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Sample records for adolescent peer group

  1. Adolescent Boys' Friendships and Peer Group Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy Y.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…

  2. Peer Group Homogeneity in Adolescents' School Adjustment Varies According to Peer Group Type and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement,…

  3. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  4. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  5. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking, discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking; consider socialization and selection processes with respect to smoking; investigate the relative influence of best friends, close friends, and crowd affiliations; and examine parenting behaviors that could buffer the effects of peer influence. Our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. We conclude with implications for research and prevention programs. PMID:20614184

  6. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  7. Procedural Justice in Family Conflict Resolution and Deviant Peer Group Involvement among Adolescents: The Mediating Influence of Peer Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jennifer; Fondacaro, Mark; Miller, Scott A.; Brown, Veda; Brank, Eve M.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of adolescents with deviant peer groups is one of the strongest proximal correlates to juvenile delinquency and stems from a variety of causes. Past research has linked ineffective parenting with peer variables, including deviant peer group involvement and peer conflict during adolescence. In this study, adolescents' appraisals of…

  8. Relations among Chronic Peer Group Rejection, Maladaptive Behavioral Dispositions, and Early Adolescents' Peer Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…

  9. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  10. Multiple Peer Group Self-Identification and Adolescent Tobacco Use

    PubMed Central

    Fuqua, Juliana L.; Gallaher, Peggy E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sussman, Steve; Ortega, Enrique; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Associations between peer group self-identification and smoking were examined among 2,698 ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles who self-identified with groups such as Rockers, Skaters, and Gamers. The sample was 47.1% male, 54.7% Latino, 25.4% Asian, 10.8% White, 9.1% Other ethnicity, and 59.3% children of immigrant parents. Multiple group self-identification was common: 84% identified with two or more groups and 65% identified with three or more groups. Logistic regression analyses indicated that as students endorsed more high-risk groups, the greater their risk of tobacco use. A classification tree analysis identified risk groups based on interactions among ethnicity, gender, and group self-identification. Psychographic targeting based on group self-identification could be useful to design more relevant smoking prevention messages for adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups. PMID:22458850

  11. Being Left Out: Rejecting Outsiders and Communicating Group Boundaries in Childhood and Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunwolf; Leets, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Although communication scholars have examined adult group processes, they have paid little attention to the peer group experiences of children and adolescents. Successfully gaining entry to peer groups is significant, in that rejection in childhood affects self-concept, social skills, and school successes. Guided by a bona fide groups perspective,…

  12. Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…

  13. Injunctive and Descriptive Peer Group Norms and the Academic Adjustment of Rural Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…

  14. The Influence of Peer Group Pressure Upon Adolescents' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilanian, Seta M.

    An adolescent's learning patterns are developed throughout the student's socialization process, suggesting that peer pressure may influence learning. Female college students (N=15) aged 19-21 participated in a pencil-maze learning task performed while blindfolded. The task was presented in three categories of stimuli conditions: (1) normal…

  15. Why Are Socially Anxious Adolescents Rejected by Peers? The Role of Subject-Group Similarity Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Miers, Anne C.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the role of actual and perceived similarity in peer rejection of socially anxious adolescents. Videotapes of 20 high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) giving a speech were rated by groups of unfamiliar peers with regard to perceived similarity and desire for future interaction (lower scores indicating…

  16. "Life Is a Tightrope": Reflections on Peer Group Inclusion and Exclusion amongst Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Molly; Younger, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Feeling part of one's peer group is of crucial importance for most middle adolescents. Drawing on empirical research in different schools, this paper explores the components of exclusion in relation to gender, the consequences for those excluded by their peers, and the kinds of strategies engaged in by girls and boys in order to attain peer group…

  17. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  18. The Negative Effects of Prejudice on Interpersonal Relationships within Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…

  19. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Joung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  20. Group Influences on Individual Aggression and Prosociality: Early Adolescents Who Change Peer Affiliations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the influence that group norms exert on individual aggressive and prosocial behavior. The study hypothesis is that for early adolescents who change their peer group affiliations, the characteristics of the group they are leaving (departing-group influence) are not as influential as those of the group that they are…

  1. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-02-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  2. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2010-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  3. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  4. Are You Thinking What I'm Thinking? Peer Group Similarities in Adolescent Hostile Attribution Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Sarah L.; Philips, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    A bias toward attributing hostile intent to others has been linked to aggression. In an adolescent sample, the question of whether peer group homophily exists in the tendency toward attributing hostile intent was investigated. Hostile attribution tendencies and self-reported aggressive behaviors were assessed in a normative sample of 910…

  5. Brief report: Peer group influences and adolescent internalizing problems as mediated by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Rachel; Robertson, Gail C; Wong, Maria M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing problems in adolescence encompass behaviors directed inward at the self (Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Several predictors have been linked to internalizing problems including antisocial and prosocial peers (Cartwright, 2007; Chung, 2010). Effortful control, a component of self-regulation, is one factor that could mediate the relationship between peer behaviors and individual outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between peer behaviors, effortful control, and adolescent internalizing problems. Participants were 151 middle school adolescents (M = 12.16 years old) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding behaviors of their peers, perceptions of effortful control, and experiences of internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded a significant negative relationship between antisocial peers and effortful control, and a significant positive relationship between prosocial peers and effortful control. In addition, effortful control significantly mediated the relationship between prosocial peers and internalizing problems, but not for antisocial peers. Implications for interventions related to adolescent health were discussed. PMID:25863002

  6. How Can Peer Group Influence the Behavior of Adolescents: Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José

    2012-01-01

    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148

  7. Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviors in the context of peer group pressure and control.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Tara M; Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2012-08-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n=1070; M(age)=15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of identity exploration, the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs and goals, and identity commitment, the degree to which they have secured a personal identity. Participants further reported on their frequency of risk behaviors (substance use and general deviancy) and experienced peer group pressure and control. Results confirmed that identity commitment was a buffer of substance use and identity exploration was a buffer of general deviancy in more pressuring peer groups. In more controlling peer groups, teens with greater identity commitment engaged in less risk behavior than teens with low-identity commitment. Thus, identity development may be a suitable target to deter negative effects of peer pressure in high-risk adolescents. PMID:22265669

  8. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  9. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior. PMID:23241718

  10. Features of Groups and Status Hierarchies in Girls' and Boys' Early Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Davidson, Alice J.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Moody, James; Welsh, Janet A.

    2007-01-01

    The near universality of gender segregation in middle childhood and early adolescence has stimulated extensive research on sex differences in peer relationship processes. Recent reviews of the literature suggest that although some claims of two-cultures theory have clear empirical support, such as strong preference for same-sex peers over…

  11. Peer Group Influence and Selection in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which peer group similarity in school burnout is due to peer group influence and the extent to which it is due to peer group selection. Moreover, the roles of academic achievement and gender in school burnout were examined. A total of 611 ninth graders were examined at the beginning of the final term of…

  12. The Role of Family and Peer Relations in Adolescent Antisocial Behaviour: Comparison of Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja; Wissink, Inge B.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is…

  13. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences. PMID:19669904

  14. Depression Socialization Within Friendship Groups at the Transition to Adolescence: The Roles of Gender and Group Centrality as Moderators of Peer Influence

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher C.; Rancourt, Diana; Adelman, Caroline B.; Burk, William J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals’ own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to adolescence as the strength of peer influence rises dramatically. Socialization of depressive symptoms among members of child and adolescent friendship groups was examined over a 1-year period among 648 youth in grades six through eight. Sociometric methods were utilized to identify friendship groups and ascertain the prospective effect of group-level depressive symptoms on youths’ own depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed a significant socialization effect and indicated that this effect was most potent for (a) girls and (b) individuals on the periphery of friendship groups. Future studies would benefit from incorporating child and adolescent peer groups as a developmentally salient context for interpersonal models of depression. PMID:21842961

  15. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  16. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  17. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  18. Peer Group Self-Identification in Samples of Russian and U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Gunning, Melissa; Moran, Meghan B.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Kniazev, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik

    2010-01-01

    Most peer group self-identification research has been conducted in the United States. This article examined the generalizability of self-identified group name research among teens in Ufa, a city in the Russian Federation. A cross-sectional, anonymous collection of data on group self-identification, drug use, addiction concern, sensation seeking,…

  19. Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L; Johnson, C; Beaman, J; Conger, R D; Whitbeck, L B

    1996-02-01

    Used a sample of 207 single-parent families residing in 104 small, Midwestern communities to test hypotheses regarding the link between community context and adolescent conduct problems and psychological distress. For boys, community disadvantage had a direct affect on psychological distress, while it indirectly boosted the probability of conduct problems by disrupting parenting and increasing affiliation with deviant peers. Community disadvantage was unrelated to the deviant behavior or emotional well-being of girls. Proportion of single-parent households in the community had a direct effect on girls' conduct problems. It also contributed indirectly to girls' conduct problems by increasing the probability of involvement with deviant peers. Possible explanations for these gender differences are provided. PMID:8712184

  20. Control Strivings in Attaining Peer-Group Membership and Forming Romantic Relationships among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared control striving with regard to two developmental goals in adolescents with visual impairment and sighted peers. A matched-pair design was used with 158 adolescents with visual impairment and 158 sighted peers by using age, gender, habitation (living with ones' parents vs. other forms of living), and socioeconomic status as…

  1. Early Adolescents' Social Standing in Peer Groups: Behavioral Correlates of Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network…

  2. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  3. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups. PMID:23311876

  4. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish 9th grade middle school students (M = 15.0 years-old). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youth in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youth in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked those in groups whose members participated in sports. PMID:20378125

  5. Individual Characteristics, Early Adolescent Peer Affiliations, and School Dropout: An Examination of Aggressive and Popular Group Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Leung, Man-Chi; Trott, Hollister; Bishop, Jennifer; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2003-01-01

    Individual characteristics and peer group membership type in 7th grade was examined in relation to school dropout. Peer group type was characterized according to the proportion of group members who were high on teacher-rated aggression and popularity. Both aggressive and popular group types were linked to dropping out. (Contains 43 references and…

  6. Peer Groups and Victimisation among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Jonsdottir, Kolbrun Asta

    2012-01-01

    Despite the rapid increase in immigration all over Europe and concerns expressed for the adjustment of immigrant children and young people, studies on peer victimisation among them are scarce. By combining the predictions of the acculturative stress model with the social-ecological perspective of peer victimisation, this study compared different…

  7. A Process of Identity Formation in Relation to Peers and Peer Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbridge, Donald J.

    This paper presents a flowsheet model describing the interpersonal process of adolescent identity formation in relation to peers and peer groups within a social-psychological context. The model describes a primary route, a secondary route, and a vicious circle as pathways toward identity formation in relation to peers and peer groups. In the…

  8. Peer Group and Friend Influences on the Social Acceptability of Adolescent Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing recreational reading is a priority in a climate of growing adolescent aliteracy. Raising the social appeal of books has been identified as one potential avenue for arresting this trend. An understanding of the current social acceptability of book reading amongst contemporary adolescents is important in informing an effective approach to…

  9. Belonging to and Exclusion from the Peer Group in Schools: Influences on Adolescents' Moral Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Luba Falk; King, Melissa Steel; Barr, Dennis J.; Selman, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a mixed methods study of adolescents' responses to case material about social exclusion. First, a qualitative coding method is presented that describes the way adolescents choose and justify strategies to negotiate such situations. The responses were then analysed quantitatively using chi square tests and multinomial logistic…

  10. Adolescent Peer Group Communication, Sex-Role Norms and Decisions about Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane Delano

    Interviews with 588 college students found support for the proposition that sex role norms and interpersonal communication norms and patterns had influenced their occupational decision making as adolescents. Specifically, the findings showed that the adoption of the traditionally masculine sex role norm (as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory)…

  11. Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents' adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent behaviors via childhood social behaviors and peer group affiliation. Data at 54 months, Grade 3 (M age = 9.03, SD = .31), Grade 6 (M age = 11.95, SD = .34), and Grade 9 (M age = 15.57, SD = .78) from the NICHD SECCYD longitudinal investigation of 1,364 participants (52% boys) was analyzed. Overall, results yielded evidence that maternal sensitivity and child temperament at 54 months of age predicted prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent outcomes at age 15. Affiliation with peer groups (especially with prosocial peers) and social behaviors in childhood mediated the aforementioned paths for effortful control, but not for maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the implications for understanding the long-term effects of early childhood predictors on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228452

  12. Positive Peer Groups: "Helping Others" Meets Primary Developmental Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Successful peer helping or peer group treatment interventions for at-risk youth engage the curative power of some primary child development strategies. Coaching at-risk adolescents to help others has been a primary therapeutic tool in peer helping programs for over 50 years. High and moderate risk youth can benefit greatly from programs that…

  13. Peer Teaching and Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Stella

    1980-01-01

    Presents two techniques, peer teaching and group work, for use in the classroom at the elementary or advanced level of an English as a foreign language course. Peer teaching is recommended as a technique for recall of older material, while group work is used for drilling, reinforcing, and working out difficult material. (PJM)

  14. Peer involvement in adolescent dating violence.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pam S; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in adolescent dating violence in unique ways. Male peers were involved in dating violence by participating in the aggression, agitating the aggression, being the competition, trivializing the aggression, and keeping tabs on the recipient. Female peers were involved in dating violence by deserting the recipient, cheating with the boyfriend, being the audience, needling the male dating partner, and helping the recipient. Male and female peers were involved similarly in adolescent dating violence by confronting the partner. School nurses working with adolescents are uniquely positioned to approach adolescents about dating violence. Interventions aimed at promoting discussions with adolescents are discussed. PMID:23239788

  15. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  16. Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Sexual Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…

  17. Antisocial, Chemically Dependent Youth in a Peer Group Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldesi, Tom; Soyring, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on Woodland Hills, Minnesota peer-group treatment program for adolescent delinquents based on Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment model. Notes that, in recent years, over 80% of Woodland Hills students also have presented history of alcohol and drug abuse. Describes Woodland Hills substance abuse program which is integrated into PPC…

  18. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    PubMed Central

    WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793

  19. Group Projects and Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes problems the author experienced with disfunctionality in student group projects. Describes how she implemented informal and formal peer reviews throughout the term in these groups, which has helped short-circuit disfunctionality, improve student productivity, and help the instructor form a fairer overall assessment. (SR)

  20. Effective Communication in Adolescent Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azima, Fern J.

    This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…

  1. The Adolescent Relational Dialectic and the Peer Roots of Adult Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna; Szwedo, David

    2014-01-01

    The long-term import of a fundamental challenge of adolescent social development--establishing oneself as a desirable peer companion while avoiding problematic behaviors often supported within peer groups--was examined in a community sample of 184 adolescents, followed from ages 13 to 23, along with parents, peers, and romantic partners. The…

  2. Peer Group Status as a Moderator of Group Influence on Children's Deviant, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Zarbatany, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Group status was examined as a moderator of peer group socialization of deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. In the fall and 3 months later, preadolescents and early adolescents provided self-reported scores for deviant behavior and group membership, and peer nominations for overt and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and social…

  3. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced by High-Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and…

  4. Peer effects in adolescent BMI: evidence from Spain.

    PubMed

    Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan

    2013-05-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences. PMID:22473688

  5. Peer Influences on Sexual Activity among Adolescents in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health. Using two waves survey data from adolescents (n=1275) in two towns in southeastern Ghana, we examined age, gender, and community differences in peer group characteristics. We also examine prospective associations between peer group characteristics and self-reported sexual initiation, multiple partnerships, and lack of consistent condom use with most recent partner over a 20-month follow-up period. Gender differences in peer context variables were small. Affiliation with antisocial peers and perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of transition to first sex. Having more friends increased the odds of accruing multiple new sexual partners among younger respondents. Among males, perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of accruing multiple partners. No peer context variables were significantly associated with condom use with most recent partner. We discuss the implications of these findings for adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753056

  6. Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…

  7. Has cyber technology produced a new group of peer aggressors?

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Allison G; Sulkowski, Michael L; Dempsey, Jack; Storch, Eric A

    2011-05-01

    Cyber technology provides a new venue for the expression of aggression. However, whether cyber technology has produced a new group of peer aggressors or simply allowed aggressive peers new tools to victimize others is unclear. This study sampled 1,672 adolescents to assess their engagement in cyber aggression. Although "cyber," "overt," and "relational" represent distinct subtypes of aggressive behavior, our results indicate that adolescents' behaviors clustered according to their frequency-not type-of aggression. Thus cyber technology provides new tools for youth who already engage in aggressive behaviors in the physical world to victimize peers in cyberspace. PMID:21162661

  8. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  9. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  10. Loneliness and Peer Relations in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent loneliness would be lower within the context of positive relationships with peers. The core conceptual model predicted that hypothesized links between peer-rated social behaviors or victimization and loneliness would be mediated by social acceptance. Relationship experiences (i.e., social acceptance,…

  11. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  12. Psychopathic Traits Moderate Peer Influence on Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…

  13. La intimidacion en el comienzo de la adolescencia: La funcion del grupo social (Bullying in Early Adolescence: The Role of the Peer Group). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.

    One notable gap in the evolving literature on bullying and victimization during early adolescence is the role that peers play in promoting such behavior by either reinforcing the aggressor, failing to intervene to stop the victimization, or affiliating with students who bully. This Spanish-language Digest looks at the limited research available on…

  14. Adolescents' Construction of Social Reality: The Impact of Television and Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.

    1983-01-01

    Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…

  15. Sibling and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This study examined how victimizations by either a sibling or peer are linked to each other and to mental health in childhood and adolescence. The data were from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence which includes a sample of children aged 3-9 (N=1,536) and adolescents aged 10-17 (N=1,523) gathered through telephone interviews. An adult caregiver (usually a parent) provided the information for children while self-reports were employed for adolescents. Fifteen percent of each age group reported victimization by both a sibling and peer. Victimization by a sibling alone was more common in childhood than adolescence. Victimization by a sibling was predictive of peer victimization. Children and adolescents victimized by both a sibling and peer reported the greatest mental distress. This work establishes that for some children and adolescents, victimization at the hands of other juveniles happens both at home and school. Programs should consider the role of siblings and target parents and siblings to encourage the development and maintenance of constructive sibling interactions. PMID:24889729

  16. Using Peer Groups in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Carol Highsmith

    1982-01-01

    The author cites studies that demonstrate the value of peer group techniques for reinforcing learning in educational settings. She reviews the literature on peer group learning in nursing education, and presents a peer group teaching-learning strategy that she developed for a course in community health and psychiatric nursing. (Author/CT)

  17. Peer-Assessing Peers' Contribution to EFL Group Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…

  18. Adolescent Suicide Postvention in Schools: Managing Grief of Peer Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauk, Gary W.

    During 1988 there were 4,929 deaths by suicide among persons 15 to 24 years of age in the United States, making suicide the third leading cause of death in this age group, following accidents and homicide. Adolescent suicide is a particularly toxic form of death for the peers who are left behind. A "survivor of suicide" is defined as someone who…

  19. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  20. Campaigns and Cliques: Variations in Effectiveness of an Antismoking Campaign as a Function of Adolescent Peer Group Identity

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Identity-based strategies have been suggested as a way to promote healthy behaviors when traditional approaches fall short. The truth® campaign, designed to reduce smoking in adolescents, is an example of a campaign that uses such a strategy to reach youth described as being outside the mainstream. This article examines the effectiveness of this strategy in promoting antitobacco company beliefs among youth. Survey data from 224 adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age were used to examine whether the truth® campaign was more or less effective at reaching and promoting antitobacco company beliefs among youth who identify with nonmainstream crowds (deviants and counterculture) versus those who identify with mainstream crowds (elites and academics). Analyses revealed that adolescents who identified as deviants and counterculture were more likely to have been persuaded by the truth® campaign. Social identity theory is used as a theoretical framework to understand these effects and to make recommendations for future health campaigns. PMID:23066900

  1. Campaigns and cliques: variations in effectiveness of an antismoking campaign as a function of adolescent peer group identity.

    PubMed

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Identity-based strategies have been suggested as a way to promote healthy behaviors when traditional approaches fall short. The truth® campaign, designed to reduce smoking in adolescents, is an example of a campaign that uses such a strategy to reach youth described as being outside the mainstream. This article examines the effectiveness of this strategy in promoting antitobacco company beliefs among youth. Survey data from 224 adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age were used to examine whether the truth® campaign was more or less effective at reaching and promoting antitobacco company beliefs among youth who identify with nonmainstream crowds (deviants and counterculture) versus those who identify with mainstream crowds (elites and academics). Analyses revealed that adolescents who identified as deviants and counterculture were more likely to have been persuaded by the truth® campaign. Social identity theory is used as a theoretical framework to understand these effects and to make recommendations for future health campaigns. PMID:23066900

  2. Perceived Parental Behavior and Peer Affiliations among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe. Margaret; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role of parenting behavior in adolescents' peer group formation using a sample of 238 African American adolescents living in urban public housing projects. The study also assesses the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between parenting behavior and peer affiliations. Girls reported significantly…

  3. The Dynamic Reality of Adolescent Peer Networks and Sense of Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Beverly S.; Hamm, Jill V.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic features of peer network experiences (membership fluidity and network interconnectedness) were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. Because these dynamic features are naturally present in adolescents' peer group affiliations, attention to them provides a more…

  4. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…

  6. Rethinking Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior and the Peer Leader Dynamic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, D. S. G.; And Others

    The nature of the interactions that occur among peer leaders, peer influence, and the dynamics of the peer reference group in the context of health, interpersonal relations and lifestyle choice were the subjects of this study. Its first stage (of two) employed a case study of a single metropolitan senior high school in Australia. Adolescent peer…

  7. The joint actions of adolescents in peer conversations about career.

    PubMed

    Young, R A; Antal, S; Bassett, M E; Post, A; Devries, N; Valach, L

    1999-08-01

    Ten career conversations between adolescent peers were video-taped to examine the joint actions of adolescents that emerge in actual conversations about career. Based on an action-theoretical approach, joint action refers to the intentional behavior of a group of people attempting to realize a common goal or engage in a common process. The actual conversations and the adolescents' recall of their thoughts and feelings during the conversations were used to identify the joint actions that occurred in the conversations and the meaning that the conversations had for the adolescents. Goals of the actions included educational planning, career selection, and personal future. The functions the adolescents undertook in the conversations to reach these goals were identified as exploring, formulating, validating, and challenging. Based on these results, it was proposed that self-refinement was the project that energized and guided the joint actions and lent meaning to the conversations. PMID:10469516

  8. Peer Group Similarity in Perceptions of Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2016-08-01

    Self-report measures of perceived pubertal timing correspond only weakly with clinical measures of "objective" physical development. Peer and school contexts shape adolescents' self-perceptions of pubertal timing. The current study examined associations between perceived pubertal timing and the pubertal timing reported by nominated friends and schoolmates. Participants included 2817 adolescents (Mage = 16.6; 49 % female; 16 % Black; 20 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three measures of pubertal timing were included: age-standardized ratings of body changes, comparisons of development relative to peers (relative timing), and, in females, age at menarche. It was hypothesized that relative timing, which explicitly asks adolescents to compare themselves to their peers, would be related to the age-standardized pubertal timing of nominated friends and schoolmates. Surprisingly, there were no associations between relative timing and age-standardized pubertal timing reported by peers, suggesting that pubertal self-perceptions do not fluctuate in response to the average level of development in a friend group. Instead, males were similar to nominated friends and schoolmates in age-standardized ratings of body changes, and females were similar to nominated friends in relative timing, controlling for race, ethnicity, and age. Different self-report measures of pubertal timing index different underlying constructs, and the social processes that influence adolescents' perceptions of pubertal maturation may differ between genders. PMID:25840777

  9. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  10. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  11. Peer Relationship Difficulties in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…

  12. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…

  13. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain. PMID:26808145

  14. A reconsideration of parental and peer influences on adolescent deviance.

    PubMed

    Aseltine, R H

    1995-06-01

    The role of peers in fostering deviant behavior in adolescence is well-documented in the sociological literature, while support for parental influence or "control" theories of deviance is more equivocal. This paper examines the relative influences of parents and peers on adolescent delinquency and marijuana use, using data from a three-wave panel study of youths who were paired with a best friend (N = 435). Covariance structure models based upon polychoric correlations among study variables reveal that friends are indeed the primary source of influence on youths' behavior, but that estimates of influence are grossly overstated in analyses relying upon respondents' perceptions of their friends' behavior. Parental supervision and attachment are weakly related to subsequent delinquency and marijuana use, lending little support to control theories of deviance. Findings reveal that different processes account for the similarities among members of delinquent and drug-using peer groups. Although youths are socialized into delinquent behavior by peers, both selection and socialization influences play important roles in the formation of drug-using peer groups. PMID:9113137

  15. Schools, Peers, and Prejudice in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents’ own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that schoolwide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents’ academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents’ own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization. PMID:25750496

  16. Mexican American Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: Exploring the Role of Culture and Adolescents' Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…

  17. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  18. Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior and Peer Rejection: A Dynamic Test of a Developmental Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, John M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that adolescent peer groups play a significant role in the genesis of youth antisocial behavior. A longstanding interest in research focused on individual differences in teen exposure to deviant peer groups is the notion that high-risk youth aggregate because of their common rejection within social contexts, such…

  19. An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Colich, Natalie L.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives. PMID:22318914

  20. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity. PMID:24623114

  1. Organizing and maintaining peer supervision groups.

    PubMed

    Counselman, Eleanor F; Weber, Robert L

    2004-04-01

    Peer supervision groups (PSGs) are attractive to psychotherapists for many reasons, including ongoing consultation and support, networking, and combating professional isolation. These leaderless groups offer opportunities for interpersonal learning from peers, and the parallel process within PSGs can be an important consultative tool. Unfortunately, many PSGs fail. PSGs benefit from careful attention to contract, task, gatekeeping, and group process, including resistances and dynamics of competition, and shame. PMID:15103999

  2. Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

  3. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

  4. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously. PMID:25046125

  5. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation. PMID:26171331

  6. Peer Group Similarity in Perceptions of Pubertal Timing

    PubMed Central

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Cance, Jessica D.; Harden, K. Paige

    2016-01-01

    Self-report measures of perceived pubertal timing correspond only weakly with clinical measures of “objective” physical development. Peer and school contexts shape adolescents’ self-perceptions of pubertal timing. The current study examined associations between perceived pubertal timing and the pubertal timing reported by nominated friends and schoolmates. Participants included 2,817 adolescents (Mage = 16.6; 49% female; 16% Black; 20% Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three measures of pubertal timing were included: age-standardized ratings of body changes, comparisons of development relative to peers (relative timing), and, in females, age at menarche. It was hypothesized that relative timing, which explicitly asks adolescents to compare themselves to their peers, would be related to the age-standardized pubertal timing of nominated friends and schoolmates. Surprisingly, there were no associations between relative timing and age-standardized pubertal timing reported by peers, suggesting that pubertal self-perceptions do not fluctuate in response to the average level of development in a friend group. Instead, males were similar to nominated friends and schoolmates in age-standardized ratings of body changes, and females were similar to nominated friends in relative timing, controlling for race, ethnicity, and age. Different self-report measures of pubertal timing index different underlying constructs, and the social processes that influence adolescents’ perceptions of pubertal maturation may differ between genders. PMID:25840777

  7. Contextual and Moderating Effects of the Peer Group Climate on Use of Homophobic Epithets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation examined how homophobic and aggressive social climates of adolescent peer groups accounted for students' use of homophobic epithets and engagement in homophobic banter using multilevel modeling. Results indicated that aggressive peer group social climates accounted for increased use of epithets, over and above…

  8. Psychophysiology of Adolescent Peer Relations I: Theory and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how psychophysiological processes relate to adolescent peer functioning. This review discusses advances in the study of the psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations, with a focus on how the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems relate to antisocial behavior, victimization, and…

  9. The Gender Structure of Adolescent Peer Influence on Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics…

  10. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  11. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  12. Relations with Parents and with Peers, Temperament, and Trajectories of Depressed Mood during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Vitaro, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether groups of children can be empirically identified with distinct longitudinal profiles of depressed mood from late childhood through early adolescence, (b) to what extent these different longitudinal depression profiles are predicted by problematic relations with parents, same-sex peers, and other-sex peers,…

  13. Relations among Sadness Regulation, Peer Acceptance, and Social Functioning in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-informant approach, this study examined emotion regulation within the social context of White and Black adolescent peer groups by assessing two aspects of sadness expression management (i.e., inhibition, disinhibition) and their linkages to peer acceptance and social functioning as a function of gender and ethnicity. Seventh- and…

  14. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  15. Gender, Peer Relations, and Challenges for Girlfriends and Boyfriends Coming Together in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how girls' and boys' different peer cultures in middle childhood may set the stage for challenges in emerging heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Two theoretical frameworks are presented for understanding gender differences in children's same-gender friendships and peer groups in middle childhood: the two…

  16. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  17. Peer Influences on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Prospective Sibling Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jennifer S.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Studied role of nonshared parent and peer influences on siblings as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking onset. Found peer influences were predictors of smoking onset when shared influences were controlled. Nonshared peer influences on siblings were stronger in educated families. Findings highlight utility of controlling for shared…

  18. Neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on public goods game donations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-06-01

    A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence. PMID:26865424

  19. Adolescents, Peers, and Motor Vehicles The Perfect Storm?

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teenagers and in many instances appear linked to negative peer influences on adolescent driving behavior. This article examines a range of developmental and structural factors that potentially increase the risks associated with adolescent driving. Developmental risk factors for adolescents include a propensity toward engaging in deviant and risky behavior, a desire to please peers, and the potential cost to an adolescent of alienating peers with his or her behavior while driving. Structural features of the driving situation that create risks for negative peer influences on driving behavior include the inability of adolescents to look at peers who may be pressuring them, divided attention, the need to behave in a conventional manner among peers who may not value conventional behavior, and the lack of accountability by peers for the effects of any risky driving they promote. A range of potential peer influences are considered, including passive and active distraction and direct disruption of driving, as well as more positive influences, such as peer modeling of good driving behavior and positive reinforcement of good driving. Although the range of risk factors created by peers is large, this range presents a number of promising targets for intervention to improve teen driving safety. PMID:18702984

  20. Helping Responses of Parents and Peers and Adolescent Well Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ronald J.; Weir, Tamara

    This study examines the experiences of adolescents when they seek help with their problems and anxieties from within their natural support systems. The following questions were posed: (1) How do adolescents perceive their parents' and peers' responses when they seek help? (2) Do the response behaviors of the helpers affect adolescents' willingness…

  1. Consider the Source: Adolescents and Adults Similarly Follow Older Adult Advice More than Peer Advice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gloria A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Casey, B. J.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts. PMID:26030134

  2. Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: Predicting adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju

    2016-08-01

    Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798

  3. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729

  4. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors. PMID:26525387

  5. New Zealand Youth Benefit from Being Connected to Their Family, School, Peer Group and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Pryor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Data were obtained from about 1,700 New Zealand adolescents annually for three years to assess their connectedness to family, school, peer group and community as well as other indicators of adolescent functioning. Key results were that a sense of connection predicted better psychological wellbeing over time; in turn, wellbeing predicted higher…

  6. Students with Reading and Spelling Disabilities: Peer Groups and Educational Attainment in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Haverinen, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the…

  7. Parental management of adolescent peer relationships in context: the role of parenting style.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2002-03-01

    Three hundred 9th-graders and their best friends participated in this short-term longitudinal study. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Parental Management of Peers Inventory (N. Mounts, 2000) suggested that the 4-factor structure provided a good fit to the data. Significant differences in adolescents' perceptions of parental management of peers occurred across 4 parenting style groups. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relation among 5 aspects of parental management of peers and adolescents' Time 1 drug use, friends' Time 1 drug use, and adolescents' Time 2 drug use. The parental management styles of monitoring, guiding, prohibiting, and supporting all had significant paths in the model, whereas neutrality was not significant. Multiple group comparisons were used to examine whether parenting style moderates the relation between parental management of peers and the drug use outcomes. Parenting style functioned as a moderator for 7 of the paths in the model. PMID:11915411

  8. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  9. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  10. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  11. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? The Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Karakos, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, recovery school staff members discuss peers in the school as sources of positive support and peers outside the schools as sources of risky influence. Themes and quotes are presented to highlight the diverse ways that staff members discussed peer influence. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24839335

  12. What Protects Rejected Adolescents from Also Being Bullied by Their Peers? The Moderating Role of Peer-Valued Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knack, Jennifer M.; Tsar, Vasilinka; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Hymel, Shelley; McDougall, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents rejected by peers are often targets of bullying. However, peer rejection is not a sure path to victimization. We examined whether characteristics valued by peers (i.e., attractiveness, wealth, academic, and athletic ability) moderated the relationship between peer rejection and victimization. We predicted rejected adolescents high on…

  13. Peer group ties and executive compensation networks.

    PubMed

    Pittinsky, Matthew; Diprete, Thomas A

    2013-11-01

    Publicly traded firms in the US typically determine C.E.O. compensation by benchmarking the pay of their C.E.O.s against the pay of C.E.O.s in "peer" firms. Consequently, executive compensation is influenced not only by firm-level characteristics, but also by the selection and actions of the firm's immediate peers as well as by the structure of the executive compensation network overall. Analyzing compensation peer group choices made by the same 1183 firms for F.Y. 2007, 2008 and 2009, we find that while the typical compensation peer is similar in size and industry to the firm that chose it, deviations from this norm are common, especially among larger firms, and tend to be towards larger firms with better paid CEOs. Further analysis shows that firms who pay CEOs well relative to the pay that would be predicted from their revenues, return on assets, and industry tend to have greater aspiration bias in their group of named peers. PMID:24090860

  14. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12–17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a “proself” orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than “prosocial” participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  15. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a "proself" orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than "prosocial" participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  16. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  17. Peer Group Mentoring of Junior Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jay; Teshima, John; Leszcz, Molyn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to document and evaluate the initiation of a mentoring model for junior faculty utilizing a peer group approach rather than the traditional dyadic model. Methods: Junior faculty members in an academic department of psychiatry at Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto, were invited to take part in a…

  18. Peer Groups in Evolution: Inventing Classroom Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Elizabeth

    It can be very difficult for writers to invent classroom communities, to share their writing; it can be especially difficult for anxious young writers who have never before worked in peer groups. Student participation is largely influenced by gender roles shaped by years of socialization. Teachers should not be startled by less female…

  19. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups... need to maintain a balanced composition of peer review groups related to minority and...

  20. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data.…

  1. Peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614

  2. Adolescent Mice, Unlike Adults, Consume More Alcohol in the Presence of Peers than Alone

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of adolescent risk taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents’ immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of “peers” increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals’ sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment. PMID:24341974

  3. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    PubMed

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations. PMID:9104652

  4. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885

  5. Precursors of Running Away during Adolescence: Do Peers Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Adams, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Although peer influence is a salient predictor of delinquency, how it operates in the etiology of runaway behavior is not fully understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study demonstrates the importance of taking peers into account in understanding the etiology of running away. The findings suggest…

  6. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  7. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  8. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  9. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  10. Friendship Expectations Among Immigrant Adolescents and Their Host Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    Investigates differences in friendship expectations between adolescent immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their Israeli-born peers. Results of rating behavioral characteristics of peers indicated that immigrants assign greater importance than their counterparts to all aspects of friendship expectations. Immigrants' friendship expectations…

  11. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms From Adolescence Into Young Adulthood: Building Strength Through Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Yeung Thompson, Rachel S.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how changes in peer victimization were associated with changes in internalizing symptoms among 662 adolescents across a 4-year period. The moderating effects of initial levels of father, mother, and friend emotional support on this association were also examined. Gender and age group differences (early adolescent group aged 12–15 years; late adolescent group aged 16–18 years) were tested. Increases in physical and relational victimization were related to increases in internalizing symptoms. Friend emotional support was more protective in reducing internalizing symptoms for adolescent males than adolescent females in both the early and late adolescent groups. Gender differences also moderated the effects of mother and father emotional support. PMID:27307688

  12. Using the IPEDS Peer Analysis System in Peer Group Selection. Professional File Number 110, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Compared to traditional classification methods, developing a peer group using the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Systems (IPEDS) data allows institutions to add comparative dimensions, to update the peer group, and to track changes at peer institutions over time. Peer selection and…

  13. The Influence of Peer Groups on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.; Tierney, William G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine how peer relationships influence students' academic success. After defining peer groups, the article considers the ways in which students' peer networks facilitate or inhibit access to academic resources. The authors argue that the composition and purpose of a peer group influences academic achievement and students' likelihood…

  14. Process Evaluation of HIV Prevention Peer Groups in Malawi: A Look inside the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Linda L.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Kafulafula, Ursula K.; Ngalande, Rebecca C.; Kumbani, Lily C.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Norr, James L.; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer…

  15. Music Listening, Coping, Peer Affiliation and Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…

  16. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  17. Peer Victimization and Parental Psychological Control in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2012-01-01

    With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the…

  18. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  19. Adolescents' Online Social Networking Following the Death of a Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how online social networking facilitates adolescent grieving following the sudden death of a peer. Researchers reviewed 20 profiles authored by adolescents who had died between 2005 and 2007 collecting information from commentary posted to the profiles posthumously. Observed themes included adolescent…

  20. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  2. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  3. Peer Contexts in Schools: Avenues Toward Behavioral Health in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H J

    2015-01-01

    Peer contexts play an important role in the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. Behavioral health involves the observable academic and social behaviors that relate to and influence youths' subsequent health and development. Setting-level research on peer networks and social norms indicates these aspects of peer contexts vary by peer group, classroom, and school and dynamically relate to individual students' academic and social behaviors. Yet, although peer contexts are both influential and potentially malleable, little research examines the effects of school and classroom interventions on the development and maintenance of positive and productive peer contexts in schools. The current article identifies school structures and classroom processes theorized to directly or indirectly shift peer networks and social norms-and thereby increase the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. We discuss the need for more rigorous and relevant research to better understand the role of schools and classrooms in strengthening these peer contexts and promoting behavioral health in early adolescence. PMID:26332925

  4. Parenting and Peer Relationships: Reinvigorating Research on Family-Peer Linkages in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Bakken, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing energy from a debate about the efficacy of parental monitoring, research over the first decade of the 21st century has traced numerous ways in which parenting practices and parent-child relationship features affect adolescents' peer interactions, and how these 2 factors interact to affect adolescent adjustment. In reviewing this research,…

  5. Adolescent Academic Achievement and School Engagement: An Examination of the Role of School-Wide Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M.; Leventhal, Tama

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to…

  6. Gender Nonconformity, Sexual Orientation, and Dutch Adolescents' Relationship with Peers.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo

    2015-07-01

    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents' relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents' social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well. PMID:25548066

  7. The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Platt, Belinda; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of major risk for depression, which is associated with negative personal, social, and educational outcomes. Yet, in comparison to adult models of depression, very little is known about the specific psychosocial stressors that contribute to adolescent depression, and whether these can be targeted by interventions. In this review, we consider the role of peer rejection. First, we present a comprehensive review of studies using innovative experimental paradigms to understand the role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. We show how reciprocal relationships between peer rejection and depressive symptoms across adolescence powerfully shape and maintain maladaptive trajectories. Second, we consider how cognitive biases and their neurobiological substrates may explain why some adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of, and perhaps exposure to, peer rejection compared to others. Finally, we draw attention to emerging cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback training, which by modifying aspects of information processing may promote more adaptive responses to peer rejection. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying adolescent depression may not only alleviate symptoms during a period of substantial developmental challenges, but may also reduce the burden of the disorder across the lifespan. PMID:23596129

  8. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2016-07-01

    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124714

  9. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  10. The Autonomy-Connection Challenge in Adolescent Peer Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Loeb, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The world of peers presents a unique developmental challenge to adolescents—one that is likely to be linked to prior experiences within the family, affected by concurrent experiences with adults outside the family, and predictive of future mental and physical health. To negotiate relationships with peers successfully, adolescents must manage the challenge of connecting with peers while establishing autonomy regarding peer influences. Both the nature of this challenge and how it is handled are linked closely to the ways adolescents are treated by the adults in their lives. Adolescents’ capacities for autonomy and connection can be developed both in the family and in interventions that engage youth with adults outside the family, suggesting a substantial role for adults in easing adolescents’ peer challenges. PMID:25937829

  11. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  12. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  13. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and..., private consultant(s)) and geographic locations; and (4) The need to maintain a balanced composition...

  14. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  15. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  16. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  17. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  18. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  19. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  20. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based...

  1. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD... § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members will be selected based...

  2. Using the Solving Problems Together Psychoeducational Group Counseling Model as an Intervention for Negative Peer Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  3. A Mentor, Peer Group, Incentive Model for Helping Underclass Youth. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B.; Wiener, Susan J.

    This document describes the Mentors, Peer Groups, and Incentives (MPI) demonstration project, a model for helping early adolescent underclass males to improve academic performance and reduce the probability of premature fatherhood. A first section discusses the working definition of the underclass as a group where dysfunctional behaviors are…

  4. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L

    2011-10-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  5. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  6. Chronic Childhood Peer Rejection is Associated with Heightened Neural Responses to Social Exclusion During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Will, Geert-Jan; van Lier, Pol A C; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents reported similar increases in distress after being excluded in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball), but adolescents with a history of chronic peer rejection showed higher activity in brain regions previously linked to the detection of, and the distress caused by, social exclusion. Specifically, compared with stably accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents displayed: 1) higher activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during social exclusion and 2) higher activity in the dACC and anterior prefrontal cortex when they were incidentally excluded in a social interaction in which they were overall included. These findings demonstrate that chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence, which has implications for understanding the processes through which peer rejection may lead to adverse effects on mental health over time. PMID:25758671

  7. Social communication interventions for preschoolers: targeting peer interactions during peer group entry and cooperative play.

    PubMed

    Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E

    2005-08-01

    Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855

  8. Peers’ Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported gender nonconformity were associated with higher self- and peer-reports of overt and relational victimization and aggression among males and females. The association between peer-reported gender nonconformity and peer-reported overt aggression was moderated by participant sex, such that the association was stronger for females compared to males. Results suggest that perceived gender nonconformity is associated with problematic peer relations, especially among females, in early adolescence and implications of these associations are discussed. PMID:26236066

  9. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  10. The Teen Outreach Reproductive Challenge: Improving Adolescent Health Care Delivery through Peer Education Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMairo, Pauline; Dischell, Jackie; Jouthe, Sorahya A.; Horner, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The Teen Outreach Reproductive CHallenge (TORCH) is a peer education program that provides information on various topics relevant to adolescent sexual health to a diverse audience, ranging from teens to health care providers. This information is disseminated through various projects by a group of New York City high-school students who are…

  11. College Women Mentoring Adolescent Girls: The Relationship between Mentor Peer Support and Mentee Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jenna H.; Lawrence, Edith C.; Peugh, James

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effectiveness of peer support for college women mentors who engaged in one-to-one and group mentoring with at-risk adolescent girls. Using data from 162 mentoring pairs, results suggested that mentor support positively predicted mentees' self-reported improvement after a year of mentoring. An examination of…

  12. Risky Lifestyle as a Mediator of the Relationship between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Dating Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…

  13. Adolescent judgments and reasoning about the failure to include peers with social disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and justifications across four contexts. We found adolescents are more likely to judge the failure to include as acceptable in personal as compared to public contexts. Using logistic regression, we found that adolescents are more likely to provide moral justifications as to why failure to include is acceptable in a classroom as compared to home, lab group, and soccer practice contexts. Implications for intervention are also discussed. PMID:25575622

  14. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section 3400.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH... Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review...

  15. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section 3401.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH... Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups....

  16. Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: A Comparison of Mothers' and Fathers' Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kupanoff, Kristina

    2001-01-01

    Compared mothers' and fathers' direct involvement in adolescent girls' versus boys' peer relationships, and examined the links between parents' involvement and the qualities of adolescents' friendship and peer experiences. Findings revealed mothers were more knowledgeable about adolescents' peer relationships than fathers, and both mothers and…

  17. Adolescent Social Competence: Effectiveness in a Group Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Levy, Alissa K.; Hyson, Daniel M.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2000-01-01

    Examined the validity of an observational assessment of adolescent social competence within a group interaction during a revealed differences task. Found that ratings of task enjoyment, involvement, leadership, self-confidence in task, and global social competence showed strong correlations to counselor ratings and peer sociometrics and were…

  18. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  19. Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Susanne; Bäckman, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions…

  20. Misperception of peer weight norms and its association with overweight and underweight status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Wesley Perkins, H; Craig, David W

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has revealed pervasive misperceptions of peer norms for a variety of behaviors among adolescents such as alcohol use, smoking, and bullying and that these misperceptions are predictors of personal behavior. Similarly, misperception of peer weight norms may be a pervasive and important risk factor for adolescent weight status. Thus, the comparative association of actual and perceived peer weight norms is examined in relation to personal weight status. Secondary school students in 40 middle and high schools (n = 40,328) were surveyed about their perceptions of the peer weight norm for same gender and grade within their school. Perceived norms were compared to aggregate self-reports of weight for these same groups. Overestimation of peer weight norms by more than 5 % occurred among 26 % of males and 20 % of females (by 22 and 16 lb on average, respectively). Underestimation occurred among 38 % of males as well as females (by 16 and 13 lb on average, respectively). Personal overweight status based on body mass index (BMI) was much more prevalent among respondents who overestimated peer weight norms as was personal underweight status among respondents who underestimated norms. Perception of the peer norm was the strongest predictor of personal BMI among all personal and school variables examined for both male and female students. Thus, reducing misperceived weight norms should be given more attention as a potential avenue for preventing obesity and eating disorders. PMID:24488532

  1. Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Mark Moderation of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmot, Peter; Pond, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Self and peer assessment offers benefits for enhancing student learning. Peer moderation provides a convenient solution for awarding individual marks in group assignments. This paper provides a significant review of peer-mark moderation, and describes an award winning, web-based tool that was developed in the UK and is now spreading across the…

  2. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal…

  3. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  4. Peer Group Influence on Educational Outcomes: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Judith K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A research synthesis of the influence of peer groups on elementary and high school students' achievement and educational/occupational aspirations is presented. Strength of the peer influence-outcome relationship was higher in urban settings and when peer influence was determined by individuals reporting achievement levels of their best friends.…

  5. Peer Assessment in Small Groups: A Comparison of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates several peer evaluation tools used to assess student behavior in small groups. The two most common methods of peer assessment found in the literature are rating scales and single score methods. Three peer evaluation instruments, two using a rating scale and one using a single score method, are tested in several…

  6. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  7. Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and Drinking Diffusion in Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…

  8. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  9. Correlates of Male Adolescents Carrying Handguns among Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Oh, Su Min

    2001-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 were used to examine factors, such as family and neighborhood environment, associated with carrying a handgun among adolescent males. As expected, results indicated males were more likely than their peers to carry handguns if they engaged in other problematic behaviors, had witnessed someone…

  10. Adolescent Peer Conflicts: Implications for Students and for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opotow, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Interview data from 40 inner-city seventh graders challenge the stereotype that adolescents' peer conflicts (APCs) are senseless, wasteful, and destructive. Rather, these conflicts raise important micropolitical concerns about power, conflict, coalition, and policy. APCs can increase the relevance of education, play an important role in social…

  11. Individual, Family, and Peer predictors of Violence among Samoan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…

  12. The Attitudes of Belgian Adolescents towards Peers with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online…

  13. Peer Relationships and Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…

  14. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy

    2009-06-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents' self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys' peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls' peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  15. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  16. The quality of adolescents' peer relationships modulates neural sensitivity to risk taking.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Galván, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents' peer culture plays a key role in the development and maintenance of risk-taking behavior. Despite recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggesting that peers may increase neural sensitivity to rewards, we know relatively little about how the quality of peer relations impact adolescent risk taking. In the current 2-year three-wave longitudinal study, we examined how chronic levels of peer conflict relate to risk taking behaviorally and neurally, and whether this is modified by high-quality peer relationships. Forty-six adolescents completed daily diaries assessing peer conflict across 2 years as well as a measure of peer support. During a functional brain scan, adolescents completed a risk-taking task. Behaviorally, peer conflict was associated with greater risk-taking behavior, especially for adolescents reporting low peer support. High levels of peer support buffered this association. At the neural level, peer conflict was associated with greater activation in the striatum and insula, especially among adolescents reporting low peer support, whereas this association was buffered for adolescents reporting high peer support. Results are consistent with the stress-buffering model of social relationships and underscore the importance of the quality of adolescents' peer relationships for their risk taking. PMID:24795443

  17. The Relation between Early Adolescents' Trust Beliefs in Peers and Reactions to Peer Provocation: Attributions of Intention and Retaliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…

  18. Parent and peer pathways to adolescent delinquency: variations by ethnicity and neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Crockett, Lisa J; Wolff, Jennifer M; Russell, Stephen T

    2012-08-01

    Effects of ethnicity and neighborhood quality often are confounded in research on adolescent delinquent behavior. This study examined the pathways to delinquency among 2,277 African American and 5,973 European American youth residing in high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods. Using data from a national study of youth, a meditational model was tested in which parenting practices (parental control and maternal support) were hypothesized to influence adolescents' participation in delinquent behavior through their affiliation with deviant peers. The relationships of family and neighborhood risk to parenting practices and deviant peer affiliation were also examined. Results of multi-group structural equation models provided support for the core meditational model in both ethnic groups, as well as evidence of a direct effect of maternal support on delinquency. When a similar model was tested within each ethnic group to compare youths residing in high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods, few neighborhood differences were found. The results indicate that, for both African American and European American youth, low parental control influences delinquency indirectly through its effect on deviant peer affiliation, whereas maternal support has both direct and indirect effects. However, the contextual factors influencing parenting practices and deviant peer affiliation appear to vary somewhat across ethnic groups. Overall the present study highlights the need to look at the joint influence of neighborhood context and ethnicity on adolescent problem behavior. PMID:22460729

  19. Parent and family outcomes of PEERS: a social skills intervention for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Karst, Jeffrey S; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Carson, Audrey M; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten; Dolan, Bridget

    2015-03-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased family chaos and parent distress. Successful long-term treatment outcomes are dependent on healthy systemic functioning, but the family impact of treatment is rarely evaluated. The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) is a social skills intervention designed for adolescents with high-functioning ASD. This study assessed the impact of PEERS on family chaos, parenting stress, and parenting self-efficacy via a randomized, controlled trial. Results suggested beneficial effects for the experimental group in the domain of family chaos compared to the waitlist control, while parents in the PEERS experimental group also demonstrated increased parenting self-efficacy. These findings highlight adjunctive family system benefits of PEERS intervention and suggest the need for overall better understanding of parent and family outcomes of ASD interventions. PMID:25193142

  20. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  1. Adolescent Male Peer Sexual Abuse: An Issue Often Neglected

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, Girish H.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease. PMID:24379502

  2. Peer Influences on Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Rhonda; Hinman, Agatha; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance; Campbell, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of family environment and peer networks in abstinence outcomes for adolescents 1 year after intake to alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design Survey of 419 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age at consecutive intakes to AOD treatment programs at four sites of a large health system, with telephone follow-up survey 1 year after intake. Methods Examined association of 1-year abstinence with baseline characteristics. Using logistic regression, we examined characteristics predicting 1-year abstinence and predicting having fewer than four substance-using friends at 1 year. Results We found that family environment scores related to family conflict, limit setting, and positive family experiences, were not related to abstinence outcomes, but peer networks were related. Adolescents with fewer (less than four) AOD-using friends were more likely to be abstinent than those with four or more AOD-using friends (65% vs. 41%, p = .0002). Having fewer than four AOD-using friends at intake predicted abstinence at 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.904, p = .0002) and also predicted having fewer than four AOD-using friends at 1 year (OR = 2.557, p = 0.0007). Conclusions Although family environment is an important factor in the development of AOD problems in adolescents, it did not play a significant role in treatment success. The quality of adolescent peer networks did independently predict positive outcomes. Clinical Relevance For physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and other primary and behavioral care providers who screen and care for adolescents with AOD and other behavioral problems, our finding suggest the importance of focusing on improving the quality of their peer networks. PMID:22339982

  3. Adolescent Deviant Peer Clustering as an Amplifying Mechanism Underlying the Progression from Early Substance Use to Late Adolescent Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early substance use co-occurs with youths’ self-organization into deviant peer groups in which substance use is central to social interaction. We hypothesized that the social dynamics of deviant peer groups amplify the risk of progressing from early use to later dependence, and that this influence occurs over and above escalations in use that typically accompany early substance use and membership in deviant groups. Methods Our study used a longitudinal, multimethod dataset consisting of 998 adolescents and their families. Participants were recruited from middle schools in a large metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest. The sample was 47.3% female and ethnically diverse (42.3% European-American, 29.1% African-American, and 28.6% other, including biracial). We examined deviant peer clustering as a mediator between early substance use and later dependence, controlling for proximal levels of use, SES, early antisocial behavior, and parental monitoring. Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were assessed at ages 12, 13, and 16–17. Past-year nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana dependence (DSM-IV) was assessed at age 19. Youth and parent reports and observational data were used to assess deviant peer clustering at age 16–17, and youth reported on antisocial behavior and parental monitoring at ages 12 and 13. Results Early substance use predicted increased likelihood of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana by late adolescence. Deviant peer affiliation mediated these links, even when accounting for proximal levels of substance use. Conclusions Early substance use not only promotes escalations in use across adolescence but also provides entry into a deviant social context that contributes to increased risk of dependence. Our results emphasize the importance of identifying and intervening in early substance use before it becomes an organizing factor in friendship selection and interaction. Deviant peer clusters are clearly an important avenue for

  4. Parental, peer, school, and neighborhood influences on adolescent substance use: direct and indirect effects and ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Su, Jinni; Supple, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how contextual influences are related to adolescent substance use using an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. A total of 5,992 adolescents (5,185 European American, 330 African American, 160 Hispanic American, 179 Asian American, and 138 Southeast Asian American) from Dane county, Wisconsin, completed surveys at school. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine direct versus indirect effects of parental, peer, school, and neighborhood influences and differences in associations across ethnicity. Results indicated that contextual influences on adolescent substance use were both direct and indirect; the strength of associations between contextual influences and adolescent substance use varied across ethnic groups. PMID:25176117

  5. American adolescents touch each other less and are more aggressive toward their peers as compared with French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Field, T

    1999-01-01

    Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Paris and Miami to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more aggressive verbal and physical behavior. PMID:10730699

  6. American Adolescents Touch Each Other Less and Are More Aggressive toward Their Peers as Compared with French Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Miami and Paris to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more…

  7. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  8. Homophily among Peer Groups Members' Perceived Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Alexander, Joyce M.; Estell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is one of the first examining whether peer group members hold similar levels of self-regulated learning. The study specifically addresses the potential homophily among group members' regulative abilities (metacognition, environment regulation, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking) and whether group members'…

  9. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Jeneka A.; O’Neil, Maya E.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; McWhirter, Ellen H.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented. PMID:24324283

  10. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents’ self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys’ peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls’ peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  11. Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership: relations to academic achievement in middle school.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, K R; Caldwell, K

    1997-12-01

    Two samples of sixth-grade students were followed over time to examine relations of number of reciprocated friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership to academic achievement. In both samples, group membership was the most consistent predictor of grades over time. In Study 2, prosocial behavior, antisocial behavior, and emotional distress were examined as processes that might explain these significant links between peer relationships and academic achievement. Results of longitudinal analyses support a conclusion that aspects of peer relationships are related to classroom achievement indirectly, by way of significant relations with prosocial behavior. Future research might benefit from more in-depth analyses of the functions of adolescent peer relationships and the processes by which they influence orientations toward social and academic competence at school. PMID:9418234

  12. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-wah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  13. Basking in Reflected Glory and Its Limits: Why Adolescents Hang out with Popular Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether popularity and likability were related to associating with popular peers in adolescence. Participants were 3,312 adolescents (M age = 13.60 years) from 172 classrooms in 32 schools. Four types of peer affiliations of the participants with the popular peers in their classrooms were distinguished: "best…

  14. Generational Differences in Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bamaca-Gomez, Mayra Y.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether Mexican origin adolescents who varied by generational status would differ in their resistance to peer pressure. After controlling for gender, resistance to peer pressure varied significantly by generational status. Adolescents with no familial births in the United States were significantly more resistant to peer pressure than…

  15. Reciprocal Influences among Relational Self-Views, Social Disengagement, and Peer Stress During Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Melissa S.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal-influence models of the association between relational self-views and peer stress during early adolescence. The first model posited that adolescents with negative self-views disengage from peers, creating stress in their relationships. The second model posited that exposure to peer stress fosters social…

  16. Moderators of Peer Contagion: A Longitudinal Examination of Depression Socialization between Adolescents and Their Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined peer contagion of depressive symptoms over an 18-month interval within a sample of 100 11th-grade adolescents. Three types of peer contagion moderators were examined, including characteristics of adolescents (social anxiety, global self-worth), friends (level of friends' peer-perceived popularity), and the…

  17. The Peer Context and the Development of the Perpetration of Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hussong, Andrea; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2013-01-01

    The peer context is a central focus in research on adolescent risk behaviors but few studies have investigated the role of the peer context in the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. This longitudinal study examined between-subjects and within-person contemporaneous and lagged effects of peer attributes, measured with social network…

  18. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  19. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  20. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  1. Brief Report: Assessment of Intervention Effects on In Vivo Peer Interactions in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Dolan, Bridget K; Van Hecke, Amy V; Carson, Audrey M; Karst, Jeffrey S; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten A; Potts, Stephanie; Kahne, Jenna; Linneman, Nina; Remmel, Rheanna; Hummel, Emily

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial of a social skills intervention, the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39(4): 596-606, 2009), by coding digitally recorded social interactions between adolescent participants with ASD and a typically developing adolescent confederate. Adolescent participants engaged in a 10-min peer interaction at pre- and post-treatment. Interactions were coded using the Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (Ratto et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(9): 1277-1286, 2010). Participants who completed PEERS demonstrated significantly improved vocal expressiveness, as well as a trend toward improved overall quality of rapport, whereas participants in the waitlist group exhibited worse performance on these domains. The degree of this change was related to knowledge gained in PEERS. PMID:26886470

  2. Adolescent academic achievement and school engagement: an examination of the role of school-wide peer culture.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M; Leventhal, Tama

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to smaller peer groups, within each school exists a school-wide peer culture that is comprised of two components (a relational and a behavioral component), each of which is related to individual academic outcomes. The relational component describes the aggregate of students' perceptions of the quality of peer relationships within each school. The behavioral component is an aggregate representation of students' actual behaviors in regard to academic tasks. We used data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, which surveyed 1,718 5th grade students (45.9 % male, 51.4 % White, 17.8 % Hispanic, 7.6 % African American) in 30 schools, to explore the idea that, during adolescence, the relational and behavioral components of a school's peer culture are related to students' academic achievement and school engagement. Results suggested that above and beyond a variety of individual, familial, peer, and school characteristics that have previously been associated with academic outcomes, aspects of behavioral peer culture are associated with individual achievement while components of both relational and behavioral peer culture are related to school engagement. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23076767

  3. Self, Peer and Group Assessment in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Contributions from researchers and practitioners involved in self, peer and group assessment in an online or e-learning environment investigate how assessment practices can be used to assist and improve the learning process. The book describes the principal characteristics of self, peer and group assessment; presents guidelines for effective…

  4. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  5. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  6. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  7. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  8. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section 52h.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC... Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  9. Familism Values as a Protective Factor for Mexican-Origin Adolescents Exposed to Deviant Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry

    2009-01-01

    This study examined interactive relations between adolescent, maternal, and paternal familism values and deviant peer affiliations in predicting adolescent externalizing problems within low-income, Mexican-origin families (N = 598). Adolescent, maternal, and paternal familism values interacted protectively with deviant peer affiliations to predict…

  10. Efficacy of a Peer-Guided Exercise Programme for Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer support is strongly associated with physical activity of adolescents. This study examined the efficacy of a YMCA-based, peer-guided exercise training programme for increasing health-related physical fitness among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Adolescents with intellectual disabilities and…

  11. Fighting Fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…

  12. Parenting Practices as Moderators of the Relationship between Peers and Adolescent Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Cassandra J.; Bahr, Stephen J.; Hoffmann, John P.; Harmon, Elizabeth Lovelady

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a probability sample of 4,987 adolescents, we examine the degree to which closeness to mother, closeness to father, parental support, and parental monitoring buffer the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use. The relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use was attenuated by both…

  13. Adolescents' and Their Mothers' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation of level and discrepancy in mothers' and adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships and parent-child conflict about peer relationships to mothers' and adolescent's reports of adolescents' drug use, delinquent behavior, and grade-point-average (GPA). An…

  14. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  15. Parent-Adolescent Discussions about Sex and Condoms: Impact on Peer Influences of Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Miller, Kim S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined how parent-adolescent communication about initiating sex and using condoms influenced the relationship between peer norms and behavior among African American and Hispanic adolescents. Found that peer norms were more strongly related to behavior among adolescents who had not discussed sex or condoms. Communication was also related to teens…

  16. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  17. Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-08-01

    When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

  18. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  19. Adolescents Prefer More Immediate Rewards when in the Presence of Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Lia; Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents take more risks in the presence of their peers, but the mechanism through which peer presence affects risky decision-making is unknown. We propose that the presence of peers increases the salience of the immediate rewards of a risky choice. The current study examined the effect of peer presence on reward sensitivity in a sample of 100…

  20. Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  1. Effects of a Peer-Led Asthma Self-Management Program for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hyekyun; Belyea, Michael J.; Hunt, John F.; Brasch, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led asthma self-management program for adolescents with asthma. Design Randomized controlled trial comparing a peer-led asthma program (intervention group) vs. a conventional adult-led asthma program (control group). Each program was implemented at a full-day camp. Setting An urban city and adjacent suburbs in upstate New York. Participants 112 Adolescents, ages 13–17 years, with persistent asthma. Intervention Peer-led asthma self-management program implemented at a day camp. Outcome Measures The Children's Attitude toward Asthma Scale and the Pediatric Asthma-related Quality of Life Questionnaire were administered at baseline, and immediate, 3, 6 and 9 months post-intervention. Spirometry was conducted twice - prior to the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. Results The intervention group reported more positive attitudes at 6-months post-intervention (mean difference [Diff]= 4.11, 95%CI:0.65–7.56) and higher quality of life at 6- (Diff=11.38, 95%CI:0.96–21.7) and 9-months post-intervention (Diff=12.97, 95%CI:3.46–22.48) than the control group. The intervention was found to be more beneficial to adolescents of male gender or low family income as shown by greater improvement in positive attitudes and quality of life than their counterparts. Conclusion An asthma self-management program led by peer leaders is a developmentally appropriate approach that can be effective in assisting adolescents with asthma in improving their attitudes and quality of life, particularly for males and those of low socioeconomic status. PMID:21646583

  2. The reasons behind early adolescents' responses to peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-02-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55 % girls) from two urban middle schools and 254 students (50 % girls) from one suburban middle school completed structured open-ended questions about a recent peer victimization experience. In both school settings, the results supported both previously- and newly-identified coping responses that fit within the approach-avoidance coping framework, reasoning that maps on to social information processing models, and systematic associations between reasoning and the coping responses adopted by the adolescents. In both school settings, approach responses were associated with having the goal of defending oneself against the victimization whereas avoidance responses were associated with wanting to prevent the escalation of the peer victimization event. The discussion argues that knowledge about the link between reasoning and coping responses can be informative to understanding what coping responses are effective for victims. PMID:23014851

  3. Group Counseling and Psychotherapy with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLennan, Beryce W.; Felsenfeld, Naomi

    Intended as an aid in conceptualizing group programs for adolescents and as a basic text on group methods, the book examines the goals and processes of socialization and rehabilitation. Areas treated include the group as an agent of change, the adolescent and his culture, general considerations in group counseling and group psychotherapy, process…

  4. Brain Structural Correlates of Risk-Taking Behavior and Effects of Peer Influence in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18–19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior (running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle). Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity. However, comparison according to actual risk-taking behavior during task performance revealed significantly higher white matter integrity in the high risk-taking group, suggesting that increased risky behavior during adolescence is not necessarily attributed to the immature brain as conventional wisdom says. PMID:25389976

  5. Positive Peer Relationships and Risk of Victimization in Chinese and South Korean Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-ezzeddine, Tania; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Lee-Shin, Yoolim; Farver, JoAnn; Xu, Yiyuan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of positive peer relationships in the relation between behavioral or academic risk factors and victimization in Asian children's peer groups. We recruited 296 children (161 boys, 135 girls) from Tianjin, China (mean age of 11.5 years) and 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls) from Seoul, South Korea (approximate…

  6. Unleashing the Power of Young Women through Peer Helping Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Richard; Steiner, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the application of the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment methodology to a population of troubled girls in a residential setting. The peer group utilizes naturally occurring problems as vehicles to teach girls about errors in behavior and thinking. Community activities are used to practice newly obtained prosocial behaviors. (LSR)

  7. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition...

  8. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. PMID:22998539

  9. Peer stress-related coping activities in young adolescents' asthma management.

    PubMed

    Yang, TienYu Owen; Lunt, Ingrid; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-08-01

    Managing asthma around peers can be stressful for young adolescents (age 9-14). However, the contexualised coping activities under asthma management-related peer stress is under-investigated. The study aims to explore the peer stress-related coping strategies young adolescents adopt in asthma management. Thirty-four young adolescents were interviewed with semi-structured storytelling protocols. Young adolescents expressed their opinions about four scenarios where the characters had difficulties managing asthma among peers. Interviews were transcribed, and qualitative data were analysed with analytical induction and constant comparison to generate themes that described the coping activities young adolescents adopted in four asthma management scenarios. Young adolescents' responses in each scenario were summarised. The coping activities adolescents adopted were cognitive justifying, explaining, outsourcing and undisclosing. Despite the limitations in a scenario-based qualitative study, the results may be useful for teachers and health professionals in social skill interventions for asthma management in early adolescence. PMID:19657905

  10. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended. PMID:26993636

  11. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  12. School Substance Use Norms and Racial Composition Moderate Parental and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Su, Jinni; Supple, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    Parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use have been well demonstrated. However, limited research has examined how parental and peer influences vary across school contexts. This study used a multilevel approach to examine the effects of school substance use norms and school racial composition in predicting adolescent substance use (a composite measure of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use) and in moderating parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use. A total of 14,346 adolescents from 34 schools in a mid-western county completed surveys electronically at school. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that school-level disapproval against substance use and percentage of minority students at school were negatively associated with adolescent substance use. School-level disapproval moderated the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use, with the association being stronger when school-level disapproval was lower. School racial composition moderated the influence of parental disapproval and peer substance use on adolescent substance use. Specifically, both the association between parental disapproval and adolescent substance use and the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use were weaker for adolescents who attended schools with higher percentages of minority students. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the role of school contexts, in conjunction with parental and peer influences, in understanding adolescent substance use. PMID:27215854

  13. Do Peers' Parents Matter? A New Link Between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Moody, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Method: Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group–level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Results: Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. Conclusions: The fi ndings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:22456247

  14. Peer Group Contexts of Girls’ and Boys’ Academic Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Frank, Kenneth; Field, Sam; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Girls have caught up with boys in math course taking in high school but reasons for taking math still differ by gender. This study, therefore, investigated gender differences in the linkage between peer relations and math course taking by applying multilevel modeling to a nationally representative data set that includes peer networks and school transcripts (N = 6,457 American 9th to 11th graders, aged 13 – 19). For all adolescents, math course taking was associated with the achievement of their close friends and, to a lesser extent, their coursemates. These associations tended to be stronger toward the end of high school and weaker among adolescents with a prior record of failure in school. Each of these patterns was somewhat more consistent among girls. PMID:18269514

  15. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers

    PubMed Central

    Henneberger, Angela K.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls. PMID:25419013

  16. Positive Peer Group Interventions: An Alternative to Individualized Interventions for Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Potentially Disaffected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclouglin, Caven S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Most approaches to reducing the socially inappropriate behavior of adolescents target the individual rather than a group. Evidence suggests greater efficiency and longlasting effects may be achieved when groups of peers work together to make meaningful contributions to their communities through service learning projects. In the…

  17. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  18. Self-Reported Peer Victimization: Concordance and Discordance between Measures of Bullying and Peer Aggression among Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…

  19. Evidence-based social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: the UCLA PEERS program.

    PubMed

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social communication, social cognition, social awareness, social motivation, assertion, cooperation, and responsibility, while decreasing autistic mannerisms and increasing the frequency of peer interactions. Independent teacher ratings revealed significant improvement in social skills and assertion from pre-test to follow-up assessment. Examination of durability of improvement revealed maintenance of gains in nearly all domains with additional treatment gains at a 14-week follow-up assessment. PMID:21858588

  20. Peer Victimization during Middle Childhood as a Lead Indicator of Internalizing Problems and Diagnostic Outcomes in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. Methods This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in nine consecutive years and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10 to 11 years after the victimization assessment). Results Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Conclusions Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression. PMID:24660666

  1. Peer victimization during middle childhood as a lead indicator of internalizing problems and diagnostic outcomes in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in 9 consecutive years, and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10-11 years after the victimization assessment). Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression. PMID:24660666

  2. Lessons learned from two peer-led mutual support groups.

    PubMed

    Viverito, Kristen M; Cardin, Scott A; Johnson, Leigh Ann; Owen, Richard R

    2013-10-01

    This case report and analysis describe the formation of two peer-led mutual support groups conducted within the context of a Veterans Administration Medical Center. Based on our assessment of the success of one of these groups and the failure of the other, we offer several recommendations and suggestions to help promote this modality. More specifically, we hypothesize that such groups are more likely to be successful (1) if participants are transferred en masse from another group, (2) that, at least initially, housing the group in the same context as formal clinician-led groups or overlapping clinician-led and peer-led groups may help smooth the transition from authority-led treatment to a mutual peer support format, and finally, (3) that prior experiences in interpersonal process groups may promote the skills and cohesion to promote successful transition to mutual support. PMID:24004015

  3. Peer referencing in adolescent decision making as a function of perceived parenting style.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Dell Elaine; Fisher, Terri D

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parenting style and adolescent decision making. Two hundred sixty-two college students completed a decision-making scale as well as a parenting scale in an effort to determine if the child-rearing style of their parents was related to the tendency of these late adolescents to reference peers rather than parents or other adults in decision making. The results indicated that adolescents raised by authoritative parents tended to refer to their parents for moral and informational decisions, while adolescents raised by authoritarian, permissive, or neglecting-rejecting parents more often referenced their peers for moral and informational decisions. Adolescents referred to their peers for social decisions regardless of how they were raised. Parental responsiveness was a significant factor in determining the source of adolescent decision-making assistance, but parental demandingness was not. It was concluded that less orientation toward peers during late adolescence seems to be another advantage of authoritative parenting. PMID:15053489

  4. Enhancing peer cultures of academic effort and achievement in early adolescence: promotive effects of the SEALS intervention.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jill V; Farmer, Thomas W; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success (SEALS) intervention. Observational and survey data from teachers (N = 188) and survey data from 6th-graders (N = 2,453) in 36 rural schools across the United States were analyzed. Results indicated that in SEALS versus matched control schools, social prominence was more favorably associated with effort and school valuing, and peer group injunctive norms were more supportive of effort and achievement. Findings indicate that aspects of peer cultures respond to the school context and provide evidence of the efficacy of the SEALS model. PMID:23647418

  5. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  6. The mediating role of deviant peers on the link between depressed mood and harmful drinking: Analyses in a population-based sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H.; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Maughan, Barbara; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One’s peer group can have a strong impact on depressed mood and harmful drinking in adolescence. It remains unclear whether affiliation with deviant peers explains the link between these traits. Our study aims to: a) explore the developmental relationship between harmful drinking and depressed mood in adolescence; and b) establish to which extent affiliation with deviant peers explains this relationship. Methods 4,863 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed between the ages of 14 and 16. Harmful drinking was established using age-appropriate measures: the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) in mid-adolescence (age 14) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in late adolescence (age 16). Depressed mood was measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at both ages. Affiliation with deviant peers was assessed at age 15. Results Harmful drinking at age 14 predicted depressed mood two years later. This association was explained by affiliation with deviant peers and remained present even after adjustment for earlier depressed mood. Depressed mood at age 14 predicted harmful drinking at age 16 via affiliation with deviant peers; however, this indirect effect disappeared when adjusting for adolescents’ earlier harmful alcohol use (age 14). No gender differences were observed. Conclusions Adolescents who engage in early harmful drinking and subsequently become affiliated with a deviant peer group may be at particular risk of later depressed mood. PMID:25620300

  7. Behavioral Weight Control Treatment Combined with Supervised Exercise or Peer Enhanced Adventure for Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Flynn-O’Brien, Katherine; Kaplan, Jamie; Neill, Meghan; Wing, Rena R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of behavioral weight control intervention combined with a peer-enhanced activity intervention versus structured aerobic exercise in decreasing BMI and z-BMI in overweight adolescents. Study design Participants were randomized to one of two group-based treatment conditions: 1) cognitive behavioral treatment combined with peer enhanced adventure therapy (CBT+PEAT) or 2) cognitive behavioral weight control treatment combined with supervised aerobic exercise (CBT+EXER). Participants included 118 overweight adolescents, ages 13 – 16 years, and a primary caregiver. Changes in body mass index (BMI), standardized BMI, percent over BMI, and waist circumference were examined. Results Analysis of variance based on intent to treat (ITT) indicated significant decreases in all weight change outcomes at end of treatment, with significant decreases maintained at 12-month follow-up. No differences between treatment conditions were observed. Secondary analyses indicated that adherence with attendance and completion of weekly diet records contributed significantly to reductions in BMI. Conclusions A cognitive behavioral weight control intervention combined with supervised aerobic exercise or peer-enhanced adventure therapy is equally effective in short-term reduction of BMI and z-BMI among overweight adolescents. Adherence, as measured by session attendance and self-monitoring, is a key dimension of weight change. PMID:20655544

  8. Self-Perceived Gender Typicality and the Peer Context during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tara E.; Leaper, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This research examined adolescents' gender identity in relation to the peer context and their self-concept. Participants were 229 adolescents who completed questionnaire measures of self-concept and multidimensional gender identity. Regression analysis indicated peer acceptance partially mediated the relation between self-perceived gender…

  9. Cross-Situational Coping with Peer and Family Stressors in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…

  10. Peer Victimization and Perceived Life Satisfaction among Early Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Kerr, Jelani C.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer victimization among adolescents has been linked to increased psychological stress, psychosomatic illness, anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, suicide ideation and poor physical health. Purpose: This study explored associations between peer victimization and adolescents' perceptions of life satisfaction. Methods: Public middle…

  11. Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Prospective and Reciprocal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a 2-month prospective research design to examine the bi-directional interplay between peer victimization and social anxiety among adolescents. Participants included 228 adolescents (58% female) in grades 10-12. Three types of peer victimization were examined: "overt" (physical aggression or verbal threats), "relational" (malicious…

  12. Family Process Effects on Adolescent Males' Susceptibility to Antisocial Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescents' susceptibility to antisocial peer pressure and parenting style and frequency of behavior monitoring. Suggests adolescents most susceptible to antisocial peer pressure perceived infrequent monitoring by fathers, inappropriate discipline practice by fathers, and had mothers who…

  13. Neural Responses to Peer Rejection in Anxious Adolescents: Contributions from the Amygdala-Hippocampal Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…

  14. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  15. School, Family, and Peer Factors and Their Association with Substance Use in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how relationships among family, school, and peer factors relate to likelihood of substance use in Hispanic adolescents. Results indicated that only perceived peer substance use was directly related to adolescents' own substance use. A significant interaction was found between parental monitoring and…

  16. Clusters and Correlates of Experiences with Parents and Peers in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a person-oriented approach to examine links between adolescents' experiences with parents and peers. Cluster analysis classified 361, White, working- and middle-class youth (mean age = 12.16 years) based on mothers' and fathers' reports of parental acceptance and adolescents' reports of perceived peer competence. Three patterns…

  17. Unpopularity and Disliking among Peers: Partially Distinct Dimensions of Adolescents' Social Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Schwartz, David; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Mayeux, Lara

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines whether unpopularity and disliking among peers are partially distinct dimensions of adolescents' negative social experience. We recruited 418 students (187 boys, 231 girls, M = 12.12 years, SD = 4.33) from an urban junior high school. These early adolescents completed a peer nomination inventory assessing aspects of their social…

  18. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  19. The Dilemmas of Peer Relationships Confronting Mathematically Gifted Female Adolescents: Nine Cases in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-Yao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…

  20. A Two-Method Investigation of Early Adolescents' Responses upon Witnessing Peer Victimization in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Ma, Ting-Lan; You, Ji-in; Hughes, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Given the passivity of many adolescents upon witnessing peer victimization, the goal of this study was to evaluate the features of school-based peer victimization events that promote helping. A sample of 470 early adolescents (52% girls; 71% White, 9% Black, 6% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% American Indian, 8% Multiethnic, and 3% Other) reported likelihood…

  1. Will They Like Me? Adolescents' Emotional Responses to Peer Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…

  2. Adolescent Judgments and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Social Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…

  3. Bullied to Death: Perceptions of Peer Abuse and Suicidal Behaviour during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Jolynn V.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of adolescents concerning relationship between chronic peer abuse and suicidal behavior, contending chronic peer abuse is a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior. Results upheld this contention, adding that bystander perceptions supported victims' views. Suggests interventions to stop bullying should be expanded to…

  4. The Multidimensionality of Adolescents' Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Peers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…

  5. Predictors of Complicated Grief among Adolescents Exposed to a Peer's Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Day, Nancy; Shear, M. Katherine; Day, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brent, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the predictors of complicated grief, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents exposed to the suicide of a peer. One hundred and forty six peers of adolescent suicide victims were interviewed at 6, 12-18, and 36 months following the suicide. The roles of previous psychiatric…

  6. Reciprocal Associations between Family and Peer Conflict in Adolescents' Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…

  7. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  8. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…

  9. By the Book: An Analysis of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Condition Co-Constructing Fictional Narratives with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; White, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    In this discourse analytic study, we examine interactions between adolescents with autism spectrum condition (ASC) and their typically developing (TD) peers during the construction of fictional narratives within a group intervention context. We found participants with ASC contributed fewer narrative-related turns at talk than TD participants. The…

  10. Relative Importance of Parents and Peers: Differences in Academic and Social Behaviors at Three Grade Levels Spanning Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Juvonen, Jaana; Spatzier, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    By focusing on school-based behaviors, this study examined the validity of a lay assumption that peers match, and even surpass, parents in terms of their importance as socialization agents by early adolescence. Self-reported academic and social behaviors, peer group norms, and perceived parent values were assessed among fourth, sixth, and eighth…

  11. Adolescent social competence: effectiveness in a group setting.

    PubMed

    Englund, M M; Levy, A K; Hyson, D M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    We used a longitudinal data set to evaluate an observational assessment of adolescent competence within a group context. Participants were 40 (21 males, 19 females) ethnically diverse children who had earlier been observed in summer camp (age 10) and preschool (age 4 1/2), as well as in infancy. A revealed differences task was videotaped as part of an intensive weekend camp reunion at ages 15 to 16. Raters, blind to the adolescents' developmental histories, coded each adolescent on the following behavioral rating scales: enjoyment of the task, involvement, leadership, self-confidence in the task, and global social competence. Both concurrent validity (strong correlations with independent camp reunion counselor ratings and peer sociometric measures) and clear associations with antecedent measures of peer competence in preschool and middle childhood were demonstrated. A pattern of correlations revealed considerable discriminate validity. Neither IQ nor socioeconomic status accounted for these associations. Overall, the results confirm the power of a developmentally appropriate, taxing, behaviorally based assessment of group functioning as a measure of competence in adolescence. PMID:11016565

  12. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  13. Small-Group Composition and Peer Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Fung, Irene Y. Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews research on grouping of students within classes and its effects on learning. Primary consideration is given to grouping and mixing students by ability, though consideration is also given to grouping and mixing students by ethnicity and gender as well as to research on the effects of group size. Results of meta-analyses of…

  14. Gender Similarities and Differences in Preadolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Shi, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Mapping procedure was used to identify peer social groups in 26 fifth-grade classrooms from six elementary schools in a northeastern urban school district. Four group structural features were examined: size, the number of subcliques, cohesion, and salience hierarchy. Ethnic diversity index was calculated for each group. An…

  15. Parent influences on adolescent peer orientation and substance use: the interface of parenting practices and values.

    PubMed

    Bogenschneider, K; Wu, M Y; Raffaelli, M; Tsay, J C

    1998-12-01

    This study examines how experiences in the family domain may magnify or mitigate experiences in the peer domain, and how processes in both milieus may influence adolescent substance use. The data derived from 666 European American mother-adolescent dyads and 510 European American father-adolescent dyads. Consistent with individuation-connectedness theory, mothers' responsiveness lessened their adolescents' orientation to peers, which, in turn, reduced adolescent substance use. This process was moderated by maternal values regarding adolescent alcohol use; that is, the relation of maternal responsiveness to adolescent substance use depended on the extent of maternal approval or disapproval of adolescent alcohol use. Among fathers, closer monitoring was directly associated with less adolescent substance use, with stronger effects among fathers who held more disapproving values regarding adolescent alcohol use. Theoretical, methodological, and pragmatic implications are given. PMID:9914646

  16. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885

  17. The Use of a Group Approach in the Rehabilitation of Severely Retarded Adolescents in Agriculture in Israel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigier, E.

    The project investigated aspects of group dynamics and group behavior with mentally retarded adolescents, aged 18 to 25 years with a mental age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who worked in citriculture in Israel. The report began with an examination of the peer group principle, its relationship to childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and its…

  18. Effect of peer education in school on sexual health knowledge and attitude in girl adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Mahnaz; Kazemi, Ashraf; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is associated with so many changes, and to provide sexual health it is necessary for teenagers to learn enough knowledge about the changes and appropriate health behaviors. The attraction of sexual issues in teenagers is associated with more conversations related to sexual matters. