead to new insights into effective prevention and treatment of depression.

  12. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  13. Physiological indicators of pathologic video game use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Dyer, W Justin; Densley, Rebecca; Money, Nathan M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2015-03-01

    Pathologic video game use (PVGU) has been associated with a host of negative psychological, physical, and social outcomes during adolescence; however, little research has examined physiological predictors of such use. The purpose of the study was to examine physiological predictors of the development of PVGU across adolescence. The article involves a 1-year longitudinal study across midadolescence. Participants were 374 adolescents and their parents from a large metropolitan area in the Northwest United States. PVGU was assessed via questionnaire, as were a number of control variables. A number of physiological indicators including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and galvanic skin conductance (indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity, respectively) were measured during baseline, a cognitively stimulating task (Rubik's cube), and a family problem-solving task. Less RSA withdrawal to a cognitively simulating task was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms, but less RSA withdrawal to a family problem-solving task was associated with the presence of pathologic video game symptoms (p < .05). For girls only, galvanic skin conductance activation during the family problem solving was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms (p < .01). These findings suggest that adolescents who do not find cognitive tasks stimulating physiologically have a greater severity of PVGU. Additionally, adolescents who show physiological signs of stress in a family task were more likely to have PVGU symptoms and only girls have more severe PVGU levels. This study is the first to show that physiological indicators predict PVGU over time in adolescence and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of PVGU in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Mrigen Kr; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  15. What nutritional physiology tells us about diet, sugar and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tappy, L

    2016-03-01

    In this closing perspective, the author exposes why targeting a single nutrient like sugar is in his opinion unlikely to be efficient in preventing obesity and metabolic diseases. He defends the proposal that the concept of fructose toxicity is based on major misconceptions of nutritional physiology. He specifically proposes that (1) sugar being a non-essential nutrient does not obligatorily imply that it has no beneficial effect; (2) alterations of blood triglyceride concentration and hepatic glucose production within the normal range may merely reflect adaptations to a fructose-rich diet rather than early markers of diseases; (3) overfeeding is a normal physiological response to exposure to an energy-dense, palatable nutrient rather than the consequence of 'leptin resistance'; (4) we may presently overemphasize the role of biological regulations and of gene-related heredity when assessing the effects of fructose in particular, and the determinants of obesity in general.

  16. [Nutritional supplementation in children and adolescents practicing fencing].

    PubMed

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.

  17. Development and evaluation of a nutritional health program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Hejazi, Farzaneh; Peykari, Niloofar

    2013-09-01

    Unhealthy nutritional behaviors are a threat to adolescents. In this regard, we compared different training methods through a participatory interventional study. Through proportional random selection, 1823 female students were selected from 15 middle schools of Tehran. Following 2 years of intervention, nutritional habits of three different interventional groups were assessed. Eating breakfast was significantly higher in the trained groups, and the use of weight loss diets was lower in them than in the control group. Also, satisfactory consumption of various kinds of nutrients in the trained groups was more than in the control group. Participatory health training, especially through parents, leads to adolescence nutritional health promotion.

  18. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  19. Identifying Trajectories of Adolescents' Depressive Phenomena: An Examination of Early Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Abbott, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk factors of childhood and early adolescent depressive symptomatology trajectories. This study examined self-report depressive symptomatology across a 6-year time period from 2nd to 8th grade to identify latent groups of individuals with similar patterns of depressive phenomena in a sample of 951 children (440 girls,…

  20. Nutritional physiology and ecology of wildlife in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S; Raubenheimer, David; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Over the last century, humans have modified landscapes, generated pollution and provided opportunities for exotic species to invade areas where they did not evolve. In addition, humans now interact with animals in a growing number of ways (e.g. ecotourism). As a result, the quality (i.e. nutrient composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human-induced environmental changes and human activities. We find that these effects can be quite extensive, especially as a result of pollution and human-provisioned food sources (despite good intentions). We also discuss the role of nutrition in conservation practices, from the perspective of both in situ and ex situ conservation. Though we find that the changes in the nutritional ecology and physiology of wildlife due to human alterations are typically negative and largely involve impacts on foraging behaviour and food availability, the extent to which these will affect the fitness of organisms and result in evolutionary changes is not clearly understood, and requires further investigation.

  1. Nutritional physiology and ecology of wildlife in a changing world

    PubMed Central

    Peiman, Kathryn S.; Raubenheimer, David; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last century, humans have modified landscapes, generated pollution and provided opportunities for exotic species to invade areas where they did not evolve. In addition, humans now interact with animals in a growing number of ways (e.g. ecotourism). As a result, the quality (i.e. nutrient composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human-induced environmental changes and human activities. We find that these effects can be quite extensive, especially as a result of pollution and human-provisioned food sources (despite good intentions). We also discuss the role of nutrition in conservation practices, from the perspective of both in situ and ex situ conservation. Though we find that the changes in the nutritional ecology and physiology of wildlife due to human alterations are typically negative and largely involve impacts on foraging behaviour and food availability, the extent to which these will affect the fitness of organisms and result in evolutionary changes is not clearly understood, and requires further investigation. PMID:28740638

  2. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  3. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  4. Nutritional status, nutritional self-perception, and use of licit drugs in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. Results: The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score ≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score ≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Conclusions: Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. PMID:25765447

  5. Physiological regulation of stress in referred adolescents: the role of the parent-adolescent relationship.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Agnes M; Schuengel, Carlo; Koot, Hans M

    2009-04-01

    Psychopathology in youth appears to be linked to deficits in regulating affective responses to stressful situations. In children, high-quality parental support facilitates affect regulation. However, in adolescence, the role of parent-child interaction in the regulation of affect is unclear. This study examined physiological reactivity to and recovery from stress in adolescents at risk for psychopathology, and their associations with internalising and externalising problems and parent-adolescent interactions. A total of 99 adolescents (M = 13.57 years, SD = 1.83) with a history of mental health problems underwent the Alarm Stress Task and were reunited with their primary caregiver after the stressor, while the physiological responses of the parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and sympathetic (pre-ejection period) systems were measured. The quality of parent-adolescent interaction was determined from observations of secure-base seeking and providing during the task. Affect regulation was measured as physiological reactivity and recovery after the stressor. Adolescents with high levels of externalising problems and low levels of secure-base support showed weaker parasympathetic reactivity and recovery. Higher level of adolescent secure-base seeking was associated with stronger sympathetic reactivity and recovery. Secure-base interactions between parents and adolescents facilitate physiological regulation of stress, especially for adolescents with externalising symptomatology.

  6. The role of family phenomena in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Paidipati, Cynthia P; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research suggests that families are integral to the understanding of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this article is to identify family phenomena related to children and adolescents with ADHD and highlight research findings that intersect family phenomena with the care and treatment of ADHD in youth. A literature review was conducted at the University of Pennsylvania in spring of 2014 using an online library system. The four major databases utilized are Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Psyc-INFO. A wide array of family-related concepts are identified in the literature and represent a multifaceted and dynamic range of family phenomena related to ADHD youth. Four major themes emerged in the literature, including family stress and strain, parenting practices and caregiver health, family relationships, and family processes related to ADHD management. Different cultural and ethnic groups are reflected in the studies, but the majority of participants are self-identified Caucasian. As a collective, the research findings suggest family-related phenomena are essential and relevant to the investigation of children and adolescents with ADHD and worthwhile to explore in future research endeavors, especially in diverse populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effectiveness of nutrition education on fast food choices in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly N; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, Ruthanne

    2007-12-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition education in a group of adolescents. Ten adolescents were asked to choose food items from a fast food restaurant menu. Their chosen meals' nutrition make-up (calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, protein, and fiber) was calculated. Following a 30-minute nutrition education session, participants were asked again to choose a meal from the same fast food menu. The nutrition make-up of the meal chosen postintervention was compared with the meal chosen before the education session. There was a statistically significant (p < .05) difference in calories, fat, carbohydrate, and fiber content of the meals chosen postintervention. This short nutrition education intervention resulted in healthier fast food choices in this group of adolescents.

  8. Diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India.

    PubMed

    Venkaiah, K; Damayanti, K; Nayak, M U; Vijayaraghavan, K

    2002-11-01

    To study the current diet and nutritional status of rural adolescents in India. Cross-sectional study with household as the unit of randomization. National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau collected information in the rural areas of the nine States. In each State, 120 villages were selected from eight districts. From each of the selected villages, 20 households (HHs) were selected from five clusters. The information on socio-demographic profile was collected in all the 20 HHs, while anthropometric data such as weight, height and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency was collected on all the available adolescents in the selected households. In every fourth sampled household, ie five HHs, dietary information on all the members was collected using 24 h dietary recall. The outcome measures for nutritional status were proportion of underweight (adolescent boys and girls and dietary information on 2579 individuals in 1996-1997 was available for the analysis. The major occupation of the heads of the households surveyed was agriculture. More than a third (37.3%) of the families with adolescents did not possess any land. The per capita income per month was about Rs 250/- at 1996-1997 prices. About 23% of the adolescent girls were married before the age of 18 y. About a quarter of the married adolescent girls had short stature and 18.6% were underweight. They considered as 'at risk'. About 39% of the adolescents were stunted (adolescents belonging to the scheduled caste community. In

  9. Nutritional status and blood pressure in adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Cossio-Bolaños, Wilbert; Menacho, Adriana Araya; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Silva, Yuri Muniz da; Abella, Carlos Pablos; de Arruda, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for arterial hypertension andis associatedwitha higher morbidity, both in the short and long term. To compare anthropometric and blood pressure indicators in terms of the nutritional status, to verify the relationship between nutritional status and blood pressure, and to establish the prevalence of hypertension in terms of the nutritional status in both male and female adolescents. Cross-sectional, descriptive study on 499 adolescent students aged 11-15 years old. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, and blood pressure were measured and assessed. The BMI was used to classify participants (normal weight, overweight, obese), and the prevalence of hypertension was determined using values above the 95th percentile. As per the BMI classification, 81% of girls and 76.5% ofboys had normal weight, 15.7% of girls and 15.5% of boys were overweight, and 3.3% of girls and 8% of boys were obese. As per the blood pressure classification, hypertension was observed in 6.4% of boys and in 9% of girls. A relationship was found between nutritional status and blood pressure (boys: c2= 53.48; girls: c2= 85.21). Overweight and obese adolescents had more body fat and a higher blood pressure than normal weight adolescents. Also, a relationship was determined betweennutritional status and blood pressure in both male and female students. The higher the BMI, the higher the prevalence of hypertension.

  10. [Obesity in adolescents and public policies on nutrition].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Lorenna Karen Paiva E; Cunha Júnior, Arnaldo Tenório da; Knackfuss, Maria Irany; Medeiros, Humberto Jefferson de

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, obesity has become a major public health problem and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming pace. Moreover, this problem has affected children and adolescents in marked fashion. Considering this situation, public policies on nutrition were created as strategies to attempt to combat/control the high Brazilian obesity indices. The scope of this study was to conduct a historical analysis of the advances in Brazilian public policies related to nutrition/food and the practice of physical exercise to control obesity among adolescents. In this respect, a review was conducted of the literature in the PubMed and SciELO electronic databases that addresses Brazilian public policies on nutrition in the control of obesity. Official documents of the Ministry of Health, scientific articles, journals and the recommendations of the World Health Organization were also used in the research. The results revealed that public policies on nutrition practiced in Brazil have been implemented in an incipient manner when directed at adolescents with respect to the obesity factor. Therefore, a broader vision seeking policies that attempt to control obesity in adolescents is of paramount importance.

  11. [Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Evaluation of risks and interventional proposal. I.Methodology].

    PubMed

    González-Gross, M; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L; Nova, E; González-Lamuño, D; Pérez-Llamas, F; Gutiérrez, A; Garaulet, M; Joyanes, M; Leiva, A; Marcos, A

    2003-01-01

    Adolescence is a decisive period in human life due to the multiple physiological and psychological changes that take place. These changes will condition both nutritional requirements and eating/physical activity behavior. It has been demonstrated that these "adolescence" factors are of significant influence in health status during adult life. Due to its importance and adequate development the project has been granted by the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria of the Institute of Health Carlos III. To develop a methodology to evaluate the health and nutritional status of a representative population of Spanish adolescents. Specific attention is paid to three specific health problems: obesity, anorexia nervosa/bulimia, dislipidemia. The following magnitudes will be studied: 1) dietary intake, food habits and nutrition knowledge; 2) daily physical activity and personal approach; 3) physical condition; 4) anthropometry and body composition; 5) hematobiochemical study: plasma lipid phenotypic and metabolic profile, blood cell counts; 6) genotipic profile of cardiovascular risk lipid factors; 7) immune function profile related to nutritional status; 8) psychological profile. This project includes the co-ordinate activity of five Spanish centers of five different cities (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza). Each center is specialized in a specific area and will be responsible for the corresponding part of the study. From the data obtained, we will elaborate a specific intervention program in order to improve nutrition and neutralize the risk for nutritional related problems in adolescence. By this, we will contribute to improve the health status of the Spanish population in the new millennium.

  12. Nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroid use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Ross, Ryan; Kang, Jie; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2008-01-01

    To examine nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroid (AS) use in adolescent males and females in a multistate, cross-regional study. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, beliefs, and sources of education on nutritional supplementation and AS in these students. A confidential self-report survey was administered to 3248 students representing grades 8-12 in 12 states in the continental United States by their teachers during homeroom or physical education class. Use of at least one supplement was reported by 71.2% of the adolescents surveyed. The most popular supplements used were multivitamins and high-energy drinks. The use of supplements to increase body mass and strength, and to reduce body fat or mass, increased across grade and was more prevalent in males than females. The number of students that self-reported AS use was 1.6% (2.4% males and 0.8% females). The number of supplements used was related to AS use among adolescents, and this effect was greater among males. Adolescents also seemed willing to take more risks with supplements to achieve their fitness or athletic goals, even if these risks reduced health or caused premature death. This study demonstrates that reliance on nutritional supplements increases as adolescents mature. The apparent willingness of adolescents to use a supplement that may harm their health or shorten their life highlights the need for greater involvement of teachers, coaches, and physicians to provide continued education on the risks and benefits associated with nutritional supplementation and AS use.

  13. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans. PMID:22639924

  14. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: results from the National Nutrition Health and Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-05-28

    Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005-6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans.

  15. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future 'mothers-to-be'. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health.

  16. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. Results The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Conclusion Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future ‘mothers-to-be’. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health. PMID:27642403

  17. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile.

  18. Response Letter to "Optimising physiology for adolescents with dysautonomia".

    PubMed

    Armstrong, K; De Souza, A M; Sneddon, P; Potts, J E; Claydon, V E; Sanatani, S

    2017-09-14

    We would like to thank Dr Thaxter Nesbeth (1) for her interest and insightful comments on our paper entitled, "Exercise and the multidisciplinary holistic approach to adolescent dysautonomia"(2). We agree that recurrent orthostatic intolerance is often best managed through lifestyle modification rather than pharmacologic intervention (at least as an initial step), and as such in the present study we evaluated the impact of our exercise programme incorporated in addition to our standard clinical multidisciplinary management approach. Currently, our approach incorporates advice to patients and their families regarding the importance of maintaining adequate hydration, salt supplementation, good sleep and nutrition habits, as well as our structured exercise program. We also provide written literature about living with dysautonomia of adolescence and have the benefit of psychological support for our patients in our Dysautonomia Clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional knowledge in European adolescents: results from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Beghin, Laurent; De Henauw, Stefaan; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Hallström, Lena; Manios, Yannis; Mesana, María I; Molnár, Dénes; Dietrich, Sabine; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Plada, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Kersting, Mathilde

    2011-12-01

    To build up sufficient knowledge of a 'healthy diet'. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe. A cross-sectional study. The European multicentre HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study conducted in 2006-2007 in ten cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece (one inland and one island city), Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden. A total of 3546 adolescents (aged 12·5-17·5 years) completed a validated nutritional knowledge test (NKT). Socio-economic variables and anthropometric data were considered as potential confounders. NKT scores increased with age and girls had higher scores compared with boys (62% v. 59%; P < 0·0001). Scores were approximately 10% lower in 'immigrant' adolescents or in adolescents with 'immigrant' mothers. Misconceptions with respect to the sugar content in food or in beverages were found. Overall, there was no correlation between BMI values and NKT scores. After categorization according to BMI, scores increased significantly with BMI group only in boys. These differences disappeared after controlling for socio-economic status (SES). Smoking status and educational level of the mother influenced the NKT scores significantly in boys, as well as the educational levels of both parents in girls. Nutritional knowledge was modest in our sample. Interventions should be focused on the lower SES segments of the population. They should be initiated at a younger age and should be combined with environmental prevention (e.g. healthy meals in school canteens).

  20. [Nutritional status of adolescents from a cohort of preterm children].

    PubMed

    González Stäger, M Angélica; Rodríguez Fernández, Alejandra; Muñoz Valenzuela, Carolina; Ojeda Sáez, Alejandra; San Martín Navarrete, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Catch-up growth in preterm-born children occurs in the first months of life, but in some cases, growth recovery takes place in adolescence. The objective of this study was to study the growth and development of preterm-born adolescents from a cohort of preterm infants born between 1995 and 1996, who resided in the cities of Chillán and San Carlos in the Biobío Region, Chile. The results were then compared with term-born adolescents. A sample of 91 children from the cohort was studied and compared with 91 term-born adolescents matched for gender, age, and attendance at the same educational institution. The nutritional status was assessed by BMI-for-age, height-for-age, body composition by skinfold, cardiovascular risk due to blood pressure, and waist circumference. There was 23.0% and 24.1% overweight and obesity in preterm-born and term-born adolescents, respectively, with 25.5% of preterm-born and small for gestational age adolescents vs. 14.5% of those born adequate for gestational age were overweight. Lower height was observed in 16.5% and 5.5% of the preterm-born and term-born adolescents, respectively, and with a higher proportion of girls (P<.04). Preterm-born adolescents had a more fat mass than the controls, particularly in the suprailiac skinfold. No significant differences were found in blood pressure and waist circumference. The results indicate that there is a group of preterm-born children who do not recover height during adolescence, especially girls. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Relation between nutritional status of adolescent mothers and neonatal development].

    PubMed

    Arcos Griffiths, E; Olivo Mardones, A; Romero Zambrano, J; Saldivia Sánchez, J; Cortez Quintana, J; Carretta Muñoz, L

    1995-06-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation and low birthweight--factors that strongly influence the physical and mental development of a child--are in turn affected by the nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy and, to a certain extent, by her pregestational nutritional status. Pregnant adolescents constitute a high-risk group for nutritional problems because their own bodies are still growing. In order to examine the correlation between several variables related to body composition and nutritional status in a group of pregnant adolescents and certain indicators of neonatal development, a prospective longitudinal study was carried out in Valdivia, Chile, from September 1988 to May 1992. The study cohort was made up of 184 pairs consisting of mothers under 17 years of age who had attended a prenatal monitoring program and their newborns. The following groups of variables were tested for correlation: indicators of maternal body composition before pregnancy (pregestational weight recorded by the mother, height measured during the first visit to the program, and body mass index [pregestational weight/(height upon entering the program)]; indicators of maternal body composition during pregnancy (weight and body mass index upon entering the program and before giving birth, weekly weight gain, and total weight gain); and indicators of neonatal development (weight and length at birth, gestational age, and cranial perimeter). The weight of the mother before giving birth was statistically significantly correlated with the gestational age, length, weight, and cranial perimeter of the newborn. The body mass index prior to giving birth was weakly correlated with the weight and length of the newborn, and a significant direct correlation was also observed between the weight of the pregnant adolescent upon entering the program and the weight of her child at birth. No correlation was found between the indicators of fetal development and those of maternal pregestational body

  2. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  3. [Psychology and nutrition in the ontogenetic development in the infant-adolescence years].

    PubMed

    Fuillerat Alfonso, R

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established.

  4. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  5. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  6. Physiological Regulation of Stress in Referred Adolescents: The Role of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemen, Agnes M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychopathology in youth appears to be linked to deficits in regulating affective responses to stressful situations. In children, high-quality parental support facilitates affect regulation. However, in adolescence, the role of parent-child interaction in the regulation of affect is unclear. This study examined physiological reactivity…

  7. Physiological Regulation of Stress in Referred Adolescents: The Role of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemen, Agnes M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychopathology in youth appears to be linked to deficits in regulating affective responses to stressful situations. In children, high-quality parental support facilitates affect regulation. However, in adolescence, the role of parent-child interaction in the regulation of affect is unclear. This study examined physiological reactivity…

  8. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  9. [Nutrition therapy in enterocutaneous fistula; from physiology to individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cano, Ameyalli Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is the most common of all intestinal fistulas. Is a condition that requires prolonged hospital stay due to complications such as electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition, metabolic disorders and sepsis. Nutritional support is an essential part of the management; it favors intestinal and immune function, promotes wound healing and decreases catabolism. Despite the recognition of the importance of nutrition support, there is no strong evidence on its comprehensive management, which can be limiting when establishing specific strategies. The metabolic imbalance that a fistula causes is unknown. For low-output fistulas, energy needs should be based on resting energy expenditure, and provide 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg/d of protein, while in high-output fistulas energy requirement may increase up to 1.5 times, and provide 1.5 to 2.5 g/kg of protein. It is suggested to provide twice the requirement of vitamins and trace elements, and between 5 and 10 times that of Vitamin C and Zinc, especially for high-output fistulas. A complete nutritional assessment, including type and location of the fistula, are factors to consider when selecting nutrition support, whether is enteral or parenteral nutrition. The enteral route should be preferred whenever possible, and combined with parenteral nutrition when the requirements cannot be met. Nutritional treatment strategies in fistulas may include the use of immunomodulators and even stress management.

  10. Adolescent women as a key target population for community nutrition education programs in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Savage, Amy; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Adolescence is a critical life-stage that sets the foundation for health in adulthood. Adolescent women are a unique population and should be targeted as such for nutrition promotion activities. Using Indonesia as a case study, this qualitative study aimed to identify existing nutrition promotion programs aimed at adolescent girls, how best to target this population and effective recommendations to inform nutrition education program design for this important group. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were conducted with ten key informants working in public health in Indonesia. Interview transcripts were analysed and coded to identify key themes. No existing nutrition education programs targeting adolescent women in Indonesia were identified. Several strategies apply to nutrition programs for adolescent girls: 1) nutrition promotion messages that are relevant to the lifestyles and interests of adolescent women; 2) technology-based interventions show promise, however, they need to be appropriately targeted to sub-groups; 3) school remains an important setting; and 4) early marriage is an important issue affecting nutritional status and engagement of adolescent girls. The informants recommended that: 1) more research is needed about the underlying motivations for behaviour change among adolescent women and ways to effectively implement the identified engagement strategies; 2) adolescent girls should be included in program design to improve its suitability and uptake; and 3) government budget and policy support is crucial to success. Adolescent women are an important population group and more research is required to identify the optimal forms of engagement to improve nutrition programs for them.

  11. Dietary behaviour of Tehranian adolescents does not accord with their nutritional knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Azadbakht, Leila; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-09-01

    To determine the nutritional behaviour of Tehranian adolescents. This study was undertaken on 7669 adolescents (4070 boys and 3599 girls) of 22 junior high schools and high schools as a representative sample of Tehranian adolescents. A validated knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used. Factor analysis was used to determine the key questions. The mean ( +/- standard deviation) age and body mass index of the adolescents was 14 +/- 1 years and 27.2 +/- 11 kg m- 2. Although 82% of girls and 75% of boys had good nutritional knowledge, only 25% of boys and 15% of girls had good nutritional practice. Eighty-five per cent of adolescents knew that drinking too many soft beverages resulted in overweight or obesity, but only 4.5% of them did not drink soft beverages. Although 89% of adolescents knew that crisps and corn balls are not healthy snacks, 45% of them used such snacks during their break time. Thirty-seven per cent of adolescents preferred whole-grain biscuits to creamy wafer ones but only 10% of adolescents used whole-grain biscuits as a snack. The most frequently consumed snacks among Tehranian adolescents were sausage sandwiches, cocoa cola, crisps and corn balls, creamy wafers, cakes, chocolate and toffee. A low percentage of Tehranian adolescents have good nutritional behaviour and in most of them their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in Tehranian adolescents.

  12. High prevalence of false-positive plateau phenomena during VO2max testing in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, Fernando G; Wong, Del P; Noakes, Timothy D

    2014-09-01

    It is believed that a plateau in oxygen consumption (VO2) at the end of an incremental exercise test identifies the upper limits of cardiovascular capacity. We investigated how different criteria influence the frequency with which the "plateau phenomenon" is detected and the prevalence at which "false" plateau phenomena occurs during sub-maximal exercise. Cross-sectional. Six different criteria with 3 different sampling intervals each were used to identify the "plateau phenomenon" from a single data set comprising 63 incremental exercise tests along with secondary criteria based on target heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). A single criterion from the original 18 (HALF) was also used to detect the incidence of any plateau phenomena during each test. The plateau phenomenon was detected in 16-82% of the tests depending on the criteria used, mostly as a result of the different sampling intervals. HALF identified 103 "plateau phenomena" but 73 (70.9%) of these occurred during sub-maximal exercise and so were "false". "False" plateaus were verified by at least one secondary criterion in 27% of cases. Participants reached the HR and RER targets after 83.6 ± 11.7% and 81.9 ± 18.1% of total test duration, respectively. The wide range in the percentage of plateau phenomena detected by different criteria plus the high rate (71%) of "false" plateau during sub-maximal exercise could indicate that this phenomenon is a calculation artifact rather than an indicator of true physiological events. Secondary criteria can be reached early in exercise and often identify "false" plateau phenomena as "true". Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlinear phenomena in northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) vocalizations: Acoustics and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollinger, Sue Anne; Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.

    2003-04-01

    The bird sound source (syrinx), like the mammalian larynx, has been discovered to behave as a nonlinear system of coupled oscillators. Modeling approaches as well as excised syrinx experiments show that the syrinx can be considered a nonlinear sound source. Until now, only few acoustic data were available showing to what extent a birdsong species' vocal repertoire actually contains nonlinear phenomena, like subharmonics, frequency jumps, biphonation and deterministic chaos. The passerine syrinx, in contrast to the mammalian larynx, consists of two sound sources, one situated in each of the bronchi that are independently controlled. Bronchial airflow measurements showed that individual mockingbirds use each side of the syrinx independently. However, there are interactions of both sound sources, which have not yet been investigated acoustically/spectrographically. The present study shows how many of the spectrographically observed nonlinear phenomena are attributed to the interaction of the two sound sources, i.e., nonlinear phenomena, while both sound sources show positive airflow values, compared to single sound source utterances, i.e., positive flow through one sound source only. Nonlinear phenomena could be attributed to the interaction of the two sound sources (earlier referred to as ``two-voice-phenomenon'') but were also found to be produced by a single sound source.

  14. Subclinical nutritional rickets among adolescents in Kaghan Valley.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tanveer Hussain; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Siddiqui, Tahir Saeed

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Observation cross-sectional study. Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts.

  15. Adolescence: Does good nutrition = good behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Gesch, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is often associated with exploring boundaries, rapid growth, hormones and pimples. A stable feature of this turbulent age is that these young people are highly over-represented in the criminal justice system. Adolescents account for disproportionate proportion of police-recorded crimes, and this seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. Furthermore, disaffected young people often have limited routine access to healthy foods and make poor food choices. These people form a large proportion of the prison population and there are concerns that insufficient attention is paid to their health. Hence their diet tends to be poor compared with international standards of dietary adequacy, which typically are set to protect the heart but not for optimal brain function. Thus, it has been posited that a poor diet may be a modifiable causal factor in antisocial behaviours. We tested what happened to the behaviour of violent young adult prisoners (18–21years) when nutrients missing from their diets were reinstated. We used food supplements as an analogue of a better diet because it provided the possibility of a placebo control. On a random basis, where neither the volunteers, prison staff nor researchers in the prison knew who was getting which type, 231 volunteers were given either placebo or real capsules containing broadly the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The number of proven offences committed by each prisoner was monitored before and while taking supplements. The result was that those who received the extra nutrients committed significantly (26.3%) fewer offences compared with placebos. Those consuming real supplements for at least 2 weeks committed 37% fewer (highly statistically significant) of the most serious offences, such as violence. These findings have been replicated by the Dutch Ministry of Justice; their double-blind study reported a 48% difference between groups. If these studies are widely replicated – and

  16. Adolescence: Does good nutrition = good behaviour?

    PubMed

    Gesch, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is often associated with exploring boundaries, rapid growth, hormones and pimples. A stable feature of this turbulent age is that these young people are highly over-represented in the criminal justice system. Adolescents account for disproportionate proportion of police-recorded crimes, and this seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. Furthermore, disaffected young people often have limited routine access to healthy foods and make poor food choices. These people form a large proportion of the prison population and there are concerns that insufficient attention is paid to their health. Hence their diet tends to be poor compared with international standards of dietary adequacy, which typically are set to protect the heart but not for optimal brain function. Thus, it has been posited that a poor diet may be a modifiable causal factor in antisocial behaviours. We tested what happened to the behaviour of violent young adult prisoners (18-21years) when nutrients missing from their diets were reinstated. We used food supplements as an analogue of a better diet because it provided the possibility of a placebo control. On a random basis, where neither the volunteers, prison staff nor researchers in the prison knew who was getting which type, 231 volunteers were given either placebo or real capsules containing broadly the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The number of proven offences committed by each prisoner was monitored before and while taking supplements. The result was that those who received the extra nutrients committed significantly (26.3%) fewer offences compared with placebos. Those consuming real supplements for at least 2 weeks committed 37% fewer (highly statistically significant) of the most serious offences, such as violence. These findings have been replicated by the Dutch Ministry of Justice; their double-blind study reported a 48% difference between groups. If these studies are widely replicated - and they

  17. Nutritional strategy for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery: report of a working group of the Nutrition Committee of NASPGHAN/NACHRI.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, Michell A; Abrams, Stephanie H; Hrovat, Kathleen; Mooney, Lori; Scheimann, Ann O; Hillman, Jennifer B; Suskind, David L

    2012-01-01

    Surgical options for the treatment of adolescent obesity have been gaining popularity. Adolescent patients present a particular challenge to clinicians, secondary to age-related issues, revolving around both mental and physical growth. These age-related issues require a unique approach to nutritional intervention for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery as opposed to standardized approaches for adults. Despite the increasing numbers of adolescents undergoing obesity surgery, evidence-based nutritional guidelines have yet to be published. The goal of this document is to provide the clinician with recommendations on how to assess, educate, nourish, and monitor the adolescent who has undergone obesity surgery. A multidisciplinary panel composed of 3 pediatric gastroenterologists, 1 psychologist, and 3 registered dietitians from the Nutrition Committee for the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, with experience in nutrition and adolescent weight loss surgery, reviewed the medical literature for evidence-based practice for nutritional strategies for patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In addition to this group, an adolescent medicine physician was consulted for matters related to reproductive health. The present article presents a consensus of recommendations based on a review of the literature. In areas for which there was a lack of evidence to support the recommendations, best-practice guidelines were used. The present article provides the clinician with an overview of the nutritional concerns for adolescent patients undergoing obesity surgery. These guidelines address the preoperative educational pathway, the postoperative diet progression, recognition of disordered eating, guidelines for female reproductive issues, and assistance for the adolescent in a school/college environment.

  18. Nutrition education for adolescents: principals' views.

    PubMed

    Lai-Yeung, Wai-Ling Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine school principals' perceptions of the school environment in Hong Kong as a context for the dissemination of food knowledge and inculcation of healthy eating habits. A questionnaire survey was administered in secondary schools in Hong Kong to survey Principals' views of students' food choices, operation of the school tuck shop, and promotion of healthy eating at school. Questionnaires were disseminated to all the secondary schools offering Home Economics (300 out of 466), and 188 schools responded, making up a response rate of 63%. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS. Most of the schools (82%) claimed to have a food policy to monitor the operation of the school canteen, and about half (52%) asserted there were insufficient resources to promote healthy eating at school. Principals (88%) generally considered it not acceptable for the school tuck shop to sell junk food; however, 45% thought that banning junk food at school would not help students develop good eating habits. Only 4% of the principals believed nutrition education influenced eating habits; whereas the majority (94%) felt that even with acquisition of food knowledge, students may not be able to put theory into practice. Cooking skills were considered important but principals (92%) considered transmission of cooking skills the responsibility of the students' families. Most of the principals (94%) believed that school-family collaboration is important in promoting healthy eating. Further efforts should be made to enhance the effectiveness of school food policies and to construct healthy school environments in secondary schools.

  19. [Methodological bases of the nutritional-physiological assessment of the per capita consumption of foods. 2. Nutritional-physiological assessment of the per capita consumption].

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, G; Räke, I; Möhr, M

    1979-01-01

    The different items of the per caput consumption (cf. Part I) are evaluated from the viewpoint of nutritional physiology, and the average energy and nutrient supply of the total population is calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowances. The nutritional status of the population is globally assessed. A reduction in calorie and fat consumption seems desirable, which will be promoted by a better supply of calorie-reduced products. Further food modifications, e.g., in the form of protein, vitamin and mineral fortifications, are not necessary for the average population.

  20. [From the physiology of pain to an antihyperalgesic nutritional approach].

    PubMed

    de la Brière, Alice

    2011-05-01

    Pain is brought into play by a system which detects and transmits messages signaling pain. Opioids negatively modulate nociception, but paradoxically also contribute to hyperalgesia. A nutritional approach with low polyamine contents helps to reduce this phenomenon without the harmful side effects of antihyperalgesic drugs.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Huybrechts, I; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Ottevaere, C; Sjöström, M; Dìaz, L E; Ciarapica, D; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Plada, M; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Kersting, M; Castillo, M J

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.

  2. An Adolescent Nutrition Learning Model to Facilitate Behavior Change in Overweight Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kimberly J.; Ramsay, Samantha A.; Holyoke, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process by which adolescents learn about nutrition is necessary for developing tailored education that leads to sustainable behavior change. Teens aged 15-17 participating in an obesity prevention program were interviewed. From the data, three themes emerged and informed development of an adolescent nutrition learning model. The…

  3. An Adolescent Nutrition Learning Model to Facilitate Behavior Change in Overweight Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kimberly J.; Ramsay, Samantha A.; Holyoke, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process by which adolescents learn about nutrition is necessary for developing tailored education that leads to sustainable behavior change. Teens aged 15-17 participating in an obesity prevention program were interviewed. From the data, three themes emerged and informed development of an adolescent nutrition learning model. The…

  4. Physiological ischemia/reperfusion phenomena and their relation to endogenous melatonin production: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C; León, Josefa; Reiter, Russel J

    2005-07-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion is a frequently encountered phenomenon in organisms. Prolonged ischemia followed then by reperfusion results in severe oxidative injury in tissues and organs; however, some species can tolerate such events better than others. In nature, arousal from hibernation and resurfacing from diving causes animals to experience classic ischemia/reperfusion and, somehow, these animals cope well with the potential oxidative stress. It has been documented that during these physiological ischemia/reperfusion events, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some small-molecular-weight antioxidants become elevated. For example, the potent small-molecular-weight antioxidant melatonin often attains especially high levels during these physiological ischemia/reperfusion events including during arousal from hibernation or in the newborns during delivery. Highly elevated melatonin production during these physiological ischemia/reperfusion episodes exhibits several features. First, this high melatonin production is transient and fits well with the time schedule of the physiological ischemia/reperfusion period; therefore, it is not related to the normal endogenous melatonin rhythm. Yet, this transient peak protects the animals from destructive oxidative processes that occur during these transition periods. Second, these high levels of melatonin seem to derive from several organs since pinealectomy does not totally reduce circulating levels of this agent. Third, high melatonin production present at arousal from hibernation or in the newborns at birth does not appear to be controlled by light, i.e., it occurs both during the day and at night, and the amplitudes of elevated melatonin levels are equivalent at these times. The significance of these findings is discussed herein. Based on currently available data, we hypothesize that melatonin plays an important role in the physiological ischemia/reperfusion, i.e., as a member of antioxidant defense

  5. Developmental perspectives on nutrition and obesity from gestation to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Layla; Fisher, Jennifer O; Mennella, Julie A; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Huang, Terry T

    2009-07-01

    Obesity results from a complex combination of factors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmental perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development. A developmental perspective considers family, school, and community context. During gestation, risk factors for obesity include maternal diet, overweight, and smoking. In early childhood, feeding practices, taste acquisition, and eating in the absence of hunger must be considered. As children become more independent during middle childhood and adolescence, school nutrition, food marketing, and social networks become focal points for obesity prevention or intervention. Combining a multilevel approach with a developmental perspective can inform more effective and sustainable strategies for obesity prevention.

  6. The Effects of a Nutritional Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste-Williams, Lyndsey; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Banerjee, Priya; Boyle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional program on the nutritional knowledge of children and adolescents with visual impairments. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups and that age and vision had no effect on the acquisition of…

  7. The Effects of a Nutritional Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste-Williams, Lyndsey; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Banerjee, Priya; Boyle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional program on the nutritional knowledge of children and adolescents with visual impairments. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control groups and that age and vision had no effect on the acquisition of…

  8. [Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: child and adolescent nutrition assistance programs.

    PubMed

    Stang, Jamie; Bayerl, Cynthia Taft

    2010-05-01

    t is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children and adolescents should have access to an adequate supply of healthful and safe foods that promote optimal physical, cognitive, and social growth and development. Nutrition assistance programs, such as food assistance and meal service programs and nutrition education initiatives, play a vital role in meeting this critical need. Nutrition assistance programs create a safety net that ensures that children and adolescents at risk for poor nutritional intakes have access to a safe, adequate, and nutritious food supply. Federally funded nutrition assistance programs help ensure that children and adolescents receive meals that provide adequate energy and nutrients to meet their growth and development needs; children and adolescents have access to adequate food supplies; and women, infants, and children who have nutritional or medical risk factors, such as iron-deficiency anemia or overweight, receive supplemental nutritious foods as well as nutrition education. In addition, federally funded nutrition assistance programs serve as a means to combat hunger and food insecurity and as a vehicle for nutrition education and promotion of physical activity designed to prevent or reduce obesity and chronic disease. It is important that continued funding be provided for these programs that have been consistently shown to have a positive influence on child and adolescent well-being. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, are uniquely qualified to design, implement, and evaluate nutrition assistance programs for children and adolescents. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, are the only food and nutrition practitioners with adequate training in food science, nutrition, and food systems to implement research and surveillance programs to monitor, evaluate, and improve the nutritional status of children and adolescents.

  10. Mineral nutrition of plants: a short history of plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The development of the knowledge on the mineral nutrition of plants begins between the 17th and 18th centuries when some European naturalists gave the first experimental evidences of what had been empirically known for about two millennia. The works of Hales and Ingenhousz were of absolute importance in relation to the transport of water and solutes, and assimilation of "fixed air" (carbon dioxide), respectively. The early chemistry introduced by Lavoisier benefited the first physiologists Senebier and De Saussure to reject the "theory of humus", which imposed the soil as the unique source of carbon. During the first half of the 19th century, Sprengel and Liebig investigated on the problems related to some indispensable mineral salts, while Boussingault and Ville attempted to prove the nitrogen fixation from air without giving any convincing evidence. Liebig was the pioneer of the agricultural chemistry: he epitomised the knowledge of that period by imposing the so-called "law of the minima", already acknowledged by Sprengel, and patronised the use of mineral fertilisers in Europe by devising several formulas of mineral manure. He, however, did not recognise the needs of external supplies of nitrogen salts for the crops, in open dispute with the English school of Lawes and Gilbert, who were instead convinced assertors of such needs. At the end of the 19th century Hellriegel showed that leguminous plants presenting peculiar nodules on their roots could really fix the gaseous nitrogen. From these nodules Beijerinck and Prazmowski isolated for the first time some bacteria which were recognised as the real agents fixing nitrogen. This discovery was of fundamental importance for plant nutrition, only second to the discovery of photosynthesis. Another basic contribution came from early research of Sachs on plants grown on aqueous solutions: these techniques allowed to impose the concept of "essential elements", which was fixed as a principle by Arnon and Stout in 1939

  11. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  12. Nutrient intake of European adolescents: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Diethelm, Katharina; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Manios, Yannis; Beghin, Laurent; González-Gross, Marcela; Le Donne, Cinzia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Castillo, Manuel J; Widhalm, Kurt; Patterson, Emma; Kersting, Mathilde

    2014-03-01

    An adequate nutritional intake in childhood and adolescence is crucial for growth and the prevention of youth and adult obesity and nutrition-related morbidities. Improving nutrient intake in children and adolescents is of public health importance. The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate the nutrient intake in a European sample using the D-A-CH nutrient intake recommendations and the Nutritional Quality Index (NQI). The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, the main objective of which is to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Eight cities in Europe. The initial sample consisted of 3528 European adolescents. Among these, 1590 adolescents (54% female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and nutrient intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. The intakes of most macronutrients, vitamins and minerals were in line with the D-A-CH recommendations. While the intakes of SFA and salt were too high, the intake of PUFA was too low. Furthermore, the intakes of vitamin D, folate, iodine and F were less than about 55% of the recommendations. The median NQI was about 71 (of a maximum of 100). The intakes of most nutrients were adequate. However, further studies using suitable criteria to assess nutrient status are needed. Public health initiatives should educate children and adolescents regarding balanced food choices.

  13. Effects of potassium nutrition on physiological processes and derivative spectrum characteristics of corn plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of potassium nutrition on growth, development and various other physiological processes and the spectrum characteristics of corn. Corn seeds were shown in sand culture using 3.8L pots in SPAR chambers with day/night temperatures of 30/220C and Carbon Di...

  14. Integrative Metabolism: An Interactive Learning Tool for Nutrition, Biochemistry, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Gale

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism is a dynamic, simultaneous, and integrative science that cuts across nutrition, biochemistry, and physiology. Teaching this science can be a challenge. The use of a scenario-based, visually appealing, interactive, computer-animated CD may overcome the limitations of learning "one pathway at a time" and engage two- and…

  15. Integrative Metabolism: An Interactive Learning Tool for Nutrition, Biochemistry, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Gale

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism is a dynamic, simultaneous, and integrative science that cuts across nutrition, biochemistry, and physiology. Teaching this science can be a challenge. The use of a scenario-based, visually appealing, interactive, computer-animated CD may overcome the limitations of learning "one pathway at a time" and engage two- and…

  16. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  17. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Impact of Multi-Strategy Nutrition Education Programs on Health and Nutrition of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meiklejohn, Sarah; Ryan, Lisa; Palermo, Claire

    2016-10-01

    To update evidence on the impact of multi-strategy nutrition education interventions on adolescents' health and nutrition outcomes and behaviors. Systematic review of randomized controlled studies of multi-strategy interventions encompassing nutrition education published from 2000 to 2014 guided by the Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Secondary schools in developed countries. Adolescents aged 10-18 years. Anthropometric and dietary intake. Systematic search of 7,009 unduplicated articles and review of 11 studies (13 articles) meeting inclusion criteria using qualitative comparison. Four studies reported significant changes in anthropometric measures and 9 showed significant changes in dietary intake. Type of nutrition education varied. Components of the interventions that showed statistically significant changes in anthropometric and dietary intake included facilitation of the programs by school staff and teachers, parental involvement, and using theoretical models to guide the intervention's development. Changes in canteens, food supply, and vending machines were associated with significant changes in dietary intake. Multi-strategy interventions can have significant impacts on nutrition of adolescents when the nutrition education is theoretically based and facilitated by school staff in conjunction with parents and families, and includes changes to the school food environment. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Focus on metabolic and nutritional correlates of polycystic ovary syndrome and update on nutritional management of these critical phenomena.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with numerous metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance (IR), central obesity) and various nutritional abnormalities (vitamin D deficit, mineral milieu alterations, omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio unbalance). We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding: (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of PCOS; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 127 eligible studies. In addition to the well-recognized link between PCOS and IR, the recent literature underlines that in PCOS there is an unbalance in adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, visfatin) production and in omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of overweight on these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of PCOS patients. The optimum diet therapy for the PCOS treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, such as IR improvement, adipokines secretion and reproductive function. These goals must be reached through: accession of the patient to hypocaloric dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight; limiting the consumption of sugar and refined carbohydrates, preferring those with lower glycemic index; dividing the food intake in small and frequent meals, with high caloric intake at breakfast; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega3 PUFA supplements; taking Vitamin D and chromium supplementation, if there are low serum levels. Lifestyle intervention remains the optimal treatment strategy for PCOS women. A relatively small weight loss (5 %) can improve IR, hyperandrogenism, menstrual function, fertility.

