Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk
Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.
Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk
Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…
Critical incidents of peer provocation in physical education were investigated among 675 junior secondary school students in Botswana. Data were generated through a brief, open-ended questionnaire requesting the students to narrate their experiences of bad, hurtful and offensive peer behaviours during physical education classes. Six overlapping…
Beshers, Sarah C.
This investigation is concerned with adolescent male participation in sexual health peer education programs. Research questions focused on identifying the percentages of male peer educators in these programs, exploring the relationship between financial compensation and male participation, and identifying male-specific recruitment strategies, if…
DeMairo, Pauline; Dischell, Jackie; Jouthe, Sorahya A.; Horner, Andrea
The Teen Outreach Reproductive CHallenge (TORCH) is a peer education program that provides information on various topics relevant to adolescent sexual health to a diverse audience, ranging from teens to health care providers. This information is disseminated through various projects by a group of New York City high-school students who are…
de Looze, Margaretha; Harakeh, Zeena; van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.
Previous studies from a wide variety of European countries have demonstrated that low educated adolescents engage more frequently in health risk behaviors compared to high educated adolescents. The present study investigates the mediating roles of parental knowledge and time spent with peers in this relationship. Data were retrieved from a…
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J
Peer education is popular both with governments and with young people. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a government-led peer education program on the self-reported sexual health behavior and related psychosocial outcomes of adolescent students in public high schools in the Western Cape of South Africa. Grade 10 students (n = 3934), at 30 public high schools (15 intervention, 15 comparison) were recruited to the study. In the intervention schools, peer educators were recruited and trained to provide information and support to their fellow students. Sexual health behaviors and related psychosocial outcomes of students were measured at baseline and at follow up 18 months later. Comparisons were made between those in the intervention and comparison group schools. We were unable to detect a significant difference in the age of sexual debut, use of condoms at last sex, goal orientation, decision-making or future orientation for students in the intervention group as compared to students in the comparison group. The findings suggest that the peer education program was not effective in reducing the age of sexual debut or condom use. Issues around the implementation of the program suggested that this was sub-optimal. Governments who advocate widespread use of peer education as an approach need to recognise barriers to implementation and ensure ongoing monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness.
Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor
Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes (e.g., school composition), two individual-level peer network measures, SES and heterogeneity, had significant effects. Although educational attainment was generally worse in low SES schools, for all ethnic groups higher attainment was associated with attending schools with higher concentrations of minority students. At the individual level, however, membership in integrated peer networks was negatively related to high school graduation for Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and to GPA for Asians and Latinos, as only African-American achievement increased in more racially/ethnically heterogeneous peer networks. Our results suggest that co-ethnic and co-racial peer friendship networks should not be viewed as obstacles to the educational accomplishments of today's youth. In fact, in many cases the opposite was true, as results generally support the ethnic social capital hypothesis while providing little corroboration for oppositional culture theory. Results also suggest that co-racial and co-ethnic ties may mediate the negative effects of school choice, or more specifically of between-school socioeconomic segregation. Consequently, we conclude that school policies aimed at socioeconomic desegregation are likely to beneficially affect the academic outcomes of all race/ethnic groups.
Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.
Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…
Al-Iryani, Buthaina; Basaleem, Huda; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled; Kok, Gerjo; van den Borne, Bart
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention in the 27 schools of Aden. In 2008, and after 3 years of implementation, a quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted, which revealed that the peer education intervention has succeeded in improving HIV knowledge and skills; and in decreasing stigmatization of PLWH. This process evaluation aims to give a deeper understanding of the quasi-experimental evaluation which was conducted in the 27 high schools of Aden, and to highlight the factors that facilitated or inhibited school peer education in such a conservative Muslim setting. Qualitative methodologies were pursued, where 12 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with peer educators, targeted students, school principals, social workers, and parents of peer educators. Results revealed that school-peer education was well received. There was an apparent positive effect on the life skills of peer educators, but the intervention had a lesser effect on targeted students. Key enabling factors have been the high quality of training for peer educators, supportive school principals, and acceptance of the intervention by parents. These findings are important for improving the life skills and peer education intervention at the school level, and in better planning and implementation of life skills and peer programmes at a national scale.
Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Heavy episodic drinking is more common among adolescents with a lower educational level. Aim: This study probed into the mechanism through which a lower educational level is linked to heavier adolescent drinking. Methods: Structural equation modelling was conducted using data from the 2005 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (n =…
Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K
Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities.
Sciacca, John; Appleton, Tina
Reviews selected literature on involving adolescents in providing health education to their peers, providing examples of programs that have used adolescent peers to reduce health risks related to tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, stress, eating behavior, and AIDS. (SM)
Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Norman, Rosana E
This study used prospective birth cohort data to analyse the relationship between peer aggression at 14 years of age and educational and employment outcomes at 17 years (N = 1091) and 20 years (N = 1003). Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories of peer aggression. Involvement in peer aggression was reported by 40.2% (10.1% victims; 21.4% perpetrators; 8.7% victim-perpetrators) of participants. Participants involved in any form of peer aggression were less likely to complete secondary school. Perpetrators and victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to be in the 'No Education, Employment or Training' group at 20 years of age. This association was explained by non-completion of secondary school. These findings demonstrate a robust association between involvement in peer aggression and non-completion of secondary school, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of poor educational and employment outcomes in early adulthood.
Davies, Mark; Kandel, Denise B.
A study of adolescent perceptions found that parents have more influence on their children's educational aspirations than do their children's best friends. Parental influence appears to grow stronger over time. Best friends influence girls' aspirations more than boys. (AM)
Simba, Daudi O; Kakoko, Deodatus C
Out-of-school peer educators [PE] are resourceful in transmitting reproductive health information but their retention remains a contentious issue. This study aimed to assess motivation and sustainability of out-of-school PEs in disseminating reproductive health information among adolescents. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 406 PEs in Mbeya region, Tanzania. Focus Group Discussions [FGDs] were also conducted with the PEs and other relevant stakeholders. Most PEs had hopes for future employment and allowances through continuous training. The fact that majority of PEs had primary level education [89%] and were either peasants or self employed [92%] posed a serious question as to whether voluntary work is for the less educated, peasants and self-employed. Sustenance of PEs needs to be a continuous activity aimed at increasing the number of trained adolescents from their own social and economic groups. Otherwise, provision of transport and compensation for time spent should be considered.
Feldman, Rebecca; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Brock, Matthew E.
The authors conducted 324 full-class-length observations of 108 high school students with severe disabilities in general education classes, focusing analyses on how often students were present during class and in proximity to peers without disabilities. Students were not present for a substantial proportion of the classes in which they were…
Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W
Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.
Clasen, Donna Rae; Brown, B. Bradford
A sample of 689 adolescents responded to a self report survey measuring perceptions of peer pressure in five areas of behavior: involvement with peers, school involvement, family involvement, conformity to peer norms, and misconduct. Results elaborated the process of peer influence in adolescent socialization and identity development. (Author/LMO)
Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.
Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke; D’Haese, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Background The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls. Methods In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education) from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active) and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active). Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses. Results Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05). Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls’ physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%. Conclusions This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls’ physical activity both directly and indirectly through the
Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi
Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID:25478212
Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey
Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093
Vysniauskyte-Rimkiene, Jorūne; Kardelis, Kestutis
Successful communication with peers, positive classroom acceptance influence psychosocial health of children, while social maladjustment in childhood has emerged as high risk predictor of later delinquency and conduct problems (dropping out of school, criminality, psychopathology). Though these issues have devoted increasing attention in recent years, but still there is a lack of studies analyzing peer relation of adolescents. The primary purposes of the present study were to examine sociometric status, peer reputation and peer relations of adolescents and reveal connections between these results. Data were obtained on 502 adolescents (mean age 13+/-0.03) attending secondary schools of Kaunas city. The findings revealed peer reputation connections with status and sex groups.
Stephenson, Pam S; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke
This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in adolescent dating violence in unique ways. Male peers were involved in dating violence by participating in the aggression, agitating the aggression, being the competition, trivializing the aggression, and keeping tabs on the recipient. Female peers were involved in dating violence by deserting the recipient, cheating with the boyfriend, being the audience, needling the male dating partner, and helping the recipient. Male and female peers were involved similarly in adolescent dating violence by confronting the partner. School nurses working with adolescents are uniquely positioned to approach adolescents about dating violence. Interventions aimed at promoting discussions with adolescents are discussed.
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.
Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…
Kandel, Denise; Lesser, Gerald S.
Study explores how patterns of school friends' and parents' influence converge within the school and the role of the school in shaping adolescents' plans. One conclusion is that school program is more influential in the United States. (Author/DB)
Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke
This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.
The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…
Woodhouse, Susan S.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude
The present study examined whether adolescent loneliness would be lower within the context of positive relationships with peers. The core conceptual model predicted that hypothesized links between peer-rated social behaviors or victimization and loneliness would be mediated by social acceptance. Relationship experiences (i.e., social acceptance,…
Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan
Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use.
Puskar, Kathryn R; Stark, Kirsti H; Northcut, Terri; Williams, Rick; Haley, Tammy
Anger could be an early warning signal of violent behavior. Early peer education health promotion in relation to anger management could help children before uncontrolled anger becomes a problem in adolescence and adulthood. Peer education has been identified as a viable intervention strategy worldwide with various prevention programs for youth. The purpose of this article is to describe an anger management program (Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger, TKC-A 4th-8th graders) co-led by high school peer educators in an urban school district's summer school enhancement program. A program of five modules will be described. This paper discusses the peer educator implementation and recommendations for future implementation.
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…
Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.
This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…
Chu, Judy Y.
Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo
The current study examined the mediating role of adolescents' personal values on the relation between maternal and peer expectations for prosocial behaviors and adolescents' self-reported prosocial and antisocial behaviors. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (mean age = 16.22 years, 54% girls) completed measures of their own values and behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the positive expectations that their mother and their best friend(s) had for their (the adolescents') prosocial behaviors. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that adolescents' personal prosocial values mediated the relation between adolescents' perceptions of both maternal and peer expectations and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. In addition, for boys, perceptions of positive peer expectations were directly and negatively related to antisocial behaviors. The current study has important implications for parents, educators, and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents' positive behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors.
Ramseyer Winter, Virginia
Peer education programs are a popular approach to preventing HIV infection among adolescents. While the programs show promise for effectively preventing HIV among the peers who are provided education, little evaluation research has been conducted to determine if the peer educators themselves experience knowledge, attitude, and behavior changes. A…
Kauffman, C; Hue, L
This article describes an adolescent, peer-education training program in Jamaica that was developed and operated by the Red Cross Societies of Jamaica and the US and was funded by AIDSCAP. The program aimed to develop a training system to prepare youth peer educators in preventing the spread of HIV infections and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal was to increase knowledge about, change attitudes toward, and develop prevention skills for HIV/AIDS. The initial program was to be replicated on a large scale and be sustainable over time. The program was developed in response to the 1500+ Jamaicans diagnosed with AIDS and the 20,000 or so with HIV infections. Transmission is mostly heterosexual. 15% of girls and 47% of boys are sexually active by 14 years of age, and almost 50% of syphilis and gonorrhea cases are among adolescents. The national training program relies on peer educators, aged 14-19 years, who are literate to the 6th-grade level. Training sessions are conducted for 10-21 persons/session for 27 hours over 3 weekends. Training relies on engaging games and activities. Trainees are taught how to facilitate 14 specific activities, including the correct way to use a condom. Peer educators work together in groups of twos or threes among groups of 10-15 adolescents, aged 10-15 years. By the third year of operation, most of the systems and materials were in place and the program expanded; cost-benefit analysis revealed that costs were returned. The program has continued with a variety of funds and delivery systems and new funding will likely shift the program emphasis. The program has survived with the enthusiasm and support of the trainers. Other start-up programs should ensure the involvement of youth at all stages of development.
Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.
Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona
Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain.
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda
This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…
Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Feinberg, Mark E
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11-16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents' own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for "making out" showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both "heavy" and "light" sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts.
Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John
Objective To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. Design 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Intervention Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. Outcome measures A validated 7-day youth physical activity questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and sedentary behaviours at baseline (September 2010), 3 months (December 2010) and 7 months (May 2011). Generalised linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the effect. Results There was a significant decrease in time in sedentary behaviour on weekdays, 20 min/day at 7 months (p=0.020) reported by students in the intervention schools compared with control schools. This reduction was mainly due to a reduction of 14 min/day in computer usage on weekdays (p=0.0009). There were no significant differences in time on other sedentary behaviours, including television and DVD, video game, extracurricular reading, writing, drawing and listening to music, passive commuting and sitting to talk. There was also no significant difference in time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between intervention and control group. Conclusions Peer education appears to be a promising intervention in reducing sedentary behaviours in adolescents in China. These results need confirmation in a larger study. Clinical trial registration number ACTRN12612000417886 at http://ANZCTR.org.au PMID:22586284
Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.
This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…
Kiuru, Noona; Haverinen, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the Finnish dyslexia screening test. The students also completed a sociometric nomination measure that was used to identify their peer groups. Register information on participants' school grades also was available, and educational attainment in secondary education was recorded 5 years after completion of the 9 years of basic education. The results revealed that the members of adolescent peer groups resembled each other in reading disabilities but not in those of spelling. Reading disabilities and academic achievement shared within the peer group also contributed to educational attainment in secondary education. Finally, reading disabilities played a larger role in educational attainment among males than among females.
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents' temperament and youth reported on their own and their friends' delinquent behavior. Self-reports of adolescents' delinquent behavior were collected again 16 months later. Peer deviance was related to delinquent behavior over time more strongly for adolescents with low levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood, compared to youth with high levels of task orientation, flexibility, and positive mood. Analyses of gender differences indicated that low flexibility increased susceptibility to negative peer influence only for males, but not females. General activity level and sleep rhythmicity did not moderate the effect of peer behavior on delinquency.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.
This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Feinberg, Mark E.
A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts. PMID:27833252
Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks.
Stuart, Jennifer; Fondacaro, Mark; Miller, Scott A.; Brown, Veda; Brank, Eve M.
The involvement of adolescents with deviant peer groups is one of the strongest proximal correlates to juvenile delinquency and stems from a variety of causes. Past research has linked ineffective parenting with peer variables, including deviant peer group involvement and peer conflict during adolescence. In this study, adolescents' appraisals of…
Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.
Developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how psychophysiological processes relate to adolescent peer functioning. This review discusses advances in the study of the psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations, with a focus on how the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems relate to antisocial behavior, victimization, and…
Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.
Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…
The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics…
Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.
In this article, the authors describe recent research on peer victimization and its mental health consequences during early adolescence. They begin with a working definition of peer victimization that distinguishes it from lethal school violence and from simple conflict between peers. They then present a psychosocial profile of youth who are…
Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.
During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…
Mounts, Nina S.
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…
DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar
Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:26002848
Kruger, Heinz-Hermann; Kohler, Sina-Mareen; Pfaff, Nicolle; Zschach, Maren
The article presents selected results of a reconstructive study on the significance of the peer group for children's educational biography. Based on the analysis of qualitative interviews and group discussions with c. 11-year-old children from different educational milieus in Germany it is first shown how, in general, groups of friends in…
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.
Ardelt, Monika; Day, Laurie
Examined relations between parents, older siblings, peers, adolescents' individual characteristics, and adolescents' deviant attitudes and behaviors among inner-city families. Structural equation models showed that older deviant siblings had the strongest effect on adolescent deviance. Positive family relationships, parental support, and…
Halebsky, Mark A.
Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Harding, David J.
Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350
Homan, Nancy; Chichester, Melanie
Ongoing education, an ever-present challenge in a hectic clinical environment, can be addressed by utilizing peer-to-peer education. Enhancing nurses' comfort level with specialty topics can reduce anxiety while enhancing core knowledge and skill proficiency for the provision of safe care. Increased self-confidence in a nurse's ability to detect a new or developing concern can lead to fewer delays in care. Critical problems identified and addressed promptly support better outcomes.
Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo
Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented.
Karakos, Holly L.
Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…
WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.
Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793
Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.
Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…
Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Adams, Michele
Although peer influence is a salient predictor of delinquency, how it operates in the etiology of runaway behavior is not fully understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study demonstrates the importance of taking peers into account in understanding the etiology of running away. The findings suggest…
Prochaska, Judith J.; Rodgers, Miki W.; Sallis, James F.
Investigated the association between social support and adolescent physical activity when assessing physical activity using different methods and when separating social support into parent and peer support. Self-report and accelerometer data indicated that parent and peer support significantly correlated with physical activity. Perceived social…
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…
Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.
The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…
Maxwell, Kimberly A.
Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…
Friedlander, Laura J; Connolly, Jennifer A; Pepler, Debra J; Craig, Wendy M
The current study examined the joint contributions of pubertal maturation, parental monitoring, involvement in older peer groups, peer dating, and peer delinquency on dating in a sample of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 784 adolescents (394 boys, 390 girls) enrolled in grades 5, 6, and 7 who were followed for one year. In addition to measures of pubertal maturation and parental monitoring, adolescents and their peer group members completed indices of dating and delinquency. Average dating and delinquency scores for each participant's peer group network were computed. Results indicated that it was the combination of pubertal maturation, peer delinquency, and peer dating that explained increases in early dating. For boys only, parental monitoring was a significant predictor. The more knowledgeable parents were about their boys' activities, the lower the number of dating activities reported. These results highlight the importance of considering the joint effects of these biological and social predictors in understanding early dating. When rapid changes occur in all three domains, early dating is most likely to ensue. The findings of this study have practical importance. Parents and professionals who work closely with youth should attend to the special vulnerability of early maturing adolescents in the face of peer pressure and to the important role of parental monitoring in regulating dating activities.
Hamm, Jill V.; Faircloth, Beverly S.
Classroom peer factors were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. After controlling for fall sense of classroom belonging, spring sense of belonging was greater when teens perceived a more supportive peer context, minimal emotional risk in participating, and when they…
Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…
Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.
Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel
This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…
Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.
In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…
Association between maternal employment status and adolescent relations with parents, sibling, and peers was investigated. Males had more arguments with their mothers and siblings when their mothers worked. The need to take a family system perspective in order to understand the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development…
van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.
The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.
Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence. PMID:19795197
Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Parker, Alison E; Elmore, Kristen C; Benson, Jessica W
Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence.
Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa
We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.
Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan
This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences.
Hanken, Ingrid Maria
Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…
La Greca, Annette M.; Chan, Sherilynn F.
Objective Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents’ somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Method Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Results Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. Discussion The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents’ sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. PMID:26050245
Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo
Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents' relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents' social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well.
Egbochuku, E. O.; Aihie, N. O.
The study focused on the influence of peer group counselling and school influence on the self-concept of adolescents' in Nigerian secondary schools. Sixty-eight Senior Secondary School II students from three schools--a boys' school, a girls' school and a co-educational school in Benin City participated in the study. A pre-test, post-test control…
Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by the adolescents prior to a clinic visit with a nurse practitioner at a school-based clinic in Southeast Michigan, and interviews were conducted after the visit. Constant comparative analysis of EHCs and interview data of 19 sexually active 15 to 19-year-old girls revealed that those with positive familial and peer support were less likely to report risk behaviors compared to those with poor family and peer relationships. School nurses and other providers working with adolescents to prevent risk behaviors could utilize the EHC to determine risks and develop education plans and interventions to reduce risk behaviors.
Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.
Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior. PMID:27257081
Smith, Laureen H; Petosa, Rick L
Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior.
Bowker, Anne; Bukowski, William M.; Hymel, Shelley; Sippola, Lorrie K.
Examined impact of peer experience on seventh graders' strategies for coping with peer hassles. Found that more aggressive adolescents perceived more control over hassles. More aggressive, unpopular adolescents used more negative strategies; more popular aggressive females used more problem-focused strategies. Withdrawn adolescents perceived less…
Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks.
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162
Obiunu, Jude J.
The study investigated the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring in the enhancement of career decision making process among secondary school adolescent students. The interaction of sex with treatment on career decision making process of secondary school adolescent students was also investigated. 120 students from two co-educational secondary schools…
Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L
During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on four aspects of adolescents' GI in racially and ethnically diverse 7th- and 8th-grade students (N = 670; 49.5% boys, M age = 12.64) using a longitudinal social network modeling approach. We hypothesized stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of GI (intergroup bias and felt pressure for gender conformity) than on within-gender dimensions of GI (typicality and contentedness). Consistent with expectations, we found significant peer influence on between-gender components of GI-intergroup bias among 7th and 8th graders as well as felt pressure for gender conformity among 8th graders. In contrast, within-gender components of GI showed no evidence of peer influence. Importantly, these peer socialization effects were evident even when controlling for tendencies to select friends who were similar on gender, gender typicality, and contentedness (8th graders only). Employing longitudinal social network analyses provides insights into and clarity about the roles of peers in gender development. (PsycINFO Database Record
Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela
Considering that scientific articles have emphasized the link between the onset of sexual life and peer pressure, the aim of this study was to identify peer pressure in the adolescents' sexual initiation from the point of view of their relationship with the group of friends. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 363 15-19 year-old teens that represented a sample ofthe adolescents enrolled in a family health unit in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. Results showed a relation between sexual initiation and age, being involved in physical experience with someone without wishing, having the majority of friends with sexual experience and dating. Eventually, data show that peers might play some influence on adolescents' option for sexual debut.
McKay, Michael Thomas
Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.
Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine
Although teachers and peers play an important role in shaping students' engagement, no previous study has directly investigated transactional associations of these classroom-based relationships in adolescence. This study investigated the transactional associations between adolescents' behavioral engagement, peer status (likeability and popularity), and (positive and negative) teacher-student relationships during secondary education. A large sample of adolescents was followed from Grade 7 to 11 (N = 1116; 49 % female; M age = 13.79 years). Multivariate autoregressive cross-lagged modeling revealed only unidirectional effects from teacher-student relationships and peer status on students' behavioral engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships were associated with more behavioral engagement over time, whereas negative teacher-student relationships, higher likeability and higher popularity were related to less behavioral engagement over time. We conclude that teachers and peers constitute different sources of influence, and play independent roles in adolescents' behavioral engagement.
This paper draws upon small scale, qualitative research at a UK university to present a Learning Development (LD) perspective on peer learning. This approach is offered as a lens for exploring social aspects of learning, cultural change in higher education and implications for pedagogy and policy. Views of a small group of peer learning leaders…
van der Maas, Frank; Otte, Willem M.
In this study, we assessed whether peer education is an effective method of HIV/AIDS awareness, in terms of knowledge, misconception and behavior, among adolescents in the rural area of Nigeria. A comparative case series (n = 250), cross-sectional structured survey (n = 135) and focus group discussions (n = 80) were undertaken among adolescents.…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kupanoff, Kristina
Compared mothers' and fathers' direct involvement in adolescent girls' versus boys' peer relationships, and examined the links between parents' involvement and the qualities of adolescents' friendship and peer experiences. Findings revealed mothers were more knowledgeable about adolescents' peer relationships than fathers, and both mothers and…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.
Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…
Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.
Assesses the relative effects of parents and peers on adolescent alcohol use via mechanisms of attachment and opportunity. Results indicated that peers are more influential than parents in shaping adolescents' patterns of alcohol consumption and that unstructured peer interaction is an especially powerful predictor of adolescent alcohol use and…
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Rohling, Martin L
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the individual, family, and peer factors that correlate with adolescent gambling. High school students from three states ( N = 1,846) completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing the behavior of themselves, their parents, and their peers. Participants also reported on their gambling behavior via the SOGS-RA, which was used to create five adolescent gambling groups (i.e., Non-Gamblers, Non-Problem Gamblers, At-Risk Gamblers, Problem Gamblers, and Probable Pathological Gamblers). In a discriminant function analysis using demographic, individual, family, and peer factors as potential discriminators, two functions emerged that accounted for 94% of the variance between groups. The first function was linear, with the Probable Pathological Gamblers reporting the highest level of peer and parent gambling, susceptibility to peer pressure, conduct problems, binge drinking, suicide attempts, drug use, and being male. The second function highlighted three unique qualities of individuals in the two outlying groups: Probable Pathological Gamblers and Non-Gamblers. These findings suggest that demographic, individual, family, and peer variables are all important correlates of probable pathological gambling in adolescents. Results also support the utility of a five-group classification scheme based on the SOGS-RA. The clinical implications of these results are discussed.
The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics theory. Using 2980 best-friend dyads constructed from the National Longitudinal Study ofAdolescent Health ("Add Health"), I show that the peer influence process differs by the gender structure of the friendship. Adolescents in same-sex best friendships influence one another mutually, consistent with prior theoretical and empirical approaches to adolescent problem behavior: By contrast, boys in mixed-sex best friendships have influence over their female friends' drinking patterns, while the girls do not have any effect on their male friends' drinking behavior a finding consistent with status characteristics theory. The results indicate that peer influence models that do not take gender into account in the structure of the friendship misrepresent the unequal influence dynamics between boys and girls.
Woodward, L J; Fergusson, D M
Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this paper examined the relationship between teacher reported peer relationship problems at age 9 and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence. Results showed that, by age 18, children with high rates of early peer relationship problems were at increased risk of externalizing behavior problems such as criminal offending and substance abuse, but were not at increased risk of anxiety disorder or major depression. Subsequent analyses revealed that these associations were largely explained by the effects of child and family factors associated with both early peer relationship problems and later adjustment. The most influential variable in explaining associations between peer relationship problems and later adjustment was the extent of children's early conduct problems. These results suggest that reported associations between early peer problems and later adjustment are noncausal, and appear to reflect underlying continuities in behavioral adjustment.
Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.
Background Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. Method 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade(10.4 years old at fifth grade)on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Results Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Conclusions Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence PMID:26525416
van der Maas, Frank; Otte, Willem M
In this study, we assessed whether peer education is an effective method of HIV/AIDS awareness, in terms of knowledge, misconception and behavior, among adolescents in the rural area of Nigeria. A comparative case series (n = 250), cross-sectional structured survey (n = 135) and focus group discussions (n = 80) were undertaken among adolescents. In both the case series and structured survey, a questionnaire was used which addresses the following issues: socio-demography, knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS, accessibility to different sources of HIV/AIDS information, stigmatization and sexual behavior. Binary logistic regression was applied to compare responses from the peer-educated and not peer-educated populations. The model was adjusted for confounders. We demonstrated increased knowledge and decreased misconception and sexual risk behavior in adolescents receiving peer education as compared to adolescents not receiving peer education. These differences are apparent both over time (2005-2007) and cross-sectional (2007). In conclusion, peer education in rural areas can be effective in HIV/AIDS prevention. Knowledge and behavior can be influenced positively.
Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc
Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.
Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1) [47% boys; 66% European American (EA), 34% African American (AA)] and 226 adolescents at Time 2 (T2; 45% boys; 67% EA, 33% AA). Adolescents were approximately 16 and 17 years old at T1 and T2, respectively. To address study aims, a multiinformant, multimethod longitudinal design was utilized. Skin conductance level (SCL) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured during a baseline period and challenge task (star-tracing). Reactivity was computed as a difference score between the task and baseline period. Results from path models revealed that higher levels of mother-reported parental directing predicted decreases in adolescent-reported peer rejection and friends' deviant behavior from T1 to T2 at relatively low levels of physiological arousal in response to challenge (i.e., low SCL reactivity, RSA augmentation). Further, exploratory analyses indicated that directing was associated with decreases in friends' deviant behavior and peer rejection particularly among boys who exhibited lower levels of physiological arousal, but increases in friends' deviant behavior among boys who exhibited higher levels of arousal reflected in RSA withdrawal only. Overall, findings are consistent with prior studies revealing the benefits of parental behavioral control for underaroused youth, contributing to the growing literature on the interplay of parenting and physiological factors in the adolescent peer domain. (PsycINFO Database Record
Orr, Sarah Hunter
"Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…
van Beest, M; Baerveldt, C
This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' social support from parents and from peers. Three hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis was that adolescents who experience little parental support will compensate with support from peers. A negative correlation would thus be expected between perception of parental support on the one hand, and support from peers on the other. The second hypothesis was that lack of parental support will not be compensated by peer support, because such compensation is impossible. Thus, there would be no correlation. The third hypothesis was that adolescents in these circumstances lack the opportunity or ability to gain social support from anyone, including peers. A positive correlation would therefore be expected. These hypotheses were tested in a sample of 1,528 urban Dutch secondary school students (aged 14-16 years) who were in the third year of an intermediate educational stream. Analysis indicated that Hypothesis 1 was not substantiated. The results also argued against Hypothesis 3 and in favor of Hypothesis 2.
Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.
The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…
Kreager, Derek A.
This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…
Mauk, Gary W.
During 1988 there were 4,929 deaths by suicide among persons 15 to 24 years of age in the United States, making suicide the third leading cause of death in this age group, following accidents and homicide. Adolescent suicide is a particularly toxic form of death for the peers who are left behind. A "survivor of suicide" is defined as…
Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.
This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…
The validity of adolescents' responses to questions about the quality of their relationships with parents and peers is often limited by memory distortions, stereotypic response tendencies, and social desirability. In order to obtain more detailed reports about their behavior than is possible using questionnaires, and to investigate the…
Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene
The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…
Croll, N; Jurs, E; Kennedy, S
To promote program quality assurance, the Office of Health Promotion and Education at Penn State University evaluated peer health educators' presentation skills. Professional staff and experienced peer educators used an instrument tested for interobserver reliability to evaluate effectiveness in three skill areas: knowledge, delivery, and sensitivity. Each skill was rated, using a 4-point Likert-type scale. Knowledge included measures of preparation, subject knowledge, and ability to respond to questions knowledgeably; delivery included measures of clarity of directions, pacing, and transitions, appropriate and challenging questions, cooperation with co-facilitators, and enthusiasm; and sensitivity included comfort level, establishing trust in the group, nonjudgmentalism, appropriate use of humor, and nonsexist/nonheterosexist language. The evaluation teams observed and reviewed 18 work-shops conducted by 24 peer educators. Of the 24 educators evaluated, only 4 scored below 85%, the threshold for acceptable performance, and most scored above 90% in competency. Once baseline data had been gathered, the professional staff established a requirement that peer educators who did not meet this threshold must conduct their next two presentations with experienced peer educators who had met or exceeded it, and that professional staff members should work with students individually to improve skill levels. Evaluation criteria and threshold rates are to be reviewed each year.
Karst, Jeffrey S; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Carson, Audrey M; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten; Dolan, Bridget
Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased family chaos and parent distress. Successful long-term treatment outcomes are dependent on healthy systemic functioning, but the family impact of treatment is rarely evaluated. The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) is a social skills intervention designed for adolescents with high-functioning ASD. This study assessed the impact of PEERS on family chaos, parenting stress, and parenting self-efficacy via a randomized, controlled trial. Results suggested beneficial effects for the experimental group in the domain of family chaos compared to the waitlist control, while parents in the PEERS experimental group also demonstrated increased parenting self-efficacy. These findings highlight adjunctive family system benefits of PEERS intervention and suggest the need for overall better understanding of parent and family outcomes of ASD interventions.
Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.
The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…
O'Brien, J M; Goodenow, C; Espin, O
In recent years, more attention has been given to the fact that grieving is a process, especially in the work of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. The literature has focused on many aspects of bereavement, including how the process may be different at different ages. Much of the research on adolescents has focused on reactions to the suicide of a peer. The purpose of this study was to explore adolescent reactions to the death of a peer by means other than suicide. Semistructured interviews were conducted with ten college students about their experience of losing a friend in high school. Results indicated that even after a few years, the adolescents were still struggling through the grieving process. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners faced with similar crises are offered.
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Purpose One consistent predictor of adolescents’ engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk-taking. Methods Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage=12.6; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed 1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior, and 2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an internet chat room in which youth believed they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these “peers” were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Results In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African American boys. Conclusion Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. PMID:26794431
Hengesbaugh, Jean Houger
A continuing education program to provide technical training or consultation for laboratory technologists practicing in rural and urban Utah has been established by the Centers for Disease Control and the Utah State Department of Health under the name Project PEER (Pursuing Excellence through Education Regionally). The core of the program is a…
Aseltine, R H
The role of peers in fostering deviant behavior in adolescence is well-documented in the sociological literature, while support for parental influence or "control" theories of deviance is more equivocal. This paper examines the relative influences of parents and peers on adolescent delinquency and marijuana use, using data from a three-wave panel study of youths who were paired with a best friend (N = 435). Covariance structure models based upon polychoric correlations among study variables reveal that friends are indeed the primary source of influence on youths' behavior, but that estimates of influence are grossly overstated in analyses relying upon respondents' perceptions of their friends' behavior. Parental supervision and attachment are weakly related to subsequent delinquency and marijuana use, lending little support to control theories of deviance. Findings reveal that different processes account for the similarities among members of delinquent and drug-using peer groups. Although youths are socialized into delinquent behavior by peers, both selection and socialization influences play important roles in the formation of drug-using peer groups.
Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl
Beginning in sixth grade, 416 adolescents and their parents participated in four waves of data collection involving family observations and multiple-reporter assessments. Ecological theory and the Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) model guided the hypotheses and analyses. Lagged, growth curve models revealed that both hostile family interactions and peer deviance affiliation predicted adolescent aggression in the subsequent year. Family warmth played only a minor role in protecting against adolescent aggression. In hostile or low warmth families, peer deviance affiliation linked to a declining aggression trajectory consistent with the arena of comfort hypothesis. The longitudinal findings suggest a non-additive, synergistic interplay between family and peer contexts across time in adding nuance to the understanding adolescent aggression. PMID:22497273
Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J
This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.
Bayer, Angela M; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Gilman, Robert H; Hindin, Michelle J; Tsui, Amy O
We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15-17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies.
Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.
We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15–17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. PMID:25305443
van der Meulen, Kevin; Granizo, Laura; del Barrio, Cristina
Peer victimization has received much attention from researchers and educators over the last decade, since it is a problem that affects children and adolescents. As more time-extensive programs do not seem to be used in schools, in this article the "EQUIP" program for "Educators" is proposed as an instrument for the prevention…
Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Cui, Lixian; Bosler, Cara D.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of emotion regulation in the link between peer factors and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The sample consisted of 206 adolescents (ages 10–18 years) and parents. Peer factors (i.e., peer antisocial behavior, peer co-rumination, peer emotion regulation) and youth depressive symptoms were based on youth reports. Youth emotion regulation and antisocial behavior were assessed using parent and youth ratings. Results showed that peer antisocial behavior was directly (but not indirectly) related to youth antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas peer emotion regulation was indirectly (but not directly) related to both adolescent outcomes. In addition, peer co-rumination was indirectly related to youth antisocial behavior and directly and indirectly related to youth depressive symptoms. In general, the results indicated little evidence of moderation by adolescent age, sex, or ethnic differences. Implications for peer relationships as socialization contexts are discussed. PMID:26893530
Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…
La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore
This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bamaca-Gomez, Mayra Y.
Examined whether Mexican origin adolescents who varied by generational status would differ in their resistance to peer pressure. After controlling for gender, resistance to peer pressure varied significantly by generational status. Adolescents with no familial births in the United States were significantly more resistant to peer pressure than…
Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hussong, Andrea; Suchindran, Chirayath M.
The peer context is a central focus in research on adolescent risk behaviors but few studies have investigated the role of the peer context in the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. This longitudinal study examined between-subjects and within-person contemporaneous and lagged effects of peer attributes, measured with social network…
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…
Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.
This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…
This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of controlling for endogenous peer effects in estimating the influence of gender peer effects on educational outcomes. Using Manski's linear-in-means model, this paper illustrates that the estimation of gender peer effects is potentially biased in the presence of endogenous peer effect in education.…
Farrell, A D; White, K S
The moderating influences of family structure and parent-adolescent distress on the relationship between peer variables and drug use were examined in a predominantly African American sample of 630 10th graders at 9 urban high schools. Both peer pressure and peer drug use were significantly related to the reported frequency of drug use. The relationship between peer pressure and drug use was stronger among girls than boys, and also among adolescents in families without fathers or stepfathers. The association between peer pressure and drug use also increased as a function of the level of mother-adolescent distress among adolescents who were not living with fathers or stepfathers. Neither gender nor family structure moderated the relationship between peer drug models and drug use. However, the association between peer drug models and drug use increased as a function of the level of mother-adolescent distress.
Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai
Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…
Dorius, Cassandra J.; Bahr, Stephen J.; Hoffmann, John P.; Harmon, Elizabeth Lovelady
Using data from a probability sample of 4,987 adolescents, we examine the degree to which closeness to mother, closeness to father, parental support, and parental monitoring buffer the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use. The relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use was attenuated by both…
Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence
The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…
Mounts, Nina S.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation of level and discrepancy in mothers' and adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships and parent-child conflict about peer relationships to mothers' and adolescent's reports of adolescents' drug use, delinquent behavior, and grade-point-average (GPA). An…
Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.
Background: Peer support is strongly associated with physical activity of adolescents. This study examined the efficacy of a YMCA-based, peer-guided exercise training programme for increasing health-related physical fitness among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Adolescents with intellectual disabilities and…
Toomey, Russell B; Card, Noel A; Casper, Deborah M
The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported gender nonconformity were associated with higher self- and peer-reports of overt and relational victimization and aggression among males and females. The association between peer-reported gender nonconformity and peer-reported overt aggression was moderated by participant sex, such that the association was stronger for females compared to males. Results suggest that perceived gender nonconformity is associated with problematic peer relations, especially among females, in early adolescence and implications of these associations are discussed.
Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra
This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.
Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P
Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback.
Neuman, Susan B.
The Preschool Educational Environment Rating System (PEERS) is a measure designed to examine the quality of instruction in preschool settings. Unlike other rating scales, it not only measures the environment, it also examines both how teachers construct their classroom for instruction and the quality of the enactment of instruction. Designed on…
Vachon, R. W.
Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
Klein, Nicole Aydt; And Others
Researchers conducted focus group interviews with college student peer health educators to determine what factors motivated them to volunteer for a peer health education program. Examination of their life experiences, motivations, and program expectations indicated that life experiences, belief in the effectiveness of peer health education, and…
Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Stevens, Sheryl; Carson, Audrey M.; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Dolan, Bridget; Schohl, Kirsten; McKindles, Ryan J.; Remmel, Rheanna; Brockman, Scott
This study examined whether the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills ("PEERS: Social skills for teenagers with developmental and autism spectrum disorders: The PEERS treatment manual," Routledge, New York, 2010a) affected neural function, via EEG asymmetry, in a randomized controlled trial of adolescents with…
Schohl, Kirsten A.; Van Hecke, Amy V.; Carson, Audrey Meyer; Dolan, Bridget; Karst, Jeffrey; Stevens, Sheryl
This study aimed to evaluate the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(4):596-606, 2009). PEERS focuses on improving friendship quality and social skills among adolescents with higher-functioning ASD. 58 participants aged 11-16 years-old were randomly assigned to…
Dolan, Bridget K.; Van Hecke, Amy V.; Carson, Audrey M.; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten A.; Potts, Stephanie; Kahne, Jenna; Linneman, Nina; Remmel, Rheanna; Hummel, Emily
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial of a social skills intervention, the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(4): 596-606, 2009), by coding digitally recorded social interactions between adolescent participants with…
Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study examined how adolescents evaluate bullying at three levels of specificity: (a) the general concept of bullying, (b) hypothetical peers in different bullying participant roles, and (c) actual peers in different bullying participant roles. Participants were 163 predominantly ethnic majority adolescents in The Netherlands (58% girls; Mage=16.34years, SD=0.79). For the hypothetical peers, we examined adolescents' explicit evaluations as well as their implicit evaluations. Adolescents evaluated the general concept of bullying negatively. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical and actual peers in the bullying roles depended on their own role, but adolescents' implicit evaluations of hypothetical peers did not. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical peers and actual peers were different. Hypothetical bullies were evaluated negatively by all classmates, whereas hypothetical victims were evaluated relatively positively compared with the other roles. However, when adolescents evaluated their actual classmates, the differences between bullies and the other roles were smaller, whereas victims were evaluated the most negatively of all roles. Further research should take into account that adolescents' evaluations of hypothetical peers differ from their evaluations of actual peers.
Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement.
Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121
Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G
Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed.
Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt
The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…
Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…
Tomé, Gina; Matos, Margarida; Simões, Celeste; Diniz, José Alves; Camacho, Inês
The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents' risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours.
Investigates the hypotheses that among adolescents an inverse relationship exists between parent and peer involvement, and that conflict with parents is associated with peer orientation. Data obtained from 64 male and female adolescents through telephone interviews did not support these hypotheses. (Author/MP)
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee
The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed.
Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B
This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended.
Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H J
Peer contexts play an important role in the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. Behavioral health involves the observable academic and social behaviors that relate to and influence youths' subsequent health and development. Setting-level research on peer networks and social norms indicates these aspects of peer contexts vary by peer group, classroom, and school and dynamically relate to individual students' academic and social behaviors. Yet, although peer contexts are both influential and potentially malleable, little research examines the effects of school and classroom interventions on the development and maintenance of positive and productive peer contexts in schools. The current article identifies school structures and classroom processes theorized to directly or indirectly shift peer networks and social norms-and thereby increase the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. We discuss the need for more rigorous and relevant research to better understand the role of schools and classrooms in strengthening these peer contexts and promoting behavioral health in early adolescence.
Research on the transformation of relations that nongifted children have with their parents and peers as they go through puberty is examined. Four research questions which compare gifted and nongifted adolescents are posed regarding similarities in development, time factors in development, process of separation and autonomy, and causes. (Author/CL)
Fuqua, Juliana L.; Gallaher, Peggy E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sussman, Steve; Ortega, Enrique; Johnson, C. Anderson
Associations between peer group self-identification and smoking were examined among 2,698 ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles who self-identified with groups such as Rockers, Skaters, and Gamers. The sample was 47.1% male, 54.7% Latino, 25.4% Asian, 10.8% White, 9.1% Other ethnicity, and 59.3% children of immigrant parents. Multiple group self-identification was common: 84% identified with two or more groups and 65% identified with three or more groups. Logistic regression analyses indicated that as students endorsed more high-risk groups, the greater their risk of tobacco use. A classification tree analysis identified risk groups based on interactions among ethnicity, gender, and group self-identification. Psychographic targeting based on group self-identification could be useful to design more relevant smoking prevention messages for adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups. PMID:22458850
Dickens, Danielle D; Jackman, Danielle M; Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C; Chavez, Ernest L
Although studies have examined ethnic differences in psychosocial factors and adolescent alcohol use, most have not examined these relationships for rural adolescents. The Community Drug and Alcohol Survey (CDAS) was completed by 23,163 rural adolescents attending African American secondary schools. Multilevel analysis tested the hypothesis of stronger relationships of peer use and religiosity with alcohol use and a weaker relationship for parental permissiveness and alcohol use for White compared to African American adolescents. Results suggested that peer use, religiosity, and parental permissiveness were more strongly associated with changes in alcohol use for White adolescents. Findings provide insight for alcohol prevention among rural adolescents.
Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Schwartz, David; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Mayeux, Lara
The paper examines whether unpopularity and disliking among peers are partially distinct dimensions of adolescents' negative social experience. We recruited 418 students (187 boys, 231 girls, M = 12.12 years, SD = 4.33) from an urban junior high school. These early adolescents completed a peer nomination inventory assessing aspects of their social…
Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol E.
Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescents' susceptibility to antisocial peer pressure and parenting style and frequency of behavior monitoring. Suggests adolescents most susceptible to antisocial peer pressure perceived infrequent monitoring by fathers, inappropriate discipline practice by fathers, and had mothers who…
Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.
Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…
Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.
Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…
Phinney, Jean S.; Romero, Irma; Nava, Monica; Huang, Dan
Surveyed adolescents and parents from 81 Armenian, 47 Vietnamese, and 88 Mexican families. Adolescents completed measures of ethnic language proficiency, peer social interaction, and ethnic identity, while parents completed a measure of support for cultural maintenance. Across all groups, ethnic language proficiency and in-group peer interaction…
Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo
Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…
There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han
This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…
Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…
Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…
Smith, Tara E.; Leaper, Campbell
This research examined adolescents' gender identity in relation to the peer context and their self-concept. Participants were 229 adolescents who completed questionnaire measures of self-concept and multidimensional gender identity. Regression analysis indicated peer acceptance partially mediated the relation between self-perceived gender…
Melhem, Nadine M.; Day, Nancy; Shear, M. Katherine; Day, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brent, David
The purpose of this article is to examine the predictors of complicated grief, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents exposed to the suicide of a peer. One hundred and forty six peers of adolescent suicide victims were interviewed at 6, 12-18, and 36 months following the suicide. The roles of previous psychiatric…
Valois, Robert F.; Kerr, Jelani C.; Huebner, E. Scott
Background: Peer victimization among adolescents has been linked to increased psychological stress, psychosomatic illness, anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, suicide ideation and poor physical health. Purpose: This study explored associations between peer victimization and adolescents' perceptions of life satisfaction. Methods: Public middle…
Bellmore, Amy; Ma, Ting-Lan; You, Ji-in; Hughes, Maria
Given the passivity of many adolescents upon witnessing peer victimization, the goal of this study was to evaluate the features of school-based peer victimization events that promote helping. A sample of 470 early adolescents (52% girls; 71% White, 9% Black, 6% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% American Indian, 8% Multiethnic, and 3% Other) reported likelihood…
Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…
Faircloth, Beverly S.; Hamm, Jill V.
Dynamic features of peer network experiences (membership fluidity and network interconnectedness) were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. Because these dynamic features are naturally present in adolescents' peer group affiliations, attention to them provides a more…
Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885
Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M
Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…
Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and…
Researchers have made significant progress in the investigation of how physiological measures can inform the study of adolescent peer functioning, including peer processes involving antisocial behavior, victimization, and peer social status. This paper highlights how the inclusion of physiological processes in research studies can address several…
Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina
This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…
Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie K.; Newcomb, Andrew F.
Examined differences in attraction to same- and other-sex peers as a function of sex, age, individual characteristics, and context in adolescents studied longitudinally from elementary to middle school. Found attraction to aggressive peers and to peers standing out in observable ways increased with age and upon entry to middle school, whereas…
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…
Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.
A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…
Mitchell, Helen; Casto, Glendon
Project TEAM (Team Education for Adolescent Mothers) is a support program designed to counteract the socioeconomic consequences of early childbearing, by developing a model for providing high-quality care services for pregnant adolescents, adolescent parents, their infants, and their extended families. The project has four site locations:…
Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon
Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.
Prinstein, Mitchell J; Brechwald, Whitney A; Cohen, Geoffrey L
A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents' susceptibility to peers. A total of 36 adolescent boys participated in a "chat room" experiment in which they ostensibly were exposed to deviant or risky social norms communicated either by high-peer-status (i.e., popular, well-liked) or low-peer-status (i.e., unpopular, disliked) grade mates who actually were electronic confederates. Changes in adolescents' responses before and after exposure to peer norms were used as a measure of peer influence susceptibility. These same adolescents completed a questionnaire assessment at the study outset and again 18 months later to assess their actual engagement in deviant behavior and their perceptions of their best friend's engagement in deviant behavior. Only among adolescents with high levels of susceptibility to high-status peers was a significant longitudinal association revealed between their best friend's baseline deviant behavior and adolescents' own deviant behavior 18 months later. Findings support the predictive validity of a performance-based susceptibility measure and suggest that adolescents' peer influence susceptibility may generalize across peer contexts.
Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Thomson, Kimberly C.
Past studies have investigated relationships between peer acceptance and peer-rated social behaviors. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which indices of well-being such as optimism and positive affect may predict peer acceptance above and beyond peer ratings of antisocial and prosocial behaviors. Early adolescence--roughly…
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Federico, Francesca; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
This study examined mentalizing abilities, social behavior, and social impact of adolescents who expressed the willingness to become peer buddies for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and adolescents selected by their teachers and peers. Twenty-seven teachers and 395 adolescents from public high schools completed mentalizing abilities, social status, behavioral, and peer buddy nomination measures. Findings suggest that social status and preference play a significant role in the selection of peer buddies by both teachers and classmates. Furthermore, more advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and the engagement in prosocial behaviors differentiated peers selected as buddies from other classmates. When compared with nonparticipating students, adolescents who expressed willingness to participate were more often girls, and were more prosocial. Agreement between teacher and peer nominations of best peer was moderate.
Petersen, Jennifer L; Hyde, Janet S
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we used latent growth modeling with a sample of 406 U.S. adolescents to examine the relationship between longitudinal trends in peer sexual harassment from 5th to 9th grade and disordered eating in 9th grade. Longitudinal trends in self-surveillance were proposed as a mediator of the relationships. Results indicated that the relationship between upsetting sexual harassment at 5th grade and disordered eating symptoms at 9th grade was mediated by self-surveillance at 5th grade. Girls reported more upsetting sexual harassment, more self-surveillance, and thus more disordered eating than boys did. These results are in accord with objectification theory, which proposes that sexual harassment is a form of sexual objectification and may lead to self-surveillance and disordered eating.
Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010
The pilot phase of Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU), a "grassroots" open educational project aimed at creating a new model for lifelong learning is now underway. Billing itself as an institution which promotes "learning for everyone, by everyone, about almost anything", P2PU is seeking to provide high-quality, low-cost educational opportunities by…
Mead, Antonia S.; Chapman, Jessica
The purpose of this article to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health Preconception Peer Educators program at a small private historically black college and university (HBCU). Peer educators were college students who completed a two-day training that…
Leighton, Greg; Muldner, Tomasz
Existing educational systems built for cooperative and collaborative activities are most often based on the client/server paradigm of distributed computing. This article shows that a new model for distributed computing, Peer-to-Peer (P2P), provides new opportunities for building distributed educational applications. It begins by reviewing general…
Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J
There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers' effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters' conduct problems, whereas both fathers' and mothers' influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children's conduct problems during early to mid adolescence.
Masten, Carrie L; Colich, Natalie L; Rudie, Jeffrey D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Dapretto, Mirella
Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives.
Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José
The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148
Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen
Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age = 14.62, SD = 1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership.
Han, Li; Li, Tao
Investigations of the existence of residential peer effects in higher education has shown mixed results. Using data from a Chinese college, we find no evidence of robust residential peer effects. Using the same data we find evidence that females respond to peer influences, whereas males do not, consistent with social psychology theories that…
Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J
Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz
This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most prestigious adolescents had the highest longitudinal risks of binge drinking, although they had no immediate risk. Alcohol consumption-related interventions overlooking longitudinal dynamics of social networks may not effectively prevent adolescents from binge drinking in young adulthood.
Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.
Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…
Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization.
Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence
One hallmark of adolescent risk-taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents' immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of 'peers' increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals' sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment.
Gardner, Theodore W; Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin M
This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. A multi-agent construct was created using adolescent, parent, and teacher reports of self-regulation and peer deviance. Results indicated that self-regulation shows convergent validity and covaries as expected with developmental patterns of adolescent antisocial behavior. Self-regulation moderated the association of peer deviance with later self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior after controlling for prior levels of antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for models for the development of antisocial behaviors and for intervention science are discussed.
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during interparental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multi-method, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Interparental reasoning at adolescent age 13 predicted greater autonomy and relatedness in observed adolescent-peer conflict one year later and lower levels of autonomy undermining during observed romantic partner conflict five years later. Interparental reasoning also predicted greater satisfaction and affection in adolescent romantic relationships seven years later. Findings suggest that autonomy promoting behaviors exhibited in the interparental context may influence adolescents’ own more autonomous approaches to subsequent peer and romantic conflict. Possible explanatory models are discussed, including social learning theory and attachment theory. PMID:23087547
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record
Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura
The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.
Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François
The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.
Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom
Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.
Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony
Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence processes. Study 1 included 377 adolescents from a community-based sample; Study 2 included 140 clinically-referred adolescents recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility. In Study 1, adolescents' NSSI was examined at baseline and one year later. Adolescents' nominated best friend reported their own levels of NSSI. In Study 2, adolescents' NSSI was examined at baseline as well as 9 and 18-months post-baseline. Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' engagement in self-injurious behavior (including suicidality) and depressed mood also were examined at all three time points. Baseline depressive symptoms were measured in both studies; gender and age were examined as moderators of peer influence effects. Results from both studies supported longitudinal peer socialization effects of friends' self-injurious behavior on adolescents' own NSSI for girls, but not for boys, even after controlling for depressive symptoms as a predictor. Study 1 suggested socialization effects mostly for younger youth. Results from Study 2 also suggested longitudinal socialization effects, as well as peer selection effects; adolescents' NSSI was associated with increasing perceptions of their friends' engagement in depressive/self-injurious thoughts and behavior. Findings contribute to the nascent literature on longitudinal predictors of NSSI and to work on peer influence. PMID:20437255
Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P
The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing.
Koo, Joung Hwa
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…
Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles
In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…
Shannon, Barbara M.; And Others
Describes a nutrition education program for the elderly in which 22 older adults were recruited and trained as peer educators to create interest in nutrition and serve as liaisons between peers and sound sources of nutrition information. Participants (N=933) reported that sessions were interesting and provided useful information. (Author/JAC)
Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee
Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence.
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents.
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor
Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.
Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S
Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.
Poteat, V Paul; Mereish, Ethan H; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to identify peer groups based on sociometric nominations, followed by multilevel modeling of the effects of sexual prejudice at the group level on interpersonal interactions among individuals in these groups. As hypothesized, the interpersonal interactions in peer groups with stronger group-level sexual prejudice were distinct from and poorer than those in groups with weaker group-level sexual prejudice. Moreover, longitudinal models indicated that adolescents in groups with stronger initial sexual prejudice reported worse interpersonal interactions with their peers seven months later. These findings provide a contextual understanding of prejudice and its negative effects on how adolescents come to relate with one another over time.
Pugliese, John A; Okun, Morris A
In the context of a model of health-related social control, we compared the associations among social control strategies, affective and behavioral reactions, and exercise for parental and peer influence agents. Late adolescent college students (n = 227) completed questionnaires that focused on social control from a parent or a peer who attempted to increase their exercising. Results from this cross-sectional study revealed that most relationships in the model were similar for parent and peer influence agents, however, (a) negative social control was a stronger predictor of reactance among parents than peers; (b) positive affect was a stronger predictor of attempts to change among peers than parents; and (c) positive affect predicted frequency of strenuous exercise only among parents. Decreasing parents' use of negative social control strategies and increasing adolescents' positive affective reactions to parental social control agents may be keys to promoting positive lifestyle changes in late adolescence.
Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R
Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.
Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.
Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent…
Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.
Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…
Brumariu, Laura E.; Obsuth, Ingrid; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Little is known about the links between anxiety disorders and parent-child attachment disorganization and quality of peer relationships in late adolescence. This study examined the quality of attachment and peer relationships among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders in a sample of 109 low-to moderate-income families. Psychopathology was assessed with the SCID-I. Attachment disorganization and dysfunction in peer relationships were measured using semi-structured interviews and behavioral observations. Adolescents with anxiety disorders and comorbid conditions showed higher levels of attachment disorganization across three measurement approaches, as well as higher levels of dysfunction in peer relationships than those with no Axis I diagnosis. Adolescents without anxiety disorders but with other Axis I disorders differed only in the quality of school relationships from those with no diagnoses. The pattern of results suggests that pathological anxiety, in the context of other comorbidities, may be a marker for more pervasive levels of social impairment. PMID:23247207
Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T; Schwartz, Seth J; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim
Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age = 13 years at baseline), their best friends, and both parents. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed strong longitudinal links from contacts with deviant peers to adolescent delinquency, but not vice versa. Parent-reported prohibition of friendships positively predicted contacts with deviant peers and indirectly predicted higher adolescent delinquency. Similar indirect effects were not found for parental control. The results suggest that forbidden friends may become "forbidden fruit," leading to unintended increases in adolescents' own delinquency.
Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C
The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.
Brumariu, Laura E; Obsuth, Ingrid; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Little is known about the links between anxiety disorders and parent-child attachment disorganization and quality of peer relationships in late adolescence. This study examined the quality of attachment and peer relationships among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders in a sample of 109 low- to moderate-income families. Psychopathology was assessed with the SCID-I. Attachment disorganization and dysfunction in peer relationships were measured using semi-structured interviews and behavioral observations. Adolescents with anxiety disorders and comorbid conditions showed higher levels of attachment disorganization across three measurement approaches, as well as higher levels of dysfunction in peer relationships than those with no Axis I diagnosis. Adolescents without anxiety disorders but with other Axis I disorders differed only in the quality of school relationships from those with no diagnoses. The pattern of results suggests that pathological anxiety, in the context of other comorbidities, may be a marker for more pervasive levels of social impairment.
Hare, Amanda L; Szwedo, David E; Schad, Megan M; Allen, Joseph P
This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens' displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens' autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one's autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens.
Objectives This study aims to: 1) Evaluate whether a near-peer program improves perceived OSCE performance; 2) Identify factors motivating students to teach; 3) Evaluate role of near-peer teaching in medical education. Methods A near-peer OSCE teaching program was implemented at Monash University’s Peninsula Clinical School over the 2013 academic year. Forty 3rd-year and thirty final-year medical students were recruited as near-peer learners and educators, respectively. A post-program questionnaire was completed by learners prior to summative OSCEs (n=31), followed by post-OSCE focus groups (n=10). Near-peer teachers were interviewed at the program’s conclusion (n=10). Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes to assess the perceived value of the program. Results Learners felt peer-led teaching was more relevant to assessment, at an appropriate level of difficulty and delivered in a less threatening environment than other methods of teaching. They valued consistent practice and felt confident approaching their summative OSCEs. Educators enjoyed the opportunity to develop their teaching skills, citing mutual benefit and gratitude to past peer-educators as strong motivators to teach others. Conclusions Near-peer education, valued by near-peer learners and teachers alike, was a useful method to improve preparation and perceived performance in summative examinations. In particular, a novel year-long, student-run initiative was regarded as a valuable and feasible adjunct to faculty teaching. PMID:27239951
Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C
Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Bowker, Julie C.
Obesity during childhood and adolescence is a growing problem in the United States, Canada, and around the world that leads to significant physical, psychological, and social impairment. In recent years, empirical research on factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity has begun to consider peer experiences, such as peer rejection, peer victimization, and friendship. Peer experiences have been theoretically and empirically related to the “Big Two” contributors to the obesity epidemic, eating and physical activity, but there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature. In this article, we review and synthesize the emerging theoretical and empirical literatures on peer experiences in relation to: (a) eating (food consumption and food selection); and (b) physical activity, during childhood and adolescence. A number of limitations and issues in the theoretical and empirical literatures are also discussed, along with future research directions. In conclusion, we argue that the involvement of children and adolescents’ peer networks in prevention and intervention efforts may be critical for promoting and maintaining positive behavioral health trajectories. PMID:28090396
Visser, Maretha J
The implementation and evaluation of a peer education and support programme in secondary schools to prevent and reduce high-risk sexual behaviour amongst adolescents is discussed.The aims of the programme were to provide accurate information about HIV/AIDS, discuss and reconsider peer group norms, and establish support for learners. In the programme that was implemented in 13 secondary schools in Tshwane, South Africa, peer educators were identified, trained and supported to implement the programme in their schools with the assistance of a teacher and postgraduate students as facilitators. Peer educators organised HIV awareness activities, facilitated class discussions on risk behaviour and gender relationships, and supported learners in solving personal problems. Process evaluation included weekly reports and focus group discussions with peer educators and teachers. A quasiexperimental design involving an experimental and control group, as well as pre- and post-assessments, was used to evaluate the impact of the programme on psychological well-being, personal control, school climate and reported high-risk behaviour of learners aged between 13 and 20 years.The results showed that the percentage of learners in the experimental group who were sexually experienced remained unchanged over the time period of 18 months. In contrast, a significantly increased percentage of learners in the control group were sexually experienced after the same time period.The control group also perceived more of their friends to be sexually experienced. No differences were reported in condom use in either of the groups.The findings of this study suggest that peer education can contribute to a delayed onset of sexual activity, and can therefore contribute to the prevention of HIV/AIDS amongst adolescents.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study examined the developmental course and adjustment correlates of time with peers from age 8 to 18. On 7 occasions over 8 years, the two eldest siblings from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire and/or phone diary data. Multilevel models revealed that girls’ time with mixed/opposite-sex peers increased beginning in middle childhood, but boys’ time increased beginning in early adolescence. For both girls and boys, time with same-sex peers peaked in mid-adolescence. At the within-person level, unsupervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted problem behaviors and depressive symptoms, and supervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted better school performance. Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding peer involvement and its implications for youth development. PMID:24673293
Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol
This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…
Silva, Karol; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence
Adolescents make more reckless decisions when with peers than when alone, which poses a challenge for organizations that place adolescents in situations in which risky and myopic decision making is problematic. We asked whether the effect of peers on adolescents' decision making is mitigated by the presence of a slightly older adult. We examined whether target subjects' risk taking was greater when they were in groups of 4 late-adolescent males (ages 18-22) than when they were in groups that mixed 3 late-adolescent males with 1 slightly older adult (age 25-30); risk taking in both of these conditions was compared with that of adolescents tested alone. We found that adolescents took more risks and expressed stronger preference for immediate rewards when they were grouped with 3 same-age peers than when they were alone. When 1 adolescent was replaced by someone slightly older, however, adolescents' decision making and reward processing resembled that seen when adolescents were tested alone. Adding a young adult to a work team of adolescents may improve group decision making.
Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.
Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660
Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W
Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use.
Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M
Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.
Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…
Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.
Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…
Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745
Hoglund, Wendy L. G.
Research indicates that peer victimization contributes to poor school functioning in childhood and adolescence, yet the processes by which victimization interferes with school functioning are unclear. This study examined internalizing and externalizing problems as domain-specific mediators of the association between subtypes of peer victimization…
Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…
Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.
This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…
Roseth, Cary J.; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.
Emphasizing the developmental need for positive peer relationships, in this study the authors tested a social-contextual view of the mechanisms and processes by which early adolescents' achievement and peer relationships may be promoted simultaneously. Meta-analysis was used to review 148 independent studies comparing the relative effectiveness of…
Walsh-Bowers, Richard; Basso, Robert
Describes two creative drama programs designed to improve peer-relations skills of early adolescents in classrooms. Discusses the utility of creative drama programs in relation to improved peer relations, staff training, and practical program evaluation. School social workers might find that this approach can be an effective modality for…
Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.
This document was conceived and developed to provide a better understanding of the pressures and tasks associated with adolescence, the empirically-based evidence of factors associated with drug use and other forms of problem behavior, different peer program approaches, and ways in which peer programs can be implemented. In Chapter I, "The…
Beran, Tanya N.; Lupart, Judy
The relationship between school achievement and peer harassment was examined using individual and peer characteristics as mediating factors. The sample consisted of adolescents age 12-15 years (n = 4,111) drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada.…
Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr
A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…
Light, John M.; Dishion, Thomas J.
Evidence supports the hypothesis that adolescent peer groups play a significant role in the genesis of youth antisocial behavior. A longstanding interest in research focused on individual differences in teen exposure to deviant peer groups is the notion that high-risk youth aggregate because of their common rejection within social contexts, such…
Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…
Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.
Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika
Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…
Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine
The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…
Chilver-Stainer, Jennifer; Gasser, Luciano; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina
Children and adolescents with hearing impairments are at risk of being excluded from activities with hearing peers. Moral emotion attributions may represent important indicators for children's identification with the moral norm not to exclude peers based on disability. Against this background, we investigated how 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds…
Hill, Jennifer; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric
Affiliation with substance using peers is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use. This association is typically interpreted causally: peers who drink incite their friends to drink. This association may be complicated by uncontrolled genetic and environmental confounds because teens with familial predispositions for adolescent…
The relationships that students have with their parents and peers permeate their lives both inside and outside of the classroom. The purpose of the present exploratory study is to assess (a) the psychometric quality of measures gauging the latent variables of adolescents' perceptions of their relatedness to both parents and peers and (b) the…
Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena
This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…
Boyle, Jennifer; Mattern, Craig O.; Lassiter, Jill W.; Ritzler, Julia A.
There are few physical activity (PA) interventions in higher education, and they have been only minimally effective. Objective: To determine if a course-based, peer education intervention was associated with increases in PA and physical fitness. Participants: Participants were 178 students enrolled in a personal health class during the 2007-2008…
Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´
Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction…
Kef, Sabina; Dekovic, Maja
In the present study we examined the importance of parental and peer support for well-being of adolescents with and without a visual impairment. The sample included 178 adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and 338 adolescents without visual impairments. Peer and parental support proved to be important for well-being of both adolescents…
Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A
A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence.
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…
Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek
Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…
Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.
This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…
Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl
This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Obiunu, Jude J.
The study investigated the relationship between parents and peer influences on the qualities of adolescent friendship. Relevant literature in the field of adolescent friendship qualities and parental interaction were investigated. The problem of the study is the increasing incidences of emotional, imbalance among young people that manifest in…
Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi
Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…
Garnefski, Nadia; Okma, Sjoukje
Analyzed data from 2,814 15- and 16-year-old secondary school students to investigate the collective influence of family, school, and peers on behavioral problems in adolescence. Adolescents with behavioral problems had a more negative perception of the environment, indicating that behavioral problems are associated with problems in multiple…
Pearl, Ruth; And Others
The implicit scripts of adolescents experiencing peer pressure to engage in misconduct were examined for 198 high school students interviewed about 6 scenarios in which one adolescent asks another to misbehave. Differences based on sex, community (urban, suburban, and ethnic composition), and learning status (learning disabled or nondisabled) are…
Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne
We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…
Yeager, David S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S.
Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an…
Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal
While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…
Theories of susceptibility to peer influence have centered on the idea that lower status adolescents are likely to adopt the behaviors of high status adolescents. While status is important, social exchange theorists have shown the value of analyzing exchange relations between actors to understand differences in power. To build on status-based…
Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others
Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…
Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo
The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…
Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…
Berndt, Thomas J.
This document reports findings of two studies on relations between: (1) adolescents' peer relationships and their self-esteem; and (2) adolescents' social status and friendships. Participating in the first study were nearly 300 seventh- and eighth-graders who completed Harter's (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children. This measure includes…
Chen, Ying-Chih; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study implemented an online peer assessment activity to help 52 Taiwanese in-service science and mathematics teachers to develop research proposals in an educational research course. The participants were divided into 16 groups, and each group was required to submit a proposal via three rounds of online peer-assessment activity. This study…
The purpose of this study is to practice peer evaluation and to determine if the result of the evaluation shows similarity with the lecturer evaluation, thus to make assumption about the validity of peer evaluation in higher education. For this purpose, students of "Specific Teaching Methods I" class, which is included in the 3. Class of…
The purpose of this study is to practice peer evaluation and to determine if the result of the evaluation shows similarity with the lecturer evaluation, thus to make assumption about the validity of peer evaluation in higher education. For this purpose, students of "Specific Teaching Methods I" class, which is included in the 3rd Class…
Daddona, Mark F.
As more college students face severe mental health issues, peer educators need effective communication skills and knowledge of campus counseling services to properly make referrals while continuing the peer relationship. This chapter presents an overview of current mental health issues in college students. These issues must be understood and…
Mason, Michael; Light, John; Campbell, Leah; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Crewe, Stephanie; Way, Thomas; Saunders, Heather; King, Laura; Zaharakis, Nikola M; McHenry, Chantal
Close peer networks can affect adolescents' health behaviors by altering their social environments, and thus their risk for and protection against substance use involvement. We tested a 20 minute intervention named Peer Network Counseling that integrates motivational interviewing and peer network strategies with 119 urban adolescents who reported occasional or problem substance use. Adolescents presenting at primary care clinic were randomized to intervention or control conditions and followed for 6 months. Mixed-effect latent growth models were used to evaluate intervention effects on trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use, offers to use substances, and moderation models to test for interactions between intervention condition and peer network characteristics. A significant intervention effect was found for boys for offers to use alcohol from friends (p<.05), along with a trend significant effect for alcohol use (p<.08). Intervention was more effective in reducing marijuana use, vs. control, for participants with more peer social support (p<.001) and with more peer encouragement for prosocial behavior (school, clubs, sports, religious activities); however, intervention did not affect these network characteristics. Results provide support to continue this line of research to test brief interventions that activate protective peer network characteristics among at-risk adolescents, while also raising some interesting gender-based intervention questions for future research.
Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal
Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.
Moses, Jacqueline O; Villodas, Miguel T
Negative outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences are well established, but little is known about protective factors that could promote positive adjustment among high-risk youth. This study examined the potential protective role of positive peer relationships in the association between adverse childhood experiences and school engagement among at-risk adolescents. Data were collected prospectively from birth until age 16 from 831 diverse adolescents (52.6% female; 54% African American, 24% Caucasian) who were at-risk for family violence and their caregivers. The significant and negative associations between adversities and school engagement outcomes at age 16 were mitigated by peer intimacy and companionship and exacerbated by peer conflict. The findings underscore the importance of fostering positive peer relationships for improving school engagement among at-risk adolescents.
Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Forgeron, Paula; van Wyk, Margaret; Harris, Lauren; Luca, Stephanie
This article endeavored to determine the topics of discussion during open-ended peer mentoring between adolescents and young adults living with chronic illness. This study occurred alongside a study of the iPeer2Peer Program. Fifty-two calls (7 mentor-mentee pairings) were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive coding with an additional 30 calls (21 mentor-mentee pairings) coded to ensure representativeness of the data. Three categories emerged: (1) illness impact (e.g., relationships, school/work, self-identity, personal stories), (2) self-management (e.g., treatment adherence, transition to adult care, coping strategies), and (3) non-illness-related adolescent issues (e.g., post-secondary goals, hobbies, social environments). Differences in discussed topics were noted between sexes and by diagnosis. Peer mentors provided informational, appraisal, and emotional support to adolescents.
Chapple, Constance L; Tyler, Kimberly A; Bersani, Bianca E
Child maltreatment researchers have often suggested that experiences with child neglect have long-term, negative effects. Child neglect is thought to have particularly adverse effects on self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. In this research, we examine the relationship of child neglect with adolescent violence via self-control and peer rejection. Using prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample, we find that child neglect adversely affects peer rejection and violence. Neglected children were more likely to be rejected by their peers in early adolescence and were more likely to be violent later in adolescence. Contrary to theoretical predictions, child neglect was not a significant predictor of self-control. Implications for delinquency and child maltreatment researchers are discussed.
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.
Mullineaux, Paula Y; DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher
Nearly all aspects of human development are influenced by genetic and environmental factors, which conjointly shape development through several gene-environment interplay mechanisms. More recently, researchers have begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on peer and family relationships across the pre-adolescent and adolescent time periods. This article introduces the special issue by providing a critical overview of behavior genetic methodology and existing research demonstrating gene-environment processes operating on the link between peer and family relationships and adolescent adjustment. The overview is followed by a summary of new research studies, which use genetically informed samples to examine how peer and family environment work together with genetic factors to influence behavioral outcomes across adolescence. The studies in this special issue provide further evidence of gene-environment interplay through innovative behavior genetic methodological approaches across international samples. Results from the quantitative models indicate environmental moderation of genetic risk for coercive adolescent-parent relationships and deviant peer affiliation. The molecular genetics studies provide support for a gene-environment interaction differential susceptibility model for dopamine regulation genes across positive and negative peer and family environments. Overall, the findings from the studies in this special issue demonstrate the importance of considering how genes and environments work in concert to shape developmental outcomes during adolescence.
Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel
The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.
Since Dan Olweus's seminal work on bullying in the 1970's (Olweus, 1978), there has been a concerted effort by investigators to identify the confluence of factors that contribute to peer victimization and its role in psychosocial development. Although the cause and consequences of peer victimization may include underlying, age-invariant processes, the manifestation of these factors is, in part, driven by the developmental stage being studied. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of peer victimization requires an explicit developmental perspective. This paper examines how peer victimization in adolescence is unique from other developmental periods. Changes in the nature of peer victimization, associated risk factors, the contexts in which victimization is experienced, and the psychosocial outcomes affected are addressed. A primary focus is how maturational processes and interpersonal contexts characteristic of adolescence contribute to changes in victimization, with the objective of informing future research directions and the development of effective interventions.
Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie
Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy.
Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Acosta, Hedy C.; Mendoza, Michelle C.; Torres-Vallejos, Javier
Background From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist. Methods A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71) was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified. Results Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources—teachers and classmates—explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models. Conclusion The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization. PMID:28358905
Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali
This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.
Amemiya, Jamie; Wang, Ming-Te
Adolescents often avoid seeking academic help when needed, making it important to understand the motivational processes that support help seeking behavior. Using expectancy-value theory as a framework, this study examined transactional relations between motivational beliefs (i.e., academic self-concept or academic importance) and seeking help from teachers and peers across adolescence (i.e., from approximately age 12 to 17 years). Data were collected from 1479 adolescents (49% female; 61.9% African American, 31.2% European American, 6.9% other race). Analyses were conducted with cross-lagged panel models using three waves of data from seventh, ninth, and eleventh grade. Results indicated that both academic self-concept and academic importance were associated with increases in teacher help seeking in earlier adolescence, but were associated only with increases in peer help seeking in later adolescence. Help-seeking behavior positively influenced motivational beliefs, with teacher help seeking increasing academic self-concept earlier in adolescence and peer help seeking increasing academic importance later in adolescence. These transactional relations differed by adolescents' prior achievement and racial background, but not by adolescents' gender.
Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Raine, Adrian
There has been no prior research on peer victimization and child or adolescent schizotypal personality. This study tests the hypothesis that increased peer victimization is associated with increased schizotypal personality. Schizotypy was assessed using the SPQ-C (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child) in 3,508 male and female schoolchildren aged 8 to 16 years. All forms of peer victimization (physical, verbal, social manipulation, attack on property) were associated with schizotypal personality in both males and females across all age groups. Significant victimization more than doubled schizotypy scores. It is hypothesized that peer victimization may predispose to paranoid ideation, social anxiety, and lack of close friends, and consequently heightened schizotypal personality.
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study.
Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan; Suchaxaya, Prakin
This article describes the development and evaluation of an HIV prevention program developed for early adolescents through participatory action research. The HIV prevention program included a curriculum that was delivered by trained younger youth leaders through a youth and adult partnership with 10 schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The curriculum used participatory learning experiences, "edutainment" approaches, and skills-building strategies for enhancing youth leaders' capacities. Results of the evaluation showed that the senior-junior peer education program was effective in leadership role preparation, in improving youth leaders' ability to share sexual and reproductive health knowledge, and in promoting positive attitudes toward themselves. Success also rested on the fact that adults took a critical role in providing the opportunities, assistance, and guidance so that young people could develop their leadership capacity in an atmosphere of trust and respect.
Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne
In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.
In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141
Razavi, Amir R.; Strommen-Bakhtiar, Abbas; Krause, Paul
The world is currently going through a transitional period, moving from the Service era to the Information era. Rapid societal and technological innovations are changing the way we live, communicate, and work. As the rate of the technological/societal change increases, pressure on educational institutions also increases. This pressure is…
Woody, Robert H.
Advocates an expanded role for music education in the middle school curriculum. Explores music as a way to provide students with opportunities to demonstrate success. Discusses integrating music instruction with the larger curriculum, reaching at-risk adolescents, and the unseen effects of music education, including character building, academic…
Kelly, Adrian B; O'Flaherty, Martin; Toumbourou, John W; Homel, Ross; Patton, George C; White, Angela; Williams, Joanne
School connectedness is central to the long term well-being of adolescents, and high quality parent-child relationships facilitate school connectedness. This study examined the extent to which family relationship quality is associated with the school connectedness of pre- and early teenagers, and how this association varies with adolescent involvement in peer drinking networks. The sample consisted of 7,372 10-14 year olds recruited from 231 schools in 30 Australian communities. Participants completed the Communities that Care youth survey. A multi-level model of school connectedness was used, with a random term for school-level variation. Key independent variables included family relationship quality, peer drinking networks, and school grade. Control variables included child gender, sensation seeking, depression, child alcohol use, parent education, and language spoken at home. For grade 6 students, the association of family relationship quality and school connectedness was lower when peer drinking networks were present, and this effect was nonsignificant for older (grade 8) students. Post hoc analyses indicated that the effect for family relationship quality on school connectedness was nonsignificant when adolescents in grade 6 reported that the majority of friends consumed alcohol. The results point to the importance of family-school partnerships in early intervention and prevention.
Two studies examined adolescents' personal autonomy beliefs and their perceptions of peer autonomy. Study 1 sampled 527 adolescents (M = 15.40 years) and found that adolescents desired increased autonomy most over personal and multifaceted issues and least over moral and conventional issues. Younger adolescents and girls desired increased autonomy…
Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia
Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.
Hofmann, Adele D.
Examining historical shifts in the nature of parental authority, minors' rights, and sexual morality along with accompanying shifts in adolescent coital behavior, the author, a physician and Director of the Adolescent Medical Unit at New York's Bellevue Hospital, concludes that greater sexual freedom is a mark of social advance requiring a new…
Nakkula, Michael J.; Toshalis, Eric
Adolescent development research and theory have tremendous potential to inform the work of high school teachers, counselors, and administrators. "Understanding Youth" bridges the gap between adolescent development theory and practice. Nakkula and Toshalis explore how factors such as social class, peer and adult relationships, gender…
Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas
Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of parental SES or rather by indicators of the adolescents’ own developing SES. We examine the independent effects of parental and adolescent education and intergenerational educational mobility on adolescent smoking behaviour while controlling for differences in parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Methods: The study is based on data from a subsample (12–17 years, n = 5,053) of the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Participants reported their education level as well as their personal and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Information on parental education and smoking behaviour was obtained via parent interviews. Adolescent and parental education data were dichotomized (low/high), leading to four categories of intergenerational educational mobility: stable high, potentially upwardly mobile, potentially downwardly mobile, and stable low. Results: After adjustment for parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour, adolescent smoking habits were strongly related to their personal education level, but not that of their parents. Among boys, both stable low and downwardly mobile adolescents had a 2.7-fold increased risk of being a smoker compared with peers with a stable high education. Among girls, only those with a stable low education had a 2.2-fold increased risk of smoking. Among both genders, educational upward mobility was associated with significantly lower smoking rates compared with peers with a stable low education (boys: OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.20–0.53; girls: OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). Conclusions: Our results show that the risk of an adolescent smoking is influenced by their own education
Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C
The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns.
Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; De Laet, Steven; Claes, Stephan; Van Leeuwen, Karla
Molecular gene-by-environment studies primarily have focuses on the parent-child relationship as an environmental factor, whereas studies including peer relationships as environmental factor are rare. However, the effects of the peer context may not be the same for all adolescents due to biological characteristics. This study examined whether the effects of peer rejection and acceptance on externalizing behavior depend upon adolescents' genotype for the dopamine transporter (DAT1) or receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. In a sample of 563 adolescents (52% girls; Mage = 13.81), saliva samples, within-classroom peer nominations, and multi-informant behavior ratings were collected. Peer rejection, but not acceptance, was associated with externalizing problems. One out of eight models tested for rule-breaking behavior showed genetic moderation. According to the Roisman criteria, there was evidence for the differential susceptibility hypothesis. DAT1 10R carriers showed more rule-breaking behavior according to parents when experiencing high peer rejection, but less rule-breaking behavior when experiencing low peer rejection. The long DRD4 variant was associated with less aggression, but no moderation effects were found. The results are discussed in light of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and the reward sensitivity mechanism.
Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…
Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon
Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all.
Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A; Hanish, Laura D
The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them.
Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa.
Holmes, Christopher J.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1,164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child’s performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and after school caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa. PMID:26096194
Borelli, Jessica L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality, global-self-esteem, and social anxiety at two time points. Peer-reported measures of peer status were collected using a sociometric procedure. Consistent with hypotheses, path analyses results suggested that negative feedback-seeking was associated longitudinally with depressive symptoms and perceptions of friendship criticism in girls and with lower social preference scores in boys; however, depressive symptoms were not associated longitudinally with negative feedback-seeking. Implications for interpersonal models of adolescent depression are discussed.
Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Adolescent alcohol use remains an important public health concern. One of the most salient and consistent predictors for drinking behaviour among young people is peer influence. A systematic review of longitudinal studies that examined the effect of peer influence on adolescent alcohol use between January 1997 and February 2011 is presented. Twenty-two studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All but one study confirmed affiliation with alcohol-using or deviant peers as prospective predictors for the development of adolescent alcohol use. Findings revealed that existing longitudinal studies that have used multivariate analytic techniques to segregate peer influence (whereby adolescents start drinking after exposure to alcohol-using friends) and peer selection (whereby adolescents that start drinking without alcohol-using friends subsequently seek out drinking peers) effects consistently report significant peer influence effects. However, studies are unable to elucidate the relative contribution and developmental sequence of peer influence and selection. Existing research is synthesised to model the developmental influence of peer processes on adolescent alcohol use. Future research directions are recommended to inform better designed investigations that can lead to more effective endeavours to address peer processes in prevention efforts.
Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. PMID:21354882
Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years.
Uruk, Ayse Ciftci; Demir, Ayhan
The authors investigated the relative contribution of peer relations, family structure, and demographic variables in predicting loneliness in adolescents. Ninth-grade high school students (N = 756) from 8 different schools representing various socioeconomic status in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. A. Peplau, & M. L. Ferguson, 1978), the Family Structure Assessing Instrument (A. Gülerce, 1996), and an author-constructed questionnaire involving demographic information and variables on peer relations. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that all three sets of variables accounted for 41% of the variance in loneliness scores. Additionally, peer relations contributed 34% of the variance, family structure 14%, and demographic variables 3%. Within the limits of the study, peer relations appear to be the best predictors of adolescent loneliness.
Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi
Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age = 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin
This study compared control striving with regard to two developmental goals in adolescents with visual impairment and sighted peers. A matched-pair design was used with 158 adolescents with visual impairment and 158 sighted peers by using age, gender, habitation (living with ones' parents vs. other forms of living), and socioeconomic status as…
Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie
Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…
Stroud, Laura R.; Foster, Elizabeth; Papandonatos, George D.; Handwerger, Kathryn; Granger, Douglas A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Niaura, Raymond
Little is known about normative variation in stress response over the adolescent transition. This study examined neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to performance and peer rejection stressors over the adolescent transition in a normative sample. Participants were 82 healthy children (ages 7-12 years, n=39, 22 females) and adolescents (ages 13-17, n=43, 20 females) recruited through community postings. Following a habituation session, participants completed a performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) or peer rejection (exclusion challenges) stress session. Salivary cortisol, alpha amylase (sAA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout. Adolescents showed significantly greater cortisol, sAA, SBP and DBP stress response relative to children. Developmental differences were most pronounced in the performance stress session for cortisol and DBP, and in the peer rejection session for sAA and SBP. Heightened physiological stress responses in typical adolescents may facilitate adaptation to new challenges of adolescence and adulthood. In high-risk adolescents, this normative shift may tip the balance toward stress response dysregulation associated with depression and other psychopathology. Specificity of physiological response by stressor type highlights the importance of a multi-system approach to the psychobiology of stress and may also have implications for understanding trajectories to psychopathology. PMID:19144222
Stroud, Laura R; Foster, Elizabeth; Papandonatos, George D; Handwerger, Kathryn; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Niaura, Raymond
Little is known about normative variation in stress response over the adolescent transition. This study examined neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to performance and peer rejection stressors over the adolescent transition in a normative sample. Participants were 82 healthy children (ages 7-12 years, n = 39, 22 females) and adolescents (ages 13-17, n = 43, 20 females) recruited through community postings. Following a habituation session, participants completed a performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) or peer rejection (exclusion challenges) stress session. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and heart rate were measured throughout. Adolescents showed significantly greater cortisol, sAA, SBP, and DBP stress response relative to children. Developmental differences were most pronounced in the performance stress session for cortisol and DBP and in the peer rejection session for sAA and SBP. Heightened physiological stress responses in typical adolescents may facilitate adaptation to new challenges of adolescence and adulthood. In high-risk adolescents, this normative shift may tip the balance toward stress response dysregulation associated with depression and other psychopathology. Specificity of physiological response by stressor type highlights the importance of a multisystem approach to the psychobiology of stress and may also have implications for understanding trajectories to psychopathology.
Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.
Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth.
Sumter, Sindy R; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P Michiel
Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds (N =464) with the recently developed Resistance to Peer Influence Scale (RPI). The one-factor structure of the RPI was cross-validated in the present sample, and the RPI was equally reliable at all ages. As expected, general resistance to peer influence increased during adolescence. In addition, gender differences were most pronounced during mid-adolescence, when girls were more resistant to peer influence than boys. These findings are explained in terms of psychosocial maturation during adolescence.
Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.
Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374
Sumter, Sindy R.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds…
Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B.
This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from…
Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dishion, Thomas J.; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study tested a transactional model of reciprocal influences regarding students' peer experiences (peer acceptance, peer rejection, and friends' academic achievement) and students' academic achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. This longitudinal model was tested on 452 students (198 girls), mostly Caucasian and French…
Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Vitaro, Frank; Séguin, Jean R.
Associating with substance using peers is generally considered as one of the most important predictors of adolescent substance use. However, peer association does not affect all adolescents in the same way. To better understand when and under what conditions peer association is most linked with adolescent substance use (SU), this review focuses on the factors that may operate as moderators of this association. The review highlighted several potential moderators reflecting adolescents’ individual characteristics (e.g., pubertal status, genes and personality), peer and parental factors (e.g., nature of relationships and parental monitoring), and contextual factors (e.g., peer, school and neighborhood context). As peer association is a broad concept, important methodological aspects were also addressed in order to illustrate how they can potentially bias interpretation. Taking these into account, we suggest that, while the effects of some moderators are clear (e.g., parental monitoring and sensation seeking), others are less straightforward (e.g., neighborhood) and need to be further examined. This review also provides recommendations for addressing different methodological concerns in the study of moderators, including: the use of longitudinal and experimental studies and the use of mediated moderation. These will be key for developing theory and effective prevention. PMID:24183303
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood.
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689
Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls. PMID:17051436
Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E
Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752
Milner, Murray, Jr.
Peer relationships in secondary schools in two different cultural areas of India are compared. A general theory of status relations and a specification of the distinctive cultural features of each area are used to explain the observed differences in peer inequality, clique formation, petty deviance, putdowns, fashion consciousness, romantic…
Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.
The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…
Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…
Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Sarahmona; Bickers Bock, Lindsey B.
Recent empirical investigations and epidemiological trends promulgate the need for effective sexual health education and advocacy programs based on the needs of college students. While many peer-based programs are reliant on pedagogical strategies, additional advocacy programs are needed to resolve the difficulties associated with reaching target…
The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…
Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.
Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
Patton, Beth J.; Marty-Snyder, Melissa
Peer assessment (PA) occurs in many higher education programs. However, there is limited research examining PA in physical education teacher education (PETE) in regards to student teaching experiences. PA may be a method to better prepare PETE students to assess their future students. The field experience students assessed their fellow peers on…
Buchanan, Michael T.
This study investigated the contributions peer review makes to the formation of preservice teachers of religious education within the context of Christian higher education. The participants were postgraduate students undertaking a preservice teacher training course at Australian Catholic University, Australia (Melbourne campus). Those training to…
Fields, Jessica; Copp, Martha
Peer sexuality educators' accounts of their work reveal two approaches to empathy with their students: affinity and alliance. "Affinity-based empathy" rests on the idea that the more commonalities sexuality educators and students share (or perceive they share), the more they will be able to empathise with one another, while…
Southgate, Erica; Aggleton, Peter
Background: Peer education is a much-used approach to health education with young people and marginalised groups. Rarely, however, has the concept been interrogated for its meaning and usefulness, despite pleas for the importance of doing so going back several decades. Objectives: Against this background, this paper offers a specifically…
Dennett, Carolyn G.; Azar, James A.
To understand the role and experience of a peer educator, it is imperative to examine the developmental issues and concerns associated with this stage of a student's life as well as the demands and challenges of a higher education community. For years, student affair professionals have used a breadth of theories to guide their efforts in…
Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly
BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945
Dadian, M J
The "Together We Can" Peer Education Project, organized by the Jamaica Red Cross, seeks to prepare youth leaders 14-19 years of age to teach their peers the skills and knowledge they need to avoid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Since the program's creation in 1993, 425 peer educators have undergone the 14-part training and, in turn, educated more than 4500 young people and reached over 100,000 youth and adults with awareness activities. The project was developed in response to a dramatic increase in STDs among Jamaican youth and a steady lowering of the age at first intercourse. Members of the Girl Guides, Boy Scouts, church groups, and police youth clubs were asked to nominate young leaders from their ranks to receive the training. HIV-positive individuals address each group of peer educators to dispel prejudices. To help them reach their audiences, peer educators are given a workbook containing interactional exercises (e.g., a board game that tests knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, a fictional newspaper column offering advice about sex and HIV, condom use demonstrations, assertiveness training role plays).
Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, Heidi; And Others
Although much attention has been devoted to the study of social competence in the past decade, few researchers have examined the adolescent age group. These two studies examined what behaviors are important for positive peer relations in adolescence. In the first study 1,142 ninth-graders (577 males, M age=14.78; 565 females, M age=14.61) from 7…
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet
Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.
Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
Vartanian, L R
The theory of adolescent egocentrism holds that early adolescents have a distorted understanding of self-other relations; because of flaws in the traditional methods used to assess adolescent egocentrism, this notion has never received adequate empirical scrutiny. In the present research, the nature of early adolescent social cognition as characterized by that theory was investigated by examining age differences in judgments of hypothetical peer group conversations. In Study 1, children and early adolescents (N = 264) rated the attentiveness, criticalness, and admiration expressed in three conversations, in which the subject or a peer was mentioned in either an admiring, critical, or nonevaluative manner. In Study 2, a similar procedure was used with middle and late adolescents, as well as children and early adolescents (N = 187); two memory tasks were also administered to visit the issue of distortion in social cognition. In Study 3, a new sample (N = 1,019) representing the four age groups from Study 2 was presented with an ambiguous conversation and then asked to interpret who was the target (object of focus) and how that target was regarded. The findings from the three studies do not support the notion that adolescents believe others are attentive to and critical of their every move, or that their social cognition and perception is egocentric and distorted. Conceptual and methodological contributions are discussed, along with directions for additional research.
Masten, Carrie L; Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I
Involvement with friends carries many advantages for adolescents, including protection from the detrimental effects of being rejected by peers. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which friendships may serve their protective role at this age, or the potential benefit of these friendships as adolescents transition to adulthood. As such, this investigation tested whether friend involvement during adolescence related to less neural sensitivity to social threats during young adulthood. Twenty-one adolescents reported the amount of time they spent with friends outside of school using a daily diary. Two years later they underwent an fMRI scan, during which they were ostensibly excluded from an online ball-tossing game by two same-age peers. Findings from region of interest and whole brain analyses revealed that spending more time with friends during adolescence related to less activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula--regions previously linked with negative affect and pain processing--during an experience of peer rejection 2 years later. These findings are consistent with the notion that positive relationships during adolescence may relate to individuals being less sensitive to negative social experiences later on.
Ranney, Megan L.; Patena, John V; Nugent, Nicole; Spirito, Anthony; Boyer, Edward; Zatzick, Douglas; Cunningham, Rebecca
Objective Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is often underdiagnosed and undertreated among adolescents. The objective of this analysis was to describe the prevalence and correlates of symptoms consistent with PTSD among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department (ED). Method A cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 13–17 presenting to the ED for any reason was conducted between August 2013 and March 2014. Validated self-report measures were used to measure mental health symptoms, violence exposure, and risky behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine adjusted differences in associations between symptoms consistent with PTSD, and predicted correlates. Results Of 353 adolescents, 23.2% reported current symptoms consistent with PTSD, 13.9% had moderate or higher depressive symptoms, and 11.3% reported past-year suicidal ideation. Adolescents commonly reported physical peer violence (46.5%), cyberbullying (46.7%), and exposure to community violence (58.9%). On multivariate logistic regression, physical peer violence, cyberbullying victimization, exposure to community violence, female gender, and alcohol or other drug use positively correlated with symptoms consistent with PTSD. Conclusions Among adolescents presenting to the ED for any reason, symptoms consistent with PTSD PTSD, depressive symptoms, physical peer violence, cyberbullying, and community violence exposure are common and inter-related. Greater attention to PTSD, both the disorder and symptom level, and its co-occurring risk factors is needed. PMID:26786845
This commentary examines the problem of predatory journals, low-quality open-access journals that seek to earn revenue from scholarly authors without following scholarly publishing best practices. Seeking to accept as many papers as possible, they typically do not perform a standard peer review, leading to the publication of improperly vetted…
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja
The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed=.40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed=.22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed=.10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed=.11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies.
Bursztyn, Leonardo; Jensen, Robert
When effort is observable to peers, students may try to avoid social penalties by conforming to prevailing norms. To test this hypothesis, we first consider a natural experiment that introduced a performance leaderboard into computer-based high school courses. The result was a 24 percent performance decline. The decline appears to be driven by a desire to avoid the leaderboard; top performing students prior to the change, those most at risk of appearing on the leaderboard, had a 40 percent performance decline, while poor performing students improved slightly. We next consider a field experiment that offered students complimentary access to an online SAT preparatory course. Sign-up forms differed randomly across students only in whether they said the decision would be kept private from classmates. In nonhonors classes, sign-up was 11 percentage points lower when decisions were public rather than private. Honors class sign-up was unaffected. For students taking honors and nonhonors classes, the response depended on which peers they were with at the time of the offer, and thus to whom their decision would be revealed. When offered the course in a nonhonors class (where peer sign-up rates are low), they were 15 percentage points less likely to sign up if the decision was public. But when offered the course in an honors class (where peer sign-up rates are high), they were 8 percentage points more likely to sign up if the decision was public. Thus, students are highly responsive to their peers are the prevailing norm when they make decisions.
Bursztyn, Leonardo; Jensen, Robert
When effort is observable to peers, students may try to avoid social penalties by conforming to prevailing norms. To test this hypothesis, we first consider a natural experiment that introduced a performance leaderboard into computer-based high school courses. The result was a 24 percent performance decline. The decline appears to be driven by a desire to avoid the leaderboard; top performing students prior to the change, those most at risk of appearing on the leaderboard, had a 40 percent performance decline, while poor performing students improved slightly. We next consider a field experiment that offered students complimentary access to an online SAT preparatory course. Sign-up forms differed randomly across students only in whether they said the decision would be kept private from classmates. In nonhonors classes, sign-up was 11 percentage points lower when decisions were public rather than private. Honors class sign-up was unaffected. For students taking honors and nonhonors classes, the response depended on which peers they were with at the time of the offer, and thus to whom their decision would be revealed. When offered the course in a nonhonors class (where peer sign-up rates are low), they were 15 percentage points less likely to sign up if the decision was public. But when offered the course in an honors class (where peer sign-up rates are high), they were 8 percentage points more likely to sign up if the decision was public. Thus, students are highly responsive to their peers are the prevailing norm when they make decisions. PMID:26740727
Pradhan, Anuj K.; Li, Kaigang; Bingham, C. Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Shope, Jean T.
Purpose There is a higher likelihood of crashes and fatalities when an adolescent drives with peer passengers, especially for male drivers and male passengers. Simulated driving of male adolescent drivers with male peer passengers was studied to examine passenger influences on distraction and inattention. Methods Male adolescents drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator with a male confederate who posed either as a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Drivers’ eye-movements were recorded. The visual scanning behavior of the drivers was compared when driving alone versus when driving with a passenger, and when driving with a risk-accepting versus a risk-averse passenger. Results The visual scanning of a driver significantly narrowed horizontally and vertically when driving with a peer passenger. There were no significant differences in the times the drivers’ eyes were off the forward roadway when driving with a passenger versus when driving alone. Some significant correlations were found between personality characteristics and the outcome measures. Conclusions The presence of a male peer passenger was associated with a reduction in the visual scanning range of male adolescent drivers. This reduction could be a result of potential cognitive load imposed on the driver due to the presence of a passenger and the real or perceived normative influences or expectations from the passenger. Implications and contribution The presence of male peer passengers was associated with deficient visual scanning in male adolescent drivers. Such reduced scanning behavior is evident in drivers with high cognitive load. Further investigation of passenger influences on adolescent drivers should include examination of distraction and inattention aspects of passenger influence. PMID:24759440
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.
Delinquency and substance use are more likely to co-occur in adolescence compared to earlier and later developmental periods. The present study examined developmental pathways to co-occurring problem behavior from 6th-10th grade (N=2,002), testing how peer delinquency and substance use were linked to transitioning between abstaining, delinquency, substance use, and co-occurring problem behavior. Developmentally, most youth transition from abstinence to delinquent behavior, and then escalate to co-occurring problem behavior. Once co-occurring problem behavior onsets, remitting to single problem behavior or abstinence is unlikely. The impact of peers on problem behavior are domain specific when individuals transition from abstaining to a single problem behavior, but are more general with respect to escalation of and desistance from problem behavior. PMID:25506186
Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A
After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.
Lashbrook, J T
The general public and academic researchers alike have long recognized the importance of peer relations in the lives of young people. However, three issues are notably absent from the dominant models of peer influence. First, these models neglect the affective dimension of a youth's experiences. Second, the models tend to ascribe a passive role to the youth, a stance also reflected methodologically by the absence of the youth's voice. Third, the motivational component remains unspecified; that is, why does a youth conform to peer influence? Using a framework drawn from recent social psychological work on shame and related feelings, the present study collected qualitative data from twelve college students. The findings indicate that negative emotions play a role in peer influence, particularly feelings of inadequacy and isolation, as well as feeling ridiculed, all of which may be indicative of shame. Thus, shame-related feelings may be instrumental in motivating individuals to conform. A variety of directions for future research are suggested.
Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.
Background: The current study examined the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) as mediated by self-concept for physical appearance in both obese and non-obese adolescents. It was thought that this pathway would be particularly important for obese adolescents because, compared to non-obese adolescents,…
Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping; Yu, Guoliang
This study examined the mediation effect of cognitive appraisals and the moderation role of peer status in the association between interparental conflict and adolescents' affective well-being based on a sample of 549 Chinese adolescents from 7th to 12th grades. Interparental conflict properties, adolescents' cognitive appraisals of conflict,…
Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…
Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara
This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination …
Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.
The present study addresses the influence that group norms exert on individual aggressive and prosocial behavior. The study hypothesis is that for early adolescents who change their peer group affiliations, the characteristics of the group they are leaving (departing-group influence) are not as influential as those of the group that they are…
Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…
Wallace, Scyatta A.; Fisher, Celia B.
This study examined the influence of perceived parental, peer, and cultural factors on Black American adolescent attitudes toward substance use. One-hundred-eight Black American youth (grades 9-12) from economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of New York, completed self-report measures on: (a) parent-child involvement, parental supervision,…
Constantine, Madonna G.; Blackmon, Sha'kema M.
Explored the relationship between parental racial socialization messages and area-specific self-esteem (home, school, and peer) among African American adolescents. Surveys of middle school students indicated that parental racial socialization messages reflecting pride and knowledge about African American culture positively associated with…
Jarvinen, Denis W.; Nicholls, John G.
Examined the social goals and beliefs involved in adolescent peer relationships among 266 ninth-grade students. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified relevant goals (intimacy, nurturance, dominance, leadership, popularity, and avoidance) and beliefs (sincerity, status, responsibility, caring, entertaining, and toughness) concerning…
Roe, Stuart L.
School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…
Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.
Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample…
Gazis, Nicki; Connor, Jason P.; Ho, Robert
This study investigated cultural identity and peer influence on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use in a culturally diverse sample of Northern Australian adolescents. Middle school students (n = 274) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and measures of their own and perceived friends' substance use. Higher scores on the full…
Chen, Zeng-yin; Dornbusch, Sanford M.; Liu, Ruth X.
We investigated the direct and indirect pathways through which parental constructive behavior may influence the adolescent's affiliation with achievement-oriented peers. Using a longitudinal survey data set from nine California and Wisconsin high schools (from 9th through 12th grades, with an approximate age range from 14 through 18) structural…
Krunke, Hannah Marei; Raufelder, Diana
In order to enhance our understanding of interindividual differences in academic motivation, the present study examined the interplay of personality, psychosocial adjustment and socio-academic factors in a subsample of adolescent students identified as teacher-and-peer-independent motivation type (MT) (N = 295; M[subscript Age] = 13.71) in…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Baril, Megan E.; McHale, Susan M.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Using latent profile analysis, the authors examined patterns of mother-father involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along three dimensions--support, guidance, and restrictions--in 240 Mexican-origin families. Three profiles were identified: (a) High Mother Involvement (mothers higher than fathers on all three dimensions), (b) High…
Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt
Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…
Israelite, Neita; Ower, Janet; Goldstein, Gayle
A study explored identity construction of seven adolescents who attended special classes for students who are hard-of-hearing (HH) for part or all of their elementary school years. Students strongly identified as HH people. School experiences and interactions with teachers and peers with HH appeared to be major influences on this choice. (Contains…
Liu, Weiping; Eckert, Thomas
Based on Lewin's Field Theory, Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Theory and social network analysis, the authors collected data from 405 Chinese adolescents about their peer relations, chronic self-concept levels and learning condition variables through questionnaire distributing, and from their teachers about their annual average academic…
Weisz, Arlene N.; Black, Beverly M.
This is a qualitative, descriptive study of 202 urban, African-American seventh graders that examines their views of peer intervention in dating violence. After viewing a video vignette showing friends confronting another male about abusing his girlfriend, the adolescents were asked to respond in writing to questions about whose business the…
Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Heilbron, Nicole; Guerry, John D.; Franklin, Joseph C.; Rancourt, Diana; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony
Research suggests that adolescents' engagement in nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviors may be increasing over time, yet little is known regarding distal longitudinal factors that may promote engagement in these behaviors. Data from two longitudinal studies are presented to examine whether NSSI may be associated with peer influence…
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Katlin; Salmivalli, Christina
This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the…
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra
The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…
Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.
Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…
Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…
Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren
Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…
Wiens, Brenda A.; Haden, Sara C.; Dean, Kristin L.; Sivinski, Jennifer
Prior research has shown relations between peer victimization, aggression, and adolescent substance use. However, there is a need for further research in this area, especially among rural populations, as rural youth have high rates of substance use but less access to mental health resources in their communities. The present study examined…
Williford, Anne Powell; Brisson, Daniel; Bender, Kimberly A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra
The developmental period characterized by the transition from childhood and elementary school to early adolescence and middle school has been associated with increases in aggressive behavior and peer victimization. Few longitudinal studies, however, have examined the stability of aggression and victimization during this critical transition. This…
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Winzeler, Abby
First- and second-born adolescent siblings from 21 families completed a daily diary on each of 7 days. The frequency and content of siblings' conversations are described and the relationship between the content of siblings' discussion and their perceived academic, athletic, and peer competency is explored. Siblings most often talked about…
Horn, Staccy S.
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…
Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Ercolani, Anna-Paula; Pierro, Antonio; Leone, Luigi; Presaghi, Fabio
The objective of this study was to investigate the links between maternal and paternal bonding, parental practices, orientation toward peers, and the prevalence of drug use and antisocial behavior during late adolescence. A model was tested using structural equation modeling in order to verify the robustness of the investigated links across 3…
Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.
This study investigated factors associated with social anxiety during early adolescence using multiple informants, including self and peer perspectives, teacher ratings, and direct observations. Negative social performance expectations, maladaptive coping strategies, and social skill deficits were examined as correlates of social anxiety and…
Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.; Kliewer, Wendy; Allison, Kevin W.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Meyer, Aleta L.; Esposito, Layla
This study examined the occurrence of problem situations in the peer and school domains and their relation to adjustment among urban adolescents. Students from three urban middle schools ("N"=176) serving a predominantly African American population rated 61 problem situations identified in a previous qualitative study and completed measures of…
Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.
The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This third chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" contains four articles on peer pressure and drug abuse in early adolescence. "Initiation of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the Midel School Years," by Robert Hubbard, Rebecca Brownlee, and Ron Anderson, presents a study designed to provide a prospective assessment of the nature and…
Barth, H; Döbler, T; Galletzki, R; Amon, K
A questionnaire survey on sex knowledge of 930 female vocational students (17-18 year olds) was done to assess future needs in sex education. Main points in the questionnaire were sex upbringing and education received; peer groups, couple and contraceptive behavior; and attitude to family and family planning. Socioeconomic factors, parents' occupation, and size of residence were considered. Results showed: 70.4% had some kind of sex upbringing before age 12; 24.5% after age 12. Whereas up to 80% wanted sex education from parents, only about 55% actually received this (mothers mostly); 80% of actual sex information came from books and TV. Peers proved closer to the girls in confidence than parents. Although teachers were 3rd in line to provide actual sex education they were last as persons desired by the girls to provide this. Nearly 60% of the subjects desired more information in the areas of love and marriage, sex in adolescence, effects and side effects of the pill, general contraceptive methods and sex behavior. Conclusions from the survey point to the need to start sex education at an early age and extend it into adolescence and beyond; it should be direct, continuous and goal-oriented. Teenagers desire interpersonal dialogue with concerned adults. There should be cooperation in sex education between parents, teachers, and youth organizations. Teachers are insufficiently prepared to assume the role as sex educator. Teenagers need more factual information on conscious family planning and contraceptive methods.
Servilio, Kathryn L.; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Hott, Brittany L.
In higher education, current teaching evaluation models typically involve senior faculty evaluating junior faculty. However, there is evidence that peer-to-peer junior faculty observations and feedback may be just as effective. This descriptive case study utilized an inductive analysis to examine experiences of six special education early career…
Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Adolescence is marked by increases in stressful life events. Although research has demonstrated that depressed individuals generate stress, few studies investigate the generation of emotional victimization. The current study examined the effects of rumination and internalizing symptoms on experiences of peer victimization and familial emotional abuse. Participants were 216 adolescents (M = 14-years-old; 58% female; 47% African-American) who completed two assessments. Results showed that rumination predicted peer victimization and emotional abuse. The effect of rumination on emotional victimization is heightened for those who have higher levels of depression symptoms. That is, individuals who ruminate and who have depression symptoms experience increases in both peer emotional victimization and parental emotional abuse. This study builds upon prior research and indicates that rumination may be a stronger predictor of emotional victimization than symptoms of depression or anxiety. Identifying underlying mechanisms may yield targets for interventions aimed at addressing the chronic nature of depression.
Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren
Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061
Prater, Mary Anne; Serna, Loretta; Nakamura, Kayleen K.
This study compared instruction in three social skills (giving positive feedback, contributing to discussion, and accepting negative feedback) by either a special-education teacher or peers with learning disabilities. Both groups improved in all three skills. Results suggest that social skill instruction by peers may be as effective and more…
Rulison, Kelly L; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne
We tested two hypotheses derived from Moffitt’s (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. Specifically, we tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent behavior become less accepted. Participants were 4,359 adolescents from 14 communities in the PROSPER study, which assessed friendship networks and delinquency from 6th (M = 11.8 years) to 9th (M = 15.3 years) grade. We operationalized peer acceptance as: number of nominations received (indegree centrality), attractiveness as a friend (adjusted indegree centrality), and network bridging potential (betweenness centrality) and tested the hypotheses using multilevel modeling. Contrary to Moffitt’s hypothesis, persistently delinquent youth did not become more accepted between early and middle adolescence, and although abstainers were less accepted in early adolescence, they became more accepted over time. Results were similar for boys and girls; when differences occurred, they provided no support for Moffitt’s hypotheses for boys and were opposite of her hypotheses for girls. Sensitivity analyses using alternative strategies and additional data to identify persistently delinquent adolescents produced similar results. We explore the implications of these results for Moffitt’s assertions that social mimicry of persistently antisocial adolescents leads to increases in delinquency and that social isolation leads to abstention. PMID:25243328
Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige
Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.
Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella
We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence.
Kuehn, Kevin; Tezanos, Katherine; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Solomon, Joel; Spirito, Anthony
Abstract Objective: The present study investigates the longitudinal relationship between perceived family and peer invalidation and adolescent suicidal events (SE) and self-mutilation (SM) in a 6 month follow-up (f/u) study of adolescents admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit for suicide risk. Methods: Adolescents (n=119) and their parent(s) were administered interviews and self-report assessments at baseline and at a 6 month f/u, with 99 (83%) completing both assessments. The Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (A-LIFE) was modified to provide weekly ratings (baseline and each week of f/u) for perceived family and peer invalidation. Regression analyses examined whether: 1) Prospectively rated perceived family and peer invalidation at baseline predicted SE and SM during f/u; and 2) chronicity of perceived invalidation operationalized as proportion of weeks at moderate to high invalidation during f/u was associated with SE and SM during f/u. Results: Multiple regression analyses, controlling for previously identified covariates, revealed that perceived family invalidation predicted SE over f/u for boys only and perceived peer invalidation predicted SM over f/u in the overall sample. This was the case for both baseline and f/u ratings of perceived invalidation. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the adverse impact of perceived family and peer invalidation. Specifically, boys who experienced high perceived family invalidation were more likely to have an SE over f/u. Both boys and girls who experienced high perceived peer invalidation were more likely to engage in SM over f/u. PMID:25264807
Lodder, G M A; Goossens, L; Scholte, R H J; Engels, R C M E; Verhagen, M
Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negative perceptions. In this study, we compared self-reported social skills evaluations with peer-reported social skills and meta-evaluations of social skills (i.e., adolescents' perceptions of how they believe their classmates evaluate them). Based on the social skills view, we expected negative relations between loneliness and these three forms of social skills evaluations. Based on the bias view, we expected lonely adolescents to have more negative self- and meta-evaluations compared to peer-evaluations of social skills. Participants were 1342 adolescents (48.64 % male, M age = 13.95, SD = .54). All classmates rated each other in a round-robin design to obtain peer-evaluations. Self- and meta-evaluations were obtained using self-reports. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression analyses and response surface modeling. The results indicated that, when self-, peer- and meta-evaluations were similar, a greater sense of loneliness was related to poorer social skills. Loneliness was also related to larger discrepancies between self- and peer-evaluations of loneliness, but not related to the direction of these discrepancies. Thus, for some lonely adolescents, loneliness may be related to an actual social skills deficit, whereas for others a biased negative perception of one's own social skills or a mismatch with the environment may be related to their loneliness. This implies that different mechanisms may underlie loneliness, which has implications for interventions.
Yeager, David S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S
Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents.
In this study, data from 2814 15- and 16-year-old secondary school students were analysed to investigate the collective influence of family, school and peers on behavioural problems in adolescence. Adolescents with addiction-risk and/or aggressive/criminal behaviour were compared to those who did not display such behaviour. Adolescents with behavioural problems were characterized by having a more negative perception of the environment with regard to most of the variables related with family, school and peers. Clearly behavioural problems are associated with problems in multiple environments. Some differences were found between boys and girls: multiple regression analyses showed that for boys, problems at school were the most important predictor of behavioural problem scores, while for girls, this applied to problems at home.
Chan, D K; Lonsdale, C; Fung, H H
The purposes of this study were to assess the relative impact of social influences initiated by coach, parents, and peers on children and adolescent athletes' motivational patterns, involving self-rated effort, enjoyment, competence, and competitive trait anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 408 youth swimmers (aged 9-18 years). Results of multi-group structural equation modeling analyses generally showed that compared with athletes in the other age group, the social influence from mother was stronger in childhood (mean age=10.87 years; SD=1.00), and that from peers was greater in adolescence (mean age=16.32 years; SD=1.15). The social influence from coach was more influential for athletes' effort and enjoyment in childhood, and competence in adolescence. We concluded that age appeared to moderate the impact of social influence from significant others on young athletes' sport experiences.
Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie
Links between schools' demographic composition and students' achievement have been a major policy interest for decades. Using a racially/ethnically diverse sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,302; 54% females; 53% White, 21% African American, 15% Latino, 8% Asian American, 2% other race/ethnicity), we examined the associations between demographic marginalization, students' later social integration (loneliness at school, school attachment), and educational performance and attainment. Adolescents who were socioeconomically marginalized at school [i.e., having <15% same-socioeconomic status (SES) peers] had lower cumulative grade point averages across high school and lower educational attainment. A similar disadvantage was observed among students who were both socioeconomically and racially/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., having <15% same-SES peers and <15% same-racial/ethnic peers). Indirect effects were also observed, such that demographic marginalization was linked to poorer school attachment, and poorer school attachment, in turn, was related to poorer academic performance. These results highlight the educational barriers associated with demographic marginalization and suggest potential targets for future intervention efforts.
Gifford-Smith, Mary; Dodge, Kenneth A; Dishion, Thomas J; McCord, Joan
Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that peer relationships influence the growth of problem behavior in youth. Developmental research consistently documents the high levels of covariation between peer and youth deviance, even controlling for selection effects. Ironically, the most common public interventions for deviant youth involve segregation from mainstream peers and aggregation into settings with other deviant youth. Developmental research on peer influence suggests that desired positive effects of group interventions in education, mental health, juvenile justice, and community programming may be offset by deviant peer influences in these settings. Given the public health policy issues raised by these findings, there is a need to better understand the conditions under which these peer contagion effects are most pronounced with respect to intervention foci and context, the child's developmental level, and specific strategies for managing youth behavior in groups.
Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia
This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.
Duriez, Bart; Giletta, Matteo; Kuppens, Peter; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
Self-Determination Theory discerns goals and values in terms of whether they are intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. Although research substantiates the importance of goal preferences for a host of outcomes, few studies examined how such preferences develop, and studies that did pay attention to this focused on parental influence processes. The present study focuses on the role of peers. Social network analyses on longitudinal data gathered among senior high-school students (N = 695) confirm that peer similarity in goal pursuit exists, and that, although this similarity partly originates from adolescents selecting friends on the basis of perceived goal pursuit similarity, it also results from peers actively influencing each other. Hence, friends tend to become more alike in terms of goal pursuit over time. Data also suggest that, although changes in goal pursuit at this age can be predicted from peer dynamics, they cannot be attributed to parental goal promotion efforts.
Scholte, Ron H J; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A T; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor were victimized by others). Three types of friends were distinguished: reciprocal friends, desired friends (who were unilaterally nominated by a target adolescent) and choosing friends (who unilaterally nominated a target adolescent). Between-group comparisons of the three types of friends showed that victims had fewer reciprocal and choosing friends than non-involved adolescents. Compared to bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, victims had reciprocal friends who were socially less well adjusted. No differences existed with respect to the characteristics of the desired friends. In general, victims' choosing friends scored less positive on the personal characteristics than bully-victims' and non-involved adolescents' choosing friends. Within-group comparisons revealed that victims' reciprocal friends showed lower adjustment than victims' desired friends, but higher adjustment than their choosing friends. For bully-victims and non-involved adolescents, such differences between their three types of friends were largely absent. Our findings seem to suggest that victims' reciprocal friendships may not be totally default associations and that out of all possible friends, victims might tend to select those who score most positive on personal or social factors.
Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Lewis, Fay; Edmonds, Juliet
Undergraduate education incorporating active learning and vicarious experience through education outreach presents a critical opportunity to influence future engineering teaching and practice capabilities. Engineering education outreach activities have been shown to have multiple benefits; increasing interest and engagement with science and…
Ding, Ning; Harskamp, Egbert G.
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized pre-test and post-test design with a delayed…
Miciano, Remedios Z.
To pilot a peer literacy program, a pretest-posttest study was conducted involving seventy (70) students from Arellano High School as tutees and 12 De La Salle University-Manila College of Education students as reading tutors. Though the results suggest the lack of impact of the Program on the Reading Grades of the tutees, the tutors' journals…
Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Fletcher, Jack M., Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.
The focus of this report is on peer review as it is applied to the evaluation of proposals for federal funding of education research projects. The primary source of evidence used to set forth the report's conclusions and recommendations about this topic is a workshop convened in February 25-26, 2003 at the National Academies' Keck Center in…
Goldberg, Lynette R.; Parham, Douglas F.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Maeda, Masako; Scudder, Rosalind R.; Sechtem, Phillip R.
The effectiveness of teaching is expected by an increasingly skeptical public that wants those in higher education to contain costs, increase access, and teach in ways that make sure students learn. An integral and under-used component of documenting teaching effectiveness is peer review. A framework for best practice to ensure a systematic and…
Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Beverly, Andrew M.
This study investigated student-learning outcomes of college peer educators whose primary responsibility or interest was to address health and safety topics on campus, such as alcohol and illicit drug use, tobacco issues, sexual health and safety issues, nutrition, and violence prevention. Participants included 69 first-year college students who…
Majorano, Marinella; Corsano, Paola; Triffoni, Giulia
The aim of the present study is to assess the role of educators' interventions and communications in peer conflicts between preschoolers. Ninety-nine children (47 females and 52 males) aged from zero to three years were observed in seven Italian nurseries during free-play, mealtime and structured activity. Their interactions (verbal and non-verbal…
This paper explores participant perceptions of the impact of a Peer Observation of Teaching scheme offered as part of an accredited Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching for academic staff and faculty members in higher education. The Postgraduate Certificate Program has been designed to support the continuing professional development of academic…
Van Ryzin, Mark J; Fosco, Gregory M; Dishion, Thomas J
The focus of this study was social (i.e., family and peer) influences on substance use from early adolescence to early adulthood. A large, ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents (N=998) was followed from age 12 to age 23. We tested direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring, family relationship quality, and association with deviant peers on change in substance use across time. Outcomes for tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were analyzed as separate pathways within the same overall model. The results suggest that a significant shift in the nature of family influence occurred across adolescence and into early adulthood, but deviant peer influence was relatively consistent across this period. Specifically, parental monitoring and deviant peer association were predictive of substance use in early adolescence, but family relationship quality was a significant predictor across the transition to high school and generally continued to predict use into later adolescence, as did association with deviant peers. Deviant peers were the only significant predictor in early adulthood. Our results also suggested that parental monitoring and family relationship quality indirectly predicted later substance use by way of deviant peers, implying that an important aspect of the family context is its influence on choice of friends and peer group composition. Implications for family-based prevention and intervention are discussed.
Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair
Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351
Plaisier, Xanthe S; Konijn, Elly A
Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying together developmental research on peer rejection and research on media effects. Assumed underlying mechanisms are rejection-based anger and frustration and the adolescent's moral judgment. A between-participants experimental design manipulated peer rejection versus acceptance in adolescents (Mage = 13.88 years; N = 74) and young adults (Mage = 21.37 years; N = 75), applying the Cyberball paradigm. Measures included the State Anger Inventory (STAXI) to assess feelings of rejection and the newly devised Media, Morals, and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue) to assess media preferences and moral judgment of media content. Using bootstrapping analyses, a double mediation was established: Higher levels of state anger in peer-rejected adolescents induced more tolerable moral judgments of antisocial media content, subsequently instigating a preference for antisocial media content. In contrast, the young adult sample showed no relations between peer rejection and antisocial media preference. Results are discussed within a downward spiral framework of combined peer and media influences.
Lashbrook, Jeffrey T.
Using a framework drawn from recent social psychological work on shame and related feelings, this study collected qualitative data from twelve college students. Findings indicate that negative emotions play a role in peer influence, particularly feelings of inadequacy and isolation, as well as feeling ridiculed, all of which are indicative of…
Diamond, Stanley C.
Describes one school's program to deal with school phobic students--those whose emotional problems are often centered on the school setting. Explains how such students formed and ran a peer support group to help each other cope with anxiety. (FL)
Rusby, Julie C.; Forrester, Kathleen K.; Biglan, Anthony; Metzler, Carol W.
Concurrent and predictive relationships between peer harassment and problem behavior were examined for middle and high school students as well as gender differences in these relationships. Students recruited in fifth through seventh grades (n = 223) and their parents provided quarterly questionnaire data and were followed up into high school. As…
In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…
Treloar, Carla; Rance, Jake; Laybutt, Becky; Crawford, Sione
Despite advances in understanding the structural contexts in which drug use occurs and shifts beyond the individual-level focus of adult education theory, peer education models remain wedded to questions of individual behaviour. Our analysis examines the structural context of peer education and its implications for peer training. People who inject…
Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine
Characteristics of learners who become peer educators are rarely explored despite the potential relevance to the success of peer education programmes. Fifteen high schools selected to implement peer education HIV prevention programmes in South Africa were recruited. A total of 2339 Grade 10 learners were surveyed and comparisons were made between…
Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D
Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.
Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.
In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710
LAIRD, ROBERT D.; PETTIT, GREGORY S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; BATES, JOHN E.
A longitudinal prospective design was used to test the generalizability of low levels of social preference and high levels of antisocial peer involvement as risk factors for delinquent behavior problems to African American (AA) and European American (EA) boys and girls (N = 384). Social preference scores were computed from peer reports in middle childhood (ages 6–9). Parents and adolescents reported antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence (ages 13–16) and adolescents reported on their own delinquent behavior in late adolescence (ages 17 and 18). Analyses tested for differences across four groups (AA boys, EA boys, AA girls, EA girls) in construct measurement, mean levels, and associations among variables. Few measurement differences were found. Mean-level differences were found for social preference and delinquent behavior. AA boys were least accepted by peers and reported the highest level of delinquent behavior. EA girls were most accepted by peers and reported the lowest level of delinquent behavior. Associations among peer experiences and delinquent behavior were equivalent across groups, with lower levels of social preference and higher levels of antisocial peer involvement associated with more delinquent behavior. Person-centered analyses showed the risk associated with low social preference and high antisocial peer involvement to be similar across groups, providing further evidence of the generalizability of the peer relationship experiences as risk factors for subsequent delinquent behavior problems. PMID:15971763
Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate.
Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki
Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976
de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S
Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.
Flannery, Jessica E; Giuliani, Nicole R; Flournoy, John C; Pfeifer, Jennifer H
Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli. However, past work in this area has relied heavily on paradigms using static, adult faces, as well as explicit regulation. In the current study, we assessed cross-sectional trends in neural responses to viewing and labeling dynamic peer emotional expressions in adolescent girls 10-23 years old. Our dynamic adolescent stimuli set reliably and robustly recruited key brain regions involved in emotion reactivity (medial orbital frontal cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex; MOFC/vMPFC, bilateral amygdala) and regulation (bilateral dorsal and ventral LPFC). However, contrary to the age-trends predicted by the dominant models in studies of risk/reward, the LPFC showed a nonlinear age trend across adolescence to labeling dynamic peer faces, whereas the MOFC/vMPFC showed a linear decrease with age to viewing dynamic peer faces. There were no significant age trends observed in the amygdala.
Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose
The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI
Peer tutoring refers to the process of having learners help each other on a one-to-one basis. Two types of peer tutoring are found in adult literacy and basic education: "near peer" tutoring in which one learner is more advanced than the other and "co-peer" tutoring in which the learners are fairly well matched in skill level.…
Mulder, Raoul A.; Pearce, Jon M.; Baik, Chi
Peer review is integral to academic endeavour, but opportunities for students to benefit from peer review in higher education remain limited, and relatively little is known about how student perceptions influence their appreciation of peer review. University student perceptions were examined before and after experiencing student peer review in…
Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.
We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental “acceptance” of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes. PMID:21765624
Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella
During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in…
Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen
To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
Schad, Megan M; Szwedo, David E; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P
The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens' relational aggression and romantic partners' victimization were predicted from levels of best friends' pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends' ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens' peer group only. Adolescents' romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.
Ding, Ning; Harskamp, Egbert G.
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized pre-test and post-test design with a delayed post-test. During the four-week intervention, students were required to carry out eight lab tasks in total. The students filled in a 17-item self-assessment of learning gain questionnaire on the last day. Analyses of students' learning achievements showed that students in both the collaborative learning and peer tutoring situations outperformed those learning individually with hints. The delayed post-test, which was administered three months later, revealed that students who had been in the peer tutoring situation outscored those in the collaborative learning situation. Student self-assessment questionnaires on learning gain provided further details in this regard.
Nicholls, John G.; And Others
High school students' views about what the aims of education should be, their personal goals in school, and their perceptions of the causes of success in school were found to be related to one another in a logically consistent fashion. (Author/LMO)
Gustafsson, Per E; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne
While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n = 881, 82% of the original cohort). A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers' assessment of each student's isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health.
Binder, Nadine; Schreier, Margrit; Kühnen, Ulrich; Kedzior, Karina Karolina
Increasing internationalization of higher education raises the question of how well institutions prepare their students to integrate into and benefit from cultural diversity on any university campus. The aim of this study was to assess an intercultural peer-to-peer training at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany, that aims to facilitate the…
Reilly, Caitlin; Hughes, Carolyn; Harvey, Michelle; Brigham, Nicolette; Cosgriff, Joseph; Kaplan, Lauren; Bernstein, Rebekah
We taught three high school students with high-functioning autism to increase their novel peer-directed questions when using a communication book to converse with general education partners at school. Novel question training was associated with participants asking peer-directed questions not displayed in communication books across a variety of…
Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.
An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single…
Nealeigh, M. Deirdre
This paper reviews what is known about the relationships between gifted adolescents and their family members and school associates, and offers some ideas and suggestions to help in improving these relationships. Attitudes of the gifted themselves toward giftedness are considered, noting differences between extremely gifted and moderately gifted…
Conroy, Nicole E.
This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…
Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.
To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…
Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A
The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.
Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D
Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.