  20. Applying nutrition and physiology to improve reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2010-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production

  1. Nutritional status in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Moran, Victoria Hall

    2007-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for many industrialized countries and is associated with significant medical, nutritional, social and economic risk for mothers and their infants. Despite this, relatively little is known about the nutritional status of this population. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the current evidence relating to the biochemical markers of nutritional status of pregnant adolescents living in industrialized countries. Six papers were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the majority of which were conducted in the United States. The studies were of variable quality and most failed to control for potential confounders which may have strongly influenced the findings. Due to limited research, conclusions cannot be drawn about the zinc and calcium status of pregnant adolescents, and data on folate and vitamin B(12) status appeared conflicting. There was some consensus among studies, however, to suggest that indicators of anaemia and iron status were compromised in pregnant adolescents, particularly during the third trimester of pregnancy. Chronological age did not appear to influence nutritional status, although there was some evidence to suggest that increasing gynaecologic age may positively influence plasma ferritin levels. Current research is limited by sampling and measurement bias, and research is urgently required to address these limitations. Further consideration should also be made of the influence of the role of socio-economic support on pregnant adolescents' nutritional status. The achievement of improved nutrition in pregnancy among adolescents requires multidisciplinary collaborations of adolescent healthcare providers, academics, professional organizations, policymakers, industry and service users. Only once this is achieved can adolescent nutrition, and adolescent nutrition in pregnancy, be significantly and sustainably optimized.

  2. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: Nutritional aspects of developing replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Martin, J L; Larson, D M; Roberts, A J

    2012-04-01

    Studies in numerous species provide evidence that diet during development can mediate physiological changes necessary for puberty. In cattle, several studies have reported inverse correlations between postweaning growth rate and age at puberty and heifer pregnancy rates. Thus, postweaning growth rate was determined to be an important factor affecting age of puberty, which in turn influences pregnancy rates. This and other research conducted during the late 1960s through the early 1980s indicated puberty occurs at a genetically predetermined size, and only when heifers reach their target BW can increased pregnancy rates be obtained. Guidelines were established indicating replacement heifers should achieve 60 to 65% of their expected mature BW by breeding. Traditional approaches for postweaning development of replacement heifers used during the last several decades have primarily focused on feeding heifers to achieve or exceed an appropriate target BW and thereby maximize heifer pregnancy rates. Intensive heifer development systems may maximize pregnancy rates, but not necessarily optimize profit or sustainability. Since inception of target BW guidelines, subsequent research demonstrated that the growth pattern heifers experience before achieving a critical target BW could be varied. Altering rate and timing of BW gain can result in compensatory growth periods, providing an opportunity to decrease feed costs. Recent research has demonstrated that feeding replacement heifers to traditional target BW increased development costs without improving reproduction or subsequent calf production relative to development systems in which heifers were developed to lighter target BW ranging from 50 to 57% of mature BW.

  3. Preconception nutrition, physical activity, and birth outcomes in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yiqiong; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler

    2015-01-01

    Background Recommendations for preconception care usually include optimal nutrition and physical activity, but these have not been tested extensively for their relationship with birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Methods Data from Waves I, II and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) contractual dataset were utilized. In Wave I in-home interview, participants were asked to recall their frequency of having five types of food on the previous day, including milk, fruit, vegetables, grains, and sweets. At Wave II, participants reported the previous day's intake of 55 items, and results were categorized into high-calorie sweet, high-calorie non-sweet, and low-calorie food. At Wave I in-home interview, participants were also asked how many times in a week or during the past week they were involved in types of physical activity. At Wave IV, female participants reported pregnancies and birth outcomes. Multivariable linear regression analysis with survey weighting was used to predict birthweight and gestational age. Results There were no associations between reported food intake and birth outcomes. Girls who engaged in more episodes of active behavior had higher birthweights (p<0.01), but hours of sedentary behavior was not associated with birthweight. Multivariable analysis also indicated a u-shaped association between BMI and birthweight (p for quadratic term=0.01). Conclusion Adolescents who are more physically active prior to pregnancy have more positive birth outcomes as represented by birthweight. PMID:26233291

  4. [Assessment of the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents by body mass index].

    PubMed

    Sichieri, R; Allam, V L

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional status of adolescents is not an easy task because it should take into account sex, age, weight, stature and sexual maturation of the adolescents. In addition, an adequate classification should also be related to subsequent health-related outcomes during adult life. On the other side, screening for overweight and underweight among adolescents is highly desirable since nutritional status during adolescence correlates with adult body habitus. The objective of this study was to propose a classification for screening the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents based on the body mass index (kg/m(2)) provided by the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição-PNSN, a national survey of the Brazilian population carried out on 1989. We defined as cutoff the 10th and 90th percentile of the body mass index distribution and the 10th percentile for stature.

  5. Pregnant Adolescents, Beliefs About Healthy Eating, Factors that Influence Food Choices, and Nutrition Education Preferences.

    PubMed

    Wise, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential

  6. Changes in Nutrition Knowledge Scores and Calcium Intake in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…

  7. Changes in Nutrition Knowledge Scores and Calcium Intake in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…

  8. The Importance of Breakfast Consumption to Nutrition of Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol; Myers, Leann

    2004-01-01

    Breakfast consumption has been identified as an important factor in nutrition, especially during growth stages. This article discusses data from nearly 2,500 children, adolescents, and young adults in Louisiana and considers the impact of breakfast consumption on their nutritional well-being.

  9. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  10. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  11. Nutritional and non-nutritional food components modulate phenotypic variation but not physiological trade-offs in an insect.

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Williams, Trevor; Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín

    2016-07-12

    Our understanding of how food modulates animal phenotypes and mediate trade-offs between life-history traits has benefited greatly from the study of combinations of nutritional and non-nutritional food components, such as plant secondary metabolites. We used a fruit fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, to examine phenotypic variation across larval, pupal and adult stages as a function of larval food with varying nutrient balance and content of chlorogenic acid, a secondary metabolite. Larval insects that fed on carbohydrate-biased diets relative to protein exhibited longer larval and pupal developmental periods, were often heavier as pupae and resisted desiccation and starvation for longer periods in the adult stage than insects fed on highly protein-biased diets. Except for a potential conflict between pupal development time and adult desiccation and starvation resistance, we did not detect physiological trade-offs mediated by the nutritional balance in larval food. Chlorogenic acid affected A. ludens development in a concentration and nutrient-dependent manner. Nutrients and host plant secondary metabolites in the larval diet induced changes in A. ludens phenotype and could influence fruit fly ecological interactions. We provide a unique experimental and modelling approach useful in generating predictive models of life history traits in a variety of organisms.

  12. Nutritional and non-nutritional food components modulate phenotypic variation but not physiological trade-offs in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Williams, Trevor; Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how food modulates animal phenotypes and mediate trade-offs between life-history traits has benefited greatly from the study of combinations of nutritional and non-nutritional food components, such as plant secondary metabolites. We used a fruit fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, to examine phenotypic variation across larval, pupal and adult stages as a function of larval food with varying nutrient balance and content of chlorogenic acid, a secondary metabolite. Larval insects that fed on carbohydrate-biased diets relative to protein exhibited longer larval and pupal developmental periods, were often heavier as pupae and resisted desiccation and starvation for longer periods in the adult stage than insects fed on highly protein-biased diets. Except for a potential conflict between pupal development time and adult desiccation and starvation resistance, we did not detect physiological trade-offs mediated by the nutritional balance in larval food. Chlorogenic acid affected A. ludens development in a concentration and nutrient-dependent manner. Nutrients and host plant secondary metabolites in the larval diet induced changes in A. ludens phenotype and could influence fruit fly ecological interactions. We provide a unique experimental and modelling approach useful in generating predictive models of life history traits in a variety of organisms. PMID:27406923

  13. Beyond diet reconstruction: stable isotope applications to human physiology, health, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology. Human pathophysiologies may lead to pathology-influenced isotopic fractionation that can be exploited to understand not just skeletal health and diet, but physiological health and nutrition. This study reviews examples from human biology, non-human animal ecology, biomedicine, and bioarchaeology demonstrating how stable isotope analyses are usefully applied to the study of physiological adaptation and adaptability. Suggestions are made for future directions in applying stable isotope analysis to the study of nutritional stress, disease, and growth and development in living and past human populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Zinc nutritional status in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marques, Raynério Costa; de Sousa, Artemizia Francisca; do Monte, Semiramis Jamil Hadad; Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Studies have evidenced that zinc metabolism is altered in presence of Down syndrome, and zinc seems to have a relationship with the metabolic alterations usually present in this syndrome. In this work, the Zn-related nutritional status of adolescents with Down syndrome was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters and diet. A case-control study was performed in a group of adolescents with Down syndrome (n = 30) and a control group (n = 32), of both sexes, aged 10 to 19 years. Diet evaluation was accomplished by using a 3-day dietary record, and the analysis was performed by the NutWin program, version 1.5. Antropometric measurements were performed for evaluation of body composition. The Zn-related nutritional status of the groups was evaluated by means of zinc concentration determinations in plasma and erythrocytes, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion, by using the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The diet of both groups presented adequate concentrations of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and zinc. The mean values found for zinc concentration in erythrocytes were 49.2 +/- 8.5 microg Zn/g Hb for the Down syndrome group and 35.9 +/- 6.1 microg Zn/g Hb for the control group (p = 0.001). The average values found for zinc concentration in plasma were 67.6 +/- 25.6 microg/dL for the Down syndrome group and 68.9 +/- 22.3 microg/dL for the control group. The mean values found for zinc concentration in urine were 244.3 +/- 194.9 microg Zn/24 h for the Down syndrome group and 200.3 +/- 236.4 microg Zn/24 h for the control group. Assessment of body composition revealed overweight (26.7%) and obesity (6.6%) in the Down syndrome group. In this study, patients with Down syndrome presented altered zinc levels for some cellular compartments, and the average zinc concentrations were low in plasma and urine and elevated in erythrocytes.

  15. Obesity Risk in Urban Adolescent Girls: Nutritional Intentions and Health Behavior Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Susan W.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls’ intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions were significantly associated with physical activity and sleep. These results suggest that healthy behaviors tend to occur in clusters, possibly extending the theory of planned behavior beyond individual behaviors to groups of related behaviors. Nurses can intervene with high-risk adolescent girls by promoting healthy diets, recommended levels of physical activity, and adequate sleep. PMID:22187861

  16. Mother-Adolescent Physiological Synchrony in Naturalistic Settings: Within-Family Cortisol Associations and Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Lauren M.; Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined parent-adolescent cortisol associations in 45 families with adolescent children (24 girls; M age = 15.78 years, SD = 1.44 years). Family members’ salivary cortisol levels were measured 7 times a day on 2 typical weekdays. Family members provided reports of demographic and health variables, and adolescents rated parent-child relationship characteristics. After accounting for the effects of time of day and relevant demographic and health control variables on cortisol levels, hierarchical linear models indicated the presence of significant covariation over time in mother-adolescent cortisol (i.e., physiological synchrony). Furthermore, moderating tests revealed that mother-adolescent cortisol synchrony was strengthened among dyads characterized by mothers and adolescents spending more time together, and in families rated higher on levels of parent-youth shared activities and parental monitoring/supervision. Analysis of momentary characteristics indicated that maternal presence at the time of cortisol sampling lowered adolescent cortisol levels but did not account for mother-adolescent cortisol synchrony. Within-family physiological synchrony was amplified in momentary contexts of elevated maternal negative affect and elevated adolescent negative affect. PMID:20001147

  17. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  18. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  19. Induction of phenolic metabolites and physiological changes in chamomile plants in relation to nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2014-01-01

    Alternative tools, such as the manipulation of mineral nutrition, may affect secondary metabolite production and thus the nutritional value of food/medicinal plants. We studied the impact of nitrogen (N) nutrition (nitrate/NO3(-) or ammonium/NH4(+) nitrogen) and subsequent nitrogen deficit on phenolic metabolites and physiology in Matricaria chamomilla plants. NH4(+)-fed plants revealed a strong induction of selected phenolic metabolites but, at the same time, growth, Fv/Fm, tissue water content and soluble protein depletion occurred in comparison with NO3(-)-fed ones. On the other hand, NO3(-)-deficient plants also revealed an increase in phenolic metabolites but growth depression was not observed after the given exposure period. Free amino acids were more accumulated in NH4(+)-fed shoots (strong increase in arginine and proline mainly), while the pattern of roots' accumulation was independent of N form. Among phenolic acids, NH4(+) strongly elevated mainly the accumulation of chlorogenic acid. Within flavonoids, flavonols decreased while flavones strongly increased in response to N deficiency. Coumarin-related metabolites revealed a similar increase in herniarin glucosidic precursor in response to N deficiency, while herniarin was more accumulated in NO3(-)- and umbelliferone in NH4(+)-cultured plants. These data indicate a negative impact of NH4(+) as the only source of N on physiology, but also a higher stimulation of some valuable phenols. Nitrogen-induced changes in comparison with other food/crop plants are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Compliance with the 2010 nutritional objectives for the Spanish population in the Balearic Islands' adolescents.

    PubMed

    Llull, Rosa; del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Martínez, Elisa; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2011-01-01

    To assess compliance with the 2010 nutritional objectives for the Spanish population in the Balearic Islands' adolescents. A cross-sectional nutrition survey was carried out in adolescents (n = 1,231). Dietary habits were assessed by means of 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Differences in the percentage of compliers with the 2010 nutritional objectives and differences in food consumption patterns between genders and high or low consumers of fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), fiber, and fruits and vegetables were analyzed. None of the nutritional objectives were achieved by the Balearic Islands' adolescents, and less than 25% of them met the dietary fiber, folate, iodine, total fat, SFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), total carbohydrate, and fruit and vegetable requirements. Gender differences were observed in terms of energy, nutrients, and food item consumption. Low fat/SFA and high fruit and vegetable/fiber consumers kept a diet in line with current food group pyramids and the traditional Mediterranean diet. Adolescents need to decrease their meat and increase pulse, fish, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The nutritional objectives for the Spanish population could be achieved through maintenance of the traditional Mediterranean diet in the Balearic Islands' adolescents. This dietary model could be used to develop food-based dietary guidelines relevant to this population. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete’s Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete’s eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete’s eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  2. The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p < 0.01), as well as lower scores on empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal nutrition and breeding conditions modify the physiology of isolated primary cells.

    PubMed

    Milisav, Irina; Banič, Blaž; Šuput, Dušan

    2017-05-01

    Animal primary cell cultures are widely used in biomedical research to investigate cell metabolism, diseases and to devise novel treatments. Modern animal breeding techniques are developed to unify, control and reduce the amount of microorganisms that the animals are being exposed to. Furthermore, health monitoring and strict caging and handling protocols allow animals to be exposed only to a selected spectrum of microbes. We are starting to appreciate that nutrition can influence composition of gut microbiota that can impact hosting organism's physiology and can even result in development of pathological changes. Evidence is also emerging that acute as well as chronic stresses can profoundly influence the physiology of certain organs, especially heart and liver. Our preliminary data imply that changes in animal nutrition and stress levels initiated up to minutes before the cell isolation could alter the cell stress response of cultured primary hepatocytes after isolation, leading to differences in sensitivity of apoptosis triggering. Therefore, we propose the hypothesis that conditions of animal breeding, especially diet and stress levels, are reflected in the physiology of the isolated primary cells. Variations in animal breeding conditions may influence experimental results on isolated cells and their applicability for studying human disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The fluid mechanics of nutrition: Herman Boerhaave's synthesis of seventeenth-century circulation physiology.

    PubMed

    Orland, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates the theory of nutrition of Herman Boerhaave, the famous professor of medicine and chemistry at the university of Leyden. Boerhaave's work, which systematized and synthesized the knowledge of the time, represents a shift from a humoral to a hydraulic model of the body in medicine and culture around 1700. This epistemological reconfiguration of early modern physiological thinking is exemplified with respect to the changing meanings of milk. While over centuries the analogy between blood and milk played an essential role in understanding the hidden workings of the nutritional faculties, following the discovery of the blood circulation the blood-milk analogy was transformed into a chyle-milk analogy. Yet Boerhaave's interpretations show that the use of new knowledge tools did not simply displace the old ways of reasoning. Instead, analogies continued to serve as epistemic instruments. Old theories and new insights overlapped, and contemporary knowledge assimilated past ideas.

  5. Assessing, understanding and modifying nutritional status, eating habits and physical activity in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L A; González-Gross, M; Kersting, M; Molnár, D; de Henauw, S; Beghin, L; Sjöström, M; Hagströmer, M; Manios, Y; Gilbert, C C; Ortega, F B; Dallongeville, J; Arcella, D; Wärnberg, J; Hallberg, M; Fredriksson, H; Maes, L; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A G; Marcos, A

    2008-03-01

    To identify the main knowledge gaps and to propose research lines that will be developed within the European Union-funded 'Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence' (HELENA) project, concerning the nutritional status, physical fitness and physical activity of adolescents in Europe. Review of the currently existing literature. The main gaps identified were: lack of harmonised and comparable data on food intake; lack of understanding regarding the role of eating attitudes, food choices and food preferences; lack of harmonised and comparable data on levels and patterns of physical activity and physical fitness; lack of comparable data about obesity prevalence and body composition; lack of comparable data about micronutrient and immunological status; and lack of effective intervention methodologies for healthier lifestyles. The HELENA Study Group should develop, test and describe harmonised and state-of-the-art methods to assess the nutritional status and lifestyle of adolescents across Europe; develop and evaluate an intervention on eating habits and physical activity; and develop and test new healthy food products attractive for European adolescents.

  6. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corti-colimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity

  7. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-08-01

    Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corticolimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity across all systems

  8. [Nutritional dilemmas in extremely low birth weight infants and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood].

    PubMed

    Camelo, José Simon; Martinez, Francisco Eulógio

    2005-03-01

    To review the recent medical literature on nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, focusing on nutritional disorders and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood. An extensive review of the related literature was performed using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Best Evidence database. There is a growing body of evidence that early nutritional practices may affect short-term growth and development outcome. In addition, these practices may play a role in determining adult health and disease. There is still much to be learned about safe and efficacious nutrient administration in preterm infants; about techniques to assess the effect of different nutritional strategies; and about the long-term effects of these regimens on development outcome, growth and disease. Despite recent progress in neonatal nutrition, there is a lack of basic and clinical research to better define the nutritional requirements of preterm infants and the best way to meet these requirements, avoiding long-term undesirable consequences.

  9. Nutritional considerations and dental management of children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Meenu

    2011-01-01

    The HIV infected child has increased caloric needs, yet multiple factors interfere with adequate nutritional intake. Nutritional support is needed to maintain optimum nourishment during the symptomatic period, in order to prevent further deterioration of the nutritional status during acute episodes of infection, and to improve the nutritional status during the stable symptom free period. With the advent of better methods of detection and better therapies, we are beginning to see HIV infected children surviving longer; and thus coming under the care of a host of affiliated medical personnel, including dentists. Oral health care workers need to provide dental care for HIV-infected patients and recognize as well as understand the significance of oral manifestations associated with HIV infection. The present article reviews, on the basis of literature, nutritional status, nutrition assessment and counseling in HIV/AIDS children and adolescents. Dental treatment considerations in these, as well as modifications in treatment if required, are also discussed.

  10. Physiological Striae Atrophicae of Adolescence with Involvement of the Upper Back

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Barankin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old boy with multiple purplish, atrophic, horizontal linear striae in the thoracic area. He reported a growth spurt in the preceding 12 months. His past health was unremarkable, and he took no medications. To our knowledge, physiological striae atrophicae of adolescence where idiopathic striae were restricted to the upper back have rarely been reported. Physiological striae atrophicae of adolescence may, on occasions, be mistaken for child abuse. It is important that child care professionals recognize this condition so that false accusations of child abuse will not be made. PMID:23956908

  11. The impact of nutrition education on nutrition knowledge and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in adolescent competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Middleton, Nicos; Pistos, Constantinos; Andreou, Eleni; Petrou, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Nutrition education of adolescent competitive swimmers is under-studied although their diet and nutrition knowledge are generally poor. This study aimed to assess the impact of nutrition education on nutrition knowledge and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and explore the effect of parental education on the swimmers' MD adherence. A pre-post measurement interventional study was carried out. A half-day nutrition education session was delivered for the swimmers and a separate session for their parents. At baseline and 6-weeks post-workshop, a short nutrition knowledge assessment of food sources of nutrients and the MD composition as well as adherence to the MD using the KIDMED Index were undertaken. The swimmers' parents also completed the KIDMED Index to evaluate the swimmers' diet. Thirty-four competitive swimmers (age: 15.2±1.5 yr, 23 males) and 22 of their parents participated in the study. There was an improvement in MD adherence with 47% having good adherence post-intervention vs 21% at baseline (p<0.01) and an increase in the KIDMED Index score (median [interquartile range]: 5.0 [4.0-7.0] vs 7.0 [7.0-9.0]; p<0.01)). There was also an increase in the swimmers' nutrition knowledge assessment score (median [IQR]: 7.0 [5.0-8.0] vs 7.0 [6.0-8.0], p<0.05)), and a trend for a lower score post-intervention in swimmers whose parents did not participate compared to those whose parents participated (6.0 [6.0-7.8] vs 7.0 [7.0-8.0], p=0.063). The intervention improved adherence to the MD and increased nutrition knowledge. The findings support parental participation in nutrition education. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of studies in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Marvin-Dowle, Katie; Burley, Victoria Jane; Soltani, Hora

    2016-09-15

    Babies born to adolescent mothers have been shown to have poorer outcomes compared to those born to adults. Nutritional status may have an important role to play in improving the health of pregnant adolescents; however there is a lack of evidence regarding the adequacy of adolescent diets during pregnancy. This systematic review aims to examine what is known about the nutritional status of adolescent pregnant women. A systematic search of the literature identified 21 studies which met the inclusion criteria for the review. Primary research papers using any methods were included where they were published in English between January 1995 and May 2015 and included measurements of nutrient intakes or biological markers of nutritional status in pregnant women aged 11-19 years. Individual study data was first summarised narratively before study means were pooled to give an estimate of nutritional status in the population. The results show that individual studies reported intakes of energy, fibre and a number of key micronutrients which were below recommended levels. Biological markers of iron and selenium status also showed cause for concern. Pooled analysis of individual means as a percentage of UK Dietary Reference Intakes showed intakes of vitamin D (34.8 % CI 0-83.1) to be significantly below recommendations (p = 0.05). Serum selenium levels were also found to be low (61.8 μg/L, CI 39-84). This review has identified a number of areas where the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents is sub-optimal, which may have implications for the health of adolescent mothers and their babies. It was not however possible to examine the impact of supplement use or socio-demographic characteristics which limits the interpretation these results. Further work is needed to establish the characteristics of those most at risk within this population, how this differs from adult pregnant women and the role of supplementation in achieving adequate nutrition.

  13. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace

    2017-01-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low‐ and middle‐income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty‐seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient‐rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. PMID:28722768

  14. Nutritional status of adolescents in the context of the Moroccan nutritional transition: the role of parental education.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar Montero; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Baali, Abdellatif; Lopez, Santiago Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    In Morocco, the beginning of the nutritional transition is closely linked to social and economic transformations and changes in behaviour and traditional lifestyles. The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of food consumption and the nutritional status of adolescents in the province of Ouarzazate and its association with parents' educational level. The sample comprises 327 high school students from Ouarzazate: 135 (41.3%) boys and 192 (58.7%) girls (age range 15-20 years). For both boys and girls, the results show lower height and BMI z-scores than the WHO reference values. Adolescents whose parents have a low educational level have lower height/age and BMI/age z-scores than those whose fathers have a high educational level. No differences are observed in total daily energy intake depending on fathers' educational level, but the energy provided by lipids is higher in adolescents whose fathers have a high educational background. The quality of fats consumed (MUFA+PUFA/SFA) is better among those boys whose fathers have low education, but no differences are observed for girls. The process of nutritional transition is not uniform in the sample, but depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of population groups, which include, among others, accessibility of certain food, differences in habits and lifestyles related to energy expenditure, and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in more favoured groups.

  15. Children and Adolescents: Physiological Considerations during Exercise Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…

  16. Children and Adolescents: Physiological Considerations during Exercise Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Because children and adolescents are not just miniature adults, it is important to know that children might be vulnerable to injury and may not respond positively to certain types or intensities of training. It is also important to recognize how training can positively affect growth and development, so it can be judiciously applied at critical…

  17. Assessment of nutritional status and eating disorders in female adolescents with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Simone Guerra L; Sarni, Roseli O S; de Souza, Fabíola I S; Molina, Juliana; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2012-11-01

    To assess eating disorders, nutritional status, body composition, and food intake in adolescents presenting with fibromyalgia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status (z score of body mass index [ZBMI]), waist circumference, body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance analysis, symptoms of disordered eating, and possible eating disorders (Kids' Eating Disorders Survey [KEDS]) of 23 female adolescents with fibromyalgia and 23 matched healthy control subjects. Median age for both groups was 15 years. In the fibromyalgia group, the median time for diagnosis was 13.5 months. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the control and fibromyalgia groups in relation to ZBMI, fat mass percentage, food intake, and symptoms of disordered eating (KEDS). In the fibromyalgia group, there was a significant correlation between fat mass percentage and the total KEDS score (r = .587, p = .003); the same correlation was observed for ZBMI (r = .0778, p < .001). This study verified an absence of nutritional and eating disorders in adolescents recently diagnosed with fibromyalgia that, in addition to the correlation between adiposity indexes and KEDS total score, emphasizes the importance of nutritional and body composition assessment, allowing an early and adequate nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional adequacy of diets for adolescents with overweight and obesity: considerations for dietetic practice.

    PubMed

    Lister, N B; Gow, M L; Chisholm, K; Grunseit, A; Garnett, S P; Baur, L A

    2017-05-01

    Adolescents have unique nutrient requirements due to rapid growth and development. High rates of obesity in adolescents require a variety of diet interventions to achieve weight loss under clinical supervision. The aim of this study is to examine the nutritional adequacy of energy-restricted diets for adolescents. Three popular diets were modelled for 7 days and assessed by comparing the nutrient profile to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values. Three diets were: (1) a standard energy restricted diet based on current dietary guidelines; (2) a modified carbohydrate diet; and (3) a modified alternate day fasting diet. Initial modelling revealed limiting nutrients (that is, not meeting the recommended intakes) across the diets. Subsequent modelling was required to achieve nutritional adequacy for all three diets. The dietary guidelines diet design met most nutrient targets except essential fatty acids before subsequent modelling, however this diet also provided the highest energy (8.8 vs 8.0 MJ and 6.8 MJ for the modified carbohydrate and modified alternate day fasting diet, respectively). Energy-restricted diets need careful consideration to meet nutritional requirements of adolescents. A variety of eating patterns can be adapted to achieve nutritional adequacy and energy restriction, however health practitioners need to consider adequacy when prescribing diet interventions for weight loss during adolescence.

  19. Saliva proteomics as an emerging, non-invasive tool to study livestock physiology, nutrition and diseases.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Mau, Marcus

    2012-07-19

    Saliva is an extraordinary fluid in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. Its composition in electrolytes, hormones and especially its proteome contains information about feeding status, nutritional requirements and adaptations to diet and environment, and also about health status of animals. It is easy to collect on a non-invasive and routine basis without any need for special training. Therefore, the analysis of salivary proteomes is going to emerge into a field of high interest with the future goal to maintain and improve livestock productivity and welfare. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis and identification of salivary proteins and peptides in whole and glandular saliva is a necessary pre-requisite to identify animal disease biomarkers and a powerful tool to better understand animal physiology. This review focuses on the different approaches used to study the salivary proteomes of farm animals, in respect to the physiology of nutrition and food perception in relation to food choices. The potential of animal saliva as a source of disease biomarkers will also be pointed out. Special emphasis is laid on the 'ruminating triad' - cattle, goat and sheep - as well as swine as major species of animal production in Western and Southern Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Match and mismatch: conservation physiology, nutritional ecology and the timescales of biological adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Tait, Alice H.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation physiology (CP) and nutritional ecology (NE) are both integrative sciences that share the fundamental aim of understanding the patterns, mechanisms and consequences of animal responses to changing environments. Here, we explore the high-level similarities and differences between CP and NE, identifying as central themes to both fields the multiple timescales over which animals adapt (and fail to adapt) to their environments, and the need for integrative models to study these processes. At one extreme are the short-term regulatory responses that modulate the state of animals in relation to the environment, which are variously considered under the concepts of homeostasis, homeorhesis, enantiostasis, heterostasis and allostasis. In the longer term are developmental responses, including phenotypic plasticity and transgenerational effects mediated by non-genomic influences such as parental physiology, epigenetic effects and cultural learning. Over a longer timescale still are the cumulative genetic changes that take place in Darwinian evolution. We present examples showing how the adaptive responses of animals across these timescales have been represented in an integrative framework from NE, the geometric framework (GF) for nutrition, and close with an illustration of how GF can be applied to the central issue in CP, animal conservation. PMID:22566672

  1. Maximising performance in triathlon: applied physiological and nutritional aspects of elite and non-elite competitions.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Cox, Gregory R; Green, Daniel; Laursen, Paul B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a sport consisting of sequential swimming, cycling and running. The main diversity within the sport of triathlon resides in the varying event distances, which creates specific technical, physiological and nutritional considerations for athlete and practitioner alike. The purpose of this article is to review physiological as well as nutritional aspects of triathlon and to make recommendations on ways to enhance performance. Aside from progressive conditioning and training, areas that have shown potential to improve triathlon performance include drafting when possible during both the swim and cycle phase, wearing a wetsuit, and selecting a lower cadence (60-80 rpm) in the final stages of the cycle phase. Adoption of a more even racing pace during cycling may optimise cycling performance and induce a "metabolic reserve" necessary for elevated running performance in longer distance triathlon events. In contrast, drafting in swimming and cycling may result a better tactical approach to increase overall performance in elite Olympic distance triathlons. Daily energy intake should be modified to reflect daily training demands to assist triathletes in achieving body weight and body composition targets. Carbohydrate loading strategies and within exercise carbohydrate intake should reflect the specific requirements of the triathlon event contested. Development of an individualised fluid plan based on previous fluid balance observations may assist to avoid both dehydration and hyponatremia during prolonged triathlon racing.

  2. Match and mismatch: conservation physiology, nutritional ecology and the timescales of biological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Tait, Alice H

    2012-06-19

    Conservation physiology (CP) and nutritional ecology (NE) are both integrative sciences that share the fundamental aim of understanding the patterns, mechanisms and consequences of animal responses to changing environments. Here, we explore the high-level similarities and differences between CP and NE, identifying as central themes to both fields the multiple timescales over which animals adapt (and fail to adapt) to their environments, and the need for integrative models to study these processes. At one extreme are the short-term regulatory responses that modulate the state of animals in relation to the environment, which are variously considered under the concepts of homeostasis, homeorhesis, enantiostasis, heterostasis and allostasis. In the longer term are developmental responses, including phenotypic plasticity and transgenerational effects mediated by non-genomic influences such as parental physiology, epigenetic effects and cultural learning. Over a longer timescale still are the cumulative genetic changes that take place in Darwinian evolution. We present examples showing how the adaptive responses of animals across these timescales have been represented in an integrative framework from NE, the geometric framework (GF) for nutrition, and close with an illustration of how GF can be applied to the central issue in CP, animal conservation.

  3. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  4. Using interactive behavior change technology to intervene on physical activity and nutrition with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, Leanne M; Sherman, Karen J; Driskell, Mary-Margaret H; Prochaska, Janice M

    2007-08-01

    The use of interactive technologies to promote health behaviors is a rapidly expanding field. Yet, the integration of these technologies in the development of physical activity and nutrition interventions for adolescents is in its infancy. Health in Motion, a multimedia obesity-prevention program for adolescents, is described as a case example of a Web-based interactive program for promoting physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among high school students. Lessons gathered from existing programs are summarized and used to offer future direction for advancing the development of adolescent interventions in this field.

  5. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  6. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  7. Physiological Reactivity During Parent-Adolescent Discussions: Associations with Scaffolding Behaviors and Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Erika M; McLean, Kate C; McAdams, Dan P; Chen, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Parents and adolescents commonly discuss stressful experiences. However, little is known about the features of these conversations that may have implications for health. One hundred five adolescents and their parents engaged in conversations about two challenging events, with parental contributions to the discussions coded for four scaffolding behaviors (reiterations, negations, move alongs, and new interpretations). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in both participants at baseline and throughout the conversation. Parent-reported relationship quality was also assessed. For both parents and adolescents, negative scaffolding behaviors were associated with increased physiological reactivity, whereas positive scaffolding behaviors were associated with decreased reactivity. Furthermore, children in higher quality parent-child relationships showed greater reactivity to reiterations and lower reactivity to new interpretations, but those in lower quality relationships demonstrated the opposite patterns. Specific aspects of parent-child interactions appear to contribute to physiological responses to challenging events, which in turn may have implications for health.

  8. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Alyn, I B; Baker, L K

    1992-04-01

    Practicing cardiovascular nurses are aware that significant differences exist in the cardiac anatomy and physiology of children and adults. Generally, the younger the child the greater these differences are. The cellular anatomy and physiology are markedly different in the fetus, neonate, and infant. As development progresses, cardiac function begins to more closely approximate that of an adult. This article describes the anatomical and physiologic development of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent. The developmental differences in preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate are summarized.

  9. The social environment of schools and adolescent nutrition: associations between the school nutrition climate and adolescents' eating behaviors and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96 randomly selected schools participated. School-level measures were created by aggregating students' reports within schools. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling, accounting for student-level characteristics. There was a positive association between the school nutrition climate and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables. This relationship was statistically significant after controlling for the background characteristics of students. There were no associations between the school nutrition climate and students' junk food consumption or BMI. The school nutrition climate appears to have a positive influence on adolescents' healthy eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable intake), but a limited effect on unhealthy eating behaviors and ultimately body weight. This may reflect the pervasiveness of junk food in the environments of adolescents outside of school and the difficulty in limiting its consumption. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  11. Normal Diet: Adolescence. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckermanty, Elizabeth; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  12. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  13. Assimilating and Following through with Nutritional Recommendations by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pich, Jordi; Ballester, Lluis; Thomas, Monica; Canals, Ramon; Tur, Josep A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between knowledge about a healthy diet and the actual food consumption habits of adolescents. Design: A survey of several food-related aspects applied to a representative sample of adolescents. Setting: One thousand, six hundred and sixty three individuals aged 11 to 18 from 40 schools randomly selected…

  14. Assimilating and Following through with Nutritional Recommendations by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pich, Jordi; Ballester, Lluis; Thomas, Monica; Canals, Ramon; Tur, Josep A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between knowledge about a healthy diet and the actual food consumption habits of adolescents. Design: A survey of several food-related aspects applied to a representative sample of adolescents. Setting: One thousand, six hundred and sixty three individuals aged 11 to 18 from 40 schools randomly selected…

  15. Nutritional and Weight Management Behaviors: Public and Private High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Silas N., III; Thatcher, William G.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2000-01-01

    Examined private and public high school adolescents' weight control and nutrition behaviors, using Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data. Private school females were more likely to diet and exercise than public school females. Public school males were more likely to attempt weight gain than private high school males. Private school students…

  16. Differential response to early nutrition supplementation: long-term effects on height at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ruel, M T; Rivera, J; Habicht, J P; Martorell, R

    1995-04-01

    The classical risk approach to predicting who benefits from an intervention is unsound because it relies on the theoretical assumption that those at risk will necessarily benefit. A better approach to systematically test who benefits from nutrition supplementation is proposed using interactive models. Differential effects of nutrition supplementation during early childhood on stature at adolescence were studied in 245 males and 215 females to identify determinants of long-term benefit from food supplementation. Factors studied included family socioeconomic status (SES) and children's home diet and diarrhoea during the first 3 years of life. To determine whether a factor conferred benefit, the statistical significance of the interaction between this factor and the intervention was tested. Data from the INCAP supplementation trial in Guatemala and from the follow-up of the same subjects at adolescence were used. Ordinary least squares (OLS) showed that high rates of diarrhoea in males and poor SES in females were significant determinants of benefit from supplementation at adolescence, and that the effects were mediated by length at 3 years old. Results of two-stage least squares (2SLS) analysis showed that length at 36 months, maturation and maternal height were significant determinants of height at adolescence but SES was not. Nutrition supplementation in early childhood has long-lasting effects on body size and the larger benefits acquired by some groups of children remain throughout early adulthood. The relevance of these findings for screening and targeting of nutritional interventions is discussed.

  17. Garden-based nutrition education affects fruit and vegetable consumption in sixth-grade adolescents.

    PubMed

    McAleese, Jessica D; Rankin, Linda L

    2007-04-01

    Schoolyard gardens are emerging as a nutrition education tool in academic settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of garden-based nutrition education on adolescents' fruit and vegetable consumption using a nonequivalent control group design. Sixth-grade students (n=99) at three different elementary schools made up a control and two treatment groups. Students in the treatment groups participated in a 12-week nutrition education program, and one treatment group also participated in garden-based activities. Students in all three groups completed three 24-hour food-recall workbooks before and after the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that adolescents who participated in the garden-based nutrition intervention increased their servings of fruits and vegetables more than students in the two other groups. Significant increases were also found in vitamin A, vitamin C, and fiber intake. Although further research is needed, the results of this study seem to indicate the efficacy of using garden-based nutrition education to increase adolescents' consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  18. Is Frequency of Shared Family Meals Related to the Nutritional Health of Children and Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Fiese, Barbara H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We used meta-analytic methods to examine the frequency of shared family mealtimes in relation to nutritional health in children and adolescents. The primary objective was to determine consistency and strength of effects across 17 studies that examined overweight and obese, food consumption and eating patterns, and disordered eating. METHODS: The total sample size for all studies was 182 836 children and adolescents (mean sample age: 2.8–17.3 years). Pooled odds ratios were calculated. A random-effects model was used to estimate all outcomes. RESULTS: The frequency of shared family meals is significantly related to nutritional health in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents who share family meals 3 or more times per week are more likely to be in a normal weight range and have healthier dietary and eating patterns than those who share fewer than 3 family meals together. In addition, they are less likely to engage in disordered eating. CONCLUSIONS: Educational and public health initiatives aimed at promoting shared family mealtimes may improve nutritional health of children and adolescents. Clinicians may advise their patients about the benefits of sharing 3 or more family mealtimes per week; benefits include a reduction in the odds for overweight (12%), eating unhealthy foods (20%), and disordered eating (35%) and an increase in the odds for eating healthy foods (24%). PMID:21536618

  19. Healthy lifestyle by nutrition in adolescence (HELENA). A new EU funded project.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Libersa, Christian; Mesana, Maria I; Béghin, Laurent; Iliescu, Catalina; Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Dallongeville, Jean; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    The key to health promotion and disease prevention in the 21st century is to establish an environment that supports positive health behaviour and healthy lifestyle from childhood. The HELENA project includes cross-sectional, crossover and pilot community intervention multi-centre studies, as an integrated approach to the above-mentioned problem. Dietary intake, nutrition knowledge and eating attitudes, food choices and preferences, body composition, biochemical, physical activity and fitness and genotype (to analyse gene-nutrient and gene-environment interactions) assessment will provide the full information about the nutritional and lifestyle status of the European adolescents. The requirements for health promoting foods will be also identified, and three sensory acceptable products for adolescents will be developed. Harmonization and standardisation of the assessments for both scientific and technological objectives should result in reliable and comparable data of a representative sample of European adolescents. This will contribute to understand why health-related messages are not being as effective as expected in the adolescent population. A realistic intervention strategy will be proposed in order to achieve the goals of understanding and effectively enhancing nutritional and lifestyle habits of adolescents in Europe.

  20. Is frequency of shared family meals related to the nutritional health of children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Hammons, Amber J; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-06-01

    We used meta-analytic methods to examine the frequency of shared family mealtimes in relation to nutritional health in children and adolescents. The primary objective was to determine consistency and strength of effects across 17 studies that examined overweight and obese, food consumption and eating patterns, and disordered eating. The total sample size for all studies was 182 836 children and adolescents (mean sample age: 2.8-17.3 years). Pooled odds ratios were calculated. A random-effects model was used to estimate all outcomes. The frequency of shared family meals is significantly related to nutritional health in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents who share family meals 3 or more times per week are more likely to be in a normal weight range and have healthier dietary and eating patterns than those who share fewer than 3 family meals together. In addition, they are less likely to engage in disordered eating. Educational and public health initiatives aimed at promoting shared family mealtimes may improve nutritional health of children and adolescents. Clinicians may advise their patients about the benefits of sharing 3 or more family mealtimes per week; benefits include a reduction in the odds for overweight (12%), eating unhealthy foods (20%), and disordered eating (35%) and an increase in the odds for eating healthy foods (24%).

  1. Physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents on Guam.

    PubMed

    LeonGuerrero, Rachael T; Workman, Randall L

    2002-09-01

    The 1999 Safe & Drug Free Schools and Communities Youth Risk Behavior Study collected data from representative samples of both high school (n=590) and middle school students (n=643) on Guam in May, 1999. Results showed that the dietary and exercise habits of Guam's adolescents were sub-optimal. Out of the 643 middle school students surveyed, 26% consumed at least 3 meals per week at a fast food restaurant and 53.3% consumed at least 2 cans of sweetened soda per day. Guam adolescents had a very low intake of fruits and vegetables. As many as 75.3% of high school students reported consuming fruits and vegetables less than once a day. Students who practiced unsafe weight loss practices were significantly more likely to smoke cigarettes, and use illegal drugs. In addition, 26.9% of adolescents surveyed were considered 'overweight'--similar to the prevalence of overweight reported among U.S. Mainland adolescents. Finally, data from survey showed that adolescents on Guam spent more time watching television and less time performing various physical activities than adolescents in the U.S. mainland. These suboptimal practices put Guam's adolescents at increased risk for immediate and long-term health problems.

  2. Validation of a questionnaire assessing food frequency and nutritional intake in Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Barboukis, Vassilis; Dalkiranis, Anastasios; Hassapidou, Maria; Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and validate a specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional intake of Greek adolescents. The sample of the study consisted of 250 pupils (15.3 +/- 0.7 years), who completed the Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire enriched with 22 Greek foods and recipes to include ethnic and racial diversity. A 3-day weighed food recall was used as the criterion to test the validity of the questionnaire. The analysis of correlation revealed significant correlations between the two methods for almost all variables. The Pearson's coefficients ranged from 0.83 for energy intake to 0.34 for folate intake. Non-significant correlations were found for selenium and vitamin D intakes. The findings of the study provide evidence for the validity of the scale and its utility in assessing nutritional intake of Greek adolescents.

  3. Diet quality and attention capacity in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Labayen, Idoia; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Henriksson, Hanna; Kersting, Mathilde; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-06-01

    Adolescence represents an important period for the development of executive functions, which are a set of important cognitive processes including attentional control. However, very little is known regarding the associations of nutrition with components of executive functions in adolescence. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate associations of dietary patterns and macronutrient composition with attention capacity in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 384 (165 boys and 219 girls) adolescents, aged 12·5-17·5 years, from five European countries in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Attention capacity was examined using the d2 Test of Attention. Dietary intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24 h recalls using a computer-based self-administered tool. Three dietary patterns (diet quality index, ideal diet score and Mediterranean diet score) and macronutrient/fibre intakes were calculated. Linear regression analysis was conducted adjusting for age, sex, BMI, maternal education, family affluence scale, study centre and energy intake (only for Mediterranean diet score). In these adjusted regression analyses, higher diet quality index for adolescents and ideal diet score were associated with a higher attention capacity (standardised β=0·16, P=0·002 and β=0·15, P=0·005, respectively). Conversely, Mediterranean diet score or macronutrient/fibre intake were not associated with attention capacity (P>0·05). Our results suggest that healthier dietary patterns, as indicated by higher diet quality index and ideal diet score, were associated with attention capacity in adolescence. Intervention studies investigating a causal relationship between diet quality and attention are warranted.

  4. Self-reported use of nutrition labels to make food choices is associated with healthier dietary behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Amier; Carey, Felicia R; Ranjit, Nalini; Archer, Natalie; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to examine nutrition label use and dietary behaviours among ethnically diverse middle- and high-school students, in Texas, USA. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey is a cross-sectional statewide study using a self-administered questionnaire to assess nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Height and weight measurements were used to determine BMI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between nutrition label use and dietary behaviours, with gender, grade, ethnicity, BMI, parent education, socio-economic status and nutrition knowledge as covariates. Participants from 283 schools, weighted to represent Texas youth. SPAN 2009-2011 included 6716 8th and 11th graders (3465 girls and 3251 boys). The study population consisted of 39·83 % White/Other, 14·61 % African-American and 45·56 % Hispanic adolescents; with a mean age of 14·9 years, and 61·95 % at a healthy weight, 15·71 % having overweight and 22·34 % having obesity. Adolescents who did not use nutrition labels had 1·69 times greater odds of consuming ≥1 sugary beverages/d (P<0·05). Adolescents who used nutrition labels had 2·13 times greater odds of consuming ≥1 fruits and vegetables/d (P<0·05). Adolescents who used nutrition labels had significantly higher healthy eating scores than those who did not (P<0·001). For every 1-point increase in nutrition knowledge, adolescents had 1·22 greater odds of using nutrition labels. Nutrition label use is associated with healthier dietary behaviours in adolescents. Intervention strategies for youth should include efforts to teach adolescents to use labels to make healthy food choices.

  5. Tadpole nutritional ecology and digestive physiology: Implications for captive rearing of larval anurans.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive tadpole stage allows anurans to exploit food resources in two vastly different environments, and the transition from aquatic larvae to terrestrial carnivores is both dramatic and complex. As seen in many other members of the freshwater aquatic community, the nutritional requirements and characteristic feeding strategies of anuran larvae (tadpoles) are extremely diverse, ranging from herbivory to carnivory and including predation and cannibalism, oophagy, coprophagy, filter-feeding, and hindgut microbial fermentation. Whereas tadpoles as a group are commonly considered herbivorous or omnivorous, many are specialists; understanding species-specific dietary habits is critical for captive rearing projects in zoos and amphibian habitat conservation efforts. Practical applications of this review also encompass studies of amphibian declines, herpetoculture, ecology and evolution, and comparative gastrointestinal morphology and physiology.

  6. Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mary V.; Small, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence linking sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption to weight gain and other negative health outcomes has prompted many individuals to resort to artificial, non-nutritive sugar (NNS) substitutes as a means of reducing SSB intake. However, there is a great deal of controversy regarding the biological consequences of NNS use, with accumulating evidence suggesting that NNS consumption may influence feeding and metabolism via a variety of peripheral and central mechanisms. Here we argue that NNSs are not physiologically inert compounds and consider the potential biological mechanisms by which NNS consumption may impact energy balance and metabolic function, including actions on oral and extra-oral sweet taste receptors, and effects on metabolic hormone secretion, cognitive processes (e.g. reward learning, memory, and taste perception), and gut microbiota. PMID:26048305

  7. Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary V; Small, Dana M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence linking sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption to weight gain and other negative health outcomes has prompted many individuals to resort to artificial, non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) substitutes as a means of reducing SSB intake. However, there is a great deal of controversy regarding the biological consequences of NNS use, with accumulating evidence suggesting that NNS consumption may influence feeding and metabolism via a variety of peripheral and central mechanisms. Here we argue that NNSs are not physiologically inert compounds and consider the potential biological mechanisms by which NNS consumption may impact energy balance and metabolic function, including actions on oral and extra-oral sweet taste receptors, and effects on metabolic hormone secretion, cognitive processes (e.g. reward learning, memory, and taste perception), and gut microbiota.

  8. Health, developmental, and nutritional status of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Rees, J M; Worthington-Roberts, B S

    1987-02-01

    The impact of alcohol and marijuana abuse on the physical health and nutritional status of adolescents has not been well documented. The health consequences of alcoholism and chemical abuse in adults may not relate to the pediatric population. Forty-nine adolescent boys (mean age 15.8 years) with varying degrees of alcohol and marijuana use by self-report were evaluated as to their general health, pubertal development and nutritional status using health and dietary history, physical examination, anthropometrics, and biochemical assays of liver function and tissue nutrients. Thirteen (27%) were alcohol and marijuana abusers, 20 (41%) marijuana abusers, and 16 (32%) nonusers. There were significant differences between alcohol and marijuana abusers and marijuana abusers compared to nonusers with respect to endorsing symptoms of nutritional deficiency (muscle weakness, bleeding gums, tiredness, etc) (P less than .001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in other nutritional measures except plasma zinc concentration which was low in marijuana abusers (mean 85 micrograms/dL). All adolescents reported consuming adequate nutrients, although alcohol and marijuana abusers reported eating more snack foods and less fruit, vegetables, and milk than other groups. There were no significant differences in hematologic status (complete blood cell count, transferrin, folate), liver function (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase), or anthropometric and sexual maturational indices of growth. There were no chronic signs of chemical abuse by physical examinations. It appears that health and nutritional disability from chemical abuse in adolescents relates more to poor dietary habits and symptomatic deterioration in general health than to specific effects on growth or nutritional status. Studies with larger numbers of subjects need to document these findings.

  9. The Relationship Among Social Phobia, Objective and Perceived Physiological Reactivity, and Anxiety Sensitivity in an Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily R.; Hope, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Physiological theories may be important in the development and maintenance of social phobia in youth. A limited literature base indicates that youth with social phobia experience increases in objective physiological arousal during social-evaluative situations and are more aware of such increases compared to nonanxious youth. Recent research suggests that youth with social phobia also evidence heightened levels of anxiety sensitivity, which may lead to interpretation of physiological arousal as dangerous or distressing, and, as a result, in avoidance of situations which produce increased physiological arousal. The purpose of the current study was to examine interaction among objective physiological arousal, perceived physiological arousal, and anxiety sensitivity among adolescents diagnosed with social phobia. A sample of community adolescents participated in two anxiety-provoking tasks during which objective physiological arousal was monitored, and after which perceived physiological arousal and anxiety sensitivity were evaluated. Results from this study evidenced no differences between social phobic and nonanxious adolescents with regard to objective physiological arousal during either anxiety-provoking tasks. Adolescents with social phobia, however, were more aware of measured increases in physiological arousal, as well as more afraid of the potential social implications of that arousal compared to nonanxious adolescents. Implications for theory and treatment are discussed. PMID:18436426

  10. The nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Craig; Tan, Jian; Macia, Laurence; Mackay, Charles R

    2017-07-01

    Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a 'diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis' has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate. These metabolites bind 'metabolite-sensing' G-protein-coupled receptors such as GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A. These receptors play fundamental roles in the promotion of gut homeostasis and the regulation of inflammatory responses. For instance, these receptors and their metabolites influence Treg biology, epithelial integrity, gut homeostasis, DC biology, and IgA antibody responses. The SCFAs also influence gene transcription in many cells and tissues, through their inhibition of histone deacetylase expression or function. Contained in this mix is the gut microbiome, as commensal bacteria in the gut have the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber to SCFAs, and dysbiosis in the gut may affect the production of SCFAs and their distribution to tissues throughout the body. SCFAs can epigenetically modify DNA, and so may be one mechanism to account for diseases with a 'developmental origin', whereby in utero or post-natal exposure to environmental factors (such as nutrition of the mother) may account for disease later in life. If the nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis does underpin at least some of the Western lifestyle influence on asthma and allergies, then there is tremendous scope to correct this with healthy foodstuffs, probiotics, and prebiotics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The morphology, physiology and nutritional quality of lettuce grown under hypobaria and hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia.

  12. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies.

  13. Snacks With Nutrition Labels: Tastiness Perception, Healthiness Perception, and Willingness to Pay by Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    Consumers tend to have the perception that healthy equals less tasty. This study aimed to identify whether information provided by the Keyhole symbol, a widely used front-of-package symbol in Nordic countries to indicate nutritional content, and percent daily values (%DVs) affect Norwegian adolescents' perception of the healthiness of snacks and their intention to buy them. Two tasks were used to evaluate adolescents' perception of snacks with the Keyhole symbol: with %DVs or with no nutrition label. A third task was used to test their abilities to use %DVs (pairwise selections). A survey obtained personal attributes. A total of 566 Norwegian adolescents. Taste perception, health perception, and ability to use %DVs. Linear mixed models and logistic models that tested effects of labels and personal attributes on main outcome measures. The Keyhole symbol increased health perception without influencing taste perception of snacks. Norwegian adolescents had limited abilities to use information from the %DVs correctly to identify healthier foods. Norwegian adolescents had a positive perception of the Keyhole symbols. Keyhole symbols as a simple, heuristic front-of-package label have potential as an information strategy that may influence self-efficacy in promoting healthy snack choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on gastric motility and somatization in adolescents with anorexia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Maria E; Coley, Brian; Crandall, Wallace; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Bravender, Terrill

    2013-09-01

    To examine gastric function, as well as the presence of somatic complaints, anxiety symptoms, and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. Sixteen females with AN and 22 healthy controls with similar demographic profiles were included. Gastric emptying (measured as residual gastric volume) and gastric accommodation (measured as postprandial antral diameter) were assessed with abdominal ultrasonography. Participants completed the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI), the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders, and the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III version. All testing was repeated 3-4 months later. Body mass index in the AN group improved over time (P = .012). Fasting gastric parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Maximum postprandial antral diameter was significantly greater in controls compared with the AN group (P = .008). Only adolescents with AN demonstrated a significant increase in maximum postprandial diameter at repeat testing (P = .009). There was no difference in residual gastric volume between the 2 groups. Initial CSI scores were higher in adolescents with AN (P < .0001), including higher scores for nausea and abdominal pain. CSI scores were significantly lower in adolescents with AN (P = .035). Initial scores on the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders were significantly higher in adolescents with AN (P = .0005), but did not change over time. Adolescents with AN met significantly more criteria for FGIDs (P = .003). Adolescents with AN have impaired gastric accommodation that improves after nutritional rehabilitation, have significantly more somatic complaints, and meet more criteria for anxiety disorders and FGIDs. After nutritional rehabilitation, somatization improves and FGIDs become less common, but symptoms of anxiety persist. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional status of tribal children and adolescents in rural south India: the effect of an NGO delivered nutritional programme.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard; Srinivasan, Rohit; Sudarshan, Hanumappa

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition using anthropometric measures in a cohort of tribal students attending a school in rural south India. Children attending the school were offered three meals a day during attendance. Analysis of anthropometric data obtained aimed to determine the nutritional effect of the food provided. The nutritional status of 409 students were assessed by comparing anthropometric measurements to reference values according to WHO/NCHS guidelines. Height for age <3rd percentile was defined as stunting. BMI for age <5th percentile was defined as thinness. 'New' students were defined as attending the school for <1 y. 'Old' students were defined as being in attendance for ≥ 1 y. Comparison of thinness and stunting prevalence in these groups enabled evaluation of the meals provided by the organisation. Four hundred and nine students were included for analysis in the study. The prevalence of thinness was 39.4 %. 59.5 % of 'new' and 52.9 % of 'old' students at the school demonstrated thinness. 59.4 % of students were classified as stunted. 73.8 % of 'new' students and 52.9 % of 'old' students demonstrated stunting (p 0.091). Significantly (p 0.010) more 'new' female students had stunted growth. Acute and chronic measures of malnutrition were high amongst adolescent students attending the school. Comparison of 'new' and 'old' adolescent pupils at the school hints that the 'old' students were less malnourished than their 'new' counterparts. This study demonstrates the importance for NGOs to develop their nutritional programmes with a special focus on adolescents.

  16. [Nutritional status and physical condition of adolescent football players after consuming fishmeal as a nutritional complement].

    PubMed

    Accinelli-Tanaka, Roberto; López-Oropeza, Lidia

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study is to identify the changes in the nutritional parameters and the physical condition of teenage players after eating fishmeal as a nutritional complement. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study, blinded for investigators, was conducted, involving 100 teenage football players, divided in two groups, homogeneous in terms of all study parameters, one of which received fishmeal for four months. After evaluating the nutritional status and physical condition, before and after the intervention, no change was found in the nutritional and anthropometric status or laboratory results, or in the physical condition. However, those who received fishmeal did report a change in their hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of fishmeal did not lead to changes in the nutritional status or the physical condition of teenage football players.

  17. Winning the war against ICU-acquired weakness: new innovations in nutrition and exercise physiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years we have significantly reduced hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness. However, the evidence reveals that over the same period we have tripled the number of patients being sent to rehabilitation settings. Further, given that as many as half of the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home. For those who do survive, the latest data indicate that 50-70% of ICU "survivors" will suffer cognitive impairment and 60-80% of "survivors" will suffer functional impairment or ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). These observations demand that we as intensive care providers ask the following questions: "Are we creating survivors ... or are we creating victims?" and "Do we accomplish 'Pyrrhic Victories' in the ICU?" Interventions to address ICU-AW must have a renewed focus on optimal nutrition, anabolic/anticatabolic strategies, and in the future employ the personalized muscle and exercise evaluation techniques utilized by elite athletes to optimize performance. Specifically, strategies must include optimal protein delivery (1.2-2.0 g/kg/day), as an athlete would routinely employ. However, as is clear in elite sports performance, optimal nutrition is fundamental but alone is often not enough. We know burn patients can remain catabolic for 2 years post burn; thus, anticatabolic agents (i.e., beta-blockers) and anabolic agents (i.e., oxandrolone) will probably also be essential. In the near future, evaluation techniques such as assessing lean body mass at the bedside using ultrasound to determine nutritional status and ultrasound-measured muscle glycogen as a marker of muscle injury and recovery could be utilized to help find the transition from the acute phase of critical illness to the recovery phase. Finally, exercise physiology testing that evaluates muscle substrate utilization during exercise can be used to diagnose muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and

  18. Winning the war against ICU-acquired weakness: new innovations in nutrition and exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Wischmeyer, Paul E; San-Millan, Inigo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years we have significantly reduced hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness. However, the evidence reveals that over the same period we have tripled the number of patients being sent to rehabilitation settings. Further, given that as many as half of the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home. For those who do survive, the latest data indicate that 50-70% of ICU "survivors" will suffer cognitive impairment and 60-80% of "survivors" will suffer functional impairment or ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). These observations demand that we as intensive care providers ask the following questions: "Are we creating survivors ... or are we creating victims?" and "Do we accomplish 'Pyrrhic Victories' in the ICU?" Interventions to address ICU-AW must have a renewed focus on optimal nutrition, anabolic/anticatabolic strategies, and in the future employ the personalized muscle and exercise evaluation techniques utilized by elite athletes to optimize performance. Specifically, strategies must include optimal protein delivery (1.2-2.0 g/kg/day), as an athlete would routinely employ. However, as is clear in elite sports performance, optimal nutrition is fundamental but alone is often not enough. We know burn patients can remain catabolic for 2 years post burn; thus, anticatabolic agents (i.e., beta-blockers) and anabolic agents (i.e., oxandrolone) will probably also be essential. In the near future, evaluation techniques such as assessing lean body mass at the bedside using ultrasound to determine nutritional status and ultrasound-measured muscle glycogen as a marker of muscle injury and recovery could be utilized to help find the transition from the acute phase of critical illness to the recovery phase. Finally, exercise physiology testing that evaluates muscle substrate utilization during exercise can be used to diagnose muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and

  19. Spaces between home and school: The effect of eating location on adolescent nutrition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Using interview and self-administered survey data, this article examines how homes, schools, and the community spaces between these two locations affect adolescent nutrition in a low-income, urban setting. Results from this research show that eating location can play a significant role in the foods that adolescents consume. Food acquisition data provided by adolescents reveal that homes and schools provide spaces for the consumption of healthy foods while shops, restaurants, takeouts, and community centers contribute unhealthy snack foods to adolescent diets in a traditionally low-income, urban neighborhood in Northern Ireland. The results of this research show that eating location can provide a starting point for designing healthy eating interventions in low-income places to avoid overlap with spaces that already provide healthy foods to young people.

  20. Alternative methods of nutritional status assessment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jorga, Jagoda; Marinković, Jelena; Kentrić, Brana; Hetherington, Marion

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the validity of the silhouette rating scale and reported values of height and weight in assessing weight status in a group of adolescents. 245 adolescents, students of the Belgrade elementary school, aged 11-14 (12.33 +/- 0.50), were involved. Weight status was assessed by anthropometry, self-reported height and weight and by figure rating scale. From the results obtained significant differences emerged as a function of weight status. The majority of normal weight adolescents were accurate in reporting their body size. The percentage of under-reporters was significantly higher in the overweight/obese group than in the normal weight group (chi2 = 9.741, p = 0.003). The correlation between BMI, both measured and self-reported, and perceived body size was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001). Self-reported weight and height appears acceptable for estimating weight status in normal weight adolescents, but not in those who are overweight or obese. This study also demonstrated that adolescents can estimate with some accuracy their body size using figure ratings scales.

  1. [Nutritional evaluation of adolescent students from Extremadura based on anthropometric measurements].

    PubMed

    Fernández Cabrera, Jacinta; Aranda Medina, Emilio; Córdoba Ramos, María de Guía; Hernández León, Alejandro; Rodríguez Bernabé, José Antonio; Pérez-Nevado, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is one of the pillars for proper body development and optimal nutritional status. Anthropometric methods are most commonly used for body composition analysis and are an essential part in the assessment of the nutritional status of individuals and population groups. This study aims to assess the nutritional status of adolescents from Extremadura (Spain); to determine variations in body composition according to the percentiles obtained; and to propose these values as a reference to the nutritional status of the adolescent population in Extremadura. A cross sectional study in the community of Extremadura was performed, including a total of 816 students of Secondary School Education of both sexes; and of all ages in the adolescence stage. The selected secondary schools belonged to populations of different sizes (less than 5,000 to more than 60,000 inhabitants). From the measurements taken, different anthropometric indices were determined and the percentiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95 and 97 for weight, height and complexion were found. There were significant gender differences for height, weight, triceps skinfold, arm muscle area and arm fat area. Boys showed greater figures for height, weight and arm muscle area; however, the triceps skinfold and arm fat area was higher in girls. When compared to other national studies, the average height of our population was lower by about 3 cm in both sexes; the average weight was similar, but our adolescents had a higher proportion of fat in the arm. Extremadura girls seem to have a faster growth, reaching final height at an earlier age than the national average, although this height is below average. The boys had a continuous growth in all ages, maintaining national averages. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. [Assessing the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb].

    PubMed

    Oliván Gonzalvo, G

    2000-07-01

    To assess the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb at the time of entry into foster care in Zaragoza, Spain. Cross-sectional study over a 3-year period (1997-1999). Health status via clinical history and physical examination was assessed according to standard protocols and individualized complementary laboratory examinations were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using the anthropometric method. Weight, height, head and upper arm circumferences, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness, body-mass index and nutritional index were established and compared with national normal standards of reference (Z-score). Student s t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences. Forty male adolescents (22 Algerians and 18 Moroccans) were admitted during the study period. Mean age was 15 +/- 1.42 years (range: 13-17 years). Health status: anomaly in at least one body system (50%) and more than one anomaly (15%). Most frequent problems were odontologic (32. 5%), dermatological (17.5%), respiratory (12.5%), ophthalmological (7.5%), orthopedic (5%) and otic (2.5%). Tuberculous infection was detected in 5% and iron deficiency anemia in 2.5% of the patients. Nutritional status: except for head circumference (p < 0.05), no statistically significant differences were found in the other variables analyzed. Mean value of nutritional index was found to be within normal intervals. Individualized analysis showed a mild form of acute malnutrition in 12.5% of the patients. The adolescents studied showed prevalent odontological, dermatological and respiratory diseases due infection and lack of hygienic practices. Deficiency diseases, congenital anomalies and undiagnosed chronic diseases were observed in a small number of patients. Concerning nutritional status, a low percentage of patients showed a mild form of acute malnutrition, probably related to food deprivation and poor dietary habits experienced during the immigration

  3. Nutrition through the life-span. Part 2: children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison Anne

    A healthy child who achieves both their peak of physical fitness and their optimal nutritional status is more likely to progress through the life-span as a healthy adult. However, children, adults and older adults in the UK are failing to achieve both adequate nutritional and fitness status. Individuals are now living longer due to improved social conditions and advances in medical care. Despite this, many children, adults and those aged 65 years and over are suffering from malnutrition or obesity. The second part of this article seeks to educate healthcare professionals regarding the nutritional requirements for school-age children, adolescents and adults between the ages of 19 and 64 years. The nutritional requirements of older adults aged 65 years and over, including a review on nutritional support within this age group, will be addressed in a further article. Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to assist the population in achieving their optimal nutritional status. This may be achieved through health promotion, which, if appropriate, may instigate and sustain behavioural change in relation to both nutritional habits and physical exercise.

  4. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  5. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  6. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition…

  7. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Fast Food Choices in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition…

  8. Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jonatas FS; Esteves, João VDC; Panissa, Valeria LG; Julio, Ursula F; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12.7 ± 4.8% of body fat, 59.2 ± 5.0% of muscle mass and their somatotype was dominated by the mesomorphic component (5.3 ± 2.0), followed by endomorphic (3.7 ± 1.5) and ectomorphic (1.4 ± 0.9) components. Nutritional assessment suggested a diet consisting of 54 ± 7% of carbohydrates, 19 ± 4% of protein and 27 ± 6% of lipids. Movement time on the handgrip tests was 0.42 ± 0.05 s, for handgrip strength, 53 ± 7 kgf was found for the dominant hand and 50 ± 9 kgf for the non-dominant hand. For the countermovement jump, the jiu-jitsu athletes reached 41 ± 5 cm. Athletes remained 30 ± 14 s in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono, and reached 27 ± 8 cm in the sit-and-reach test. Overall the sample presented average levels of body fat, elevated muscle mass and a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype. Diet was generally poor, with low carbohydrate intake, high protein intake and adequate lipid intake. Maximum isometric handgrip strength was consistent with observations of other athletes in this sport discipline. However, the performance in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono was lower than in other Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Movement time was comparable and lower body muscle power was worse compared to athletes in similar sports. Additionally, flexibility was rated as poor. PMID:28149429

  9. Physiology and nutrition of Treponema primitia, an H2/CO2-acetogenic spirochete from termite hindguts.

    PubMed

    Graber, Joseph R; Breznak, John A

    2004-03-01

    Treponema primitia strains ZAS-1 and ZAS-2, the first spirochetes to be isolated from termite hindguts (J. R. Leadbetter, T. M. Schmidt, J. R. Graber, and J. A. Breznak, Science 283:686-689, 1999), were examined for nutritional, physiological, and biochemical properties relevant to growth and survival in their natural habitat. In addition to using H(2) plus CO(2) as substrates, these strains were capable of homoacetogenic growth on mono- and disaccharides and (in the case of ZAS-2) methoxylated benzenoids. Cells were also capable of mixotrophic growth (i.e., simultaneous utilization of H(2) and organic substrates). Cell extracts of T. primitia possessed enzyme activities of the Wood/Ljungdahl (acetyl coenzyme A) pathway of acetogenesis, including tetrahydrofolate-dependent enzymes of the methyl group-forming branch. However, a folate compound was required in the medium for growth. ZAS-1 and ZAS-2 growing on H(2) plus CO(2) displayed H(2) thresholds of 650 and 490 ppmv, respectively. Anoxic cultures of ZAS-1 and ZAS-2 maintained growth after the addition of as much as 0.5% (vol/vol) O(2) to the headspace atmosphere. Cell extracts exhibited NADH and NADPH peroxidase and NADH oxidase activities but neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase activity. Results indicate that (i) T. primitia is able to exploit a variety of substrates derived from the food of its termite hosts and in so doing contributes to termite nutrition via acetogenesis, (ii) in situ growth of T. primitia is likely dependent on secretion of a folate compound(s) by other members of the gut microbiota, and (iii) cells possess enzymatic adaptations to oxidative stress, which is likely to be encountered in peripheral regions of the termite hindgut.

  10. Anthropometric, physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazil National Canoe Polo Team.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Pasqua, Leonardo; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni; Roschel, Hamilton; Solis, Marina; Tobias, Gabriel; Klansener, Christian; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Franchini, Emerson; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological, anthropometric, performance, and nutritional characteristics of the Brazil Canoe Polo National Team. Ten male canoe polo athletes (age 26.7 ± 4.1 years) performed a battery of tests including assessments of anthropometric parameters, upper-body anaerobic power (Wingate), muscular strength, aerobic power, and nutritional profile. In addition, we characterized heart rate and plasma lactate responses and the temporal pattern of the effort/recovery during a simulated canoe polo match. The main results are as follows: body fat, 12.3 ± 4.0%; upper-body peak and mean power, 6.8 ± 0.5 and 4.7 ± 0.4 W · kg(-1), respectively; 1-RM bench press, 99.1 ± 11.7 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 44.3 ± 5.8 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); total energy intake, 42.8 ± 8.6 kcal · kg(-1); protein, carbohydrate, and fat intakes, 1.9 ± 0.1, 5.0 ± 1.5, and 1.7 ± 0.4 g · kg(-1), respectively; mean heart rate, 146 ± 11 beats · min(-1); plasma lactate, 5.7 ± 3.8 mmol · L(-1) at half-time and 4.6 ± 2.2 mmol · L(-1) at the end of the match; effort time (relative to total match time), 93.1 ± 3.0%; number of sprints, 9.6 ± 4.4. The results of this study will assist coaches, trainers, and nutritionists in developing more adequate training programmes and dietary interventions for canoe polo athletes.

  11. Perspective on physiological/endocrine and nutritional factors influencing fertility in post-partum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R

    2010-09-01

    Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility.

  12. Physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazilian Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) team.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Gualano, Bruno; Franchini, Emerson; Batista, Rafael Novaes; Polacow, Viviane Ozores; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine physiological, nutritional, and performance profiles of elite Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) athletes. Ten men and four women elite athletes took part in the study. They completed the following tests: body composition, nutritional assessment, upper-body Wingate Test, vertical jump, lumbar isometric strength, and flexibility. Blood lactate was determined at rest and after the Wingate Test. Blood lactate was also determined during a training session (combat and Taolu training). We found low body fat (men: 9.5 +/- 6.3%; women: 18.0 +/- 4.8%), high flexibility (sit-and-reach-men: 45.5 +/- 6.1 cm; women: 44.0 +/- 6.3 cm), high leg power (vertical jump-men: 37.7 +/- 8.4 cm; women: 32.3 +/- 1.1 cm), high lumbar isometric strength (men: 159 +/- 13 cm; women: 94 +/- 6 cm), moderate arm mean and peak power (Wingate Test-men: 4.1 +/- 0.4 and 5.8 +/- 0.5 Wxkg, respectively; women: 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.3 W.kg, respectively), and elevated blood lactate after the Wingate Test (men: 10.8 +/- 2.0 mmolxL; women: 10.2 +/- 2.0 mmolxL) and during training (combat: 12.0 +/- 1.8 mmolxL; Taolu: 7.7 +/- 3.3 mmolxL). Men athletes consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, whereas women consume a moderate, high-carbohydrate diet. Energy consumption was markedly variable. In conclusion, Olympic Wushu seems to be a highly anaerobic-dependent combat sport. Low body fat, high flexibility, leg anaerobic power, isometric strength, and moderately high arm anaerobic power seem to be important for successful competitive performance.

  13. Physiological, nutritional, and biochemical bases of corn resistance to foliage-feeding fall armyworm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Ni, Xinzhi; Buntin, G David

    2009-03-01

    Three corn (Zea mays) germplasm lines [i.e., Ab24E (susceptible control), Mp708 (resistant control), and a locally selected partial inbred line FAW7050 (resistant)] were examined for Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. Nutritional [i.e., total protein content, amino acids, glucose, total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), protein to TNC (P/C) ratios] and biochemical (i.e., peroxidase and lipoxygenase 3) properties in the seedlings of these corn lines were examined to categorize resistance mechanisms to S. frugiperda. Physiological changes in photosynthetic rates also were examined in an attempt to explain nutritional and biochemical dynamics among corn germplasm lines and between insect-infested and noninfested corn plants within a germplasm line. Results indicated that S. frugiperda larvae survived better and developed faster in susceptible Ab24E than in resistant FAW7050 or Mp708. The three germplasm lines differed in resistance mechanisms to S. frugiperda, and the observed patterns of resistance were probably collective results of the P/C ratio and defensive proteins. That is, the susceptibility of Ab24E to S. frugiperda was due to a high P/C ratio and a low level of induced defensive compounds in response to insect herbivory, while the resistance of FAW7050 resulted from elevated defensive proteins following insect herbivory, low P/C ratio, and elevated defensive proteins in Mp708 contributed to its resistance to S. frugiperda. The elevated protein amounts in resistant Mp708 and FAW7050 following S. frugiperda injury were likely due to greater conversion of photosynthates to defensive proteins following the greater photosynthetic rates in these entries. Greater photosynthetic capacity in Mp708 and FAW7050 also led to higher amino acid and glucose contents in these two lines. Neither amino acid nor lipoxygenase 3 played a critical role in corn resistance to S. frugiperda. However, high inducibility of peroxidase may be an

  14. Dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in a sample of Lebanese adolescents of contrasting socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Nabhani-Zeidan, Maya; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2011-06-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is postulated to be a major predictor of dietary intake and nutrition-related knowledge in adults. To date, very few studies have addressed this effect among adolescents. To explore differences in nutrient intake and nutrition-related knowledge among adolescents of contrasting SES in Lebanon. In a cross-sectional survey, 209 males and females, aged 17 to 19 years, were recruited from a private university with high tuition and a free public university in Beirut. The participants completed a multicomponent, self-administered questionnaire that inquired about demographic characteristics and nutrition-related knowledge. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained through interviews. Energy-adjusted means of dietary intake and age-adjusted nutrition-related knowledge were compared between groups using a general linear model. Adolescents in the high-SES group consumed more vegetables, meats, and fats and oils (p < .05). Energy and nutrient intake analysis showed that adolescents in the high-SES group consumed significantly higher amounts of calories, protein, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron (p < .001) and significantly lower amounts of carbohydrates (p < .05). Nutritional knowledge, although high among all participants, was higher in the high-SES group (p < .05). Although both groups showed good nutrition-related knowledge, SES significantly affected dietary intake in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. This warrants consideration of other factors, such as cost and environment, that may modulate eating behavior among adolescents from different socioeconomic strata.

  15. Breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Lena; Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Vereecken, Carine A; Breidenassel, Christina; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Manios, Yannis; Mistura, Lorenza; Widhalm, Kurt; Kondaki, Katerina; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To examine the association between breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Cross-sectional. Breakfast consumption was assessed by the statement ‘I often skip breakfast’ and categorized into ‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG, insulin and glucose were measured and BMI, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The European Union-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. European adolescents, aged 12?50–17?49 years, from ten cities within the HELENA study (n 2929, n 925 with blood sample, 53% females). In males, significant differences across breakfast consumption category (‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’) were seen for age, BMI, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and LDL-C; in females, for cardiorespiratory fitness, skinfold thickness, BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR. In overweight/obese males significant differences were also seen for TC and LDL-C, whereas no differences were observed in non-overweight males or in females regardless of weight status. Our findings among European adolescents confirm previous data indicating that adolescents who regularly consume breakfast have lower body fat content. The results also show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents, and with a healthier cardiovascular profile, especially in males. Eating breakfast regularly may also negate somewhat the effect of excess adiposity on TC and LDL-C, especially in male adolescents.

  16. Larval Exposure to Chlorpyrifos Affects Nutritional Physiology and Induces Genotoxicity in Silkworm Philosamia ricini (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Moni K.; Haloi, Kishor; Devi, Dipali

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms. Philosamia ricini (eri silkworm), one of the most exploited, domesticated and commercialized non mulberry silkworm is known for mass production of eri silk. The silkworm larvae get exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of food plants. The present study investigates the effect of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos (Pyrifos-20 EC) on eri silkworm. Initially the LC50 value of chlorpyrifos was determined at 24–96 h and further experiments were carried out with sub lethal concentrations of the chlorpyrifos after 24 h of exposure period. The potential toxicity of chlorpyrifos was evaluated as a fuction of metabolism and nutritional physiology in 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar larvae. Alteration in histoarchitecture of 5th instar eri silkworm gut exposed to sub lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos formulation was also studied. Chlorpyrifos induced genotoxicity in silkworm hemocytes was also investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis, micronuclei assay, and apoptosis assay. Herein, LC50 values of chlorpyrifos were calculated as 3.83, 3.35, 2.68, and 2.35 mg/L at 24, 48, 72, and 96h respectively. A significant decrease in trehalose activity along with digestive enzyme activity was observed in chlorpyrifos affected groups (P < 0.05). Further, genotoxicity study revealed higher tail percentage, tail length and tail moment of the damage DNA in chlorpyrifos exposed groups (P < 0.001). Moreover, at 2.0 mg/L concentration, ~10 fold increases in tail length was observed as compared to the control. Results showed activation of caspase activity following 24 h chlorpyrifos exposure (1.5 and 2.0 mg/L) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in control group less number of apoptotic

  17. Larval Exposure to Chlorpyrifos Affects Nutritional Physiology and Induces Genotoxicity in Silkworm Philosamia ricini (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Kalita, Moni K; Haloi, Kishor; Devi, Dipali

    2016-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms. Philosamia ricini (eri silkworm), one of the most exploited, domesticated and commercialized non mulberry silkworm is known for mass production of eri silk. The silkworm larvae get exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of food plants. The present study investigates the effect of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos (Pyrifos-20 EC) on eri silkworm. Initially the LC50 value of chlorpyrifos was determined at 24-96 h and further experiments were carried out with sub lethal concentrations of the chlorpyrifos after 24 h of exposure period. The potential toxicity of chlorpyrifos was evaluated as a fuction of metabolism and nutritional physiology in 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar larvae. Alteration in histoarchitecture of 5th instar eri silkworm gut exposed to sub lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos formulation was also studied. Chlorpyrifos induced genotoxicity in silkworm hemocytes was also investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis, micronuclei assay, and apoptosis assay. Herein, LC50 values of chlorpyrifos were calculated as 3.83, 3.35, 2.68, and 2.35 mg/L at 24, 48, 72, and 96h respectively. A significant decrease in trehalose activity along with digestive enzyme activity was observed in chlorpyrifos affected groups (P < 0.05). Further, genotoxicity study revealed higher tail percentage, tail length and tail moment of the damage DNA in chlorpyrifos exposed groups (P < 0.001). Moreover, at 2.0 mg/L concentration, ~10 fold increases in tail length was observed as compared to the control. Results showed activation of caspase activity following 24 h chlorpyrifos exposure (1.5 and 2.0 mg/L) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in control group less number of apoptotic

  18. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z

  19. Nutritional aspects of night eating and its association with weight status among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung; Yoon, Jihyun

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z-scores in females. Male gender and parental night eating

  20. Nutritional aspects of children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Zidorio, Ana Paula Caio; Dutra, Eliane Said; Leão, Dryelle Oliveira Dias; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis Bullosa is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the skin, however, all others systems are influenced. The nutritional care of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa is a key treatment strategy, since the energy needs are increased due to the disease's metabolism, burdening the immune system and cicatrization process, symptoms caused by the disease hinder the intake and adequate absorption of nutrients, which may result in inadequate growth and development. Because this is a rare disease, there are few professionals who know the characteristics of both the clinical evolution and nutritional and dietary treatments. This literature review discusses the latest knowledge on energy and specific nutrient requirements to the dietary treatment and monitoring of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa. PMID:25830992

  1. Nutritional aspects of children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa: literature review.

    PubMed

    Zidorio, Ana Paula Caio; Dutra, Eliane Said; Leão, Dryelle Oliveira Dias; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis Bullosa is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the skin, however, all others systems are influenced. The nutritional care of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa is a key treatment strategy, since the energy needs are increased due to the disease's metabolism, burdening the immune system and cicatrization process, symptoms caused by the disease hinder the intake and adequate absorption of nutrients, which may result in inadequate growth and development. Because this is a rare disease, there are few professionals who know the characteristics of both the clinical evolution and nutritional and dietary treatments. This literature review discusses the latest knowledge on energy and specific nutrient requirements to the dietary treatment and monitoring of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa.

  2. Associations Between Marital Conflict and Adolescent Conflict Appraisals, Stress Physiology, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Dumitrache, Adina

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine conflict appraisals and diurnal cortisol production as mediators of the robust association between marital conflict and adolescent adjustment problems. Parents reported their marital conflict and were observed engaging in a marital conflict discussion; they also reported adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Adolescents (n = 105, 52% female, 10-17 years of age) appraised their parents' marital conflict and reported their internalizing and externalizing behaviors. After the laboratory visit, adolescents provided four saliva samples on each of 2 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol production. More-negative marital conflict predicted more self-blame for parental conflict, which in turn predicted less robust decreases in cortisol across the day. Further, this flattened cortisol production pattern mediated the relationship between greater self-blame for parental conflict and adolescents' elevated internalizing behaviors. Feeling responsible for parental conflict appears to be particularly damaging in terms of physiological regulation and adjustment, and may therefore be a particularly useful intervention target.

  3. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  4. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  5. BMI and Attitudes and Beliefs about Physical Activity and Nutrition of Parents of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, V. A.; Shacter, S. D.; Johnson, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was: (1) to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with nutrition and physical activity of parents with adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID); (2) to determine if these variables related to the body mass index (BMI) of the adolescents and the parents' BMI; and (3) to investigate if…

  6. BMI and Attitudes and Beliefs about Physical Activity and Nutrition of Parents of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, V. A.; Shacter, S. D.; Johnson, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was: (1) to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with nutrition and physical activity of parents with adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID); (2) to determine if these variables related to the body mass index (BMI) of the adolescents and the parents' BMI; and (3) to investigate if…

  7. Physiological correlates of peer victimization and aggression in African American urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Dibble, Ashley E; Goodman, Kimberly L; Sullivan, Terri N

    2012-05-01

    This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group × SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth's behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts.

  8. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  9. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Campos, Rossana Gómez; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-09-25

    Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls' height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys' height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight).

  10. Adherence to nutritional therapy in obese adolescents; a review.

    PubMed

    França, Silvana Lima Guimarães; Sahade, Viviane; Nunes, Mônica; Adan, Luis F

    2013-01-01

    Considering the controversies existent on the subject, the aim of this review is to discuss adherence to diet in obese adolescents. The selection of articles was made in the SCOPUS, COCHRANE, APA Psyc Net, SciELO, LILACS, CAPES Journals, PUBMED/MEDLINE and GOOGLE ACADEMIC databases. Studies published between 2002 and 2012 were selected. There was lack of evidence of conceptual discussion about adherence to diet in obesity in the child-youth context, in addition to scarcity of data on adherence to diet itself in obese adolescents and the methods of evaluating this. Lastly, multiple interdependent factors were found which both facilitated and made the process of adherence to diet difficult for obese youngsters. The majority of these (factors) belong to the socioeconomic and cultural dimension, in addition to pointing out cognitive and psychological factors and those associated with health services and professionals.

  11. [Associated family factors with nutrition and oral health in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mota-Sanhua, Vanessa; Ortega-Maldonado, Miriam; López-Vivanco, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the association of family factors with malnutrition and oral condition in adolescence. a cross-sectional study of 456 adolescents was carried out to examine associations between family factors and risk for overweight or overweight (ROoO), risk for short stature or short stature (RSSoSS), and a DMFT (decayed, filled and missing-teeth) index > or = 8. the risk factors for ROoO were maternal educational level of high school or above (OR = 1.9, IC 95 % = 1.16-3.14) and having less than two siblings (OR = 1.6, IC 95 % = 1.13-2.34). Age > 15 years is associated with a DMFT index > or = 8 (OR = 1.9, IC 95 % = 1.14-2.34). a higher maternal educational level and having one or no siblings were ROoO risks. Increased age was a risk factor for caries.

  12. Physiological arousal, distress tolerance, and social problem-solving deficits among adolescent self-injurers.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-02-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However, objective physiological and behavioral data supporting this model are lacking. The authors compared adolescent self-injurers (n = 62) with noninjurers (n = 30) and found that self-injurers showed higher physiological reactivity (skin conductance) during a distressing task, a poorer ability to tolerate this distress, and deficits in several social problem-solving abilities. These findings highlight the importance of attending to increased arousal, distress tolerance, and problem-solving skills in the assessment and treatment of NSSI.

  13. Effect of a school-based nutrition education program on adolescents' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in rural areas of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun; Shi, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at examining the effect of the nutrition education program on adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two middle schools were randomly selected and assigned to the school conducting nutrition education (NE school), or to the Control school, in Mi Yun County, Beijing. From each school 65 seventh-grade students were randomly selected to participate in the study. Nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour were measured at pre- and post-intervention surveys with the same instrument. The nutrition education lasted for 6 months. After the intervention, more students in NE school knew the main function of dairy products and vegetables, which micronutrient is rich in dairy products and beans, and in meat, and the symptom of food poisoning, than those in Control school. The rate of students who thought nutrition is very important to health, and foods with an expired date should be thrown away in NE school was higher than that in Control school (93.8 vs. 80.3 and 92.3 vs. 78.7%, respectively). The rate of students who ate vegetables and breakfast everyday in NE school was higher than that in Control school (96.9 vs. 80.3, and 89.2 vs. 75.4%, respectively). (p < 0.05). This nutrition education programme is effective in improving adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in relation to nutrition; therefore, the nutrition education with interactive and innovative intervention components is strongly recommended for future nutrition promotion programmes for adolescents.

  14. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  15. Breakfast habits among European adolescents and their association with sociodemographic factors: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Le Donne, Cinzia; García, Magdalena Cuenca; Gilbert, Chantal C; Martínez, Sonia Gómez; Grammatikaki, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Molnár, Dénes; Patterson, Emma; Widhalm, Kurt; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2012-10-01

    To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were classified as 'breakfast consumers' and adolescents who did not have anything for breakfast on either of the two recall days were considered 'breakfast skippers'. A 'breakfast quality index' to describe breakfast quality was created based on the consumption or non-consumption of cereals/cereal products, dairy products and fruits/vegetables. The sociodemographic factors studied were sex, age, region of Europe, maternal and paternal education, family structure and family affluence. Adolescents (n 2672, 53 % girls) aged 12-17 years. The majority of the adolescents reported a breakfast that scored poorly on the breakfast quality index. Older adolescents, adolescents from the southern part of Europe and adolescents from families with low socio-economic status were more likely to consume a low-quality breakfast. The study highlights the need to promote the consumption of a high-quality breakfast among adolescents, particularly in older adolescents, adolescents from southern Europe and adolescents from families with low socio-economic status, in order to improve public health.

  16. Knowledge amongst adolescent girls about nutritive value of foods and diet during diseases, pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Bhasin, S; Manocha, S

    1991-10-01

    Knowledge about nutritive value of food, diet during diseases and antenatal and postnatal period was assessed amongst 152 adolescent school girls. A total of 23.69 and 55.93% students had incorrect knowledge that pulses and non-vegetarian foods should be avoided during later half of the pregnancy. A total of 63.82, 66.45 and 71.72% of subjects had incorrect knowledge that almonds have more nutritive value than groundnuts, fruits are rich sources of calories and desi ghee has more nutritive value than vanaspathi, respectively. Majority (90.78%) had correct knowledge that obesity is caused due to excess intake of calories than required by an individual and low iron content and poor availability of iron from food is a major cause of anemia in mothers and children.

  17. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace; Thornburg, Kent L

    2017-07-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-young; Lee, Kyung-a

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. However, respondents who had little or no knowledge about the nutritional factors of fast food accounted for 43.1%. As to their source of dietary information, students relied on themselves (31.0%), parents (20.5%) and friends (19.9%). The medium through which students got the most nutrition and health information was television (66.8%), followed by the Internet (36.7%) and magazines (29.7%). This study will enable educators to plan more effective strategies for improving the dietary knowledge of the adolescent population. PMID:20126603

  19. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. However, respondents who had little or no knowledge about the nutritional factors of fast food accounted for 43.1%. As to their source of dietary information, students relied on themselves (31.0%), parents (20.5%) and friends (19.9%). The medium through which students got the most nutrition and health information was television (66.8%), followed by the Internet (36.7%) and magazines (29.7%). This study will enable educators to plan more effective strategies for improving the dietary knowledge of the adolescent population.

  20. Impact of computer-mediated, obesity-related nutrition education interventions for adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ajie, Whitney N; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate recent research regarding the use of computer-based nutrition education interventions targeting adolescent overweight and obesity. Online databases were systematically searched using key words, and bibliographies of related articles were manually searched. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied and included studies evaluated for their ability to achieve their objectives and for quality using the Nutrition Evidence Library appraisal guidelines for research design and implementation. Of the 15 studies included, 10 were randomized controlled trials. Two studies targeted weight loss, 2 targeted weight maintenance, and 11 targeted dietary improvement with or without physical activity. At least half of in-school (60%) and nonschool interventions (80%) exhibited significantly positive effects on nutrition- or obesity-related variables. Small changes in diet, physical activity, knowledge, and self-efficacy were shown; however, few results were sustained long term. Recommendations included application of health behavior theory and computer tailoring for feedback messages. Future research should include thorough description of intervention content (messages, theory, multimedia, etc.), application of rigorous methodology, as well as consideration of covariates such as parental involvement and gender. With further research and evidentiary support, this approach to obesity-related nutrition education has the potential to be successful. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrition education and knowledge, attitude and hemoglobin status of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Hafzan; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2012-01-01

    A higher occurrence of iron deficiency anemia is present in rural Malaysia than urban Malaysia due to a lower socio-economic status of rural residents. This study was conducted in Tanah Merah, a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia. Our objective was to investigate the impact of nutrition education alone, daily iron, folate and vitamin C supplementation or both on knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin status of adolescent students. Two hundred eighty fourth year secondary students were each assigned by school to 1 of 4 different treatment groups. Each intervention was carried out for 3 months followed by 3 months without treatment. A validated self-reported knowledge and attitude questionnaire was administered; hemoglobin levels were measured before and after intervention. At baseline, no significant difference in hemoglobin was noted among the 4 groups (p = 0.06). The changes in hemoglobin levels at 3 months were 11, 4.6, 3.9 and -3.7% for the supplementation, nutrition education, combination and control groups, respectively. The changes at 6 months were 1.0, 6.8, 3.7 and -14.8%, respectively. Significant improvements in knowledge and attitude were evidenced in both the nutritional education and combination groups. The supplementation and control groups had no improvement in knowledge or attitudes. This study suggests nutritional education increases knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin levels among Malaysian secondary school adolescents.

  2. The nutritional status of children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Souza, Déborah Teixeira; Rondó, Patrícia Helen Carvalho; Reis, Ligia Cardoso

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the nutritional status of children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). One hundred and eighteen subjects aged 6-19 years attending an outpatient clinic in São Paulo city were involved in the study. The following anthropometric measurements were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. One (0.9%) adolescent was diagnosed with abdominal obesity based on waist circumference measurement; three (2.5%) adolescents were obese based on subscapular skinfold thickness. According to the body mass index, the population studied was mainly eutrophic. The prevalence of fat redistribution, a characteristic of patients with HIV/AIDS under HAART, was low. We advise the development of further studies to assess the nutritional status of children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS using anthropometric measurements as well as computed tomography to detect fat redistribution.

  3. [Nutritional habits in children and adolescents practicing fencing. Part 1. Meal consumption].

    PubMed

    Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess habits related to eating meals in children and adolescents who attended sports schools. The days with training and the days free of training were analysed separately. The questionnaires on the number and frequency of eating meals were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practised fencing and attended sports classes in primary and secondary schools. The influence of gender and age on the number and frequency of eating meals was analysed by means of the SPSS 12.0 PL for Windows computer programme. The studied children's and adolescents' habits related to eating meals were highly unfavourable, especially in females from secondary school, mainly due to a very low percentage of students who ate meals regularly, lunch in particular. Boys ate more meals than girls. Especially disconcerting was a very low number of meals eaten by females from secondary school, which may imply a risk of anorexia. Children and adolescents who attend sports schools should be educated on nutrition and the relation between food habits, nutritional status and achieving success in sport. Females from secondary schools should be informed about the danger of anorexia.

  4. Weight-based nutritional diagnosis of Mexican children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Methods Data from the first visit’s clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the Teleton Center for Children Rehabilitation, between 1999 and 2008, were analyzed. Sex, age, weight and height, length or segmental length data were collected and used to obtain the nutritional diagnosis based on international growth charts, as well as disability-specific charts. Weight for height was considered the main indicator. Results Cerebral palsy was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and Down’s syndrome. Children with cerebral palsy showed a higher risk of presenting low weight/undernutrition (LW/UN) than children with other disabilities, which was three times higher in females. In contrast, children with spina bifida, particularly males, were more likely to be overweight/obese (OW/OB), especially after the age of 6 and even more after 11. Patients with muscular dystrophy showed a significantly lower risk of LW/UN than patients with other disabilities. In patients with Down’s syndrome neither LW/UN nor OW/OB were different between age and sex. Conclusions This is the first study that provides evidence of the nutritional situation of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities in Mexico, based on their weight status. Low weight and obesity affect a large number of these patients due to their disability, age and sex. Early nutritional diagnosis must be considered an essential component in the treatment of these patients to prevent obesity and malnutrition, and improve their quality of life. PMID:22559790

  5. Birth weight and its association with blood pressure and nutritional status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Roriz; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Póvoa, Thais Rolim; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Nascente, Flávia Noggueira; Carneiro, Carolina Sousa; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Morais, Polyana; Peixoto, Maria Gondim; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Brandão Veiga

    2017-08-24

    The management of children with low birth weight is not the same in countries with different resources. The authors assessed the association of birth weight with blood pressure and nutritional status in a representative sample of adolescents from a Brazilian state, aiming to identify possible consequences of these differences. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted with adolescents (12-18 years) enrolled in public and private schools. Birth weight, office blood pressure, home blood pressure measurements, and nutritional status (body mass index, height z-score for the age, and waist circumference) were assessed. The association of birth weight with the outcomes (blood pressure, height, body mass index, and waist circumference) was studied through univariate and multivariable linear regression models. A total of 829 adolescents with a mean age of 14.6±1.62 years were included; 43.3% were male, and 37.0% from private schools. The prevalence of low birth weight was 8.7%. Mild low height prevalence was higher among those adolescents with low/insufficient birth weight when compared to those with normal/high birth weight (11.7 vs. 4.2%; p<0.001). In the multiple linear regression analysis, for each increase of 100g in birth weight, height increased by 0.28cm (95% CI: 0.18-0.37; p<0.01). Birth weight did not influence office blood pressure and home blood pressure, body mass index, or waist circumference of adolescents. Birth weight was directly associated to height, but not associated to blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference in adolescents from an urban area of a developing country. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Stephanie; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data was obtained from an adult and adolescent in each household using a confidential questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Adolescent nutritional status was evaluated using multinomial regression analysis considering distal and proximal influences. The prevalence of overweight and thinness among the sample of 1,030 adolescents was 21.9% and 4.6%, respectively. Although variables from all blocks remained in the final model, head of household education level, family habits and family nutritional status were shown to strongly influence adolescent nutritional status. New approaches to public health are needed which focus on raising awareness and promoting health education targeting teenagers and their social context.

  7. Sleep time and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Rey-López, J P; de Carvalho, H B; de Moraes, A C F; Ruiz, J R; Sjöström, M; Marcos, A; Polito, A; Gottrand, F; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Molnar, D; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to examine the association between adolescents' sleep time and a cardiometabolic risk score. A second aim was to examine associations between sleep time and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Adolescents (N=699; ages, 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study were examined. Sleep time was reported by a questionnaire. Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry (n=497). Cardiometabolic risk factors measurements included insulin resistance, blood pressure, adiposity markers, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lipids. A cardiovascular disease risk score was computed. Associations were examined by a multilevel regression analysis (linear for individual risk factors and Poisson for the clustered risk score). For school days no association was found between sleep time and cardiometabolic risk factors. At weekend days, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a clustered risk score increased by 15% for each additional hour of sleep controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES); however, the prevalence disappeared when adjusting for PA. In European adolescents sleep time is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors when important confounders are considered. Future research about sleep cardiovascular risk factors should register other sleep dimensions (sleep patterns or disturbances) to provide a better insight in this scientific field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M

    2006-08-01

    Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed.

  9. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age <15th percentile), 0.3% obese (BMI-for-age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age < or = 2SD). Risks of being thin and stunted were higher if girls had general morbidity in the last fortnight and foul-smelling vaginal discharge than their peers. Consumptions of non-staple good-quality food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and

  10. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (<-2SD) 6.1% and it was 0.7% for low weight-for-height (<-2SD). Fruits (69%) and vegetables (79.4%) consumptions were in the high level. The authors found that the students always consumed commercial snacks especially salted chips more often than regular Thai dessert (74.0% VS 52.3%). The inappropriate behavior found in the present study included always drinking caffeine beverage (43.5%), always drinking alcoholic beverage (6.5%) and always consuming instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  11. Changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China from 1995 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2011-07-01

    Nutritional status of children and adolescents has long been known to be a determinant of health and disease; both obesity and underweight are associated with health consequences. However, no studies have been reported on changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China. The present study assessed the changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong Province from 1995 to 2005. Data used derived from two national surveys on students' constitution and health carried out by the government in 1995 and 2005 in Shandong Province, China. Increments of stature, body weight, body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (Hb) for children and adolescents aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years were reported. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were obtained according to the screening criteria of underweight, overweight and obesity for Chinese students using BMI and prevalence of anaemia was obtained according to the WHO criteria. Means of stature, body weight, BMI and Hb for both boys and girls surveyed in 2005 were significantly higher than 1995 values. The range of increments of stature and body weight for adolescents aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years were 1.95-3.66 cm and 2.21-6.25 kg for boys and 1.40-2.91 cm and 1.48-3.10 kg for girls. In the past 10 years, rates of overweight and obesity increased, while underweight was not as evident: for overweight from 7.95% (boys) and 5.21% (girls) in 1995 to 13.62% (boys) and 8.25% (girls) in 2005; and for obesity from 3.48% (boys) and 2.07% (girls) in 1995 to 11.17% (boys) and 5.64% (girls) in 2005. The rate of anaemia decreased, from 19.99% (boys) and 23.43% (girls) in 1995 to 10.28% (boys) and 13.07% (girls) in 2005. The nutritional status of children and adolescents has shown some improvement, although prevalence of overweight and obesity increased significantly during the 10-year period. Concerted efforts should be made to appropriately control the prevalence of overweight and

  12. Physiological, biomechanical and anthropometrical predictors of sprint swimming performance in adolescent swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L; Rodriguez, Ferran A; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔLa). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ∆La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key pointsThis study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys.Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90

  13. Physiological, Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Predictors of Sprint Swimming Performance in Adolescent Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Rämson, Raul; Haljaste, Kaja; Keskinen, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Ferran A.; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between 100-m front crawl swimming performance and relevant biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters in male adolescent swimmers. Twenty five male swimmers (mean ± SD: age 15. 2 ± 1.9 years; height 1.76 ± 0.09 m; body mass 63.3 ± 10.9 kg) performed an all-out 100-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to collect expired air. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart. Swimming velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length and stroke index (SI) were assessed during the test by time video analysis. Blood samples for lactate measurement were taken from the fingertip pre exercise and at the third and fifth minute of recovery to estimate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔLa). The energy cost of swimming was estimated from oxygen uptake and blood lactate energy equivalent values. Basic anthropometry included body height, body mass and arm span. Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results indicate that biomechanical factors (90.3%) explained most of 100-m front crawl swimming performance variability in these adolescent male swimmers, followed by anthropometrical (45.8%) and physiological (45.2%) parameters. SI was the best single predictor of performance, while arm span and ∆La were the best anthropometrical and physiological indicators, respectively. SI and SR alone explained 92.6% of the variance in competitive performance. These results confirm the importance of considering specific stroke technical parameters when predicting success in young swimmers. Key points This study investigated the influence of different anthropometrical, physiological and biomechanical parameters on 100-m swimming performance in adolescent boys. Biomechanical factors contributed most to sprint swimming performance in these young male swimmers (90

  14. Associations Between Marital Conflict and Adolescent Conflict Appraisals, Stress Physiology, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Dumitrache, Adina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine conflict appraisals and diurnal cortisol production as mediators of the robust association between marital conflict and adolescent adjustment problems. Parents reported their marital conflict and were observed engaging in a marital conflict discussion; they also reported adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Adolescents (n = 105, 52% female, 10–17 years of age) appraised their parents’ marital conflict and reported their internalizing and externalizing behaviors. After the laboratory visit, adolescents provided four saliva samples on each of 2 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol production. More-negative marital conflict predicted more self-blame for parental conflict, which in turn predicted less robust decreases in cortisol across the day. Further, this flattened cortisol production pattern mediated the relationship between greater self-blame for parental conflict and adolescents’ elevated internalizing behaviors. Feeling responsible for parental conflict appears to be particularly damaging in terms of physiological regulation and adjustment, and may therefore be a particularly useful intervention target. PMID:26136117

  15. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  16. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  17. Development of a performance-rating scale for a nutrition knowledge test developed for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whati, Lindiwe; Senekal, Marjanne; Steyn, Nelia P; Lombard, Carl; Nel, Johanna

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (i) develop and validate a norm-referenced performance-rating scale to interpret a nutrition knowledge test developed for urban adolescents and (ii) develop a prototype for other researchers to follow when developing nutrition knowledge tests. For norm development the nutrition knowledge test (questionnaire) was administered to a sample representative of the questionnaire target group, referred to as the norm group. These included 512 adolescents in grades 8 (n 158), 10 (n 149) and 12 (n 205) at three randomly selected schools in Soweto and Johannesburg. The performance scores (in percentages) obtained by the norm group were transformed to Z-scores which were categorised into stanines using established Z-score cut-off points. For validation purposes the questionnaire was completed by 148 volunteers: sixty university dietetics students, nineteen non-nutrition university students and sixty-nine primary-school teachers. As required of an ideal norm group, the Z-scores formed a normal distribution (a bell-shaped curve). To facilitate interpretation of the results, the Z-score cut-off points for these categories were transformed back to performance scores (percentages) so that the performance of a testee could be interpreted directly from his/her performance in percentage. As is recommended, the nine stanine categories were reduced to five: very poor, fair/below average, good/average, very good/above average and excellent. The discriminatory validity of the norms was substantiated by showing that groups with known nutrition knowledge levels were rated appropriately and that the performance ratings of these groups differed significantly, with university dietetics students scoring 98.3%, primary-school teachers 20.3% and non-nutrition university students 31.6%. The norm-referenced performance-rating scale can be used with confidence to interpret the performance score achieved by a testee on the nutrition knowledge test developed

  18. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Parízková, J

    2000-03-01

    The overall situation as regards dietary intake and nutritional status in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has varied considerably during previous decades; however, after the political, social and economic changes during the nineties these differences have increased further, especially in the areas with low GDP and war, and in the regions affected by radionuclides etc. No systematic surveillance systems in representative samples of adolescents were in effect at the beginning of the nineties in Central and Eastern Europe. There exists relatively more data on nutritional status characterized by body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness measurements. Food intake has mainly been followed in smaller samples of adolescents, and or in special groups (athletes, obese, vegetarians, allergies, Romanies, pupils of special schools etc.). In the countries and/or areas with sufficient GDP and income the food intake has most often been too abundant when considering the real needs of the growing organism, especially from the point of view of energy output. The composition of the diet is not adequate, i.e. too much protein, fats, sugar etc. This situation is similar to that in Western countries, USA etc. On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries. This is mainly due to bad eating habits and nutritional traditions in the families, but also due to the changes of the prices of the mentioned foodstuffs after political and economic changes in this part of the world. Certain nutritional deficiencies were also shown as factors increasing the health risks from the Chernobyl disaster, mainly in the Ukraine, Belorussia and certain parts of Poland.

  19. Adolescent Cooking Abilities and Behaviors: Associations With Nutrition and Emotional Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs; Dyson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between cooking and selected indicators of diet quality, mental well-being, and family relationships. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative health and well-being survey. Secondary schools in New Zealand. A total of 8,500 students. Cooking ability and frequency of cooking, nutritional behaviors, mental well-being, depressive symptoms, and family connections. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between cooking ability/frequency and indicators of health and well-being, controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics of students. Approximately 80% of students reported that they can cook a meal from basic ingredients either fairly or very easily. Reported cooking ability was positively associated with better nutritional indicators, better mental health indicators, and stronger family connections (P = .01). For example, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities were approximately twice as likely to meet the recommendations for fruits and vegetables (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.8). Likewise, adolescents reporting the greatest cooking abilities also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms (P < .01) and greater mental well-being (P < .01) than those with less cooking ability. However, greater cooking ability was also associated with higher body mass index (P < .01). Overall, similar statistically significant relationships were observed with frequency of cooking, although not for young people who cook most days. Learning to cook and having the opportunity to cook may provide a unique means for adolescents to develop life skills and contribute positively to their families. Future research examining the relationships between cooking and health may include measures beyond nutrition, such as social relationships and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. The gluten-free diet: a nutritional risk factor for adolescents with celiac disease?

    PubMed

    Mariani, P; Viti, M G; Montuori, M; La Vecchia, A; Cipolletta, E; Calvani, L; Bonamico, M

    1998-11-01

    The gluten-free diet is the standard therapy for patients affected by celiac disease, although compliance with the diet is not optimal in adolescents or adults. Moreover, the gluten-free diet may induce nutritional imbalances. Alimentary habits and diet composition were examined in 47 adolescents with celiac disease and 47 healthy aged-matched control subjects. All subjects compiled a 3-day alimentary record that allowed determination of their energy intakes: the macronutrient composition of their diets; and their iron, calcium, and fiber intakes. To evaluate compliance with the gluten-free diet, immunoglobulin A antigliadin and antiendomysium antibodies were assessed in all with celiac disease. The analysis of the records and the results of antibody levels showed that 25 subjects strictly followed dietetic prescriptions (group 1A), whereas 22 patients consumed gluten-containing food (group 1B). Those with celiac disease and control subjects (group 2) consumed a normocaloric diet. Lipid and protein consumption was high, however, and the consumption of carbohydrates low. Moreover, dietary levels of calcium, fiber, and especially in girls, iron, were low. These nutritional imbalances were significantly more evident in group 1A than in group 1B, as a consequence of poor alimentary choices. Moreover, in group 1A overweight and obesity were more frequent (72%) than in group 1B (51%) and in the control subjects (47%). In people with celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet worsens the already nutritionally unbalanced diet of adolescents, increasing elevated protein and lipid consumption. In the follow-up of patients with celiac disease, considerable effort has yet to be made to improve compliance with a gluten-free diet, and especially to control the nutritional balance of the diet in compliant patients.

  1. Nutritional interventions for adolescents using information and communication technologies (ICTs): A systematic review.

    PubMed

    do Amaral E Melo, Giselle Rhaisa; de Carvalho Silva Vargas, Fernanda; Dos Santos Chagas, Carolina Martins; Toral, Natacha

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective and interactive way of promoting healthy nutrition behaviors among adolescents is using information and communication technologies (ICTs). We systematically reviewed studies to identify technologies and their main characteristics used for nutritional interventions for adolescents, as well as to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Our full protocol is available on the PROSPERO website (#CRD42016035882). A search was conducted across five databases for articles describing nutritional interventions that used ICTs designed mainly for healthy adolescents. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and observational studies, and full and original papers, all of them published from 2005 to 2015, were included. Study quality was assessed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Our search yielded 559 titles and abstracts. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Participants were recruited mostly from schools. Study follow-up ranged from two weeks to two years. Four interventions were based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Interventional strategies included computer games, programs, text messages, and interactive CD-ROMs. Nine studies used computer-mediated ICTs. Five studies focused on multiple behaviors simultaneously. Participants were exposed to interventions only once, daily, weekly, or according to a pre-determined number of lessons. Five studies had significant outcomes. Our quality assessment revealed three studies to be weak due to non-representativeness of their samples and usage of non-validated questionnaires. Besides the heterogeneity and poor quality of the analyzed studies, it can be suggested that long-term interventions for adolescents that make use of frequent exposure to technological resources, and that have a theoretical component aimed at a single health behavior change, tend to be more successful.

  2. Nutritional status among adolescent girls in children's homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole

    2017-03-25

    Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B12, C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Geographic location, sex and nutritional status play an important role in body image concerns among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2013-03-01

    This study compared body image concerns among adolescents from different geographic locations in Brazil, and the influence of sex and nutritional status. Seven hundred eighty-eight adolescents completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and had their weight and height measured. There were significant cross-regional differences in BSQ scores. Also, body image concerns were more prevalent among girls and among overweight adolescents. It is suggested that sex and nutritional status may play an important role in body image concerns, which is more common between adolescents from urban areas. Furthermore, our findings contribute to the literature by examining patterns of body image concerns within subgroups of adolescents who have received little research attention on these issues.

  4. Understanding gender norms, nutrition, and physical activity in adolescent girls: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Rehman, Laurene; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-01-24

    Public health is currently focused on childhood obesity, and the associated behaviors of physical activity and nutrition. Canadian youth are insufficiently active and do not meet nutritional guidelines. This is of particular concern for adolescent girls, as they are less active than boys, become less active as they age, and engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors. The purpose of this review is to determine what is known from the existing literature about how gender norms are understood in relation to the health-related behaviors of PA and nutrition in young girls. This scoping review follows the framework of Arksey and O'Malley, involving defining a research question, study identification and selection, charting, interpretation, summarizing, and reporting. In total, 28 documents are reviewed, and characteristics are summarized quantitatively and qualitatively. Five major themes are identified: (1) Girls' relationships with PA are complex and require negotiating gender roles, (2) the literature focuses on dieting rather than nutrition, (3) appearance and perceptions influence behaviors, (4) "body" focused discourse is significant to girls' experiences, and (5) social influences, institutions, and environments are influential and may offer opportunity for future research and action. Gaps in the literature are identified and discussed. It is concluded that young girls' activity and nutrition is affected by gender norms and feminine ideals through complex negotiations, perceptions, body-centered discourse, and societal influences.

  5. Comparison of nutritional intake in US adolescent swimmers and non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andy C.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L.; McClanahan, Barbara S.; Vukadinovich, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis. PMID:27672430

  6. Comparison of nutritional intake in US adolescent swimmers and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andy C; Ward, Kenneth D; Mirza, Bridget; Slawson, Deborah L; McClanahan, Barbara S; Vukadinovich, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Swimming is a very popular sport among adolescents in the US. Little is known about the diet of competitive adolescent swimmers in the US but data from other countries indicate several inadequacies, including excessive intake of fat and lower than recommended intake of carbohydrate and several micronutrients that may affect athletic performance and bone accrual. We assessed usual diet, using a food frequency questionnaire and calcium checklist, among 191 adolescent males and females [91 swimmers (mean 13.7, s = 2.5 years) and 100 non-athletes (mean 14.4, s = 2.8 years)]. For both males and females, swimmers and non-athletes generally had similar average intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients, including higher than recommended amounts of total fat (36%) and saturated fat (12%), and inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, and daily servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products. This first study of nutritional intake among adolescent swimmers in the US suggests that dietary habits of adolescents who swim competitively may jeopardize optimal athletic performance and place them at risk for future chronic diseases, including osteoporosis.

  7. The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C D

    1994-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence that supports working hypotheses for the roles of boron in animal model systems. It is well established that vascular plants, diatoms, and some species of marine algal flagellates have acquired an absolute requirement for boron, although the primary role of boron in plants remains unknown. Recent research findings suggest that physiologic amounts of supplemental dietary boron (PSB) affect a wide range of metabolic parameters in the chick and rat model systems. Much of the current interest in boron animal nutrition began with the initial finding that PSB stimulates growth in cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)-deficient chicks, but does not markedly affect growth in chicks receiving adequate vitamin D3 nutriture. The finding suggests that boron affects some aspect of vitamin D3 metabolism or is synergistic with vitamin D3 in influencing growth. Vitamin D3 regulates energy substrate utilization, and current research findings indicate that dietary boron modifies that regulatory function. The concentration of circulating glucose, the most thoroughly investigated metabolite to date, responds to PSB, especially during concomitant vitamin D3 deficiency. In chicks, PSB substantially alleviated or corrected vitamin D3 deficiency-induced elevations in plasma glucose concentrations. The influence of vitamin D3 on cartilage and bone mineralization is mediated in part through its role as a regulator of energy substrate utilization; calcification is an energy-intensive process. There is considerable evidence that dietary boron alleviates perturbations in mineral metabolism that are characteristic of vitamin D3 deficiency. In rachitic chicks, PSB alleviated distortion of the marrow sprouts of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, a distortion characteristic of vitamin D3 deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889878

  8. Physiological, Pharmacological, and Nutritional Regulation of Circulating Adiponectin Concentrations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone that links visceral adiposity with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. It is unique among adipocyte-derived hormones in that its circulating concentrations are inversely proportional to adiposity, and low adiponectin concentrations predict the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, in the decade since its discovery, adiponectin has generated immense interest as a potential therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. This review summarizes current research regarding the regulation of circulating adiponectin concentrations by physiological, pharmacological, and nutritional factors, with an emphasis on human studies. In humans, plasma adiponectin concentrations are influenced by age and gender, and are inversely proportional to visceral adiposity. In vitro studies suggest that adiponectin production may be determined primarily by adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity, with larger, insulin-resistant adipocytes producing less adiponectin. While adiponectin concentrations are unchanged after meal ingestion, they are increased by significant weight loss, such as after bariatric surgery. In addition, adiponectin production is inhibited by a number of hormones, including testosterone, prolactin, glucocorticoids and growth hormone, and by inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Smoking decreases, while moderate alcohol consumption increases, circulating adiponectin concentrations. Dietary fatty acid composition in rodents influences adiponectin production via ligand-activated nuclear receptors (PPARs); however, current evidence in humans is equivocal. In addition to PPAR agonists (such as thiazolidinediones and fibrates), a number of pharmacological agents (angiotensin receptor type 1 blockers, ACE inhibitors, and cannabinoid receptor antagonists) used in treatment of the metabolic syndrome also increase adiponectin concentrations in humans. PMID:18510434

  9. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. Objectives: The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Patients and Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Results: Anxiety (χ2 = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ2 = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ2 = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Conclusions: Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems. PMID:27284280

  10. Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; Breidenassel, Christina; Moreno, Luis A; Ferrari, Marika; Kersting, Matilde; De Henauw, Stefaan; Gottrand, Frederic; Azzini, Elena; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Stehle, Peter

    2012-03-01

    An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ≥ 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.

  11. Relationship between family meals away from home and nutritional status of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cynthia, J; Zalilah, M S; Lim, M Y

    2013-04-01

    Despite the many benefits of family meals, data on association between family meals away from home (FMAFH) and nutritional status of adolescents is limited. This study determined the association between FMAFH with dietary intake and body mass index of adolescents (N = 408). Data were obtained through interviewer-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements of adolescents. Respondents comprised 53.7% females, 67.6% Chinese with the mean age of sample being 13.7 +/- 0.6 years old. Generally, male adolescents had higher intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients. All nutrients except calcium (51.3%), iron (females--54.7%) and vitamin A (females--86.1%) met the recommended intakes. A higher proportion of male (25.4%) than female (13.6%) adolescents were overweight and obese. About 44% of respondents had family meals > or = 7 times in the previous week with 48.9% reported having family meals at home > or = 7 times weekly. The majority (91.2%) of adolescents had FMAFH at least once a week either at restaurants (53%), fast food outlets (41.6%), food courts in shopping complexes (40%) or food stalls (30.2%). As the frequency of FMAFH increased, there was an increasing trend in energy and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. However, only energy-adjusted fat intake was significantly high (p < 0.05) in adolescents having FMAFH > 7 times weekly. No significant association was observed for frequency of FMAFH and body mass index. With increasing dependence on foods outside the home, FMAFH can be a source of healthy diet for families provided they have the knowledge, skills and motivation to make healthy food choices.

  12. Parental-adolescent drug use discussions: physiological responses and associated outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hansen, Amysue; Simmons, Jessica; Mayes, Linda C; Hommer, Rebecca E; Crowley, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Although talking to youth about drugs is often recommended to parents, we know little about how parents actually discuss drugs with their children in the moment and how parental advice is linked to youth arousal and substance use. This study examined observed parental drug use advice and parenting behaviors during parent-adolescent drug use discussions and associations with adolescent physiological responses and substance use. Fifty-eight 12-17 year olds and their primary caregivers participated in a laboratory session in which parents and youth discussed the topic of alcohol and/or drug use for 10 minutes. This discussion was videotaped and coded for drug use advice (rules against drug use, information on drug use consequences, scenarios or learning advice [discussing drug use scenarios and what the child has learned about drugs]) and general parenting behaviors (parental warmth and/or support, negative and/or critical parenting). Before, during, and after the discussions, adolescents' heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Parental discussion of scenarios and/or learning was associated with lower adolescent BP responses to the discussions and lower likelihood of substance use. Parental discussion of rules against drug use was associated with higher heart rate and BP responses and greater likelihood of substance use. Criticism and/or negative parenting was associated with higher cortisol responses and greater likelihood of substance use at a trend level. Parenting characterized by greater discussion of drug use scenarios and less stating of rules against drug use and criticism may make youth feel more comfortable and be linked to lower substance use. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: specific recommendations for female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Le Meur, Yann

    2011-10-01

    Gender-based differences in the physiological response to exercise have been studied extensively for the last four decades, and yet the study of post-exercise, gender-specific recovery has only been developing in more recent years. This review of the literature aims to present the current state of knowledge in this field, focusing on some of the most pertinent aspects of physiological recovery in female athletes and how metabolic, thermoregulatory, or inflammation and repair processes may differ from those observed in male athletes. Scientific investigations on the effect of gender on substrate utilization during exercise have yielded conflicting results. Factors contributing to the lack of agreement between studies include differences in subject dietary or training status, exercise intensity or duration, as well as the variations in ovarian hormone concentrations between different menstrual cycle phases in female subjects, as all are known to affect substrate metabolism during sub-maximal exercise. If greater fatty acid mobilization occurs in females during prolonged exercise compared with males, the inverse is observed during the recovery phase. This could explain why, despite mobilizing lipids to a greater extent than males during exercise, females lose less fat mass than their male counterparts over the course of a physical training programme. Where nutritional strategies are concerned, no difference appears between males and females in their capacity to replenish glycogen stores; optimal timing for carbohydrate intake does not differ between genders, and athletes must consume carbohydrates as soon as possible after exercise in order to maximize glycogen store repletion. While lipid intake should be limited in the immediate post-exercise period in order to favour carbohydrate and protein intake, in the scope of the athlete's general diet, lipid intake should be maintained at an adequate level (30%). This is particularly important for females specializing in

  14. Changes in the nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu

    2016-10-01

    Nutritional status during childhood plays an important role in the human life cycle. The present study examined the prevalence trends in different grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. Data for the study were obtained from six cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren carried out in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. Height and weight of all children were measured; BMI was calculated from their height and weight. International BMI cut-offs were used to define thinness, overweight and obesity. Shandong Province, China. A total of 56 045 students aged 7-18 years were included in the current analysis. In the past 29 years, the prevalence of thinness decreased from 18·22 % and 23·45 % in 1985 to 7·18 % and 9·49 % in 2014 for boys and girls, respectively. Conversely, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity increased from 1·79 % and 1·66 % in 1985 to 31·12 % and 20·11 % in 2014 for boys and girls, respectively. The nutritional profile of Shandong children and adolescents had an obvious change over the past 29 years. Special attention should be paid to controlling the rapid rise of childhood overweight and obesity.

  15. The sociodemographic correlates of nutritional status of school adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Lien, Nanna; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Dalen, Ingvild; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this article was to describe the relationship between sociodemographic factors and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI], height for age, and anemia) in adolescents. In 2002, a cross-sectional study comprising 824 students aged 12 to 14 years from 8 schools in 2 prefectures in Jiangsu province of China had their height, weight, and hemoglobin level measured. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic information. The prevalence of underweight was low in the overall sample (5.2%). The prevalence of stunting also was low (2.9%), and the differences between residential areas and sociodemographic groups were small. The percentage of overweight/obesity was higher among boys (17.9%) than girls (8.9%). Male students having fathers with a high educational level had the highest percentage of overweight and obesity (27.8%). Household socioeconomic status (SES) was associated positively with BMI. Family size, gender, and the father's level of education also were related to BMI. The percentage of anemia was somewhat higher among girls (23.4%) than boys (17.2%). Anemia coexisted with underweight. No urban/rural or SES differences in the percentage of students with anemia were observed in the sample, but differences between regions and schools were very significant. Undernutrition was not a problem in the research area. Nutritional status was associated with SES and region. Overnutrition and anemia in adolescents are important nutritional problems in Jiangsu, China. Intervention programs are needed to address these problems.

  16. Nutritional status of children and adolescents from a town in the semiarid Northeastern Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Temoteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Costa, Emília Chagas; Asakura, Leiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of schoolchildren, resident in a semiarid region in the Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, involving 860 children and adolescents aged from 5-19 years-old, enrolled in three public schools in the county. The selection of schools was non-probabilistic type and unintentional. The initial population, which integrated the database, was composed by 1,035 children and teenagers, and 175 students (16.9%) were excluded because of inconsistency in the anthropometric data, resulting in a sample of 860 students. The following outcomes were considered: stunting (malnutrition), overweight and obesity (overweight), being the height/age and body mass index/age (BMI/Age), indices respectively used. Children and adolescents with height <-2 standard deviations and overweight and obese weight z score ≥1 were considered stunted. The statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was 9.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Overweight and stunting were higher in adolescents aged 15 and over, compared to other age groups analyzed. In relation to gender, malnutrition presented itself in a similar way, but overweight was more frequent among females. Conclusions: The results revealed that excess weight, here represented by the sum of overweight and obesity, was more prevalent than stunting (malnutrition), highlighting the urgent need for attention to this problem in order to design interventions capable of contributing to the improvement of schoolchildren nutritional status. PMID:25479850

  17. Nutrition-related health behaviours and prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Klimberg, Aneta; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Krzysztof; Piątek, Jacek; Wojtyła, Cezary; Sygit, Marian; Ignyś, Iwona; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2013-01-01

    An adequate mode of nutrition is among the most important environmental factors affecting the development of Man and maintenance of a good health status. An improper selection of nutrients and irregular consumption of meals may lead to overweight and obesity. The characteristics of health behaviours of the examined population of schoolchildren, with consideration of nutrition and body weight disorders. A comparison of the opinions of schoolchildren and their parents concerning health behaviours. Development of guidelines for educational programmes carried out in the place of residence of the population of schoolchildren and their parents. The survey covered a randomised group of schoolchildren attending elementary and secondary schools in the Kalisz Province and province of the city of Kalisz. The study was conducted in May and June 2009, in a randomly selected representative group of 1,100 boys and girls from classes V and VI of elementary schools, and 1,100 secondary school adolescents aged 16-19 and their parents. The studies of schoolchildren attending elementary and secondary schools were compared with the all-Polish studies of junior high school adolescents in the school year 2006-2007. The respondents most often consumed 3-4 meals; however, as many as 26% of junior high school adolescents and 27% of secondary school adolescents admitted that they consume only one meal daily. The schoolchildren show inadequate nutritional habits concerning an insufficient consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish, in favour of high calorific meals and sweet snacks and drinks. Parents improperly assess the body weight of their children and perceive them as slimmer, which is not confirmed by the BMI value for age and gender. Systematic monitoring and analysis of changes in the health behaviours of adolescents should be a basis for planning health education and promotion programmes. Educational programmes concerning various aspects of health should be implemented in an

  18. Repressive-defensive style and physiological reactivity among children and adolescents with asthma.

    PubMed

    Nassau, J H; Fritz, G K; McQuaid, E L

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluates the concordance of two self-report methods of operationalizing repressive-defensive style in children with asthma. It was hypothesized that, compared with low-anxious children, repressive-defensive children would exhibit increased physiological reactivity during a stressful laboratory task, despite comparable self-reports of state anxiety. Ninety-one children and adolescents (mean age = 11.5 years) with asthma participated in the study. Repressive-defensiveness was operationalized as self-reported low distress coupled with high defensiveness or restraint. Self-report data reflecting trait anxiety, defensiveness, and personality style were used to classify children as repressive-defensive by two independent methods. Physiological reactivity was operationalized as standardized changes in peripheral temperature, heart rate, and/or skin conductance from baseline to a stressful task. For the stressful task, children spoke into a tape recorder about a stressful or embarrassing event. Each method classified 20% of children as repressive-defensive. However, of the children classified as repressive-defensive by either method (n = 26), only 38% (n = 10) were classified as repressive-defensive by both methods. In addition, regardless of the classification method, repressive-defensive children did not consistently differ from low-anxious children with respect to physiological reactivity under stress, one of the hallmarks of repressive-defensiveness in adults. These results cast doubt on our ability to measure repressive-defensiveness reliably using self-report measures. Future research should determine whether children and adolescents can be reliably classified as repressive-defensive, whether this classification is related to physiological reactivity as in adults, and whether repressive-defensiveness plays a role in emotionally triggered asthma symptoms.

  19. Oral physiology, nutrition and quality of life in diabetic patients associated or not with hypertension and beta-blockers therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L J; Foureaux, R C; Pereira, C V; Alves, M C; Campos, C H; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M; Andrade, E F; Gonçalves, T M S V

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes oral physiology, nutritional intake and quality of life has not been fully elucidated. We assessed the impact of type 2 diabetes - exclusive or associated with hypertension with beta-blockers treatment - on oral physiology, mastication, nutrition and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was performed with 78 complete dentate subjects (15 natural teeth and six masticatory units minimum; without removable or fixed prostheses), divided into three groups: diabetics (DM) (n = 20; 45·4 ± 9·5 years), diabetics with hypertension and receiving beta-blockers treatment (DMH) (n = 19; 41·1 ± 5·1 years) and controls (n = 39; 44·5 ± 11·7 years) matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. Blood glucose, masticatory performance, swallowing threshold, taste, food intake, stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity of saliva were assessed. Glycemia was higher in DM than in controls (P < 0·01). No differences were observed between DM and controls for nutrition and quality of life. Both stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate were lower in DMH (P < 0·01), which also presented the lowest number of teeth and masticatory units (P < 0·0001), and reduction in the number of chewing cycles (P < 0·01). Controls showed lower Decayed Missing Filled Teeth index (DMFT) scores in comparison with DMH (P = 0·021). Masticatory performance and saliva buffering capacity were similar among groups. Exclusive type 2 diabetes did not alter oral physiology, nutrition or quality of life. However, when hypertension and beta-blockers treatment were associated with diabetes, the salivary flow rate, chewing cycles and number of teeth decreased.

  20. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences.

    PubMed

    Harnack, L; Stang, J; Story, M

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether carbonated soft drink consumption is associated with consumption of milk, fruit juice, and the nutrients concentrated in these beverages. Data collected as part of the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were analyzed. Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from 2 days of dietary recall data collected via an in-person interview. Nationally representative sample of people of all ages residing in the United States (response rate = 76.2%). Analyses were restricted to children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 1,810). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the odds of low milk and juice consumption by soft drink consumption level. To determine whether intake of select nutrients varied by soft drink consumption, multiple linear regression modeling was conducted. Analyses were conducted using sample weights and software appropriate for the survey design. Energy intake was positively associated with consumption of nondiet soft drinks. For example, mean adjusted energy intake was 1,830 kcal/day for school-aged children who were nonconsumers of soft drinks compared with 2,018 kcal/day for children in this age group who consumed an average of 9 oz of soda or more per day. Those in the highest soft drink consumption category consumed less milk and fruit juice compared with those in the lowest consumption category (nonconsumers). Nutrition education messages targeted to children and/or their parents should encourage limited consumption of soft drinks. Policies that limit children's access to soft drinks at day care centers and schools should be promoted.

  1. The nutrition contribution of dietary supplements on total nutrient intake in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Kim, D W; Lee, H; Lee, Y J; Jung, H J; Paik, H-Y; Song, Y J

    2016-02-01

    The use of dietary supplements (DSs) by children and adolescents is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of DS users and examine the nutritional contributions of DSs to total nutrient intakes in children and adolescents, using data obtained from a national survey. In total, 3134 subjects aged 9-18 years who participated in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009) were selected; the survey included 24-h recall questions on food intake and questions on DS use over the past year. Nutrient intakes from DSs were calculated using the aid of a label-based database on such supplements, and individual total nutrient intakes were derived by combining information on the foods and DSs consumed by each subject. There were 895 DS users (28.5%), 85.2% of whom (n=577) had complete DS nutrient information and were therefore defined as identified-DS users. Identified-DS users were slightly younger and had a greater household income and better nutritional knowledge than did non-users. The most frequently consumed type of supplement was a 'multivitamin and minerals' complex. For total nutrient intake, identified-DS users had a significantly higher intake of most of the nutrients, except for macronutrient and sodium than non-users. In all identified-DS users, the contribution of vitamins and minerals from DSs to total nutrient intake was higher than energy and macronutrients. DS use by children and adolescents can improve micronutrient status, but it also increases the risk of excessive intake of certain vitamins and minerals.

  2. [Results of nutritional intervention in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria Cristina A; Chiba, Sônia M; Gomes, Clóvis E T; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil F; Ancona-Lopez, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Few studies have verified longitudinally the evolution of the nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis. The objective of this study is to follow the evolution of the nutritional status, body composition and energy consumption, macronutrients and micronutrients ingested by children and adolescents by means of nutritional interventions at the Clinic of Cystic Fibrosis/Pediatric Pneumology of the Department of Pediatrics of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. 18 patients were involved in this study, thirteen males and five females with ages ranging from 0.3 to 18.4 years. We performed three evaluations: evaluation 1 (M1--prenutritional intervention), M2 after 6 months, and M3 after 12 months. In these three instances we verified: the z score for weight/age, weight/height and height/age and the calculation of a 3-day diet record. We verified the body composition (anthropometry) in M1 and M3. The nutritional interventions were hypercaloric, hyperproteic, with adequate amount of ingested macronutrients and micronutrients. We observed an increase in the z score for height/age (M1=-1.07; M2=-0.69; M3=-0.50) and fat-free mass after the nutritional interventions, without improvement in the z score for weight/height and fat mass. We verified an increase in the energy intake during M2 (139%) and M3 (132%) compared to M1 (106%). Remarkable increase in the intake of protein, calcium, iron and vitamin C by the patients was found. The occurrence of anemia was found in 44% (8/18) of the patients. The improvement of the z score in height/age and fat-free mass was probably due to the increase in energy consumption after the nutritional intervention. A significant improvement in the z score for weight/height and fat mass was not found, probably due to a gain in height and fat-free mass.

  3. Nutritional status of children and adolescents at diagnosis of hematological and solid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Priscila dos Santos Maia; de Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutritional status of child and adolescent patients with cancer at diagnosis. Methods A total of 1154 patients were included and divided into two groups: solid and hematological malignancies. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percentage weight loss. Results At diagnosis, below adequate body mass index was observed by anthropometric analysis in 10.85% of the patients – 12.2% in the solid tumor group and 9.52% in the hematologic group. The average weight loss adjusted for a period of 7 days was −2.82% in the hematologic group and −2.9% in the solid tumor group. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition is higher among patients with malignancies than in the general population, even though no difference was observed between the two groups. PMID:25453652

  4. Effects of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Glomus Species on Drought Tolerance: Physiological and Nutritional Plant Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lozano, J. M.; Azcon, R.; Gomez, M.

    1995-01-01

    The tolerance of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romana) to drought stress differed with the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal isolate with which the plants were associated. Seven fungal species belonging to the genus Glomus were studied for their ability to enhance the drought tolerance of lettuce plants. These fungi had different traits that affected the drought resistance of host plants. The ranking of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal effects on drought tolerance, based on the relative decreases in shoot dry weight, was as follows: Glomus deserticola > Glomus fasciculatum > Glomus mosseae > Glomus etunicatum > Glomus intraradices > Glomus caledonium > Glomus occultum. In this comparative study specific mycorrhizal fungi had consistent effects on plant growth, mineral uptake, the CO(inf2) exchange rate, water use efficiency, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, and proline accumulation under either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions. The ability of the isolates to maintain plant growth effectively under water stress conditions was related to higher transpiration rates, levels of leaf conductance, and proline, N, and P contents. Differences in proline accumulation in leaves among the fungal symbioses suggested that the fungi were able to induce different degrees of osmotic adjustment. The detrimental effects of drought were not related to decreases in photosynthesis or water use efficiency. Neither of these parameters was related to P nutrition. The differences in P and K acquisition, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were related to the mycorrhizal efficiencies of the different fungi. Our observations revealed the propensities of different Glomus species to assert their protective effects during plant water stress. The greater effectiveness of G. deserticola in improving water deficit tolerance was associated with the lowest level of growth reduction (9%) under stress conditions. The growth of plants

  5. Acid mist and soil Ca and Al alter the mineral nutrition and physiology of red spruce.

    PubMed

    Schaberg, P. G.; Dehayes, D. H.; Hawley, G. J.; Strimbeck, G. R.; Cumming, J. R.; Murakami, P. F.; Borer, C. H.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects and potential interactions of acid mist and soil solution Ca and Al treatments on foliar cation concentrations, membrane-associated Ca (mCa), ion leaching, growth, carbon exchange, and cold tolerance of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) saplings. Soil solution Ca additions increased foliar Ca and Zn concentrations, and increased rates of respiration early in the growing season (July). Soil Al treatment had a broad impact, reducing foliar concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, and resulting in smaller stem diameters, sapling heights and shoot lengths compared with soil treatments with no added Al. Aluminum treatment also reduced respiration when shoots were elongating in July and decreased net photosynthesis at the end of the growing season (September). Three lines of evidence suggest that Al-induced alterations in growth and physiology were independent of foliar Ca status: (1) Ca concentrations in foliage of Al-treated saplings were within the range of sufficiency established for red spruce; (2) mCa concentrations were unaffected by Al treatment; and (3) no Al x Ca interactions were detected. Acid mist treatment increased foliar Fe and K concentrations and increased leaching of Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Al from foliage. Leaching losses of Ca were more than twice those of the element with the next highest amount of leaching (Zn), and probably led to the reductions in mCa concentration and membrane stability of acid-treated saplings. Acidic mist resulted in enhanced shoot growth, and consistent reductions in foliar cold tolerance in the fall and winter. Of the few significant interactions among treatments, most involved the influence of mist pH and Al treatment on foliar nutrition. In general, reductions in cation concentration associated with Al addition were greater for pH 5.0-treated saplings than for pH 3.0-treated saplings. We propose that H(+)-induced leaching of mCa from mesophyll cells is the mechanism underlying acid-induced reductions

  6. Effects of arbuscular-mycorrhizal glomus species on drought tolerance: physiological and nutritional plant responses.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lozano, J M; Azcon, R; Gomez, M

    1995-02-01

    The tolerance of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Romana) to drought stress differed with the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal isolate with which the plants were associated. Seven fungal species belonging to the genus Glomus were studied for their ability to enhance the drought tolerance of lettuce plants. These fungi had different traits that affected the drought resistance of host plants. The ranking of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal effects on drought tolerance, based on the relative decreases in shoot dry weight, was as follows: Glomus deserticola > Glomus fasciculatum > Glomus mosseae > Glomus etunicatum > Glomus intraradices > Glomus caledonium > Glomus occultum. In this comparative study specific mycorrhizal fungi had consistent effects on plant growth, mineral uptake, the CO(inf2) exchange rate, water use efficiency, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic phosphorus use efficiency, and proline accumulation under either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions. The ability of the isolates to maintain plant growth effectively under water stress conditions was related to higher transpiration rates, levels of leaf conductance, and proline, N, and P contents. Differences in proline accumulation in leaves among the fungal symbioses suggested that the fungi were able to induce different degrees of osmotic adjustment. The detrimental effects of drought were not related to decreases in photosynthesis or water use efficiency. Neither of these parameters was related to P nutrition. The differences in P and K acquisition, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were related to the mycorrhizal efficiencies of the different fungi. Our observations revealed the propensities of different Glomus species to assert their protective effects during plant water stress. The greater effectiveness of G. deserticola in improving water deficit tolerance was associated with the lowest level of growth reduction (9%) under stress conditions. The growth of plants

  7. Active Commuting to School in Mexican Adolescents: Evidence From the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, Alejandra; Medina, Catalina; Salvo, Deborah; Barquera, Simon; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2015-08-01

    Travel to school offers a convenient way to increase physical activity (PA) levels in youth. We examined the prevalence and correlates of active commuting to school (ACS) in a nationally representative sample of Mexican adolescents. A secondary objective was to explore the association between ACS and BMI status. Using data of adolescents (10-14 years old) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2952) we ran multivariate regression models to explore the correlates of ACS and to test the association between ACS and BMI z-score or overweight/obesity. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and design effect. 70.8% of adolescents engaged in ACS (walking: 68.8%, bicycling: 2.0%). ACS was negatively associated with travel time, age, mother's education level, household motor vehicle ownership, family socioeconomic status, and living in urban areas or the North region of the country (P < .05). Time in ACS was negatively associated with overweight/obesity: Each additional minute of ACS was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds for being overweight or obese (P < .05). Potential correlates of ACS that may result in benefits for Mexican adolescents are identified. More studies on this relationship are needed to develop interventions aimed at increasing PA through ACS in Mexico.

  8. Association between Periodontal Condition and Nutritional Status of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.; RAMOS, Ianny A.; CARDOSO, Andreia M. R.; FERNANDES, Liege Helena F.; ARAGÃO, Amanda S.; SANTOS, Fábio G.; AGUIAR, Yêska P. C.; CARVALHO, Danielle F.; MEDEIROS, Carla C. M.; De S. C. SOARES, Renata; CASTRO, Ricardo D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a serious problem of public health and affects all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontal condition and nutritional status of adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a probability cluster sampling, and the sample was defined by statistical criterion, consisting of 559 students aged 15–19 yr enrolled in public schools of adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil in 2012. Socioeconomic characteristics were analyzed, as well as self-reported general and oral health, anthropometric data and periodontal condition (CPI and OHI-S). Descriptive and analytical analysis from bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analysis with 5% significance level was performed. Results: Of the 559 adolescents, 18.6% were overweight and 98.4% had some form of periodontal changes such as: bleeding (34.3%), calculus (38.8%), shallow pocket (22.9%) and deep pocket (2.3%). There was association between presence of periodontal changes with obesity (P<0.05; CI 95%: 0.99 [0.98 – 0.99]). Conclusion: The association between presence of periodontal changes and obesity status in adolescents was indicated. PMID:28053924

  9. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional Knowledge, Practice, and Dietary Habits among school Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naeeni, Marjan Manouchehri; Jafari, Sakineh; Fouladgar, Maryam; Heidari, Kamal; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fakhri, Maryam; Karami, Parvaneh; Omidi, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although nutritional status of children and adolescents is of great concern various interventions and modifications aiming at promotion of healthy eating behaviors have limited impact due to insufficient understanding of dietary habits between different age groups and genders. The aim of this study in not only evaluation of nutritional knowledge, practice, and dietary habits of primary school and junior high school students in Isfahan province, but also this research explore crucial differences regarding gender and living area of the above-mentioned population in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4700 primary school and junior high school pupils in Isfahan province. Data were collected through standard 24-h recall food frequency questionnaire and researcher-designed questionnaire. Independent t-test was applied for comparison of mean values of total units of consumed food materials. Qualitative variables were compared by using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by ACCESS 2010 and SPSS 18 software. Results: Nutritional knowledge of female pupils and junior high school students was higher than their male and elementary school students respectively; still, theses superiorities did not lead to higher practice score. Bread and cereals group received daily intakes in accordance with food and drug administration (FDA) recommendations. Indeed, vegetables, milk, and dairy products, as well as meat daily intakes, were lower than the FDA recommendation, whereas fats, oils, and sugars intakes were higher. In comparison to females, male participants had significantly lower consumption of vegetables and fruits whilst they had a higher intake of carbohydrates, fats, and meats. Conclusions: Our results showed that adolescents failed to meet sufficient nutritional requirements, and they had an imbalanced diet, which was considerably low in several essential nutrients and high in some food materials. PMID:26157569

  11. Eating habits and behaviors, physical activity, nutritional and food safety knowledge and beliefs in an adolescent Italian population.

    PubMed

    Turconi, Giovanna; Guarcello, Marianna; Maccarini, Laura; Cignoli, Federica; Setti, Stefania; Bazzano, Rosella; Roggi, Carla

    2008-02-01

    The present study evaluates eating habits and behaviors, and nutritional and food safety knowledge of a group of Italian adolescents. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested was self-administered during school time. Each section was evaluated using a separate score. The study was carried out as a part of a nutritional surveillance project in the Aosta Valley Region, Northern Italy. Five hundred and thirty-two adolescent subjects, aged 15.4 +/- 0.7 years, attending the second year of secondary schools participated in the study. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting healthy food choices, nutritional and food safety, weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI). Only 37.0% of the sample have satisfactory eating habits; 18.5% have a very active lifestyle; only 8.6% have quite good nutritional knowledge, 2.4% have satisfactory food safety knowledge, although 43.7% have good hygiene practices. The results point out unhealthy behaviors influencing adolescents' eating habits and suggest which of these must be considered in order to develop tailored nutrition interventions, improving adolescents' consciousness aimed at adopting a healthy lifestyle.

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  14. The impact of seismic air gun exposure on the haemolymph physiology and nutritional condition of spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Simon, Cedric J; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-08-11

    There is a critical knowledge gap regarding the impacts of seismic air gun signals on the physiology of adult crustaceans. We conducted four controlled field experiments to examine the impact of seismic acoustic signals on spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Seismic air gun exposure suppressed total haemocyte count (THC) for up to 120days post-exposure, suggesting a chronic negative impact of immune competency. THC levels after 365days post-exposure, were elevated two fold, potentially indicating an immune response to infection. Haemolymph refractive index was reduced after 120days post exposure in one experiment, suggesting a chronic impairment of nutritional condition. There was no effect of air gun exposure on 24 haemolymph biochemical parameters, hepatopancreas index or survival. Collectively these results indicate that the biochemical haematological homeostasis of J. edwardsii is reasonably resilient to seismic acoustic signals, however, air gun exposure may negatively influence the lobster's nutritional condition and immunological capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen.

  16. Evaluating adaptation options of microcirculatory-tissue systems based on the physiological link of nutritive blood flow and redox ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Dremin, Victor V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zhu, Simian; Nabi, Ghulam; Litvinova, Karina S.; Baklanova, Anastasia P.; Bakshaliev, Ruslan M.; Ravcheev, Sergey A.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent spectroscopy (FS) is becoming more widely used in chemistry, biology, in various fields of medical technology and medicine in general. Many purulent wounds, burns and other destructive inflammatory processes are accompanied by changes in the fluorescent activity of the tissues, which occurs due to a misbalance in accumulation of natural fluorophores: FAD, NADH, lipofuscin, porphyrins, structural proteins, etc. The study of redox ratio (RR), characterizing the metabolic processes, is important in the assessment of the metabolic activity ofmicrocirculatory-tissue systems (MTS). However, one of the big problems of the FS method is still the correct interpretation of the data and the development of practical methods for its application in clinical medicine. To solve this problem and create new diagnostic criteria, we propose to evaluate the adaptive capacity of MTS using indicators of links between nutritive blood flow and redox ratio during a physiological rest and functional load (occlusion test). As is known, these parameters (RR and nutritive blood flow) characterize the metabolic activity of tissues.We have performedan experimental study of the relationship between the RR, defined by FS, and nutritive blood flow, defined by the methods of laser Doppler flowmetry. Preliminary results in the study of a complex approach to diagnosis of the state of biological tissue were obtained. A positive relationship between the nutritive blood flow in the microcirculatory channel and RR of skin tissue is observed.The speed of change of metabolism in the phase of occlusion and reperfusion and duration of phase of recovery may be the criteria for adaptive capabilities of MTS, which has practical significance for physiology and medicine.

  17. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  18. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  19. Towards a physiological signal-based access solution for a non-verbal adolescent with severe and multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Memarian, Negar; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    To find physiologically arousing stimuli and labile physiological channels in a non-verbal adolescent with severe and multiple congenital disabilities, who did not have a reliable means of communication. The client was repeatedly presented with visual and audiovisual stimuli, representing variations of six contextual factors over three sessions in a one month period. For each stimulus, reactions were detected in the client's four peripheral autonomic nervous system signals using a rule-based classification algorithm. During the presentation of audiovisual stimuli, the number of physiological reactions significantly differed from that observed in baseline (χ(2) = 3.93, p = 0.0476). Aural stimuli articulated in an unfamiliar voice, and aural stimuli containing anticipatory patterns were also physiologically arousing. Fingertip temperature was the client's most labile physiological signal. The results of this case study suggest that physiological data may complement caregiver acumen in deciphering the reactions of non-verbal clients with severe and multiple disabilities.

  20. Evaluation of nutritional status of children and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmała, Jacek; Matusik, Paweł; Piotrowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes during childhood and adolescence. It is markedly different in children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of patients with IS based on standard anthropometric indices and bioimpedance measurements (BIA). 59 patients with IS (45 girls/ 14 boys) at a mean age of 13.37 ± 2.67 years were qualified into the study. Scoliotic curves were assessed radiographically by measuring Cobb's angle and apical vertebral rotation (AVR, standing A-P view). Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and the body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for each participant. A bioelectrical impedance analyzer was used to assess body composition in every child. 64.4% of the children in the study had normal weight, while 23.7% of them were underweight and 11.9% overweight or obese. More patients in the juvenile IS group were underweight and fewer were overweight compared with the adolescent IS (AIS) group. Normal nutritional status was found significantly more frequently in girls. Body composition correlated significantly with scoliotic curve severity in the study group. Higher correlation coefficients were seen in overweight and obese patients, but significance was reached only for predicted muscle mass. WHtR correlated significantly with curve severity in the entire group, in AIS patients and in girls. Scoliotic curve severity also correlated significantly with the degree, as measured by the BMI Z-score, of both overweight (positively) and underweight (negatively). 1. Overweight and obesity appear to have a similar prevalence in scoliotic adolescents and in the general pediatric population. 2. Scoliotic curve severity appears to be related to body composition parameters, especially in overweight and obese patients. 3. Adipose tissue distribution measured by WHtR seems to be significantly related to the clinical grade of IS. 4

  1. Evolution of 29 Anthropometric, Nutritional, and Cardiometabolic Parameters Among Morbidly Obese Adolescents 2 Years Post Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Wahiba; El Ansari, Walid; Abdulrazzaq, Sama; Abdullah, Ali; Elsherif, Mohamed; Elgenaied, Israa

    2017-08-18

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular treatment for adolescent morbid obesity. Research on LSG outcomes among adolescents assessed a narrow range of anthropometric, nutritional, or cardiometabolic parameters, leading to an incomplete picture of these changes. We examined a wide variety of anthropometric, nutritional, and cardiometabolic parameters among adolescents before and after LSG. We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all obese adolescents who underwent LSG at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar, between January 2011 and June 2015 (N = 102). We assessed preoperative levels and postoperative changes in 4 anthropometric, 15 nutritional, and 10 cardiometabolic parameters. The study sample comprised 79 patients with complete information (36 males, mean age 15.99 ± 1.1 years). At a mean of 24.2 months post-LSG, we observed (1) significantly reduced mean weight and body mass index by 51.82 ± 28.1 kg and 17 ± 6.24 kg/m(2), respectively; (2) the highest prevalence of post-LSG deficiencies pertained to vitamin D, albumin, and ferritin (89.3, 38, and 33.3%, respectively); (3) low hemoglobin levels (29.3%) only in females; (4) trace elements were not deficient; (4) significant reductions in percentage of adolescents with elevated low-density lipoprotein (from 66.1 to 38.9%), alanine aminotransferase (from 45.3 to 10.9%), and aspartate aminotransferase (from 24.1 to 8.6%) levels; (5) 100% remission of prediabetes cases; and (6) 80% remission of type 2 diabetes cases. LSG achieved significant weight loss and improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors among adolescents. However, the slight worsening of preexisting nutritional deficiencies warrants careful preoperative surveillance and appropriate postoperative nutritional supplementation.

  2. Long-term effects of surgically implanted telemetry tags on the nutritional physiology and condition of wild freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Michelle; O'Connor, Constance M; Hasler, Caleb T; Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-03-09

    Little is known about the long-term consequences of surgically implanted telemetry devices on wild fish, as they are rarely recaptured. We used wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides as a model to evaluate the long-term impacts of telemetry devices on fish physiology and nutritional condition in a closed freshwater lake where recapture rates were reasonably high. Between 2003 and 2005, 68 fish were surgically implanted with acoustic telemetry devices. Between 2005 and 2008, 17 of the tagged fish were recaptured after carrying a transmitter for 335 to 1402 d. Incision sites were examined, and individuals were non-lethally sampled for blood and measured prior to release. Plasma samples were analysed, and physiological measures of stress (glucose, Na+, Cl-, K+), tissue damage (aspartate aminotransferase), and nutritional status (Ca++, Mg+, phosphorus, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol) were compared between fish carrying transmitters and temporally- and size-matched controls. Of the 17 recaptured fish, 3 retained at least 1 of the absorbable monofilament sutures and showed localised signs of inflammation and infection despite an elapsed time of 362 d post surgery. Five individuals showed signs of pressure necrosis at the incision site despite the fact that the transmitters averaged only 1.89% (range: 0.84 to 3.59%) of the body mass. There was no difference in any physiological parameter measured between the 2 groups, or within the telemetered fish, in relation to days since tagging or condition of the incision site. In summary, transmitter implantation was not correlated with any long-term change in any of the physiological parameters investigated. However, there is opportunity for additional research to optimise surgical techniques, guidelines on transmitter mass to body mass ratios, and choice of suture material to enhance the healing and long-term welfare of tagged fish.

  3. Nutritional factors affecting the menarcheal state of adolescent school girls in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Gehan M; El-Sayed, Nawal A; Mahdy, Nehad H; Khamis, Sally E

    2007-01-01

    The nutritional status of adolescents plays a dominant role in determining the maturation status. The aim of the present work was to assess the mean age of menarche and the main nutritional factors affecting it. A cross-sectional study of 1606 girls was conducted in primary and preparatory schools in Alexandria. Every girl was subjected to anthropometric assessment including weight, height, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference, hip circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness. BMI and body fat percentage were calculated. A 24 hours diet recall method was used to assess the dietary intake. The mean age of menarche was 11.98+/-0.96 years. The mean MUAC, triceps skin-fold thickness, waist circumference and hip circumference were significantly higher among menstruating girls as compared to non-menstruating. (p<0.01). Only 7.5% of the females less than the 5th percentile of BMI (thinness) were menstruating, while the corresponding figure for those at or more than 85th percentile (overweight) was 65.6% and this was statistically significant (X 2 (2) =102.8, P<0.001). Girls who attained menstruation demonstrated a higher significant mean percent of body fat (43.40+/-10.0) as compared to non menstruating ones (35.41+/-7.87), ( t=17.09, P<0.001). The oldest age at menarche was noted when the protein, iron and caloric intake was less than 80% of the RDAs. However after adjustment of other variables direct relation was detected between age of girls and their age of menarche and those in private school had earlier age of menarche than those in governmental one. The nutritional status of the adolescents had a significant association with the onset of menstruation and the age at menarche.

  4. [Effectiveness of the Body Mass Index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Pérez, Gladys

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic capacity of different classification criteria based on Body Mass Index in the assessment of nutritional status and to evaluate their effectiveness. The sample comprised 367 healthy pregnant adolescents in their first trimester of gestation, from a socioeconomic level IV, between Oct. 1999 and Dec. 2008. Two methodologies were applied for the nutritional classification: (1) Integral nutritional diagnosis (gold standard), and (2) Body Mass Index (BMI), using local reference values: Proyecto Venezuela and the Transversal Study of Caracas, and international reference values: Frisancho and WHO 2006. Concordances, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the Youden index were calculated. According to the gold standard and BMI, the percentage of well-nourished pregnant women ranged between 62.4% and 80.6%. Within the deficit range, Frisancho was the most effective with kappa: 0.80; sensitivity: 87.3%; specificity: 94.8%; positive likelihood ratio: 16.9, and negative likelihood ratio: 0.13; Youden index: 0.82. Within the excess range, Frisancho and the Transversal Study of Caracas were the most effective with Youden index: 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. These results revealed that Frisancho was the best criterion to diagnose malnutrition in deficit in pregnant women. All references have an adequate diagnostic capacity for the excess range, of which Frisancho and the Transversal Study of Caracas are the best. We recommend using such reference values to optimize the efficiency of the BMI indicator in diagnosing malnutrition in deficit and in excess in the first trimester of gestation in pregnant adolescents within populations with similar characteristics.

  5. Diet quality and nutritional status of rural adolescent girl beneficiaries of ICDS in north India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Anita; Passi, Santosh Jain

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the diet quality and nutritional status of beneficiaries of Adolescent Girl scheme, a national programme targeted towards their nutrition/health needs. 209 girls (aged 11-21 years) from six rural blocks - Delhi (Alipur, Kanjhawala and Mehrauli), Haryana (Madhosinghana), Rajasthan (Deeg) and Uttar Pradesh (Fatehpur Sikri) comprised the sample. Weight and height were measured and dietary intake data were gathered by one day 24 Hour Recall coupled with Food Frequency approach. Incidence of thinness ('BMI for age' <5th percentile) and stunting ('height for age' <3rd percentile) was 30.6% and 29.7%. The subjects followed a two-meal pattern and their diets were monotonous and cereal-based. 49.3% of them were found to have energy intake less than 75% of RDA while a substantial proportion of them had inadequate nutrient intake (NAR <0.66) with respect to most of the micronutrients especially iron (84.7%), folic acid (79.4%) and vitamin A (73.2%). The mean daily intake of milk and milk products, pulses, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and fruits was grossly inadequate meeting only 47%, 36%, 26%, 34% and 3% of the suggested allowances; that of fats/oils and roots/tubers was somewhat adequate meeting 65% and 72% of the allowances while the intake of cereals and sugar was almost adequate revealing a deficit of only 7% and 3%. The study reveals not only a high incidence of under-nutrition but also an inadequate energy/micronutrient intake among the beneficiaries of Adolescent Girl scheme. Therefore, sustained efforts are needed to strengthen the scheme for improving its field-level implementation.

  6. Smoking among adolescents: relation to school success, socioeconomic status nutrition and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, F; Akturk, Z; Dagdeviren, N; Dalkilic, A

    2002-08-10

    Smoking is a worldwide health problem. This study was designed to evaluate the current status and to examine some potential factors affecting smoking among adolescents. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Community based study. Of all middle and high school students in Edirne, Turkey, 883 (6.83%) were randomly sampled. Mean age of the subjects was 15.0 +/- 1.8 years. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, smoking status, school success, nutritional behaviour and self-esteem. The influence of different factors on smoking was evaluated with a logistic regression model. There were 89 active smokers (11.1%) with the critical age of 15 years for smoking commitment. 609 students (71.9%) were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Nutritional behaviour rich in vegetables (OR = 0.813), high school success (OR = 0.807), longer time reserved for homework (OR = 0.718) and eating breakfast (OR= 0.353) were significantly associated with a lower smoking rate. Having a mother, who smoked (OR = 2.155), increasing age (OR = 1.704), increasing number of siblings (OR = 1.351) and eating fast food (OR = 1.150) were associated with significantly higher smoking rates. An educational programme aimed at changing behaviour and attitude to tobacco smoking and including nutritional counselling with high emphasis on the transition age from early to late adolescence may be a successful primary prevention. In addition projects designed to improve school performance may lead to a reduction in smoking rates while providing an investment in the future of the teenagers.

  7. [Nutritional status of children and adolescents from a town in the semiarid Northeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Temoteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Costa, Emília Chagas; Asakura, Leiko

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status of schoolchildren, resident in a semiarid region in the Northeastern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 860 children and adolescents aged from 5-19 years-old, enrolled in three public schools in the county. The selection of schools was non-probabilistic type and unintentional. The initial population, which integrated the database, was composed by 1,035 children and teenagers, and 175 students (16.9%) were excluded because of inconsistency in the anthropometric data, resulting in a sample of 860 students. The following outcomes were considered: stunting (malnutrition), overweight and obesity (overweight), being the height/age and body mass index/age (BMI/Age), indices respectively used. Children and adolescents with height <-2 standard deviations and overweight and obese weight z score ≥1 were considered stunted. The statistical analysis was descriptive. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was 9.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Overweight and stunting were higher in adolescents aged 15 and over, compared to other age groups analyzed. In relation to gender, malnutrition presented itself in a similar way, but overweight was more frequent among females. The results revealed that excess weight, here represented by the sum of overweight and obesity, was more prevalent than stunting (malnutrition), highlighting the urgent need for attention to this problem in order to design interventions capable of contributing to the improvement of schoolchildren nutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparative Study of Nutritional Status and Foodstuffs in Adolescent Girls in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaie-Zanjani, A; Faraji, F; Rafie, M; Mohammadbeigi, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents is increasing world-wide. Obesity in children and adolescents is a major risk factor for diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, and cancer in adulthood. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the nutritional status and food-stuffs among high-school girls in Arak, Iran, in matter of body mass index (BMI) and associated factors. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 278 adolescents was conducted in six randomly chosen high-schools. Height and weight of students were collected using standard methods and the BMI calculated and BMI percentiles of these girls are compared with the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference data. The 5th, 8th, and 95th percentiles of the CDC were adopted as cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obese girls, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS by analysis of variance and Chi-square tests. Results: On the basis of CDC, the overall prevalence rates of underweight, overweight, and obesity were estimated 10.1% (28/278), 12.9% (36/278), and 1.4% (4/278), respectively. There was no significant difference between nutritional knowledge scores and the rate of physical activities in various groups. The mean age at menarche was significantly higher among the obese girls (P = 0.02). Consumption of ice-cream and chocolate was significantly higher in the obese girls group (P = 0.03). Conclusion: According to the present study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in high-school girls of Arak is lower than that of many other parts of Iran and some neighboring countries, which are at the high-risk of overweight and obesity. This study warrants the necessity of paying attention to promote healthy life-style and weight control. The earlier age of menarche is alarming. PMID:24669328

  9. Nutrition, lifestyle factors, and mental health in adolescents and young adults living in Austria.

    PubMed

    Walther, Julia; Aldrian, Ulrike; Stüger, Hans Peter; Kiefer, Ingrid; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Due to an alarming trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, along with the sparse data on dietary habits and lifestyle factors, the present study aims to analyze the current nutritional behavior as well as the lifestyle and mental health of adolescents and young adults living in Austria. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 respondents (aged between 14 and 24 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on nutrition behavior, mental health, and lifestyle factors by Internet survey. Only 50% of the participants ate breakfast daily and 10% did not eat breakfast at all. About 47% of the respondents consumed milk and milk products daily. Furthermore, only 31% ate fruit and 21% ate vegetables at least once a day, and 46% ate fish seldom or never. Nearly 28% of young people liked to eat fast food twice or thrice a week and more, with males more often replacing a meal with a fast food product (36%) than females (21%). About 46% of the respondents engaged in physical activity only once a week (or more rarely). A fifth of our respondents (23%) spent more than 2 h a day using various social networks, with Facebook being the most popular social network among the respondents. Around 27% claimed to be smokers, with more female (33%) than male (20%) smoker. In terms of sleeping habits, 19% slept <6 h a day. Regarding well-being, 44% were more likely to feel stressed, 35% stated that they were tense, and 43% felt tired and listless. Eating together, physical activity, and sleep patterns showed positive effects on well-being, whereas higher consumption of fast food/snacks/soft drinks and alcoholic drinks/energy drinks was associated with relatively lower well-being. Unhealthy eating habits, suboptimal physical activity, and smoking are still prominent in a sample of Austrian adolescents and young people. In addition, stress and tiredness are also relevant problems in this collective.

  10. Nutritional and behavioral determinants of adolescent obesity: a case-control study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Wickramasighe, V P

    2014-12-17

    Global prevalence of adolescent obesity is rising at an alarming rate leading to increase risk of adult obesity. Obesity in adolescence is postulated to have a significant impact on both physical and psychological health of an individual. The study aim was to identify nutritional and behavioral risk factors associated with obesity among adolescent Sri Lankan school girls. In this case-control study, age and ethnicity matched 100 cases (BMI-for-age above +2SD) and 100 controls (BMI-for-age between -2SD to +1 SD) adolescent girls between 14 to 18 years of age were recruited. Predicted risk factors of obesity were assessed through an interviewer administrated questionnaire. A three day diet diary and long version of international physical activity questionnaire were used to assess daily energy intake and energy expenditure from physical activity, respectively. The significant differences in mean values were evaluated using paired t-test. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors associated with obesity. Obese girls had significantly higher BMI (31.3, 20.2 kgm-2 p < 0.0001), waist circumference (90.8, 68.2 cm p < 0.0001), energy intake (2235.4, 1921.7 kcal p < 0.0001) and lower energy expenditure from physical activity (894.6, 1844.3 MET (metabolic equivalent)-min/week p < 0.0001). High family income (Odds ratio [OR], 2.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.88), first born in family (2.73, 1.25-5.97), skipping breakfast (3.99, 1.81-8.80), consumption of fruits < 4 days per week (2.18, 1.02-4.67), screen viewing > 2 hours/ day (2.96, 1.33-6.61), energy intake (3.97, 3.19-16.36), significantly increased the risk of obesity, whereas increased physical activity (4.34, 1.33-14.14) decreased the risk. Irregular menstruation (4.34, 1.33-14.14) was noted among the obese. Socioeconomic and behavior factors are major determinants of adolescent obesity in Sri Lanka. There is an urgent need to implement awareness

  11. Zinc nutritional status and its relationships with hyperinsulinemia in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marreiro, Dilina Do Nascimento; Fisberg, Mauro; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2004-08-01

    A perturbation of zinc metabolism has been noted in subjects with obesity. The present work intends to investigate whether the zinc nutritional status is associated with hyperinsulinemia in obesity. A study was carried out in a group of obese children and adolescents (n=23) and compared to a control group (n=21), both between 7 and 14 yr of age. Software analyzed diet information from 3-d food records. Body composition was evaluated by body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance, and skin-fold measurements. Zinc nutritional status was evaluated by Zn determination in plasma, erythrocyte, and 24-h urine, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (lambda=213.9 nm). Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay (Linco Res). Diets consumed by both groups had marginal concentrations of zinc. Zinc concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes were significantly lower in the obese group. Urinary zinc excretion and serum insulin were significantly higher in the same group, although the insulinemia and the parameters of zinc nutritional status were not significantly correlated. As a result, considering that zinc is part of the synthesis and secretion of this hormone, an assessment is necessary of the possible participation of the oligoelement in the mechanisms of insulin resistance, commonly present in obese patients.

  12. [Salivary cortisol as a measure of stress during a nutrition education program in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lancho, C; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Jáuregui-Lobera, I

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the stress level at different academic times, by measuring salivary cortisol and assessing the influence of the stress level on the effectiveness of a nutrition education program for adolescents. Salivary cortisol of 42 compulsory secondary education students was determined (morning and evening) at the beginning of the course and in the time prior to final exams. A nutrition education program was developed during the course and food consumption data were collected by means of a food frequency questionnaire in both initial and final moments. In addition, the body mass index was determined. The initial morning cortisol level was lower with respect to the final morning level (P < 0.05), with higher levels in females (P < 0.05). In the final determination, the morning cortisol was also higher in girls (P < 0.01). There were no significant changes in body mass index. 23.8% of students referred fewer consumption of carbonated beverages after the intervention program, while 28.57% reported having breakfast before leaving home. A reduction in the consumption of fruit at the end of the study was observed. To properly assess whether the observed changes are related to the nutrition education program or with the stressful situation due to the proximity of the exams, which would imply an increase in the intake, more studies would be necessary at the different stages of the course. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional intake evolution in adolescent sporting boys over the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, S; Van Biervliet, J P; De Neve, J; Watteyne, R; D'Hooghe, M

    2011-01-01

    The AIM of the study was to evaluate the nutritional trends in young elite male soccer players, attending national soccer league at RFC Bruges over the last two decades. At the start of each season, players and parents are instructed about normal healthy nutrition and fluid intake by dieticians. Since 1983, dieticians perform dietary habit surveys in the adolescent player groups. They instruct players and parents how to record all food and fluid intake during 3 days, a training-day, a match-day and an off -day. It is asked to do the recordings when players and parents are together and parents are asked to supervise the recording. Intakes are calculated using the Becel institute nutrition software (BINS), Becel, 2003. A significant decrease of energy intake/m2 is observed over the last 20 years. Body composition, measured as age-matched body mass index remained at median levels for the population during this period. An important modification of dietary content towards the recommended daily intakes is observed. Fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake decreased dramatically. Carbohydrate intake increased. A positive evolution towards the recommended dietary composition is observed over the years. However, the decrease in caloric intake without influence on the body mass index could suggest that these elite male footballers have a decreased physical activity as compared to 20 years ago.

  14. Acculturation process and its effects on dietary habits, nutritional behavior and body-image in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Skreblin, Lana; Sujoldzić, Anita

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the acculturation process may contribute to psychosocial and health problems among immigrants through the mediation of acculturation stress. This study focuses on adolescents with immigrant background permanently settled in the Croatian region of Dalmatia and the influences of the acculturation process on their dietary habits, nutritional behavior and perceived body-image. The survey was conducted on the total sample of 510 adolescents (aged 14-19) including 52 first generation and 248 second generation immigrants. The analysis included dietary habits and questions of restrictive diet as indicators of unhealthy influence on physical health. Psychological factors (stress and self-esteem) have been found to be associated with dietary habits, diet behavior and dissatisfaction with body-image among adolescents with significant differences by immigrant status. Immigrant status is viewed as a risk factor for psychological distress and unhealthy dieting behavior. Research stresses the need to study the interaction between acculturation and health not only from an individual perspective, but also from the broader socio-ecological context of population subgroups.

  15. The physiology of nutritional assessment and therapy in protein-calorie malnutrition.

    PubMed

    McMahon, M M; Bistrian, B R

    1990-07-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM), in the purest sense, is the result of depleted body protein stores due to semistarvation. A review of the hormonal response to simple semistarvation illustrates the elegant adaptive ability of the body to respond to an inadequate diet. By contrast, the body's metabolic response to an injury or illness stimulus is a dynamic process orchestrated by monokines and hormones. Although the injury response, strictly speaking, is not synonymous with PCM, the resultant increased energy expenditure, anorexia, and potential for skeletal muscle breakdown can result in an even more rapid depletion of body protein stores. Ultimately, the need for nutritional support depends on the amount of recent weight loss, anticipated time of insufficient oral intake, and the degree of stress. A discussion of basic concepts of anthropometry precedes examples of advantages and disadvantages of a given anthropometric parameter for selected disease states. The effects of PCM on visceral structure and function are discussed in detail so that the reader can appreciate why the metabolic response to injury may have a very different impact on the nourished compared with the malnourished patient. Particular attention is paid to the adverse effects of PCM on immune function and its antithesis, the beneficial impact of nutritional repletion on the immune system. An approach to refeeding discusses indications for initiation of nutritional support, choice of route, design of a macronutrient and micronutrient regimen, and guidelines for monitoring. Familiarity with the metabolic alterations of refeeding is key to the mitigation of potentially life-threatening complications of sudden refeeding. Appreciation of the anticipated response to nutrition is important, as the response will vary with the degree of stress. A nearly optimal response can be expected with appropriate nutrition in the nonstressed semistarved patient, whereas inefficient repletion is to be expected in

  16. Neural and Physiological Responses to a Cold Pressor Challenge in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Heidi L.; Macey, Paul M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Valladares, Edwin M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal autonomic function is common in pediatric diseases. Assessment of central mechanisms underlying autonomic challenges may reveal vulnerabilities antecedent to system failure. Our objective was to characterize central markers and physiological responses to a cold pressor challenge in normal children as a critical step for establishing such screening. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and collected physiological measures during cold application to the foot in 24 healthy adolescents (15.5±0.4 years; 13 male). The protocol included a 120s baseline, 120s right-foot cold water immersion (4°C), and 120s recovery. Analyses included heart rate (HR) cross-correlations with fMRI signals. Cold application increased HR 13% 5-7s after onset, which remained elevated throughout the challenge. Respiratory rate transiently increased (peak 22%), then declined (nadir 12% below baseline), before normalizing at 75s. Cold onset rapidly increased somatosensory cortex and medullary signals, which fell after 25s. Right anterior insular cortex signals increased early, followed after 20s by the left anterior insula, with HR declining 8s later. Amygdalae signals also rose, but signals declined in the posterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Declining signals appeared late in the cerebellar fastigial nuclei (60-120s), and in the pons and thalamus. Somatosensory cortex, fastigial nuclei, and hypothalamic responses were principally left-sided, with bilateral responses elsewhere. Late left anterior insula responses likely underlie the HR decline; the late cerebellar pattern may modulate recovery. The laterality, timing and amplitude of normative responses, and rostral response differentiation indicate the complex integration of adolescent autonomic processing, and provide indices for pathological comparisons. PMID:24105663

  17. Early physiological markers of cardiovascular risk in community based adolescents with a depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Byrne, Michelle L; Woods, Michael J; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2015-04-01

    Depression is recognised as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in adults. Identifying this relationship early on in life is potentially important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated whether clinical depression is associated with multiple physiological markers of CVD risk in adolescents from the general community. Participants aged 12-18 years were recruited from the general community and screened for depressive symptoms. Individuals with high and low depressive symptoms were administered a diagnostic interview. Fifty participants, 25 with a current depressive episode and 25 matched healthy controls, subsequently completed cardiovascular assessments. Variables assessed were automatic brachial and continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure, heart rate, vascular functioning by pulse amplitude tonometry following reactive hyperaemia and pulse transit time (PTT) at rest. Blood samples were collected to measure cholesterol, glucose and glycohaemoglobin levels and an index of cumulative risk of traditional cardiovascular risk factors was calculated. Depressed adolescents had a significantly lower reactive hyperaemia index and shorter PTT, suggesting deterioration in vascular integrity and structure. Higher fasting glucose and triglyceride levels were also observed in the depressed group, who also had higher cumulative risk scores indicative of increased engagement in unhealthy behaviours and higher probability of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The sample size and number of males who completed all cardiovascular measures was small. Clinically depressed adolescents had poorer vascular functioning and increased CVD risk compared to controls, highlighting the need for early identification and intervention for the prevention of CVD in depressed youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  19. Peer-Led, School-Based Nutrition Education for Young Adolescents: Feasibility and Process Evaluation of the TEENS Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…

  20. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  1. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; de Novaes, Juliana Farias; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis: Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Conclusions: Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors. PMID:26564327

  2. [Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Novaes, Juliana Farias de; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-06-01

    To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Diethelm, Katharina; Jankovic, Nicole; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Vriendt, Tineke; González-Gross, Marcela; Leclercq, Catherine; Gottrand, Frédéric; Gilbert, Chantal C; Dallongeville, Jean; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Plada, María; Kersting, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time. The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, whose main objective was to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Ten cities in Europe. The initial sample consisted of more than 3000 European adolescents. Among these, 1593 adolescents (54 % female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and food intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. Food intake of adolescents in Europe is not optimal compared with the two food-based dietary guidelines, Optimized Mixed Diet and Food Guide Pyramid, examined in this study. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk (and milk products), but consume much more meat (and meat products), fats and sweets than recommended. However, median total energy intake may be estimated to be nearly in line with the recommendations. The results urge the need to improve the dietary habits of adolescents in order to maintain health in later life.

  4. Early Childhood Nutrition Is Positively Associated with Adolescent Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Child and Parents Study (APCAPS).

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Ashok, Ashvin; Kinra, Sanjay; Behrman, Jere R; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-03-09

    India's Integrated Child Development Scheme, which provides supplementary nutrition and other public health services to >91 million women and children aged <6 y, is the largest program of its kind in the world. We estimated the long-term associations of maternal and early childhood nutrition provided under the Integrated Child Development Scheme with educational outcomes when the children became adolescents. We used longitudinal data from a controlled nutrition trial conducted near the city of Hyderabad, India. From 1987 to 1990, a balanced protein-energy supplement (corn-soya meal, called upma) was offered to pregnant women and children aged <6 y in 15 intervention villages, whereas no supplementation was offered in 14 control villages. Both groups had equal access to other public programs such as immunization and anemia control in pregnancy. Children born during the original trial period were resurveyed (654 intervention and 511 control group children) in 2003-2005. We used propensity score matching methods to correct for estimation bias in our regression models to assess the associations of supplementary nutrition with school enrollment, schooling grades completed, and academic test performance of these adolescents. Children born in intervention villages were 7.8% (95% CI: 0.1%, 15.4%; P < 0.05) more likely to be enrolled in school and completed 0.84 (95% CI: 0.28, 1.39; P < 0.005) more schooling grades than children born in control villages. We found no association between supplementary nutrition and academic performance, as measured by school test scores. Offering a nutritional supplement to pregnant women and children <6 y of age during the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial was associated with improved school enrollment and completion of more schooling grades when the children became adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe. PMID:21249160

  6. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO).

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-14

    Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an 'ideal diet' (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an 'ideal' diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  7. Relation of nutritional status to physiological outcomes after cardiac surgery in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    To determine differences in physiological outcome (PO) based on the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and cut-off values for PO according to the GNRI in elderly post-cardiac surgery patients complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM). Thirty-five patients (72.9 years) were enrolled and divided by GNRI. Patient characteristics and PO of handgrip strength (HG), knee extensor muscle strength (KEMS), maximum gait speed (GS), and one-leg standing time (OLST) were compared between the groups, and cut-off values for PO were determined. These POs were significantly lower in the low-GNRI group (<92 points) than in the high-GNRI (≥92 points) group. The cut-off values for PO were HG, 22.7 kgf; KEMS, 41.5 %BW; GS, 1.2 m/sec; and OLST, 6.7 s. Nutritional status might influence PO following cardiac surgery. The cut-off values of PO reported here might be indicative of the need to improve patient nutritional status.

  8. Nutrition, Exercise, and Sleep: Physiological Considerations in the Classroom for Alternative Certification Teachers. Editor's Perspective Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Proper nutrition, adequate amounts of physical activity, and sufficient amounts of sleep are three important variables for healthy children. Alternative certification teachers quickly enter the classroom at the beginning of their programs and may encounter disengaged students who lack the energy needed for quality learning and achievement.…

  9. Responses of spinach to salinity and nutrient deficiency in growth, physiology and nutritional value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salinity and nutrient depleted soil are major constraints to crop production, especially for vegetable crops. The effects of salinity and nutrient deficiency on spinach were evaluated in sand cultures under greenhouse conditions. Plants were watered every day with Hoagland nutrition solution, depriv...

  10. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  11. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (P<0.001). Opponent-based condition revealed lower values for the rate of perceived exertion (P=0.02) and higher affect (P=0.022) when compared with single play. Competitive active video games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.

  12. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  13. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A R; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q F; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  14. Clinical evolution and nutritional status in asthmatic children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Rosinha Yoko Matsubayaci; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution and the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 219 asthmatic patients (3-17 years old) enrolled in Primary Care Services (PCSs) in Embu das Artes (SP), from 2007 to 2011. Secondary data: gender, age, diagnosis of asthma severity, other atopic diseases, family history of atopy, and body mass index. To evaluate the clinical outcome of asthma, data were collected on number of asthma exacerbations, number of emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids at follow-up visits in the 6th and 12th months. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Kappa agreement index, with 5% set as the significance level. Results: 50.5% of patients started wheezing before the age of 2 years, 99.5% had allergic rhinitis and 65.2% had a positive family history of atopy. Regarding severity, intermittent asthma was more frequent (51.6%) and, in relation to nutritional status, 65.8% of patients had normal weight. There was no association between nutritional status and asthma severity (p=0.409). After 1 year of follow-up, 25.2% of patients showed reduction in exacerbations and emergency room consultations, and 16.2% reduced the amount of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusions: The monitoring of asthmatic patients in Primary Care Services showed improvement in clinical outcome, with a decreased number of exacerbations, emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids. No association between nutritional status and asthma severity was observed in this study. PMID:26316387

  15. [Clinical evolution and nutritional status in asthmatic children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Morishita, Rosinha Yoko Matsubayaci; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical evolution and the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care. A retrospective cohort study of 219 asthmatic patients (3 to 17 years old) enrolled in primary care services (PCSs) in Embu das Artes (SP), from 2007 to 2011. Secondary data: gender, age, diagnosis of asthma severity, other atopic diseases, family history of atopy, and body mass index. To evaluate the clinical outcome of asthma, data were collected on number of asthma exacerbations, number of emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids at follow-up visits in the 6th and 12th months. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Kappa agreement index, with 5% set as the significance level. 50.5% of patients started wheezing before the age of two years, 99.5% had allergic rhinitis and 65.2% had a positive family history of atopy. Regarding severity, intermittent asthma was more frequent (51.6%) and, in relation to nutritional status, 65.8% of patients had normal weight. There was no association between nutritional status and asthma severity (p=0,409). After one year of follow-up, 25.2% of patients showed reduction in exacerbations and emergency room consultations, and 16.2% reduced the amount of inhaled corticosteroids. The monitoring of asthmatic patients in PCSs showed improvement in clinical outcome, with a decreased number of exacerbations, emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids. No association between nutritional status and asthma severity was observed in this study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional status and its relationship with blood pressure among children and adolescents in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Shi, Jin-Duan; Huang, Hui-Yu; Feng, Li-Ming; Ma, Jing

    2012-07-01

    The present study measures the nutritional status and the blood pressure to assess their relationship in a group of children and adolescents in the Hainan province, China. A total of 5,456 students aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 10 public schools in Hainan province of South China during the period March 2009 to December 2009. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured by health-care professionals. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and used to define thinness, overweight, and obesity according to the existing standards. Prevalence of thinness, overweight, obesity, pre-hypertension, and hypertension was computed, and logistical regression model was used to examine the association of BMI with elevated blood pressure. A high prevalence of thinness was observed in male and female children and adolescents (34.0% and 34.3%, respectively). The percentage of overweight and obesity was 2.7% and 1.3%, respectively. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were detected in 3.9% and 3.3% children and adolescents, respectively. Multivariate logistical regression analysis showed that obesity was positively associated with both pre-hypertension and hypertension, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.92, P = 0.014) and 2.00 (95%CI = 1.53-2.60, P < 0.001) compared to normal weight students. Overweight was also associated with pre-hypertension and hypertension. However, no significant association between thinness and pre-hypertension and hypertension was found. In conclusion, this study showed that thinness, especially mild thinness, was a major public health problem among children and adolescents in Hainan province of South China. Overweight and obesity were strongly associated with pre-hypertension and hypertension among studied students.

  17. Physiologic and behavioral indicators of energy deficiency in female adolescent runners with elevated bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Michelle T; Van Loan, Marta D; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F

    2010-09-01

    Female adolescent runners have an elevated prevalence of low bone mass for agemdashan outcome that may be partially due to inadequate energy intake. The objective was to evaluate diet, menstrual history, serum hormone concentrations, and bone mass in female adolescent runners with normal or abnormal bone turnover. Thirty-nine cross-country runners (age: 15.7 plusmn 0.2 y) participated in the study, which included a 7-d dietary assessment with the use of a food record and daily 24-h dietary recalls; serum measures of insulin-like growth factor I, estradiol, leptin, parathyroid hormone, progesterone, triiodothyronine, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and cross-linked C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX); an evaluation of height, weight, bone mass, and body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and a questionnaire to assess menses and sports participation. Age- and sex-specific BAP and CTX concentrations of at least the 97th percentile and no greater than the third percentile, respectively, were considered abnormal. All abnormal BAP and CTX concentrations fell within the elevated ( ge 97%) range. Runners with an elevated bone turnover (EBT) (n = 13) had a lower body mass, fewer menstrual cycles in the past year, lower estradiol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, and a higher prevalence of body mass index lt 10% for age, vitamin D insufficiency, amenorrhea, and low bone mass. Girls with EBT consumed less than the recommended amounts of energy and had a higher prevalence of consuming lt 1300 mg Ca than did those with normal bone turnover. Runners with EBT had a profile consistent with energy deficiency. Nutritional support to increase energy, calcium intake, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations may improve bone mineral accrual in young runners with EBT. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01059968.

  18. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  19. Pregnancy and lactation hinder growth and nutritional status of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2008-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about its influence on maternal growth and nutritional status. We determined how pregnancy and lactation during adolescence affects postmenarcheal linear and ponderal growth and body composition of 12-19 y olds in rural Bangladesh. In a prospective cohort study, anthropometric measurements were taken among primigravidae (n = 229) in the early first trimester of pregnancy and at 6 mo postpartum. Randomly selected never-pregnant adolescents (n = 458) of the same age and time since menarche were measured within 1 wk of these assessments. Annual changes in anthropometric measurements were compared between the 2 groups adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. The mean +/- SD age and age at menarche of adolescents were 16.3 +/- 1.6 y and 12.7 +/- 1.2 y, respectively. Unlike pregnant girls who did not grow in height (-0.09 +/- 0.08 cm/y), never-pregnant girls increased in stature by 0.35 +/- 0.05 cm/y. The adjusted mean difference between the 2 groups was 0.43 +/- 0.1cm (P < 0.001). Similarly, whereas never-pregnant girls gained BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, and percent body fat, pregnant girls declined in every measurement by 6 mo postpartum, resulting in adjusted mean +/- SD differences in annual changes of 0.62 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2), 0.89 +/- 0.12 cm, and 1.54 +/- 0.25%, respectively (all P < 0.001). Differences in changes in all anthropometric measurements except height were greater among adolescents whose first pregnancy occurred <24 mo vs. > or =24 mo since menarche (BMI, -1.40 +/- 0.18 vs. -0.60 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2); all interaction terms, P < 0.05). Pregnancy and lactation during adolescence ceased linear growth and resulted in weight loss and depletion of fat and lean body mass of young girls.

  20. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  1. Development and evaluation of an educational intervention program for pre-professional adolescent ballet dancers: nutrition for optimal performance.

    PubMed

    Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Davy, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop, implement, and evaluate a theoretically based nutritional education intervention through a DVD lecture series (three 30-minute classes) in summer intensive programs for pre-professional, adolescent ballet dancers. Objectives of this intervention program were to increase knowledge of basic sports nutrition principles and the Female Athlete Triad and promote self-efficacy for adopting healthier dietary habits. Dancers ranging from 13 to 18 years old who were attending summer intensive programs affiliated with professional ballet companies were recruited. Group One (n = 231) participated in the nutrition education program, while Group Two the control participants (n = 90) did not. Assessments of the participants' dietary status consisted of a demographic questionnaire, a Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Behavior Questionnaire, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The intervention group was assessed at baseline, immediately post-program, and at six weeks post-program. The control group was assessed at baseline and at six weeks post-baseline. The intervention program was effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, perceived susceptibility to the Female Athlete Triad, and self-efficacy constructs. Improvements in dietary intake were also observed among intervention group participants. To improve overall health and performance nutrition education should be incorporated into the training regimens of adolescent dancers. This potentially replicable DVD-based program may be an effective, low-cost mechanism for doing that.

  2. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (P<.001) and positively with MUAC (P=.007). Stepwise regressions showed that waist circumference, MUAC, weight, and handgrip were important nutritional status indicators in the models using hemoglobin, serum albumin, ferritin, zinc, and plasma retinol concentrations as dependent variables. MUAC could be a valuable anthropometric marker of the overall nutritional status of adolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased Interest in Physiology and Science among Adolescents after Presentations and Activities Administered by Undergraduate Physiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Rosa de Menezes, Jefferson; Billig Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a set of activities performed in south Brazil that are aligned with the objectives of PhUn Week and promote the integration between universities and public schools and the dissemination of knowledge of physiology. To achieve this goal, the authors adopted a program in which undergraduate physiology students…

  4. Increased Interest in Physiology and Science among Adolescents after Presentations and Activities Administered by Undergraduate Physiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Rosa de Menezes, Jefferson; Billig Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a set of activities performed in south Brazil that are aligned with the objectives of PhUn Week and promote the integration between universities and public schools and the dissemination of knowledge of physiology. To achieve this goal, the authors adopted a program in which undergraduate physiology students…

  5. Physiological responses in roots of the grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri subjected to Fe deficiency and Fe-heme nutrition.

    PubMed

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Rodrigues Moreira, Erica; Donnini, Silvia; Bombai, Giuseppe; Filippini, Gianfranco; Pisi, Annamaria; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe)-heme containing fertilizers can effectively prevent Fe deficiency. This paper aims to investigate root physiological responses after a short period of Fe-heme nutrition and Fe deficiency under two pH conditions (with or without HEPES) in the Fe chlorosis-tolerant grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri. Organic acids in root exudates, Fe reduction capacity, both roots and root exudates contributions, together with other physiological parameters associated to plant Fe status were evaluated in plants grown in hydroponics. Analyses of root tips by SEM, and Raman and IR spectra of the precipitates of Fe-heme fertilizers were performed. The physiological responses adopted by the tolerant 140 Ruggeri to the application of Fe-heme indicated an increased Fe reduction capacity of the roots. This is the first report showing oxalic, tartaric, malic and ascorbic as major organic acids in Vitis spp. root exudates. Plants reacted to Fe deficiency condition exuding a higher amount of ascorbic acid in the rhizosphere. The presence of HEPES in the medium favoured the malic acid exudation. The lowest concentration of oxalic acid was found in exudates of plants subjected to Fe-heme and could be associated to a higher accumulation in their root tips visualized by SEM analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on nutritional status of school-going adolescents in Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Nafis; Khan, Zulfia; Khan, Iqbal M; Amir, Ali; Azmi, Suhail A; Khalique, Najam

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence is a highly vulnerable period for malnutrition. This study was based on a Global School Health Survey methodology in the 13-15-year age group; employing WHO AnthroPlus to evaluate the nutritional status, find the prevalence of both extremes of malnutrition, compare with the growth curves and to find its sociodemographic correlates. A total of 1456 students were sampled and the mean BMI for age Z score was found to be -0.11. The prevalence of overweight and obese were 11.95% and 2.27%, respectively, whereas 2.75% suffered from thinness, defined as BMI for age <2 standard deviations. The prevalence of being overweight and obese was associated with a higher standard of living, a higher education of father or mother, working mothers and father's occupation being service/business. The evident double burden of malnutrition presages a large public health burden in future, requiring interventional attention.

  7. The effects of sertraline administration from adolescence to adulthood on physiological and emotional development in prenatally stressed rats of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Figueiredo, Inês; Sancho, Consuelo; Carro, Juan; Castellano, Orlando; López, Dolores E.

    2014-01-01

    Sertraline (SERT) is a clinically effective Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) known to increase and stabilize serotonin levels. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in adolescent brain development in both rodents and humans, and its dysregulation has been correlated with deficits in behavior and emotional regulation. Since prenatal stress may disturb serotoninergic homeostasis, the aim of this study was to examine the long-lasting effects of exposure to SERT throughout adolescence on behavioral and physiological developmental parameters in prenatally stressed Wistar rats. SERT was administered (5 mg/kg/day p.o.) from the age of 1–3 months to half of the progeny, of both sexes, of gestating dams stressed by use of a restraint (PS) or not stressed. Our data reveal that long-term SERT treatment slightly reduced weight gain in both sexes, but reversed the developmental disturbed “catch-up” growth found in PS females. Neither prenatal stress nor SERT treatment induced remarkable alterations in behavior and had no effects on mean startle reflex values. However, a sex-dependent effects of PS was found: in males the PS paradigm slightly increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field, while in females, it impaired startle habituation. In both cases, SERT treatment reversed the phenomena. Additionally, the PS animals exhibited a disturbed leukocyte profile in both sexes, which was reversed by SERT. The present findings are evidence that continuous SERT administration from adolescence through adulthood is safe in rodents and lessens the impact of prenatal stress in rats. PMID:25147514

  8. Weight status among adolescents in States that govern competitive food nutrition content.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Perna, Frank M; Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    To determine if state laws regulating nutrition content of foods and beverages sold outside of federal school meal programs ("competitive foods") are associated with lower adolescent weight gain. The Westlaw legal database identified state competitive food laws that were scored by using the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students criteria. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2003 and 2006 based on law strength and comprehensiveness. Objective height and weight data were obtained from 6300 students in 40 states in fifth and eighth grade (2004 and 2007, respectively) within the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class. General linear models estimated the association between baseline state laws (2003) and within-student changes in BMI, overweight status, and obesity status. Fixed-effect models estimated the association between law changes during follow-up (2003-2006) and within-student changes in BMI and weight status. Students exposed to strong laws at baseline gained, on average, 0.25 fewer BMI units (95% confidence interval: -0.54, 0.03) and were less likely to remain overweight or obese over time than students in states with no laws. Students also gained fewer BMI units if exposed to consistently strong laws throughout follow-up (β = -0.44, 95% confidence interval: -0.71, -0.18). Conversely, students exposed to weaker laws in 2006 than 2003 had similar BMI gain as those not exposed in either year. Laws that regulate competitive food nutrition content may reduce adolescent BMI change if they are comprehensive, contain strong language, and are enacted across grade levels.

  9. Eating behaviors, nutritional status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A

    2002-09-01

    Nutritional status, eating behaviors and menstrual function was examined in 23 nationally ranked female adolescent volleyball players using a health/weight/ dieting/menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Nutrient and energy intakes (El) and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by 3-d weighed food records and activity logs. Iron (Fe), vitamins C, B12, and Folate status were assessed using serum and whole blood. Mean El (2248 +/- 414 kcal/d) was less than EE (2815 +/- 306 kcal/d). Mean carbohydrate (5.4 +/-1.0g/kg/d) and protein (1.1+/-0.3g/kg/d) intakes were below recommended levels for highly active women. Mean intakes for folate, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Zn were less than the respective RDAs/DRIs and almost 50% of the athletes were consuming less than the RDAs/DRIs for the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Three athletes presented with Fe deficiency anemia (Hb <12 mg/dL), while marginal vitamin B12 status (<200 pg/ml) and vitamin C status (<28 mmol/L) were found in 1 and 4 athletes, respectively. Approximately 1/2 of the athletes reported actively "dieting". Mean BSQ and EDI subscales scores were within the normal ranges; yet, elevated scores on these scales were reported by 26% and 35% of athletes, respectively. Past or present amenorrhea was reported by 17% of the athletes and 13% and 48%, reported past or present oligomenorrhea and "irregular" menstrual cycles, respectively. These results indicate that elite adolescent volleyball players are at risk for menstrual dysfunction and have energy and nutrient intakes that place them at risk for nutritional deficiencies and compromised performance.

  10. Nutritional status and lipid profile of HIV-positive children and adolescents using antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Contri, Patricia Viganó; Berchielli, Erica Miranda; Tremeschin, Marina Hjertquist; Negrini, Bento Vidal de Moura; Salomão, Roberta Garcia; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes

    2011-01-01

    To describe nutritional status, body composition and lipid profile in children and adolescents receiving protease inhibitors. Fifty-nine patients, 23 treated with protease inhibitors (group 1) and 36 not using protease inhibitors (group 2). Their dietary intake, anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis and lipid profile variables were measured. There was no difference in nutritional status or body composition between groups at the beginning of the study. After 6 months of follow-up, there was an increase in weight and height in both groups, as well as in waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. In group 2, body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness adequacy were significantly higher after 6 months of follow-up. The groups had similar energy and macronutrient intake at any time point. After 6 months, group 1 had a higher cholesterol intake and group 2 had a higher fiber intake. Triglyceride serum levels were significantly different between the groups, with higher values in G1, at any time point [G1: 153 mg/dl (30-344); 138 (58-378) versus G2: 76 mg/dl (29-378); 76 (29-378)]. After 6 months of follow-up, G1 had higher LDL-cholesterol than G2 [104 mg/dl (40-142) versus 82 (42-145)]. The use of protease inhibitors, per se, does not seem to significantly interfere with anthropometric measures, body composition and food intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents. However, this antiretroviral therapy was associated with a significant increase in triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in our subjects.

  11. Disparities in economic development in Eastern China: impact on nutritional status of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Therese; Ding, Qu Jian; Tomkins, Andrew M

    2002-04-01

    To compare the effects of disparities in economic development in urban and rural Eastern China on the nutritional status of adolescents. A cross-sectional survey consisting of self-completion questionnaires, anthropometry and haemoglobin measurement. Twelve middle schools in an urban and a rural area of Zhejiang Province: Hangzhou, the capital, and Chunan, a poor mountainous area. Some 4835 young adolescents (predominant age range 13-16 years). The mean body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in urban Hangzhou (P = 0.01) Overweight affected 3.6% overall; adjusted odds ratios (ORs) showed male sex (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4) and urban residence (OR 9.1, 95% CI 3.7-22) to be the most important risk factors. The prevalence of underweight was 18%, with no significant urban-rural difference. Predictors of underweight were male sex (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and low household income (OR, 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Mean haemoglobin was significantly lower in the rural area. Anaemia was more common in girls, 51% compared with 21% of the boys, but rural residence was not an independent risk factor. Rural students exercised more and had a less varied diet than their urban counterparts. Around one-third of the respondents consumed dietary supplements on a regular basis. These results suggest that in urban areas of Eastern China a dual picture is emerging with the problems of excess (overweight and obesity) coexisting with underweight and anaemia. In rural areas the problems of relative nutritional deprivation predominate, but the long-term consequences of such marginal underweight and anaemia are not clear.

  12. [The impact of nutritional education on metabolic disorders in obese children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Velázquez López, Lubia; Rico Ramos, Jennifer Marisol; Torres Tamayo, Margarita; Medina Bravo, Patricia; Toca Porraz, Luis Esteban; Escobedo de la Peña, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Childhood obesity has become a serious public health problem. Nutritional therapy plays an important role in its prevention and treatment. A nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted in 40 obese children and adolescents who underwent a complete medical history and assessment of eating habits through 24-hour food recall and a frequency of food consumption questionnaire. In all patients, body weight, height, skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. The nutritional intervention consisted of identifying the calorie consumption and nutrient intake, and participants were given advice aimed at changing eating habits with a healthy normocaloric diet. After 4 months, biochemical, anthropometric and dietary indicators were measured again. Significant reductions were observed in body weight (56.0 +/- 16.5 to 54.4 +/- 16.1 kg), body mass index (26.5 +/- 3.7 to 25.1 +/- 3.1), waist circumference (86.4 +/- 11.6 to 81.4 +/- 11.4 cm) and mid-arm circumference (29.0 +/- 5.0 to 26.0 +/- 4.2 mm). Significant reductions were also observed in total cholesterol (167.1 +/- 30.0 to 156.0 +/- 26.5 mg/dl) and LDL-cholesterol (103.0 +/- 21.4 to 84.6 +/- 26.0 mg/dl). A significant increase was found in HDL values (38.0 +/- 7.8 to 43.4 +/- 9.3 mg/dl). In all comparisons, the p-value was < 0.05. Counseling aimed at changing eating habits is effective in reducing body weight and improves lipid profile in children and adolescents with obesity. Copyright 2009 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight Status Among Adolescents in States That Govern Competitive Food Nutrition Content

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Perna, Frank M.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if state laws regulating nutrition content of foods and beverages sold outside of federal school meal programs (“competitive foods”) are associated with lower adolescent weight gain. METHODS: The Westlaw legal database identified state competitive food laws that were scored by using the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students criteria. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2003 and 2006 based on law strength and comprehensiveness. Objective height and weight data were obtained from 6300 students in 40 states in fifth and eighth grade (2004 and 2007, respectively) within the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class. General linear models estimated the association between baseline state laws (2003) and within-student changes in BMI, overweight status, and obesity status. Fixed-effect models estimated the association between law changes during follow-up (2003–2006) and within-student changes in BMI and weight status. RESULTS: Students exposed to strong laws at baseline gained, on average, 0.25 fewer BMI units (95% confidence interval: −0.54, 0.03) and were less likely to remain overweight or obese over time than students in states with no laws. Students also gained fewer BMI units if exposed to consistently strong laws throughout follow-up (β = −0.44, 95% confidence interval: −0.71, −0.18). Conversely, students exposed to weaker laws in 2006 than 2003 had similar BMI gain as those not exposed in either year. CONCLUSIONS: Laws that regulate competitive food nutrition content may reduce adolescent BMI change if they are comprehensive, contain strong language, and are enacted across grade levels. PMID:22891223

  14. Risk of mental health problems in adolescents skipping meals: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Hyunju

    Adolescents frequently skip meals, doing so even more than once per day. This is associated with more mental health problems. This study identified mental health problems' associations with skipping meals and the frequency thereof among adolescents. This cross-sectional population-based study used a data set of 1,413 adolescents from the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk of mental health problems, including stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in relation to skipping meals and the frequency thereof per day. Breakfast skipping significantly increased the risks of stress and depressive mood. Stress, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly prevalent as the daily frequency of skipping meals increased. Specific strategies should be developed at government or school level to decrease the frequency of skipping meals per day, associated with serious mental health problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    2000-05-01

    The application of a lifespan perspective in human biology in recent years has shown that a number of early environmental factors influencing human growth and development have long-term biological or psycho-social consequences. Human growth is characterized by prolonged infancy, an extended childhood phase and high rates of growth during the adolescent growth spurt. It is unlikely that these characteristics would have evolved without having advantages, and curtailments have the potential for disadvantage. The present paper examines the evidence for long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents. The emphasis is the biological and economic imperatives of survival, subsistence, reproduction and production rather than aspects of metabolic competence. Many of the consequences of growth retardation are determined by the direct effect on body size, but many other consequences arise from the conditions that cause the growth retardation. Catch up of retarded growth can occur, but does not usually do so because of the continued presence of the retarding agents. Basal metabolism and physical work capacity are usually commensurate with the size of the individual; mechanical efficiency of physical work is unchanged, but falls in activity levels may occur along with a reduction in the pace of activity. Growth retardation in childhood is associated with a higher disease and mortality risk in adulthood, with decreased productivity and employment and promotion prospects. Studies are showing that relative deprivation and the accumulation of socially patterned exposures are important in some societies. Height and growth retardation have proved invaluable in reflecting these factors, but the next generation of studies may require more discriminating indices.

  16. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products.

  17. Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici B; Casonatto, Juliano; Sonoo, Christi Noriko

    2013-01-01

    To verify the association between nutritional status, physical fitness, and body image in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 401 students (236 boys and 165 girls) aged between 8 and 16 years that were regularly enrolled in sports in the local clubs. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index. Students were assessed for satisfaction with body image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001), abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001). The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  18. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents.

  19. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Beck, Carmem Cristina; Ghedin, Karoliny Debiasi; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-04-01

    This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

  20. Foliar Nutrition, Biostimulants and Prime-Like Dynamics in Fruit Tree Physiology: New Insights on an Old Topic

    PubMed Central

    Tanou, Georgia; Ziogas, Vasileios; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the usage of foliar nutrients has long history, many aspects of fertilization through leaves are still unknown. Herein, we review the current knowledge regarding the canopy fertilization putting special emphasis on Fe nutrition and briefly provide insights into the nanofertilizer technology of the foliar feeding of fruit crops. In addition, this paper discusses the main aspects of the foliar application of biostimulants regarding crucial factors of fruit cropping systems, such as fruit yield/size, tolerance to environmental stresses, and nutrient availability. Also, we specifically discuss the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) as priming molecules and their possible cross-talk with biostimulants in fruit tree physiology. Finally, a view of the key issues for future fundamental and applied research in the topic is put forward. PMID:28203243

  1. Increase of ascorbic acid content and nutritional quality in spinach leaves during physiological acclimation to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Simona; Moscatello, Stefano; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of acclimation to 10 degrees C on the leaf content of ascorbic and oxalic acids, was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). At 10 degrees C the content of ascorbic acid in leaves increased and after 7 days it was about 41% higher than in plants remaining under a 25 degrees C/20 degrees C day/night temperature regime. In contrast, the content of oxalate, remained unchanged. Transfer to 10 degrees C increased the ascorbic but not the oxalic acid content of the leaf intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Oxalate oxidase (OXO EC 1.2.3.4) activity was not detected in extracts of leaf blades. Therefore, oxalic acid degradation via OXO was not involved in the control of its content. Our results show that low temperature acclimation increases nutritional quality of spinach leaves via a physiological rise of ascorbic acid that does not feed-forward on the content of oxalic acid.

  2. Dietary intake and nutritional status of HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Florianopolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Lima, Luiz R A; Silva, Rosane C R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fibre, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.

  3. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency throughout a natural year in a pediatric population with normal nutrition status. cross sectional clinical and analytical study (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone) in 413 caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4 years): 227 school children (96 males and 131 females) and 186 adolescents (94 males and 92 females), all of them in a normal nutrition status, during the year 2014. Vitamin D deficiency was defined according to the United States Endocrine Society guidelines. calcidiol levels were lower during spring (25.96 ± 6.64 ng/ml) and reached its maximum level in summer (35.33 ± 7.51 ng/ml); PTH levels were lower in summer (27.13 ± 7.89 pg/ml) and reached maximum level in autumn (34.73 ± 15.38 pg/ml). Vitamin D deficiency prevalence was 14.3% in summer and 75.3% in spring. PTH levels were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism in 8 individuals (1.9%). There was a negative correlation between calcidol and PTH levels (p < 0.01). There was not a correlation between body mass index (BMI) and calcidiol. the pediatric population in normal nutrition status shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during the months of autumn and winter and, especially, in spring; the addition of vitamin supplements and/ or an increase in the ingestion of their natural dietary sources should be considered. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Corner store purchases made by adults, adolescents and children: items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent.

    PubMed

    Lent, Michelle R; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Mallya, Giridhar; McCoy, Tara A; Sanders, Timothy A; Colby, Lisa; Rauchut Tewksbury, Colleen; Lawman, Hannah G; Sandoval, Brianna; Sherman, Sandy; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Foster, Gary D

    2015-06-01

    Corner stores, also known as bodegas, are prevalent in low-income urban areas and primarily stock high-energy foods and beverages. Little is known about individual-level purchases in these locations. The purpose of the present study was to assess corner store purchases (items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent) made by children, adolescents and adults in a low-income urban environment. Evaluation staff used 9238 intercept surveys to directly examine food and beverage purchases. Intercepts were collected at 192 corner stores in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Participants were adult, adolescent and child corner store shoppers. Among the 9238 intercept surveys, there were 20 244 items. On average, at each corner store visit, consumers purchased 2.2 (sd 2.1) items (1.3 (sd 2.0) foods and 0.9 (sd 0.9) beverages) that cost $US 2.74 (sd $US 3.52) and contained 2786.5 (sd 4454.2) kJ (666.0 (sd 1064.6) kcal). Whether the data were examined as a percentage of total items purchased or as a percentage of intercepts, the most common corner store purchases were beverages, chips, prepared food items, pastries and candy. Beverage purchases occurred during 65.9% of intercepts and accounted for 39.2% of all items. Regular soda was the most popular beverage purchase. Corner store purchases averaged 66.2 g of sugar, 921.1 mg of sodium and 2.5 g of fibre per intercept. Compared with children and adolescents, adults spent the most money and purchased the most energy. Urban corner store shoppers spent almost $US 3.00 for over 2700 kJ (650 kcal) per store visit. Obesity prevention efforts may benefit from including interventions aimed at changing corner store food environments in low-income, urban areas.

  5. Nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents: associated gender, environmental and socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Traissac, Pierre; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Delpeuch, Francis; Achour, Noureddine; Maire, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status of Tunisian adolescents and associated factors. A cross-sectional study based on a national stratified random cluster sample. In all, 1,295 boys and 1,577 girls aged 15-19 years, of whom 28.4 % had already left school. Socio-economic characteristics of the parents, anthropometric measurements, food behaviours and physical activity of the adolescents were recorded during home visits. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity (WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference) were, respectively, 8.1 %, 17.4 % and 4.1 % among boys and 1.3 %, 20.7 % and 4.4 % among girls; abdominal obesity was highly prevalent among both sexes. Prevalence of overweight differed by region (from 11.5 % to 22.2 %) and was higher in urban v. rural areas for males (21.7 % v. 10.4 %) but not for females (21.7 % v. 19.2 %). These differences were partially mediated by socio-economic and lifestyle factors for males. For females, influence of cultural factors is hypothesised. In rural areas, overweight was more prevalent among boys of higher economic level households, having a working mother or a sedentary lifestyle; for girls, prevalence increased with the level of education of the mother. In urban areas, prevalence of overweight was related to eating habits: it was higher for boys with irregular snacking habits and for girls skipping daily meals. Urban girls having left school were also more overweight. Overweight and abdominal obesity in late adolescence have become a true public health problem in Tunisia with the combined effects of cultural tradition for girls in rural areas, and of rapid economic development for boys and girls in cities.

  6. Purchasing patterns of adults, adolescents and children in urban corner stores: Quantity, spending and nutritional characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lent, Michelle R.; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Mallya, Giridhar; McCoy, Tara A.; Sanders, Timothy A.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Corner stores, also known as bodegas, are prevalent in low-income urban areas and primarily stock high-energy foods and beverages. Little is known about individual-level purchases in these locations. The purpose of the present study was to assess corner store purchases (items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent) made by children, adolescents and adults in a low-income urban environment. Design Evaluation staff used 9238 intercept surveys to directly examine food and beverage purchases. Setting Intercepts were collected at 192 corner stores in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Subjects Participants were adult, adolescent and child corner store shoppers. Results Among the 9238 intercept surveys, there were 20 244 items. On average, at each corner store visit, consumers purchased 2·2 (SD 2·1) items (1·3 (SD 2·0) foods and 0·9 (SD 0·9) beverages) that cost $US 2·74 (SD $US 3·52) and contained 2786·5 (SD 4454·2) kJ (666·0 (SD 1064·6) kcal). Whether the data were examined as a percentage of total items purchased or as a percentage of intercepts, the most common corner store purchases were beverages, chips, prepared food items, pastries and candy. Beverage purchases occurred during 65·9 % of intercepts and accounted for 39·2 % of all items. Regular soda was the most popular beverage purchase. Corner store purchases averaged 66·2 g of sugar, 921·1mg of sodium and 2·5 g of fibre per intercept. Compared with children and adolescents, adults spent the most money and purchased the most energy. Conclusions Urban corner store shoppers spent almost $US 3·00 for over 2700 kJ (650 kcal) per store visit. Obesity prevention efforts may benefit from including interventions aimed at changing corner store food environments in low-income, urban areas. PMID:25115817

  7. Novel Tools in Determining the Physiological Demands and Nutritional Practices of Ontario FireRangers during Fire Deployments

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A. H.; Larivière, C.; Leduc, C. R.; McGillis, Z.; Eger, T.; Godwin, A.; Larivière, M.; Dorman, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The seasonal profession of wildland fire fighting in Canada requires individuals to work in harsh environmental conditions that are physically demanding. The purpose of this study was to use novel technologies to evaluate the physiological demands and nutritional practices of Canadian FireRangers during fire deployments. Methods Participants (n = 21) from a northern Ontario Fire Base volunteered for this study and data collection occurred during the 2014 fire season and included Initial Attack (IA), Project Fire (P), and Fire Base (B) deployments. Deployment-specific energy demands and physiological responses were measured using heart-rate variability (HRV) monitoring devices (Zephyr BioHarness3 units). Food consumption behaviour and nutrient quantity and quality were captured using audio-video food logs on iPod Touches and analyzed by NutriBase Pro 11 software. Results Insufficient kilocalories were consumed relative to expenditure for all deployment types. Average daily kilocalories consumed: IA: 3758 (80% consumption rate); P: 2945±888.8; B: 2433±570.8. Average daily kilocalorie expenditure: IA: 4538±106.3; P: 4012±1164.8; B: 2842±649.9. The Average Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for protein was acceptable: 22–25% (across deployment types). Whereas the AMDR for fat and carbohydrates were high: 40–50%; and low: 27–37% respectively, across deployment types. Conclusions This study is the first to use the described methodology to simultaneously evaluate energy expenditures and nutritional practices in an occupational setting. The results support the use of HRV monitoring and video-food capture, in occupational field settings, to assess job demands. FireRangers expended the most energy during IA, and the least during B deployments. These results indicate the need to develop strategies centered on maintaining physical fitness and improving food practices. PMID:28107380

  8. Using a physiological framework for improving the detection of quantitative trait loci related to nitrogen nutrition in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Delphine; Burstin, Judith; Aubert, Grégoire; Huguet, Thierry; Ben, Cécile; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Salon, Christophe; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    Medicago truncatula is used as a model plant for exploring the genetic and molecular determinants of nitrogen (N) nutrition in legumes. In this study, our aim was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling plant N nutrition using a simple framework of carbon/N plant functioning stemming from crop physiology. This framework was based on efficiency variables which delineated the plant's efficiency to take up and process carbon and N resources. A recombinant inbred line population (LR4) was grown in a glasshouse experiment under two contrasting nitrate concentrations. At low nitrate, symbiotic N(2) fixation was the main N source for plant growth and a QTL with a large effect located on linkage group (LG) 8 affected all the traits. Significantly, efficiency variables were necessary both to precisely localize a second QTL on LG5 and to detect a third QTL involved in epistatic interactions on LG2. At high nitrate, nitrate assimilation was the main N source and a larger number of QTL with weaker effects were identified compared to low nitrate. Only two QTL were common to both nitrate treatments: a QTL of belowground biomass located at the bottom of LG3 and another one on LG6 related to three different variables (leaf area, specific N uptake and aboveground:belowground biomass ratio). Possible functions of several candidate genes underlying QTL of efficiency variables could be proposed. Altogether, our results provided new insights into the genetic control of N nutrition in M. truncatula. For instance, a novel result for M. truncatula was identification of two epistatic interactions in controlling plant N(2) fixation. As such this study showed the value of a simple conceptual framework based on efficiency variables for studying genetic determinants of complex traits and particularly epistatic interactions.

  9. Pleurotus mushrooms. Part II. Chemical composition, nutritional value, post-harvest physiology, preservation, and role as human food.

    PubMed

    Bano, Z; Rajarathnam, S

    1988-01-01

    The fruit bodies of Pleurotus species as a class of "Edible Fungal Foods" have been discovered to have definite nutritive and medicinal values. They are a good source of nonstarchy carbohydrates, dietary fiber (that can help in reducing the plasma cholesterol), most of the essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins of B group, and folic acid (necessary to counteract pernicious anaemia) in particular. Considering the essential amino acid index, biological value, in vitro digestibility, nutritional index, and protein score, Pleurotus species fall between high grade vegetables and low grade meats. Fractions of water-soluble polysaccharides are reported to possess antitumor activity. The physiological processes such as changes in water content, respiratory rate, texture, color, and activities of enzymes like proteases and polyphenol oxidases during the after-harvest life are delineated. The problems and prospects of processing the fruit bodies by various methods are discussed. Potentialities for production and consumption of the fruit bodies in different parts of the world are brought out.

  10. The effect of meals of varying nutritional composition on subjective and physiological markers of nausea in response to optokinetic motion.

    PubMed

    Williamson, M J; Levine, M E; Stern, R M

    2005-01-01

    Protein ingestion has been shown to decrease subjective and physiological markers of nausea. To elucidate the importance of drink palatability and nutritional composition in preventing subjective symptoms of nausea, decreased normal gastric electrogastrographic activity, and withdrawal of vagal tone in response to optokinetic motion. Participants received a liquid high protein/low carbohydrate, moderate protein/high carbohydrate, low protein/high carbohydrate or water meal 30 min prior to exposure to an optokinetic drum. Subjective symptoms of nausea, electrogastrograms and cardiac vagal tone were measured during the 30-min post-drink rest period, a 10-min baseline period in the stationary drum, and during a 16-min drum rotation period. Regardless of nutritional composition, a pleasant taste predicted a reduction of the subjective experience of nausea. Subjective symptoms were significantly more severe in the moderate protein/high carbohydrate and water groups compared to the high protein/low carbohydrate and low protein/high carbohydrate groups. Electrogastrographic indicators of nausea were reduced in the high protein/low carbohydrate and low protein/high carbohydrate groups versus water, while cardiac vagal tone was reduced in the high protein/low carbohydrate and moderate protein/high carbohydrate groups versus the low protein/high carbohydrate and water groups. Palatability and high protein meals appear to be important factors in attenuating the nausea associated with exposure to optokinetic motion.

  11. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  12. The Effect of a Summer Camp Intervention on the Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Behavior of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Leah; Nepocatych, Svetlana; Ketcham, Caroline; Duffy, Diane

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a rewards-based nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge and dietary behaviors of adolescent girls. Our participants consisted of eight girls ages 11 to 13 years. Nutritional knowledge was assessed before and after intervention program through a "Jeopardy" style quiz game and posttest questionnaires. Participants were also interviewed throughout the week about typical dietary behaviors, daily physical activity, and self-esteem. Educational activities took place for 2 to 3 hours each day and included a grocery store scavenger hunt, healthy baking demonstrations, and relay races. Participants received bracelets and charms as rewards for participation in activities. Nutritional knowledge increased for six out of eight participants, although the overall increase was not found to be statistically significant (p = .20). Significant correlations were found between measures including dietary behavior (soda consumption per week and perceived importance of body weight: r = -.827, p = .01), self-esteem (weight and endurance: r = .801, p = .03), and fitness levels (weight and curl-ups completed in 30 seconds: r = -.729, p = .04). This study shows promising evidence that this nutrition education intervention could be effective at increasing nutrition knowledge, thus potentially affecting future dietary behaviors of adolescent girls.

  13. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  14. Use of Fitness and Nutrition Apps: Associations With Body Mass Index, Snacking, and Drinking Habits in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Nathalie; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Vervoort, Leentje; Goossens, Lien; Maes, Lea; Deforche, Benedicte; De Henauw, Stefaan; Braet, Caroline; Eggermont, Steven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2017-04-25

    Efforts to improve snacking and drinking habits are needed to promote a healthy body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Although commercial fitness and nutrition mobile phone apps are widely used, little is known regarding their potential to improve health behaviors, especially in adolescents. In addition, evidence on the mechanisms through which such fitness and nutrition apps influence behavior is lacking. This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio. Cross-sectional self-reported data on snack and beverage consumption, healthy eating determinants, and fitness and nutrition app use of adolescents (N=889; mean age 14.7 years, SD 0.8; 54.8% [481/878] boys; 18.1% [145/803] overweight) were collected in a representative sample of 20 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Height and weight were measured by the researchers. The healthy snack ratio and the healthy beverage ratio were calculated as follows: gram healthy snacks or beverages/(gram healthy snacks or beverages+gram unhealthy snacks or beverages)×100. Multilevel regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the proposed associations and to explore multiple mediation. A total of 27.6% (245/889) of the adolescents used fitness, nutrition apps or both. Frequency of using nutrition apps was positively associated with a higher healthy beverage ratio (b=2.96 [1.11], P=.008) and a higher body mass index z-scores (zBMI; b=0.13 [0.05], P=.008. A significant interaction was found between the frequency of using nutrition and for

  15. Use of Fitness and Nutrition Apps: Associations With Body Mass Index, Snacking, and Drinking Habits in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Vervoort, Leentje; Goossens, Lien; Maes, Lea; Deforche, Benedicte; De Henauw, Stefaan; Braet, Caroline; Eggermont, Steven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Background Efforts to improve snacking and drinking habits are needed to promote a healthy body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Although commercial fitness and nutrition mobile phone apps are widely used, little is known regarding their potential to improve health behaviors, especially in adolescents. In addition, evidence on the mechanisms through which such fitness and nutrition apps influence behavior is lacking. Objectives This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio. Methods Cross-sectional self-reported data on snack and beverage consumption, healthy eating determinants, and fitness and nutrition app use of adolescents (N=889; mean age 14.7 years, SD 0.8; 54.8% [481/878] boys; 18.1% [145/803] overweight) were collected in a representative sample of 20 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Height and weight were measured by the researchers. The healthy snack ratio and the healthy beverage ratio were calculated as follows: gram healthy snacks or beverages/(gram healthy snacks or beverages+gram unhealthy snacks or beverages)×100. Multilevel regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the proposed associations and to explore multiple mediation. Results A total of 27.6% (245/889) of the adolescents used fitness, nutrition apps or both. Frequency of using nutrition apps was positively associated with a higher healthy beverage ratio (b=2.96 [1.11], P=.008) and a higher body mass index z-scores (zBMI; b=0.13 [0.05], P=.008. A significant interaction was found between the

  16. Tissue-specific activities of an immune signaling module regulate physiological responses to pathogenic and nutritional bacteria in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Robert P; Kooistra, Tristan; Chu, Stephanie W; Pagano, Daniel J; Kim, Dennis H

    2009-10-22

    Microbes represent both an essential source of nutrition and a potential source of lethal infection to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Immunity in C. elegans requires a signaling module comprised of orthologs of the mammalian Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain protein SARM, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) ASK1, and MAPKK MKK3, which activates p38 MAPK. We determined that the SARM-ASK1-MKK3 module has dual tissue-specific roles in the C. elegans response to pathogens--in the cell-autonomous regulation of innate immunity and the neuroendocrine regulation of serotonin-dependent aversive behavior. SARM-ASK1-MKK3 signaling in the sensory nervous system also regulates egg-laying behavior that is dependent on bacteria provided as a nutrient source. Our data demonstrate that these physiological responses to bacteria share a common mechanism of signaling through the SARM-ASK1-MKK3 module and suggest the co-option of ancestral immune signaling pathways in the evolution of physiological responses to microbial pathogens and nutrients.

  17. Physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a series of studies (n = 51) examining physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male elite basketball players. These studies included relevant information on physical and physiological variables, such as height, weight, somatotype, relative size, aerobic profile, strength, anaerobic power, agility and speed. Six main findings emerged from our review: (i) differences in physical attributes exist among playing positions and skill levels (e.g. guards tend to be lighter, shorter and more mesomorphic than centres); (ii) maximum aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) values of female and male players are 44.0-54.0 and 50-60 mLO(2)/kg/min, respectively; (iii) male and female players of higher skill levels tend to have higher vertical jump values; (iv) the more skilled female and male players are faster and more agile than the less skilled players; (v) guards tend to perform more high-intensity movements during game play compared with forwards and centres; and (vi) a water deficit of 2% of bodyweight can lead to reduced physical and mental performance during an actual game. Five limitations associated with the testing protocols used in the studies are outlined, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach, lack of tests performed under physical exertion conditions, and lack of studies using a time-motion analysis. In addition, three practical recommendations for the basketball coach and the strength and conditioning coach are presented. It is concluded that the data emerging from these studies, combined with the knowledge already obtained from the studies on physical and physiological characteristics of elite basketball players, should be applied by basketball and strength and conditioning coaches when planning training programmes for elite basketball players.

  18. A randomized trial testing the efficacy of modifications to the nutrition facts table on comprehension and use of nutrition information by adolescents and young adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hobin, E.; Sacco, J.; Vanderlee, L.; White, C. M.; Zuo, F.; Sheeshka, J.; McVey, G.; Fodor O'Brien, M.; Hammond, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Given the proposed changes to nutrition labelling in Canada and the dearth of research examining comprehension and use of nutrition facts tables (NFts) by adolescents and young adults, our objective was to experimentally test the efficacy of modifications to NFts on young Canadians’ ability to interpret, compare and mathematically manipulate nutrition information in NFts on prepackaged food. Methods: An online survey was conducted among 2010 Canadians aged 16 to 24 years drawn from a consumer sample. Participants were randomized to view two NFts according to one of six experimental conditions, using a between-groups 2×3 factorial design: serving size (current NFt vs. standardized serving-sizes across similar products) × percent daily value (% DV) (current NFt vs. “low/med/high” descriptors vs. colour coding). The survey included seven performance tasks requiring participants to interpret, compare and mathematically manipulate nutrition information on NFts. Separate modified Poisson regression models were conducted for each of the three outcomes. Results: The ability to compare two similar products was significantly enhanced in NFt conditions that included standardized serving-sizes (p ≤ .001 for all). Adding descriptors or colour coding of % DV next to calories and nutrients on NFts significantly improved participants’ ability to correctly interpret % DV information (p ≤ .001 for all). Providing both standardized serving-sizes and descriptors of % DV had a modest effect on participants’ ability to mathematically manipulate nutrition information to calculate the nutrient content of multiple servings of a product (relative ratio = 1.19; 95% confidence limit: 1.04–1.37). Conclusion: Standardizing serving-sizes and adding interpretive % DV information on NFts improved young Canadians’ comprehension and use of nutrition information. Some caution should be exercised in generalizing these findings to all Canadian youth due to the

  19. Dietary intake and nutritional risk in Mediterranean adolescents in relation to the severity of the eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Pérez, Susana; Arija, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    To assess the relationship between the degree of severity of eating disorders (ED) and energy and nutrient intakes and nutritional risk in a mixed-sex adolescent population without clinical symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected in schools. Adolescents (n 495) aged 14·2 (sd 1·0) years. The Eating Attitudes Test was used to detect adolescents at risk of ED (rED) and a structured interview based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, was used to diagnose eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Dietary intake was quantified using the 24 h recall method over three days and the probability of inadequate intake was determined. Females presented lower intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients (Ca, Fe, Mg, K, P, Na, thiamin, vitamins E, C, B6, B12, pantothenic acid, folic acid) because the severity of their ED was greater. These lower dietary intakes led to nutritional risk (for Ca, Fe, Mg, P, vitamins A, D, B6) in more than 80 % and 60 % of females with EDNOS and rED, respectively. The multiple linear regression models showed that the rED and EDNOS groups presented a lower energy intake of 1597·4 kJ/d (381·8 kcal/d) and 3153·0 kJ/d (753·6 kcal/d), respectively. In contrast, little difference was observed in the nutritional intakes of males. The female adolescents showed lower energy and nutrient intakes as the ED became more severe, which led to energy, vitamin and mineral deficiencies in a high percentage of females with ED. These nutritional risks could hinder adequate physical and psychological development and lead to chronic ED.

  20. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  1. Pilot evaluation of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Food-O-Meter, a computer-tailored nutrition advice for adolescents: a study in six European cities.

    PubMed

    Maes, Lea; Cook, Tina Louisa; Ottovaere, Charlene; Matthijs, Christophe; Moreno, Luis A; Kersting, Mathilde; Papadaki, Alina; Manios, Yannis; Dietrich, Sabine; Hallström, Lena; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility and impact of the Food-O-Meter, an Internet-based computer-tailored nutrition intervention in adolescents. Participants in the intervention condition received the computer-tailored advice at baseline and at 1 month, those in the control condition received standardised advice. Effects were evaluated at 1 month (n 621) and at 3 months (n 558) using multi-level modelling. Secondary schools in six European cities. Adolescents accessed the intervention in the school computer room under the supervision of teachers. Classes with students aged 12-17 years in the schools participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study were randomised into intervention and control schools. In most participating centres the intervention was feasible and generally well appreciated, especially by girls. Technical problems and lack of motivation of the teachers hindered implementation in some centres. Overweight adolescents had higher scores for reading and using the advice than normal weight adolescents. After 1 month adolescents receiving the standardised advice reported an increase in fat intake, while fat intake in the intervention condition was stable (F = 4·82, P < 0·05). After 3 months, there was a trend in the total group for an intervention effect of the tailored advice on fat intake (F = 2·80, P < 0·10). In the overweight group there was a clear positive effect (F = 5·76, P < 0·05). The Food-O-Meter should be developed further. The results were modest but clear for percentage energy from fat, specifically in the overweight group. Adaptations based on new research are needed to enhance the reliability and effectiveness of the intervention.

  2. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  3. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  4. Compliance with Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) and nutrition knowledge levels in adolescents. A case study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahingoz, Semra Akar; Sanlier, Nevin

    2011-08-01

    Adopting an eating pattern complying with the Mediterranean diet not only decreases body fat mass and obesity risk, but also reduces development of various health problems. This study investigated the nutritional awareness and diet quality Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) of Turkish adolescents. The study was conducted with 890 voluntary participants (464 boys and 426 girls) aged 10-14 years. A questionnaire form was used to learn demographic characteristics of the participants. Participants' nutritional awareness was determined through a 20-item knowledge form and their nutritional habits through a 16-item Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED). The average nutritional knowledge score was X=82.22 ± 0.42. Results indicated that 17.9% of the participants had a low quality diet (≤ 3 points), 59.2% had a mid-quality/needs-improvement diet (4-7 points) and 22.9% had an optimal quality diet (≥ 8 points). The study results showed that the subjects' diet quality was low and that their nutrition knowledge levels were related to their nutritional habits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional Status of Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with an elevated risk for obesity but this seems to be paradoxical to the fact that many youths with ADHD have symptoms of hyperactivity. People diagnosed with ADHD tend to have a high risk of developing undesirable diet habits and consequently have health related problems. However, less attention has been paid to obesity in ADHD while many efforts have been devoted to the prevention of childhood obesity in mentally normal people. Hence the purpose of this study was to explore the nutritional status and life habits of children and adolescents with ADHD (n = 76) based on degree of obesity by utilizing the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2005-2013. As results the levels of blood pressure, total triglycerides and the fat intake relative to total energy intake in overweight ADHD group were higher than those in normal weight group. Interestingly, overweight ADHD subjects consumed significantly less amount of iron compared to normal weight ADHD subjects and the level of serum ferritin was lower in the overweight ADHD group (59.0 ng/mL) than in the normal weight ADHD group (47.9 ng/mL). After adjusting total energy intake, total vegetable consumption was 14.3% lower in overweight group compared to the consumption in normal weight group. These results indicate a plausible relationship of iron status and obesity in ADHD subjects but this relationship may not be specific to ADHD. A future study with case-control design is necessary to investigate the association of obesity, nutrient intake, and cognitive/mental status of ADHD.

  6. Design of the nutritional therapy for overweight and obese Spanish adolescents conducted by registered dieticians: the EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Ma; Moleres, A; Rendo-Urteaga, T; Gómez-Martínez, S; Zapatera, B; Romero, P; de Miguel-Etayo, P; Campoy, C; Alfredo Martínez, J; Azcona-San Julián, C; Marcos, A; Marti, A; Warnberg, J

    2012-01-01

    Dietary treatment for obese adolescents should aim to ensure adequate growth and development, by reducing excessive fat mass accumulation, avoiding loss of lean body mass, improving well-being and self-esteem and preventing cyclical weight regain. The aim of this article is to describe the dietary intervention design and the methods used to evaluate nutritional knowledge and behavior in the EVASYON study (Development, implementation and evaluation of the efficacy of a therapeutic programme for overweight/obese adolescents). EVASYON is a multi-centre study conducted in 5 Spanish hospital settings (Granada, Madrid, Pamplona, Santander and Zaragoza), where 204 overweight/obese Spanish adolescents were treated in groups of 9 to 11 subjects over 20 visits. The study was implemented in two stages: an intensive, calorie-restricted period for the first 9 weeks, and an extensive body-weight follow-up period for the last 11 months. A moderate energy intake restriction was applied in the intensive period according to the degree of obesity, on the basis of a balanced diet supplying 50-55% of daily energy as carbohydrates; 30-35% as fats and 10-15% as proteins. In the intensive period, adolescents were prescribed both a fixed full-day meal plan for the first three weeks and a full day meal plan with different food-choices for 6 weeks. Later, adolescents received a flexible meal plan based on food exchanges for the follow-up period until the end of the trial. Data on food intake, dietary and meal-related habits and behavior were collected by means of dietary questionnaires. To analyse nutritional knowledge, adolescents were examined regarding nutrient concepts and food adoitems for a healthy diet with the appropriate tools. Participants were given nutritional information with complementary teaching material, which was available on the EVASYON website (www.estudioevasyon.com). The dietary intervention of the EVASYON programme with a moderate calorie restriction for a limited

  7. The Relationship between Nutrition in Infancy and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Foster, Jonathan K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term associations between breastfeeding duration during infancy, diet quality as measured by a diet score at 1 year of age, and cognitive performance during adolescence. Participants (n = 717) were recruited from the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective longitudinal study of 2868 children and their families based in Perth, WA, Australia. Breastfeeding duration and an early diet score at age 1 year were used as the main predictor variables, while a computerized cognitive battery (CogState) was used to assess adolescents' cognitive performance at 17 years. The diet score, which has seven food group components, was based on a 24-h recall questionnaire completed by the mother at 1 year of age. A higher diet score represents a better, more nutritious eating pattern. Associations between breastfeeding duration, diet score, and cognitive performance were assessed in multivariable regression models. Higher diet scores at 1 year representing better diet quality were significantly associated with faster reaction times in cognitive performance at 17 years [Detection Task (DET): β = -0.004, 95% CI: -0.008; 0.000, p = 0.036; Identification Task (IDN): β = -0.004, 95% CI: -0.008; 0.000, p = 0.027]. Breastfeeding duration (≥4 months) was also significantly associated with a shorter reaction time, but only for males (DET: β = -0.026, 95% CI: -0.046; -0.006, p = 0.010). Nutrition in early childhood may have a long-term association with fundamental cognitive processing speed, which is likely to be related to enhanced brain development in the first year of life.

  8. Lung function and nutritional status of semi-nomadic Fulani children and adolescents in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Glew, R H; Brock, H S; VanderVoort, J; Agaba, P; Harkins, M S; VanderJagt, D J

    2004-02-01

    The Fulani are semi-nomadic pastoralists of the western Sahel whose culture and economy are centered on cattle. We have shown previously that Fulani children and adolescents (5-18 years old) are stunted and underweight. Nutritional status and lung function were studied in Fulani children and adolescents (n = 70), aged 6-18, and compared with a non-Fulani, rural Nigerian control group (n = 153) of the same age. Participants were restricted to healthy individuals with no prior history of respiratory disease and no symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection within the past 6 weeks. Significant deficits in forced vital capacity (FVC; Fulani males, 1.51 l; non-Fulani males, 1.86 l, p = 0.009; Fulani females, 1.36 l; non-Fulani females, 1.79 l, p < 0.001), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; Fulani males, 1.44 l; non-Fulani males, 1.76 l, p = 0.02; Fulani females, 1.24 l; non-Fulani females, 1.69 l, p < 0.001), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR; Fulani males, 2.69 l/s; non-Fulani males, 3.48 l/s, p = 0.002; Fulani females, 2.29 l/s; non-Fulani females, 3.35 l/s, p < 0.001) were found in both the Fulani boys and girls compared with the non-Fulani controls. The diminished lung function in the Fulani group could be attributed to respiratory muscle weakness or an overall deficit in energy.

  9. Psychopathological and nutritional correlates of plasma homovanillic acid in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramón; Baeza, Immaculada; Casulà, Vanessa; Saura, Begoña; Lázaro, Luisa; Puig, Josefina; Toro, Josep; Bernardo, Miquel

    2008-02-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities have been described in anorexia nervosa but studies about plasma level of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have yielded conflicting results probably due to the small number and the heterogeneity of patients. Plasma HVA, nutritional and hormonal parameters and several scales - the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-child version (LOI-C) and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) - were assessed in 44 adolescent anorexia nervosa patients (mean age 14.7 years, SD 1.7) consecutively admitted to an Eating Disorder Unit. They were evaluated at admission, at discharge and, in 34 cases, after 9 months of follow-up. pHVA was also assessed in 16 control adolescents. Patients had significantly higher pHVA than controls (p = .002). About 31% of patients had a very high level of pHVA, a significantly higher (p = .006) mean score in the BDI and a non significantly higher mean score in the EAT. After weight recovery some laboratory parameters improved as well as the EAT (p = .019), the BDI (p = 001) and the Interference score of the LOI-C (p = .004). Moreover, pHVA decreased significantly (p=.036). At follow-up, patients with normal weight had lower (p = .037) pHVA than patients with low weight. The conclusion would be that there is a dopaminergic dysfunction in anorexic patients, specially in a subgroup with high depressive and anorexic symptomatology. With weight recovery and psychopathological improvement, pHVA tends to normalization.

  10. [From the influence of genes to the influence of family and urban environment on the nutritional status, activity, and physical condition of european urban adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beghin, Laurent; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Deplanque, Dominique; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    HELENA was a cross-sectional study carried out from 2006 to 2007 in more than 3500 adolescents aged from 12.5 to 17.5 years old through 10 Europeans towns from 9 countries. Its objective was to assess adolescent nutritional status including: body composition, biological markers, physical activity and fitness. This study shown the high impact of socio-economic condition, life style and personal and collective environment, dietary pattern (including breastfeeding), some genetic mutations involved in adiposity and metabolism, physical activity level and fitness on adolescent nutritional status. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  11. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  13. Triarchic dimensions of psychopathy in young adulthood: Associations with clinical and physiological measures after accounting for adolescent psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Fanti, Kostas A; Sikki, Maria; Patrick, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    This study examined associations of psychopathy facets of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition with clinically relevant variables and physiological reactivity to affective stimuli. These associations were examined after accounting for developmental associations with adolescent psychopathic traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed during adolescence using the Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Inventory of Callous Unemotional traits and during young adulthood via the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Clinical variables (N = 99, Mage = 15.91, 53% female), as well as affective and physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance, startle modulation) to violent and erotic videos (N = 88, Mage = 19.92, 50% female) were also assessed during adulthood. After accounting for adolescent psychopathic traits, boldness was associated with high cognitive reappraisal and low anxiety, fear, and hostility, and meanness was related to callous-unemotional traits, hostility, less sympathy to victims, and less use of cognitive reappraisal. Disinhibition, by contrast, was associated with impulsivity, increased anxiety, and hostile and aggressive tendencies, as well as conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder symptoms, and cognitive suppression. In addition, evidence was found for different physiological measures operating as biological indicators of these distinctive dimensions, with reduced resting heart rate and cardiac reactivity to violent stimuli indicative of boldness, above and beyond adolescent psychopathic traits, and low startle potentiation for violent stimuli indicative of callous-unemotional traits and meanness. These findings provide evidence for the value of a multidomain approach for clarifying neurobiological mechanisms of psychopathic tendencies that can inform prevention and treatment efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Health and nutritional status of children of adolescent mothers: experience from a diarrhoeal disease hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Malek, Mohammad A; Faruque, Abu S G; Salam, Mohammed A; Ahmed, T

    2007-03-01

    The study aimed at assessing clinical and nutritional features and socioeconomic characteristics of the first birth-order children (1-48 months) of adolescent mothers. Five hundred and thirty-nine first birth-order children of both sexes, aged 1-48 month(s) were studied. All study children had adolescent mothers aged < or =19 years (when attending hospital), who attended (as a patient) the Dhaka hospital of ICDDR, B during 2000-2005. A similar group of children (n = 540) of mothers aged 25-29 years (when attending hospital) constituted the comparison group. Malnutrition indicated by underweight [OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.1, p < 0.001], stunting [OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p < 0.001], wasting [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7, p = 0.001], infancy (<12 months old) [OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.1-3.9, p < 0.001], duration of hospitalization (> or =48 h) [OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2, p = 0.001], DPT immunization [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5, p = 0.001] and maternal illiteracy (no formal schooling) [OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0, p = 0.007] were significantly associated with children of adolescent mothers, after adjusting for co-variates in the logistic regression analysis. Similar results were also observed when different indices of malnutrition (stunting, underweight or wasting) were added separately to the different models. Children of adolescent mothers are likely to be more malnourished, have lesser opportunities for DPT immunization and have longer duration of hospitalization. Adolescent mothers were also more likely to be illiterate. Therefore, the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies will be required to reduce morbidity and improve the health and nutrition status of both children and their adolescent mothers.

  15. Increased bacterial putrescine has no impact on gut morphology and physiology in gnotobiotic adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Slezak, K; Hanske, L; Loh, G; Blaut, M

    2013-09-01

    Gut bacteria influence host anatomy and physiology. It has been proposed that bacterial metabolites including polyamines are responsible for intestinal maturation and mucosal growth. We have hypothesised that bacterially produced polyamines act as trophic factors and thereby influence large intestinal crypt depth and thickness of the different gut layers. For that purpose, germ-free mice were associated with two different microbial consortia. One group was colonised with a simplified human microbiota (SIHUMI). The second group was associated with SIHUMI + Fusobacterium varium (SIHUMI + Fv), which is known to produce high amounts of polyamines. Polyamine concentrations were measured by HPLC and morphological parameters were determined microscopically. Germ-free and conventional mice served as controls. The caecal putrescine concentration of the SIHUMI + Fv was 61.8 μM (47.6-75.5 μM), whereas that of conventional and SIHUMI mice was 28.8 μM (1.3-41.7 μM) and 24.5 μM (16.8-29.1 μM), respectively. The caecal putrescine concentration of germ-free mice was only 0.6 μM (0-1.0 μM). Caecal crypt depth and thickness of the different caecal layers revealed no significant differences between SIHUMI and SIHUMI + Fv mice. However, the crypt depth in the caeca of conventional, SIHUMI and SIHUMI + Fv mice was increased by 48.6% (P<0.001), 39.7% (P<0.001) and 28.5% (P<0.05), respectively, compared to germ-free mice. These findings indicate that increased intestinal putrescine concentrations do not influence gut morphology in our gnotobiotic adolescent mice.

  16. Margalef revisited: A new phytoplankton mandala incorporating twelve dimensions, including nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Glibert, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve response or effects traits, or environmental characteristics, related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches and in understanding environmental factors associated with harmful algal blooms. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio.

  17. Mutual physiological genetic mechanism of plant high water use efficiency and nutrition use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Zheng-Bin; Xu, Ping; Chu, Li-Ye; Shao, Hong-Bo; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jun-Hong

    2007-05-15

    Water deficiency and lower fertilizer utilization efficiency are major constraints of productivity and yield stability. Improvements of crop water use efficiency (WUE) and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is becoming an important objective in crop breeding. With the introduction of new physiological and biological approaches, we can better understand the mutual genetics mechanism of high use efficiency of water and nutrient. Much work has been done in past decades mainly including the interactions between different fertilizers and water influences on root characteristics and crop growth. Fertilizer quantity and form were regulated in order to improve crop WUE. The crop WUE and NUE shared the same increment tendency during evolution process; some genes associated with WUE and NUE have been precisely located and marked on the same chromosomes, some genes related to WUE and NUE have been cloned and transferred into wheat and rice and other plants, they can enhance water and nutrient use efficiency. The proteins transporting nutrient and water were identified such as some water channel proteins. The advance on the mechanism of higher water and nutrient use efficiency in crop was reviewed in this article, and it could provide some useful information for further research on WUE and NUE in crop.

  18. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  19. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  20. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  1. Family Consumer Behaviors, Adolescent Prediabetes and Diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010).

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Khokhar, Aditi; Holmes, Danielle Sweetnam; Chandwani, Sheenu

    2017-01-01

    Prediabetes or diabetes (characterized by hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥ 5.7 gm%) has been associated with numerous long-term complications. Family consumer behaviors are important risk factors that lead to impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However, few studies have studied the association between the family consumer environment and prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family consumer behaviors (healthy food availability and supermarket spending) and adolescent prediabetes and diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT03136289.) Methods: Data from a nationwide survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 2007-2010 data) were used for these analyses. Adolescents aged 12-19 years were selected for this study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between family consumer behaviors and the prevalence of adolescent prediabetes and diabetes. Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, education, income, and household size. A total of 2520 adolescents were eligible for this study. Adolescents with healthier household food availability had negative odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.00), as did higher log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). Interaction models demonstrated that adolescent females had more negative odds of prediabetes/diabetes for both healthier food availability (OR = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.39-1.29) and for greater log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). This study shows that both healthy food availability and an increase in supermarket spending were associated with a decreased adjusted prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents, with a greater effect in females. These results suggest the need for policy and dietary interventions targeting the consumer

  2. Nanotitania Exposure Causes Alterations in Physiological, Nutritional and Stress Responses in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manish; Sharma, Nilesh C.; Fleischmann, Paul; Burbage, Jauan; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanotitania: TiO2NPs) are used in a wide range of consumer products, paints, sunscreens, and cosmetics. The increased applications lead to the subsequent release of nanomaterials in environment that could affect the plant productivity. However, few studies have been performed to determine the overall effects of TiO2NPs on edible crops. We treated tomato plants with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/L TiO2NPs in a hydroponic system for 2 weeks and examined physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes. The dual response was observed on growth and photosynthetic ability of plants depending on TiO2NPs concentrations. Low concentrations (0.5–2 g/L) of TiO2NPs boosted growth by approximately 50% and caused significant increase in photosynthetic parameters such as quantum yield, performance index, and total chlorophyll content as well as induced expression of PSI gene with respect to untreated plants. The high concentration (4 g/L) affected these parameters in negative manner. The catalase and peroxidase activities were also elevated in the exposed plants in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, exposed plants exhibited increased expressions of glutathione synthase and glutathione S-transferase (nearly threefold increase in both roots and leaves), indicating a promising role of thiols in detoxification of TiO2NPs in tomato. The elemental analysis of tissues performed at 0.5, 1, and 2 g/L TiO2NPs indicates that TiO2NPs transport significantly affected the distribution of essential elements (P, S, Mg, and Fe) in roots and leaves displaying about threefold increases in P and 25% decrease in Fe contents. This study presents the mechanistic basis for the differential responses of titanium nanoparticles in tomato, and calls for a cautious approach for the application of nanomaterials in agriculture. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACTMovement of nanotitania in plant tissues. PMID:28484486

  3. Health and Nutrition Literacy and Adherence to Treatment in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension, North Carolina, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Maria; Rak, Eniko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to treatment and dietary restrictions is important for health outcomes of patients with chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension. The relationship of adherence with nutritional and health literacy in children, adolescents, and young adults is not well understood. The current study examined the relationship of health literacy, nutrition knowledge, nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance, and medication adherence in a sample of children and young people with chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension. Methods We enrolled 74 patients (aged 7–29 y) with a diagnosis of chronic/end-stage kidney disease and hypertension from the University of North Carolina Kidney Center. Participants completed instruments of nutrition literacy (Disease-Specific Nutrition Knowledge Test), health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), nutrition behavior (Nutrition Knowledge–Behavior Concordance Scale), and medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale). Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to test the associations. Results In univariate comparisons, nutrition knowledge was significantly higher in people with adequate health literacy. Medication adherence was related to nutrition knowledge and nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance. Multivariate regression models demonstrated that knowledge of disease-specific nutrition restrictions did not significantly predict nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance scores. In logistic regression, knowledge of nutrition restrictions did not significantly predict medication adherence. Lastly, health literacy and nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance were significant predictors of medication adherence. Conclusion Nutrition knowledge and health literacy skills are positively associated. Nutrition knowledge, health literacy, and nutrition knowledge–behavior concordance are positively related to medication adherence. Future research should focus on additional factors that may predict

  4. Nutrition interacts with parasitism to influence growth and physiology of the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A; Wang, L-W

    2005-02-01

    The influence and interaction of dietary protein:carbohydrate balance and parasitism by Cotesia congregata on nutrient intake and growth were examined over the last two larval stadia of Manduca sexta. Effects of nutritional status on host blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Six fat-free chemically defined diets were tested, each having the same total level of casein and sucrose, but with casein to sucrose ratios varying from low protein/high carbohydrate to equal levels of both nutrients through to high protein/no carbohydrate. Nutrient ratio and parasitism each affected nutrient consumption and growth. Feeding responses differed between normal and parasitized larvae, as illustrated by nutrient arrays, two-dimensional plots of protein and carbohydrate consumption on diets having different nutrient ratios. Normal larvae consumed more nutrients and took longer to develop as dietary nutrient ratio was displaced from equal levels of both nutrients. Except on the diet having the same amount of protein and carbohydrate, parasitized larvae consumed less nutrients than normal larvae, although on all diets parasitized larvae took longer to develop. When the contribution of parasite biomass was excluded, parasitized larvae showed lower mass gain than normal larvae on all diets. Total mass gain by normal and parasitized larvae with parasite biomass included, however, was similar on diets having intermediate nutrient ratios. Differences in mass gain between diets relative to nutrient consumption were evident from multi-dimensional representations of mass gain with protein and carbohydrate consumption. Three-dimensional plots and contour maps of normal and parasitized larvae were different. When differences in nutrient consumption between diets were taken into account, protein consumption had a greater effect on growth than carbohydrate consumption and normal larvae generally displayed greater mass gain than parasitized larvae on the same diets. Utilization

  5. Bariatric surgery for extreme adolescent obesity: Indications, outcomes, and physiologic effects on the gut–brain axis

    PubMed Central

    Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This review will summarize current indications, limitations and outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents, as well as provide an overview of the physiologic effects of bariatric surgery on enteric hormones involved in regulating appetite, satiation and maintenance of weight. Results Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 99 percentile) now affects 4% of children and adolescents in the United States. Traditional dietary and behavioral weight management methods have no demonstrated efficacy for extremely obese children and adolescents, in contrast with bariatric surgery which has produced significant and sustainable weight loss and associated improvements in comorbid diseases for the extremely obese. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are the most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures in adolescents, but vertical sleeve gastrectomy may be a promising new option for selected extremely obese adolescents. A mean weight loss of 37–40% is achieved in adolescents after RYGB, with LAGB showing similar results, albeit attained at a slower rate. Conclusion Alterations in the enteric hormones involved in the gut–brain axis that regulates appetite and energy expenditure may play a role in both the anorexigenic and weight-reducing effects of certain bariatric surgical procedures. In particular, RYGB induces a rise in both fasting and post-prandial peptide tyrosine–tyrosine which could contribute to the more rapid and greater degree of weight loss than is seen with LAGB. Limitations of bariatric surgery however include the potential for post-operative morbidity and mortality, as well as possible weight regain in a small proportion of patients. PMID:18585904

  6. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use by Children and Adolescents in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Byrd, Robert S.; Auinger, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if vitamin and mineral supplement use among children and adolescents in the United States is associated with nutrition, food security, physical activity, and health care access. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting Questionnaires, household interviews, and medical examinations. Participants Children and adolescents 2 to 17 years of age (N = 10 828). Main Exposure Vitamin and mineral supplement use in the past month. Main Outcome Measures Demographics, nutrition, food security, physical activity, and health care access. Results Approximately 34% (SE 1.2) used vitamin and mineral supplements in the past month, with underweight subjects reporting greater intake. Younger age, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, being born in the United States, higher milk intake, lower total fat and cholesterol intake, higher dietary fiber intake, higher income, greater food security, lower media/computer use, greater physical activity, lower body mass index, health insurance coverage, better health care access, and better self-reported health were associated with greater use of vitamin and mineral supplements. Such supplements contributed significantly to total daily dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals. Conclusions A large number of US children and adolescents use vitamin and mineral supplements, which for most may not be medically indicated. Such supplements contribute significantly to total dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals, and studies of nutrition should include their assessment. Since vitamin and mineral supplement users report greater health care access, health care providers may be in a position to provide screening and counseling regarding dietary adequacy and indications for supplement use. PMID:19188647

  7. Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: a review.

    PubMed

    Edem, D O

    2002-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular diseases has necessitated a growing research interest in palm oil, the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Palm oil, obtained from a tropical plant, Elaeis guineensis contains 50% saturated fatty acids, yet it does not promote atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants, beta-carotene, and vitamin E. Although palm oil-based diets induce a higher blood cholesterol level than do corn, soybean, safflower seed, and sunflower oils, the consumption of palm oil causes the endogenous cholesterol level to drop. This phenomenon seems to arise from the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of palm oil to health include reduction in risk of arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, and reduction in blood pressure. Palm oil has been used in the fresh state and/or at various levels of oxidation. Oxidation is a result of processing the oil for various culinary purposes. However, a considerable amount of the commonly used palm oil is in the oxidized state, which poses potential dangers to the biochemical and physiological functions of the body. Unlike fresh palm oil, oxidized palm oil induces an adverse lipid profile, reproductive toxicity and toxicity of the kidney, lung, liver, and heart. This may be as a result of the generation of toxicants brought on by oxidation. In contrast to oxidized palm oil, red or refined palm oil at moderate levels in the diet of experimental animals promotes efficient utilization of nutrients, favorable body weight gains, induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, adequate hemoglobinization of red cells and improvement of immune function. Howerer, high palm oil levels in the diet induce toxicity to the liver as shown by

  8. The Role of Circadian Rhythms in Muscular and Osseous Physiology and Their Regulation by Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Shinya; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock regulates the day and night cycles of various physiological functions. The circadian clock system consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks in peripheral tissues. According to the results of circadian transcriptomic studies in several tissues, the majority of rhythmic genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are influenced by tissue-specific circadian rhythms. Here we review the diurnal variations of musculoskeletal functions and discuss the impact of the circadian clock on homeostasis in skeletal muscle and bone. Peripheral clocks are controlled by not only photic stimulation from the central clock in the SCN but also by external cues, such as feeding and exercise. In this review, we discuss the effects of feeding and exercise on the circadian clock and diurnal variation of musculoskeletal functions. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of chrono-nutrition and chrono-exercise on circadian disturbances and the failure of homeostasis in skeletal muscle and bone.

  9. To establish the parameters of optimal nutrition do we need to consider psychological in addition to physiological parameters?

    PubMed

    Benton, David

    2013-01-01

    The criteria used to establish dietary reference values are discussed and it is suggested that the too often the "need" they aim to satisfy is at the best vaguely specified. The proposition is considered that if we aim to establish optimal nutrition we will gain from considering psychological in addition to physiological parameters. The brain is by a considerable extent the most complex and metabolically active organ in the body. As such it would be predicted that the first signs of minor subclinical deficiencies will be the disruption of the functioning of the brain. The output of the brain is the product of countless millions of biochemical processes, such that if enzyme activity is only a few percentage points less than maximum, a cumulative influence would result. A series of studies of micronutrient supplementation in well-designed trials were reviewed. In metaanalyses the cognitive functioning of children and the mood and memory of adults has been shown to respond to multivitamin/mineral supplementation. Given the concerns that have been expressed about the negative responses to high levels of micronutrients, the implications are discussed of the finding that psychological functioning may benefits from an intake greater than those currently recommended.

  10. The Role of Circadian Rhythms in Muscular and Osseous Physiology and Their Regulation by Nutrition and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Shinya; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock regulates the day and night cycles of various physiological functions. The circadian clock system consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks in peripheral tissues. According to the results of circadian transcriptomic studies in several tissues, the majority of rhythmic genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are influenced by tissue-specific circadian rhythms. Here we review the diurnal variations of musculoskeletal functions and discuss the impact of the circadian clock on homeostasis in skeletal muscle and bone. Peripheral clocks are controlled by not only photic stimulation from the central clock in the SCN but also by external cues, such as feeding and exercise. In this review, we discuss the effects of feeding and exercise on the circadian clock and diurnal variation of musculoskeletal functions. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of chrono-nutrition and chrono-exercise on circadian disturbances and the failure of homeostasis in skeletal muscle and bone. PMID:28261043

  11. Validation of a General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire in Adolescents and Young Adults: GeSNK

    PubMed Central

    Calella, Patrizia; Iacullo, Vittorio Maria; Valerio, Giuliana

    2017-01-01

    Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK) in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK) was carried out in six phases as follows: (1) item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2) pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3) measurement of the internal consistency; (4) reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5) concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6) construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults. PMID:28468271

  12. Validation of a General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire in Adolescents and Young Adults: GeSNK.

    PubMed

    Calella, Patrizia; Iacullo, Vittorio Maria; Valerio, Giuliana

    2017-04-29

    Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK) in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK) was carried out in six phases as follows: (1) item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2) pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3) measurement of the internal consistency; (4) reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5) concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6) construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  13. Social adversity in adolescence increases the physiological vulnerability to job strain in adulthood: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Hugo; Gustafsson, Per E; Theorell, Töres; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that the association between job strain and health could be confounded by early life exposures, and studies have shown early adversity to increase individual vulnerability to later stress. We therefore investigated if early life exposure to adversity increases the individual's physiological vulnerability job strain in adulthood. In a population-based cohort (343 women and 330 men, 83% of the eligible participants), we examined the association between on the one hand exposure to adversity in adolescence, measured at age 16, and job strain measured at age 43, and on the other hand allostatic load at age 43. Adversity was operationalised as an index comprising residential mobility and crowding, parental loss, parental unemployment, and parental physical and mental illness (including substance abuse). Allostatic load summarised body fat, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, glucose, blood lipids, and cortisol regulation. There was an interaction between adversity in adolescence and job strain (B = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 after adjustment for socioeconomic status), particularly psychological demands, indicating that job strain was associated with increased allostatic load only among participants with adversity in adolescence. Job strain was associated with lower allostatic load in men (β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.06). Exposure to adversity in adolescence was associated with increased levels of biological stress among those reporting job strain in mid-life, indicating increased vulnerability to environmental stressors.

  14. Beyond Physiological Hypoarousal: The Role of Life Stress and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Incarcerated Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gostisha, Andrew J.; Vitacco, Michael J.; Dismukes, Andrew R.; Brieman, Chelsea; Merz, Jenna; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of antisocial behavior in youth has been examined with neurobiological theories that suggest adolescents who are less responsive to their environments are less likely to develop empathy in the absence of extant physiological arousal. However, little attention is paid to these individuals’ social context. Individuals with adverse early experiences can also exhibit attenuated physiological arousal. The current investigation examines whether psychopathic symptoms or life stress exposure is associated with cortisol and its diurnal rhythm within 50 incarcerated adolescent boys (14–18 years old). Ten saliva cortisol samples were collected 1–2 weeks after admission to a maximum-security juvenile facility. Hierarchical Linear Modeling distinguished waking cortisol levels, the awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal rhythm. Multiple interviews and self-report measures of CU traits and stressor exposure were collected. Boys with higher levels of CU traits or greater life stress exposure had flat diurnal rhythms and a steeper awakening response in analyses with lifetime stress exposure specifically. Nonetheless, boys who were elevated on both CU traits and prior stress exposure had steeper diurnal rhythms. These results extend neurobiological theories of cortisol and illustrate that boys with the combination of severe stress with CU traits have a unique physiological profile. PMID:24726789

  15. Beyond physiological hypoarousal: the role of life stress and callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Gostisha, Andrew J; Vitacco, Michael J; Dismukes, Andrew R; Brieman, Chelsea; Merz, Jenna; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2014-05-01

    The development of antisocial behavior in youth has been examined with neurobiological theories that suggest that adolescents who are less responsive to their environments are less likely to develop empathy in the absence of extant physiological arousal. However, little attention is paid to these individuals' social context. Individuals with adverse early experiences can also exhibit attenuated physiological arousal. The current investigation examines whether psychopathic symptoms or life stress exposure is associated with cortisol and its diurnal rhythm within 50 incarcerated adolescent boys (14-18years old). Ten saliva cortisol samples were collected 1-2weeks after admission to a maximum-security juvenile facility. Hierarchical Linear Modeling distinguished waking cortisol levels, the awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal rhythm. Multiple interviews and self-report measures of CU traits and stressor exposure were collected. Boys with higher levels of CU traits or greater life stress exposure had flat diurnal rhythms and a steeper awakening response in analyses with lifetime stress exposure specifically. Nonetheless, boys who were elevated on both CU traits and prior stress exposure had steeper diurnal rhythms. These results extend neurobiological theories of cortisol and illustrate that boys with the combination of severe stress with CU traits have a unique physiological profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants…

  17. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants…

  18. Dyslipidemia and Food Security in Low-Income US Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Tester, June M; Laraia, Barbara A; Leung, Cindy W; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2016-02-11

    Low levels of food security are associated with dyslipidemia and chronic disease in adults, particularly in women. There is a gap in knowledge about the relationship between food security among youth and dyslipidemia and chronic disease. We investigated the relationship between food security status and dyslipidemia among low-income adolescents. We analyzed data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (N = 1,072) from households with incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between household food security status and the odds of having abnormalities with fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TG/HDL-C ratio, and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, partnered status in the household, and maternal education, with additional adjustment for adiposity. Household food security status was not associated with elevated TC or LDL-C. Adolescents with marginal food security were more likely than food-secure peers to have elevated TGs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-3.05), TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.82), and Apo B (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.17-3.36). Female adolescents with marginal food security had greater odds than male adolescents of having low HDL-C (OR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.14-6.37). No elevated odds of dyslipidemia were found for adolescents with low or very low food security. Adjustment for adiposity did not attenuate estimates. In this nationally representative sample, low-income adolescents living in households with marginal food security had increased odds of having a pattern consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia, which represents a cardiometabolic burden above their risk from adiposity alone.

  19. Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Janet; Agostoni, Carlo; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Hulshof, Karin; Krause, Edburga; Livingstone, Barbara; Socha, Piotr; Pannemans, Daphne; Samartín, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    other trends between countries were noted, but there were also wide variations within countries. A number of validation studies have shown that misreporting is a major problem in dietary surveys of children and adolescents and so all the dietary data collected for this project should be interpreted and evaluated with caution. In addition, dietary studies rely on food composition tables for the conversion of food intake data to estimated nutrient intakes and each country uses a different set of food composition data which differ in definitions, analytical methods, units and modes of expression. This can make comparisons between countries difficult and inaccurate. Methods of measuring food intake are not standardised across Europe and intake data are generally poor, so there are uncertainties over the true nutrient intakes of children and adolescents across Europe. There are insufficient data on status to be able to be able to draw any conclusions about the nutritional quality of the diets of European children and adolescents.

  20. A snapshot of the nutritional status of Crohn's disease among adolescents in Brazil: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Camila Ortiz Prospero Cavalcante; Carrilho, Flair José; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Rodrigues, Maraci

    2015-12-08

    The relationship between nutrition and Crohn's disease (CD) is complex and involves several therapeutic possibilities including: nutrition treatment for malnourished patients, optimization of growth and development, prevention of osteoporosis, first-line therapy for active disease, and maintenance of disease remission. In children and adolescents with CD, malnutrition is a common problem that adversely affects the prognosis. In at-risk adolescent CD patients, it is important to assess body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, nutrient balance and serum levels of nutrients before planning interventions for this population. The aim of this study was to provide a snapshot of the nutritional status of adolescents with CD in Brazil. We prospectively selected 22 patients with mildly to moderately active CD, 29 patients with inactive CD and 35 controls (first-degree relatives of and in the same age bracket as the CD patients). The age range of participants was between 13.2 and 19.4 years old. We collected anthropometric data including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), which were expressed as Z scores: weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age, respectively, as well as using bioimpedance to determine body composition and assessing the Tanner stage. We also assessed macronutrients and micronutrients (serum levels and dietary intake of both). We used the chi-square test to determine whether any of the studied variables were associated with inactive or active CD. The level of significance was set at 5 % (p < 0.05). We have written informed parental consent for participation for any minors and written informed consent for any participants that were adults. The mean values for lean body mass, Tanner stage, height-for-age Z score and BMI-for-age Z score were lower in the active CD group than in the inactive CD and control groups (p < 0.05 for both). Compared with the controls, the CD patients showed significant differences in terms of the quality

  1. House ownership, frequency of illness, fathers' education: the most significant socio-demographic determinants of poor nutritional status in adolescent girls from low income households of Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fatima; Asim, Muhammad; Salim, Shafya; Humayun, Ayesha

    2017-07-11

    Socio demographic factors besides dietary factors play important role in determining the health status of an individual. Health and nutritional Intervention programs stand a greater chance of success if planned, keeping the socio demographic characteristics of a certain population in focus. The present study was conducted to identify those socio demographic determinants which have a significant association with poor nutritional status in adolescent girls belonging to economically deprived households of Lahore. A cross-sectional analytical study of 140 adolescent girls living in the peri urban communities of Lahore was conducted. Socioeconomic and demographic data of the participants was recorded through a pretested questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), a commonly used anthropometric measurement was taken as an indicator of nutritional status. Below normal (<18.5 m2) BMI was considered a benchmark of malnutrition in adolescent girls. Frequencies and percentages for socio demographic variables were calculated and Fisher Exact test was used to find out the association of nutritional status with socio-demographic predictors. Stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was then run to identify the most significant determinants associated with poor nutritional status in the adolescents. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Chronic energy deficiency was highly prevalent among adolescent girls, 58% had BMI < 18.5 m2. Binary regression analysis result showed that the participants who lived in rented houses (AOR = 3.513; 95% CI = 1.366 to 9.031) who fell ill frequently (AOR = 2.996; 95% CI = 1.198 to 7.491) whose fathers were illiterate (AOR = 2.941; 95% CI = 1.187 to 7.287) were at greater odds of having poor nutritional status. Interestingly, the participants who lived in joint families (AOR = 0.411; 95% CI = 0.145 to 1.168) and were more frequently food insecure (AOR = 0.431; 95% CI = 0.164 to 1.133) had

  2. Development of a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for low-income, urban, African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Caree J; Mullis, Rebecca M; Hughes, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Childhood overweight is disproportionately worse in minority and low-income populations. Theater is a promising and effective tool for delivering health education to these underserved populations, but no known studies have examined the use of theater to promote both nutrition and physical activity to minority youth. To develop an interactive, theater-based intervention that conveys health messages to low-income, urban, African Americans and engages them in learning ways to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Community partners worked to develop a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. A focus group provided urban adolescents' thoughts about their desires for the intervention. Based on input from all community partners, the group created a theater-based intervention. Researchers used a quasi-experimental (pre-/posttest) design with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. Participants learned health messages through theater, dance, and music and gave feedback on the program sessions and materials. The program ended with a dinner theater performance showcasing information that students learned during the intervention. Participants received six theater-based health lessons. Learning objectives for each health education session were achieved. Each participant contributed to and performed in the final performance. All program participants were highly satisfied with the theater-based method of learning health messages. A community-academic partnership succeeded in developing a theater-based nutrition and physical activity intervention that satisfied participating adolescents.

  3. Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea. Methods We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods. Results The significant linear trends were observed in all dietary behaviors (p<0.05). Overall, all behaviors except the fruit intake rate were desirably changed during five years but undesirable changes were observed between 2008 and 2009 in all behaviors. Within those periods, several policies were implemented including 'Ban on carbonated-beverages in school', 'Green Food Zone', etc. Despite confirmed evidence of their effects, the policies on individual behavior such as nutrition education didn't influence the prevalence of dietary behaviors because they were conducted to too limited persons. Polices on the school environmental improvement, such as ban on carbonated beverage in school, were more effective because they decreased the exposure of undesirable food environment. However, for effect of Green Food Zone improving community environment we couldn't come to a conclusion because of too short period after full implementation. Conclusions Among government nutrition policies conducted from 2005 to 2009, those on environmental improvement, especially in school, were more effective than those on individual behavior. Therefore, the development and implement of policies on school environmental improvement are needed in Korea. PMID:22389758

  4. Albumin and pre-albumin levels do not reflect the nutritional status of female adolescents with restrictive eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Huysentruyt, Koen; De Schepper, Jean; Vanbesien, Jesse; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-04-01

    Albumin and pre-albumin are frequently used as nutritional markers in clinical practice. We examined whether serum albumin and pre-albumin were predicted by body mass index (BMI), hydration and/or inflammation in female adolescents with a recently diagnosed restrictive eating disorder (RED). This was a retrospective study of female adolescents with RED from 2002 to 2011. Low albumin and pre-albumin levels were defined as <3.5 g/dL and <20 mg/dL, respectively. We assessed inflammation using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and dehydration using the haematocrit levels. We included 75 females with a mean age of 15.2 years and 64% had a BMI Z score of <-2. The mean albumin and pre-albumin levels were 4.8 g/dL and 22.2 mg/dL, respectively, with 24% of the children having low pre-albumin and none having low albumin levels. The stepwise multiple regression for albumin identified ESR and haematocrit as significant predictors, which explained 14.8% of the variance. Age was the only significant predictor for pre-albumin, which explained 15.3% of the variance. Albumin, but not pre-albumin, levels were primarily predicted by low-grade inflammation and hydration, but not by BMI. These markers should not be used to assess nutritional status in adolescents with RED. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher blood vitamin status in adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Valtueña, Jara; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gottrand, Fréderic; Breidenassel, Christina; Ferrari, Marika; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A; González-Gross, Marcela

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine the association between different breakfast consumption patterns and vitamin intakes and blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents. Breakfast consumption was assessed by a questionnaire. Vitamin intake was calculated from two 24 h recalls. Blood vitamin and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were analysed from fasting blood samples. The European Commission-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Participants were 1058 (52·8 % females) European adolescents (aged 12·5-17·5 years) from ten cities. Lower vitamin D and vitamin C concentrations were observed in male and female breakfast skippers than in consumers (P<0·05). Female breakfast consumers presented higher holo-transcobalamin and lower tHcy (P<0·05), while males had higher cobalamin concentrations, compared with skippers (P<0·05). Higher vitamin D and total folate intakes were observed in adolescents who consumed breakfast compared with skippers (P<0·05). Likewise, female consumers had higher intakes of vitamin B6 and vitamin E than occasional consumers (P<0·05). Regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher blood vitamin D and cobalamin concentrations in males and with higher vitamin D and holo-transcobalamin and lower tHcy concentrations in females. Moreover, breakfast consumption is associated with high intakes of vitamin D and total folate in both sexes, and with high intakes of vitamin B6 and vitamin E in females.

  6. How accurate are adolescents in portion-size estimation using the computer tool Young Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment on Computer (YANA-C)?

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Carine; Dohogne, Sophie; Covents, Marc; Maes, Lea

    2010-06-01

    Computer-administered questionnaires have received increased attention for large-scale population research on nutrition. In Belgium-Flanders, Young Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment on Computer (YANA-C) has been developed. In this tool, standardised photographs are available to assist in portion-size estimation. The purpose of the present study is to assess how accurate adolescents are in estimating portion sizes of food using YANA-C. A convenience sample, aged 11-17 years, estimated the amounts of ten commonly consumed foods (breakfast cereals, French fries, pasta, rice, apple sauce, carrots and peas, crisps, creamy velouté, red cabbage, and peas). Two procedures were followed: (1) short-term recall: adolescents (n 73) self-served their usual portions of the ten foods and estimated the amounts later the same day; (2) real-time perception: adolescents (n 128) estimated two sets (different portions) of pre-weighed portions displayed near the computer. Self-served portions were, on average, 8 % underestimated; significant underestimates were found for breakfast cereals, French fries, peas, and carrots and peas. Spearman's correlations between the self-served and estimated weights varied between 0.51 and 0.84, with an average of 0.72. The kappa statistics were moderate (>0.4) for all but one item. Pre-weighed portions were, on average, 15 % underestimated, with significant underestimates for fourteen of the twenty portions. Photographs of food items can serve as a good aid in ranking subjects; however, to assess the actual intake at a group level, underestimation must be considered.

  7. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed. Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (p<0.05). Healthy girls had higher fat percentage values than unhealthy girls (p<0.05). In terms of CPI scores, healthy boys had lower BMI and WC values than unhealthy boys (p<0.05). According to multiple binary logistic regression results for model 1, BMI predicted DMFT scores in both genders but CPI scores only in boys. No beverage consumption predicted DMFT scores in boys, while milk consumption predicted DMFT scores in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores in boys. For model 2, WC predicted DMFT scores in both genders and CPI scores only in boys. Milk consumption predicted DMFT scores only in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores for both gender (p<0.05). According to DMFT, there were significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) at the age of 7 (girls only), 9, 10, and 16 (boys only) years and overall (only girls) (p<0.05). According to CPI

  8. [Evaluation of nutrition manner and nutritional status of girls during the period of adolescence, including girls who apply slimming diets].

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Fugiel, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research was the evaluation of nutrition methods and the nutrition status of girls in the age ranging between 15 and 16, who had body substance, height, waist measurements taken; and the BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators were calculated. Three day menus were also evaluated and an inquiry containing questionnaire concerning the manner of apply slimming diets. It has also been ascertained that 40.8% of fifteen year old and 31% of sixteen year old girls apply slimming diets. It was discovered that only in 76% of younger girls and in 71% of older girls the value of the BMI indicator was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 95 c) around the waist concerned 4% younger girls and 10% older. It was discovered that the values of WHtR > or = 90 c were almost 10% and 23% in the cases of younger and older girls, respectively. Analysis of nutrition of the girls showed low energy value of the diet, too low total protein level, too low of complex carbohydrates, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn) and vitamins (A, E, B group) and also liquids shortage. The girls have been educated in the form of workshops in the matter concerning healthy nutrition.

  9. Fluctuation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Montroll, E.W.; Lebowitz, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Fluctuation phenomena are the ''tip of the iceberg'' revealing the existence, behind even the most quiescent appearing macroscopic states, of an underlying world of agitated, ever-changing microscopic processes. While the presence of these fluctuations can be ignored in some cases, e.g. if one is satisfied with purely thermostatic description of systems in equilibrium, they are central to the understanding of other phenomena, e.g. the nucleation of a new phase following the quenching of a system into the co-existence region. This volume contains a collection of review articles, written by experts in the field, on the subject of fluctuation phenomena. Some of the articles are of a very general nature discussing the modern mathematical formulation of the problems involved, while other articles deal with specific topics such as kinetics of phase transitions and conductivity in solids. The juxtaposition of the variety of physical situations in which fluctuation phenomena play an important role is novel and should give the reader an insight into this subject.

  10. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  11. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  12. Psycho-Physiological Responses of Obese Adolescents to an Intermittent Run Test Compared with a 20-M Shuttle Run

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Olivier; Maïano, Christophe; Nicol, Caroline; Mercier, Charles-Symphorien; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Among the running field tests that measure aerobic fitness indirectly, the 20-m shuttle run test is the one most commonly used among obese youth. However, this back and forth running test induces premature cessation of exercise in this population. The present study aimed to examine the psycho-physiological responses of obese adolescents to an intermittent (15-15) progressive and maximal run test as compared with a continuous shuttle run test. Eleven obese adolescents (age: 14-15 years; BMI = 34.01 ± 5.30 kg·m-2) performed both tests. A two-way ANOVA examined the main effects of the running test, participant’s sex, and their interaction on maximal aerobic performance (net exercise duration and final velocity), physiological values (heart rate, pulmonary oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate concentration) and psychological responses (rating of perceived exertion, and physical self-perceptions). Oxygen uptake and heart-rate values at 9 km·h-1 were also compared. Compared with a 20-m shuttle run, the 15-15 test induced lower pulmonary oxygen uptake values at 9 km/h (28.3 ± 2.7 vs. 35.4 ± 2.7 ml·min-1·kg-1) and finished with higher maximal velocity and net exercise duration (566 ± 156 vs. 346 ± 156 s, p < 0.001), with no inter-test physiological difference. The 15-15 test also resulted in higher ratings of perceived exertion (16.0 ± 1.2 vs. 12.7 ± 1.6, p < 0.001) and improved perceived physical condition compared with the 20-m shuttle run (+1.4 ± 1.4 vs. +0.2 ± 1.0, p < 0.05). Both tests induced a maximal aerobic power of obese adolescents, but the 15-15 test provided a more progressive speed increment and longer exercise duration. The 15-15 test also elicited a significant improvement of perceived physical condition. In conclusion the 15-15 test can be considered a relevant field test for assessing the aerobic fitness of obese adolescents. Key points In agreement with the previous results of Rey et al. (2013), the present study

  13. The Relationship between Nutrition in Infancy and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Foster, Jonathan K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term associations between breastfeeding duration during infancy, diet quality as measured by a diet score at 1 year of age, and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants (n = 717) were recruited from the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective longitudinal study of 2868 children and their families based in Perth, WA, Australia. Breastfeeding duration and an early diet score at age 1 year were used as the main predictor variables, while a computerized cognitive battery (CogState) was used to assess adolescents’ cognitive performance at 17 years. The diet score, which has seven food group components, was based on a 24-h recall questionnaire completed by the mother at 1 year of age. A higher diet score represents a better, more nutritious eating pattern. Associations between breastfeeding duration, diet score, and cognitive performance were assessed in multivariable regression models. Results: Higher diet scores at 1 year representing better diet quality were significantly associated with faster reaction times in cognitive performance at 17 years [Detection Task (DET): β = −0.004, 95% CI: −0.008; 0.000, p = 0.036; Identification Task (IDN): β = −0.004, 95% CI: −0.008; 0.000, p = 0.027]. Breastfeeding duration (≥4 months) was also significantly associated with a shorter reaction time, but only for males (DET: β = −0.026, 95% CI: −0.046; −0.006, p = 0.010). Conclusion: Nutrition in early childhood may have a long-term association with fundamental cognitive processing speed, which is likely to be related to enhanced brain development in the first year of life. PMID:26082928

  14. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) was 71.7%. Serum 25(OH)D negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.294; P < .0001) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.323; P < .0001). N-3 PUFA intake negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.286; P = .017), total cholesterol (r = -0.292; P = .015), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333; P = .005) and positively correlated with the intake of fat meats and eggs (r = 0.391; P = .006), vegetable proteins (r = 0.297; P = .048), fats/oils (r = 0.574; P < .001), and refined cereals (r = 0.351; P = .006). Vitamin D status and n-3 PUFA intake were related with better nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary pattern, nutritional status, anaemia and anaemia-related knowledge in urban adolescent college girls of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Yearul; Shahjalal, Hussain Mohammad; Saleh, Farzana; Obaid, Wahida

    2010-08-01

    To examine dietary pattern and nutritional status of adolescent college girls of Dhaka, Bangladesh with a particular focus on the prevalence of anaemia and appropriate knowledge about it among them. A cross sectional study was conducted. Sixty-five adolescent girls aged 15-19 years were selected randomly from Home Economics college of Dhaka. A 7-day food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the dietary pattern. Nutrient intake of the participants was assessed by 24h recall method. Habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver and leafy vegetables. Food intake data revealed a deficit of 473 kcal/day in energy. Mean intake of carbohydrate and fat were lower than RDA; while protein, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were much higher. Anthropometric data indicated that 63% of the girls were stunted (height-for-age < 95% of NCHS reference values) and 45% were underweight (weight-for-age < 75% of NCHS reference values). The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 12 g/dl) among the participants was 23%. About 17% had low serum iron (< 40 microg/dl), 23% showed evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (Transferrin Saturation < 15%) and only 8% had vitamin C deficiency (< 0.29 mg/dl). About 65% of the participants had correct knowledge about the causes of anaemia; while 72.3% and 80% respectively, knew about the prevention and treatment of anaemia. Surprisingly, 73.8% of the participants were not aware about the sources of iron-rich foods. Results indicate an overall poor nutritional status of the urban adolescent college girls in Bangladesh and need for appropriate nutrition interventions to overcome the problem.

  16. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents’ friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends’ positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at T1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents’ SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of under-arousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  17. Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ≤10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training.

  18. How to get the most bang for your buck: the evolution and physiology of nutrition-dependent resource allocation strategies.

    PubMed

    Ng'oma, Enoch; Perinchery, Anna M; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-28

    All organisms use resources to grow, survive and reproduce. The supply of these resources varies widely across landscapes and time, imposing ultimate constraints on the maximal trait values for allocation-related traits. In this review, we address three key questions fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of allocation strategies and their underlying mechanisms. First, we ask: how diverse are flexible resource allocation strategies among different organisms? We find there are many, varied, examples of flexible strategies that depend on nutrition. However, this diversity is often ignored in some of the best-known cases of resource allocation shifts, such as the commonly observed pattern of lifespan extension under nutrient limitation. A greater appreciation of the wide variety of flexible allocation strategies leads directly to our second major question: what conditions select for different plastic allocation strategies? Here, we highlight the need for additional models that explicitly consider the evolution of phenotypically plastic allocation strategies and empirical tests of the predictions of those models in natural populations. Finally, we consider the question: what are the underlying mechanisms determining resource allocation strategies? Although evolutionary biologists assume differential allocation of resources is a major factor limiting trait evolution, few proximate mechanisms are known that specifically support the model. We argue that an integrated framework can reconcile evolutionary models with proximate mechanisms that appear at first glance to be in conflict with these models. Overall, we encourage future studies to: (i) mimic ecological conditions in which those patterns evolve, and (ii) take advantage of the 'omic' opportunities to produce multi-level data and analytical models that effectively integrate across physiological and evolutionary theory. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. The role of adolescent nutrition and physical activity in the prediction of verbal intelligence during early adulthood: a genetically informed analysis of twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-05

    A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  20. The Role of Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Prediction of Verbal Intelligence during Early Adulthood: A Genetically Informed Analysis of Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dylan B.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25568969

  1. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  2. Is small town India falling into the nutritional trap of metro cities? A study in school-going adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nawab, Tabassum; Khan, Zulfia; Khan, Iqbal Mohammed; Ansari, Mohammed Athar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents of Aligarh and to study the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study done in two affluent and two nonaffluent schools in Aligarh, taking 330 adolescents from each group (total-660). Study tools included a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Overweight and obesity were defined based on World Health Organization 2007 Growth Reference. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8% among school-going adolescents. The difference in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2%) and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5%) was significant. Risk factors for overweight and obesity were affluence, higher maternal education, parental history of obesity, frequent fast food intake, and television (TV) viewing more than 2 h/day. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents is a crisis facing even smaller cities in India. Behavior change communication should be focused to adolescents, especially of the affluent section, toward restricting fast food intake, and TV viewing. PMID:28217587

  3. Is small town India falling into the nutritional trap of metro cities? A study in school-going adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Tabassum; Khan, Zulfia; Khan, Iqbal Mohammed; Ansari, Mohammed Athar

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities. To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents of Aligarh and to study the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of the same. A cross-sectional study done in two affluent and two nonaffluent schools in Aligarh, taking 330 adolescents from each group (total-660). Study tools included a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Overweight and obesity were defined based on World Health Organization 2007 Growth Reference. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8% among school-going adolescents. The difference in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2%) and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5%) was significant. Risk factors for overweight and obesity were affluence, higher maternal education, parental history of obesity, frequent fast food intake, and television (TV) viewing more than 2 h/day. Overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents is a crisis facing even smaller cities in India. Behavior change communication should be focused to adolescents, especially of the affluent section, toward restricting fast food intake, and TV viewing.

  4. The nutrition transition and adolescents' diets in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-cohort comparison.

    PubMed

    Aurino, Elisabetta; Fernandes, Meena; Penny, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate changes in dietary diversity and dietary composition among adolescents in four developing countries. We analysed dietary diversity and consumption of seven food groups and foods with added sugars as reported by adolescents from two cohorts growing up 8 years apart, when they were aged about 12 years. Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam in 2006 and 2013. Adolescents (n 3659) from the older cohort (OC) born in 1995/96 and adolescents (n 7422) from the younger cohort (YC) born in 2001/02 (N 11 081). Controlling for other factors, dietary diversity increased in Peru (OC=4·89, YC=5·34, P<0·001) and Ethiopia (OC=3·52, YC=3·94, P=0·001). Dietary diversity was stable in India (OC=4·28, YC=4·29, P=0·982) and Vietnam (OC=4·71, YC=4·73, P=0·814); however, changes in dietary composition were observed. YC adolescents were more likely to consume eggs (India: +32 %, P=0·038; Vietnam: +50 %, P<0·001) and milk and dairy (India: +12 %, P=0·029; Vietnam: +46 %, P<0·001). Other notable shifts included meat consumption in Peru (+72 %, P<0·001) and consumption of fruit and vegetables in Ethiopia (+36 %, P<0·001). Compared with OC, the prevalence of added sugar consumption was greater among the YC in Ethiopia (+35 %, P=0·001) and Vietnam (+44 % P<0·001). Between 2006 and 2013, disparities in dietary diversity associated with household wealth and place of residence declined, although this varied by country. No marked gender disparities in dietary diversity were evident. We found significant changes over time in dietary diversity among adolescents in four countries consistent with the hypothesis of the nutrition transition.

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and BMI in Mexican adolescents: Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Flores, Mario; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index (BMI) in Mexican adolescents. We analyzed the data of 10 689 adolescents (ages 10 to 19 years old) who participated in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Consumption of SSBs (i.e. sodas, fruit beverages and sugar beverages) was evaluated by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated (kg/m(2)). Mean age was 13.8 +/- 2.7 years. Fifty percent were females. Mean BMI was 21.7 +/- 4.5. Thirty percent of adolescents were overweight or obese. Ninety percent of adolescents consumed at least one SSB during the 7 days before the interview. The median consumption of SSBs was 0.89 portion per day. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that for each portion of sodas consumed, a 0.17-point increase in BMI was observed in boys after adjusting for confounders (95% CI; 0.02-0.32, p 0.03). Positive interactions of SSB consumption with age and time watching TV were observed in boys. Consumption of sodas was positively associated with BMI in Mexican boys.

  6. Blood cadmium concentrations in Korean adolescents: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Borami; Kim, Shin-Hye; Park, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    To assess blood cadmium levels in Korean adolescents with respect to demographic and lifestyle factors. We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2013, totaling 1472 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Geometric means of blood cadmium were calculated using a complex samples general linear model to compare blood levels in different demographic and lifestyle groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were also used to find predictors for high blood cadmium (>90th percentile). The geometric mean of the blood cadmium concentrations was 0.30μg/L in Korean adolescents. Older age, type of housing (multifamily house and commercial building), smoking and alcohol consumption, and iron deficiency/iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were significantly associated with higher blood cadmium concentrations (P<0.05). Blood cadmium concentrations were not significantly affected by gender, region, body mass index status, or household income. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for higher blood cadmium levels included current smoker (OR=7.77), alcohol consumption (OR=4.31), living in a multifamily house or commercial building (OR=3.11-3.46), and IDA (OR=2.64). Possible associations between blood cadmium levels and type of housing or alcohol consumption in adolescents are suggested for the first time in this study. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The social determinants of health of the child-adolescent immigration and its influence on the nutritional status: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheikh Moussa, Kamila; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    to review the social determinants of health more characteristic of the child and adolescents of immigrants, by reviewing the literature and assess its effect on nutritional status. a systematic review was performed using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in PubMed (Medline) and The Cochrane Library, in order to identify undetected studies; articles bibliographic lists were examined. The final election was done according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. No restrictions on sex and ethnicity of the participants. STROBE checkpoints were used for an information and methodological quality control. As Social Determinants of Health (SDH); social, demographic and economic conditions were considered for the study of their effect on the nutritional status. from 31 identified articles 18 are included in this study, 17 (94.4%) had a good or excellent quality. Hispanic and African were the most studied ethnicities; birth place and parent's residence period were used for generational classification. Alimentary culture and linguistic isolation of the first generation have a protective effect preventing from overweight and obesity risk while it decrease in second and third generation due to the experienced acculturation process equalizing their weight gain to natives; which prevalence is higher among Hispanics. No relation was found for nutritional status differences between sexes neither alimentary aids protective effect hypothesis was confirmed. the SDH with greater influence on child-adolescent immigrants were the socio-demographic conditions; among them: residence period distinguish the three identified generations while linguistic barrier and ethnic background are truly influential on the biological response to the experimented change caused by the acculturation process, establishing differences in the nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional and pubertal status influences accuracy of self-reported weight and height in adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, Laurent; Huybrechts, Inge; Ortega, Franscico B; Coopman, Stéphanie; Manios, Yannis; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Duhamel, Alain; Ciarapica, Donatella; Gilbert, Chantal C; Kafatos, Anthony; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors that have an effect on the accuracy of self-reported weight and height in adolescents. Weight and height of 3,865 European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 years were self-reported via specific questionnaire. Then real weight and height were measured using accurate equipment and standardized protocols. Differences (D) between self-reported and measured weight and height were calculated, and factors that could have influenced the accuracy of self-reported weight and height were assessed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Student's t test and multivariate regression. Adolescents underestimated their weight (D = -0.81 kg; n = 2,968) and overestimated their height (D = +0.74 cm; n = 3,308). Obese girls underestimated their weight (D = -4.70 kg) and overestimated their height (D = +0.22 cm) to a greater extent (p < 0.05) than obese boys (D = -3.13 kg and +0.14 cm for weight and height, respectively). Underestimation of weight (D = -1.25 kg) and overestimation of height (D = +0.15 cm) were only significant for girls who had finished puberty (Tanner stage 5). Socioeconomic status, nutritional knowledge, physical fitness, physical activity level, food choice and preference, and healthy eating behaviour had no significant influence on the accuracy of self-reported weight and height. Our data confirms that self-reports of weight and height made by adolescents are inaccurate and demonstrate that inaccuracy is strongly influenced by nutritional status, pubertal status and gender. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p < 0.001), and total gestational weight gain (p = 0.047). The odds of LBW (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.06) and prematurity (OR 5.82, 95% CI 3.10 to 10.92) fell when the adolescent received six or more prenatal visits. Birth weight was associated with inter-gestational interval, pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  10. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, G

    2000-03-01

    To give an overview of the dietary habits among adolescents in the Nordic countries and to present results from studies showing the relationship between dietary habits and other lifestyle factors, nutritional status and socio-economic conditions. A number of nutritional studies among adolescents performed during recent decades using recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaire. Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Adolescents aged 13-18 y. Food habits are characterized by an irregular meal pattern; many adolescents skip breakfast and also the school lunch, whereas most of them have dinner. However, snacking and light meals are very common, contributing 25-35% of the daily energy intake. Smoking is linked to their dietary habits as well as socio-economic conditions. Dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are adequate for normal health and growth. Dietary calcium intake is high, whereas the intake of fibre, vitamin D, zinc and selenium and, in girls, iron is below the Nordic recommendations. Relatively low prevalence figures of iron deficiency were found. Many studies show a decrease over time in physical activity. The time spent in sedentary activities, such as television and video watching and computer games has increased during recent decades. Overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent in all the Nordic countries, even though the prevalence figures are far below those in the USA. On the other hand, dieting girls are common, which might be a factor behind their irregular meal pattern and food choice. In a perspective, overweight and diseases attributable to obesity will be an immense challenge in the coming decades for both the individuals and the society as well.

  11. Psycho-Physiological Responses of Obese Adolescents to an Intermittent Run Test Compared with a 20-M Shuttle Run.

    PubMed

    Rey, Olivier; Maïano, Christophe; Nicol, Caroline; Mercier, Charles-Symphorien; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    Among the running field tests that measure aerobic fitness indirectly, the 20-m shuttle run test is the one most commonly used among obese youth. However, this back and forth running test induces premature cessation of exercise in this population. The present study aimed to examine the psycho-physiological responses of obese adolescents to an intermittent (15-15) progressive and maximal run test as compared with a continuous shuttle run test. Eleven obese adolescents (age: 14-15 years; BMI = 34.01 ± 5.30 kg·m(-2)) performed both tests. A two-way ANOVA examined the main effects of the running test, participant's sex, and their interaction on maximal aerobic performance (net exercise duration and final velocity), physiological values (heart rate, pulmonary oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate concentration) and psychological responses (rating of perceived exertion, and physical self-perceptions). Oxygen uptake and heart-rate values at 9 km·h(-1) were also compared. Compared with a 20-m shuttle run, the 15-15 test induced lower pulmonary oxygen uptake values at 9 km/h (28.3 ± 2.7 vs. 35.4 ± 2.7 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) and finished with higher maximal velocity and net exercise duration (566 ± 156 vs. 346 ± 156 s, p < 0.001), with no inter-test physiological difference. The 15-15 test also resulted in higher ratings of perceived exertion (16.0 ± 1.2 vs. 12.7 ± 1.6, p < 0.001) and improved perceived physical condition compared with the 20-m shuttle run (+1.4 ± 1.4 vs. +0.2 ± 1.0, p < 0.05). Both tests induced a maximal aerobic power of obese adolescents, but the 15-15 test provided a more progressive speed increment and longer exercise duration. The 15-15 test also elicited a significant improvement of perceived physical condition. In conclusion the 15-15 test can be considered a relevant field test for assessing the aerobic fitness of obese adolescents.

  12. Effect of integrated school-based nutrition education on optimal dietary practices and nutritional status of school adolescents in Southwest of Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-12-15

    Malnutrition and infection are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries and also work in conjunction with each other in deteriorating wellness and productivity of school adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based nutrition education using a peer-led approach, health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end line from sampled participants. To account for the effect of time trend, the difference was measured using a repeated measure analysis. Variables that have p≤0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into multivariables to determine the independent effect of interventions. There is a significant difference in food variety between food secure and insecure households (p<0.01). A significant improvement of animal source dietary intake was observed among intervention schools (p<0.001) that was significantly associated with an intervention [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.26, confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.42], male gender (AOR=0.48, CI: 0.31, 0.73) and household economic status (AOR=1.69, CI: 1.01, 2.84). The control group had high body mass index (BMI) at baseline, but a significant improvement was observed among the intervention schools, which positively associated with male gender (AOR=4.13, CI: 2.38, 7.15) and having a middle-income family (AOR=2.93, CI: 1.92, 6.15). This study showed that by integrating a dietary intervention into school-based activities, there might be significant improvements in dietary intake of primary school adolescents. Therefore, school-based nutrition education programs should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach the students and potentially their families.

  13. The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96…

  14. The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96…

  15. Nutritional status and birth outcomes of adolescent pregnant girls in Morogoro, Coast, and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Shirima, Candida P; Kinabo, Joyce L

    2005-01-01

    Studies that link adolescence pregnancies, nutritional status, and birth outcomes in Tanzania are scarce. We examined the nutritional status and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescent girls from rural and urban areas of three regions in Tanzania. The study was carried out in the regions of Dar es Salaam (Chamazi and Gezaulole dispensaries and Round Table Maternity Home), Coast (Tumbi Regional Hospital and Mlandizi Health Center), and Morogoro (Regional Hospital, Uhuru Clinic, and Mlali Health Center). One hundred eighty pregnant adolescent girls ages 15 to 19 y were recruited and interviewed, and their nutritional status measurements were taken at the seven health facilities. Information concerning date of birth, marital status, educational status, sex education, and income status was collected with a structured questionnaire. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured according to standard techniques. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a hemoglobinometer and the HemoCue technique. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by cutoff points of the World Health Organization. Suitable statistical analysis was done with SPSS 9.0. Weekly weight gain during pregnancy was measured in 123 subjects who kept their appointments and reported back after 2 wk. Fifty-seven subjects did not keep their appointments and were lost to follow-up. Records of infants' birth weights and mode of delivery were obtained from 50 subjects who delivered at the study sites. The height of about 54% of the subjects was shorter than 151 cm, suggestive of short maternal height. Severe wasting was observed in 27% of subjects. Mean weekly weight gain during pregnancy was 317 +/-110 g (-500 to 500 g). No significant differences were observed between rural and urban settings. Mean infant birth weight was 2600 +/- 480 g. About 48% of infants had low birth weight (<2500 g) and only 14% of infants had birth weight greater than

  16. Nutritional consequences of bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Xanthakos, Stavra A; Inge, Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is being increasingly used to help treat morbidly obese adults and adolescents. As a greater percentage of this population faces a lifetime of living with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, increased awareness of the nutritional consequences is critical for all health care practitioners, as many of these patients may be lost to follow-up and can present with significant nutritional complications years after surgery. Nutritional deficiencies can occur after bariatric surgery, although to a lesser degree after restrictive procedures. Risk may increase over time, perhaps due to poor compliance with supplementation, continued inadequate intake and/or ongoing malabsorption. Adolescent patients may be at greater risk due to poor compliance and longer life span. Nutritional monitoring and supplementation among bariatric programs has been widely variable and few prospective studies of outcomes exist. Bariatric surgery can carry significant risk of nutritional complications. Compliance with dietary recommendations should be monitored and encouraged, with annual screening for selected deficiencies. Prospective longitudinal research is needed to identify the true prevalence and significance of nutritional deficiency in these patients and to determine optimum dietary recommendations.

  17. Social Adversity in Adolescence Increases the Physiological Vulnerability to Job Strain in Adulthood: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Westerlund, Hugo; Gustafsson, Per E.; Theorell, Töres; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been argued that the association between job strain and health could be confounded by early life exposures, and studies have shown early adversity to increase individual vulnerability to later stress. We therefore investigated if early life exposure to adversity increases the individual's physiological vulnerability job strain in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings In a population-based cohort (343 women and 330 men, 83% of the eligible participants), we examined the association between on the one hand exposure to adversity in adolescence, measured at age 16, and job strain measured at age 43, and on the other hand allostatic load at age 43. Adversity was operationalised as an index comprising residential mobility and crowding, parental loss, parental unemployment, and parental physical and mental illness (including substance abuse). Allostatic load summarised body fat, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, glucose, blood lipids, and cortisol regulation. There was an interaction between adversity in adolescence and job strain (B = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 after adjustment for socioeconomic status), particularly psychological demands, indicating that job strain was associated with increased allostatic load only among participants with adversity in adolescence. Job strain was associated with lower allostatic load in men (β = −0.20, 95% CI −0.35 to −0.06). Conclusions/Significance Exposure to adversity in adolescence was associated with increased levels of biological stress among those reporting job strain in mid-life, indicating increased vulnerability to environmental stressors. PMID:22558285

  18. The Emerging Nutritional Problems of School Adolescents: Overweight/Obesity and Associated Factors in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gali, Nurezeman; Tamiru, Dessalegn; Tamrat, Meseret

    Globally, overweight is rapidly becoming one of the most important medical and public health problems. Adolescent obesity is a multisystem disease with potentially devastating consequences that persist into adulthood. However, there is a paucity of available information regarding the adolescent overweight and obesity in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April/2015 among 546 adolescents. Study participants were selected using a multi-stage, stratified random sampling method. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of overweight and obesity at 95% confidence intervals. The mean dietary diversity score of school adolescents was 6.97±1.15. Cereal based diets (99.6%) and vegetables (73.9%) are the two common foods of adolescents. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 13.3%. Overweight/Obesity was significantly associated with being a female (AOR=3.57 [95% CI:1.28-9.9]), attending private schools (AOR=7.53 [2.51-22.3]), lack of paternal education (AOR=5.57 [95% CI:1.53-20.26]), wealthy households (AOR=3 [95% CI:1.09-8.26]) and not being a vegetarian (AOR=9.23 [95% CI:1.68-50.8]). Adolescents who are physically inactive (AOR=3.7 [95% CI:1.06-13.02]) and those with sedentary lifestyles (AOR=3.64 [95% CI:1.39-9.5]) were more obese compared to their counter peers. The proportion of overweight/obesity among school adolescent was considerably high. Being a female, learning in private school, high household economic status, not being a vegetarian and having a sedentary life were significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Findings of this study can be used to guide the development of programs aimed at preventing overweight/obesity in Ethiopia by informing policymakers and other stakeholders about this emerging nutrition-related problem among school adolescents. Copyright © 2017

  19. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leukocytes as risk markers for cardiovascular disease in adolescents: association with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the number of leukocytes and cardiovascular risks associated with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests. Methods: Cross-sectional study developed with 475 adolescents, born between 1992 and 2001, in the municipality of Viçosa (MG). Maternal medical records were analyzed in the hospital units, and the following was recorded: birth weight and length, head circumference, chest circumference, Apgar score, gestational age. In adolescents, body mass index, skinfold thickness, body composition, blood count, biochemical tests and clinical variables were also assessed. The statistical analyses was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Data Analysis and Statistical Software (STATA) with Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and Linear Regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UFV for studies with human subjects. Results: Weight and birth length, head and chest circumference were higher among boys. In adolescents, the number of leukocytes was higher in individuals with excess weight and body fat and high adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference. Only altered triglycerides showed differences between leukocyte medians. Regardless of the anthropometric variable of the final regression model, the stage of adolescence, number of platelets, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were associated with the increase in leukocytes. Conclusions: The birth variables were not associated with changes in leukocyte numbers, whereas the anthropometric variables were good indicators for a higher leukocyte count, regardless of the stage of adolescence and gender. PMID:26572104

  1. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  2. [Leukocytes as risk markers for cardiovascular disease in adolescents: association with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests].

    PubMed

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the number of leukocytes and cardiovascular risks associated with birth characteristics, nutritional status and biochemical tests. Cross-sectional study developed with 475 adolescents, born between 1992 and 2001, in the municipality of Viçosa (MG). Maternal medical records were analyzed in the hospital units, and the following was recorded: birth weight and length, head circumference, chest circumference, Apgar score, gestational age. In adolescents, body mass index, skinfold thickness, body composition, blood count, biochemical tests and clinical variables were also assessed. The statistical analyses was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 and Data Analysis and Statistical Software (STATA) with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and Linear Regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of UFV for studies with human subjects. Weight and birth length, head and chest circumference were higher among boys. In adolescents, the number of leukocytes was higher in individuals with excess weight and body fat and high adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference. Only altered triglycerides showed differences between leukocyte medians. Regardless of the anthropometric variable of the final regression model, the stage of adolescence, number of platelets, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were associated with the increase in leukocytes. The birth variables were not associated with changes in leukocyte numbers, whereas the anthropometric variables were good indicators for a higher leukocyte count, regardless of the stage of adolescence and gender. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

  4. Impact of a 'school-based' nutrition intervention on anthropometric parameters and the metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Campos Pastor, M M; Serrano Pardo, M D; Fernández Soto, M L; Luna Del Castillo, J D; Escobar-Jiménez, F

    2012-01-01

    In adolescents, overweight and obesity are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based nutritional education program (NEP) on lifestyle changes in Spanish adolescents. We selected 263 secondary school students (127 males) aged 12-16 years from Granada (Spain), who were followed up throughout 1 school year (2009-2010). At the beginning and end of the school year, data were gathered on the food consumption frequency, and anthropometric and biochemical profile. The NEP comprised a class on nutritional recommendations every 15 days, and administration of a daily breakfast of 275-350 kcal. After the intervention, the prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased among both male and female students (p < 0.001) and there was also a global reduction in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) from 32.2 to 19.7% (p < 0.001); in addition, body mass index was significantly decreased in normal weight, overweight and obesity groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and lean body mass was increased in all groups (p = 0.001). The NEP achieved a medium-term reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and had a significant and positive effect on MS components in all groups. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Assessment of nutritional status among adolescent boys in an urban population of South India.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Shahla; Mesgarani, Mohsen; Begum, Khyrunnisa

    2015-03-09

    Deficiency of calories and certain micronutrients is known to cause growth faltering in children and adolescents. It is recognized that varieties of foods need to be consumed in order to meet requirements for essential nutrients. Lack of diversity in the diets is a serious problem among poor populations in the developing world. The extent of variations in intake of nutrients occurring in a homogeneous population provides useful information. This study investigates the mean intake of nutrient by 1083 adolescent males, age 10-19 years, in comparison to the RDA values suggested by ICMR for Indians. Food intakes, social class and knowledge about health education were obtained by questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, non-parametric statistics, and Chi-Square tests were performed to and interpret the data, particularly hypothesis testing. Mean intake of calories varied from 1512 ± 532 for pre-adolescent to 1742 ± 660 for post-adolescence, the differences in intake between pre-adolescence to adolescence was statistically significant. The intake was largely different compared to the respective RDAs including proteins which were markedly lower than the RDA. The mean intake increased linearly with the advancing stages of adolescence. Intake of calcium by boys during pre-adolescence and adolescence stage were lower by 20-30% as compared to the RDA, whereas the post-adolescent boys were found to consume a fair amount and met their RDAs. Intakes of iron and ?-carotene were highly variable, the majority of the selected boys consumed much less than the RDAs. The differences in the intakes were statistically not significant. Mean intakes of nutrients indicate that the majority of the selected boys consumed protein, calories, iron, calcium and ? carotene in three stages of adolescent markedly lower than the respective RDAs. Family type, birth order and SES correlated with nutrient intake among selected adolescent boys.

  6. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  7. Physiological Response to Social Evaluative Threat in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiston, E. Kale; Jones, Robin M.; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2016-01-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to study response to social evaluative threat in male adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 21) and typical development (n = 13). Participants wore a mobile electrocardiogram to collect heart rate data. There were significant group effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a…

  8. Physiological Response to Social Evaluative Threat in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiston, E. Kale; Jones, Robin M.; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2016-01-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to study response to social evaluative threat in male adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 21) and typical development (n = 13). Participants wore a mobile electrocardiogram to collect heart rate data. There were significant group effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a…

  9. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  10. Microtus species as new herbivorous laboratory animals: reproduction; bacterial flora and fermentation in the digestive tracts; and nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Kudo, H; Oki, Y

    1984-05-01

    In a study of the possible introduction of Japanese field vole (Microtus montebelli ) and Hungarian voles (M. arvalis) as herbivorous experimental animals, the following biological characteristics were investigated: breeding and reproductive performance; bacterial flora and fermentation in the digestive tracts; and nutritional physiology. The animals are polyestrus , show postpartum estrus on the day of parturition, and there is little or no delay in implantation due to lactation, especially in M. arvalis. On examination of vaginal smears, Japanese field vole did not show any definite pattern, whereas most Hungarian voles showed 6- to 18- day cycles. From the esophageal sac of voles fed rations with a high fiber content, cellulolytic bacteria similar to Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens , and Bacteroides succinogenes were isolated. More than 1 000 000/g anaerobic bacteria were present in the esophageal sac and the pattern and the types of bacteria resembled those found in the rumen. Gastric fermentation took place in the esophageal sac. The pH and total VFAs were much smaller in the fundic and pyloric regions of the stomach than in the esophageal sac. Acetic and lactic acids were the major fermentation products in the esophageal sac. Following deficiency or lowering of the cellulose decomposing abilities, a decrease of VFAs and an increase in lactic acid production in the esophageal sac were observed. These effects resulted in high glucose, FFA and ketone bodies in the blood, and a higher incidence of glucosuria. Diabetes induced by administrations of drugs such as alloxan, streptozotocin and phloridzin were compared using Microtus and mice. Microtus had low sensitivity to alloxan but high sensitivity to streptozotocin. The influence of monensin on Microtus was also investigated by using diets containing 20 and 80 mg/kg monensin. Diets containing 80 mg/kg monensin led to 50 % mortality in 7 weeks and growth was hindered. Gas production from the

  11. Effects of exercise intensity and nutrition advice on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents: a multicentre randomised controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Katrin A; Coombes, Jeff S; Green, Daniel J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Keating, Shelley E; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte; Hosseini, Mansoureh Sadat; Ro, Torstein Baade; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of paediatric obesity is increasing, and with it, lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has recently been explored as an alternate to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults with chronic disease and has been shown to induce a rapid reversal of subclinical disease markers in obese children and adolescents. The primary aim of this study is to compare the effects of HIIT with MICT on myocardial function in obese children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Multicentre randomised controlled trial of 100 obese children and adolescents in the cities of Trondheim (Norway) and Brisbane (Australia). The trial will examine the efficacy of HIIT to improve cardiometabolic outcomes in obese children and adolescents. Participants will be randomised to (1) HIIT and nutrition advice, (2) MICT and nutrition advice or (3) nutrition advice. Participants will partake in supervised exercise training and/or nutrition sessions for 3 months. Measurements for study end points will occur at baseline, 3 months (postintervention) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary end point is myocardial function (peak systolic tissue velocity). Secondary end points include vascular function (flow-mediated dilation assessment), quantity of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, myocardial structure and function, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, autonomic function, blood biochemistry, physical activity and nutrition. Lean, healthy children and adolescents will complete measurements for all study end points at one time point for comparative cross-sectional analyses. Ethics and dissemination This randomised controlled trial will generate substantial information regarding the effects of exercise intensity on paediatric obesity, specifically the cardiometabolic health of this at-risk population. It is expected that communication of results will allow for the development of

  12. Changes in the nutritional status of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria between 1983 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Senbanjo, I O; Oshikoya, K A; Njokanma, O F

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overwei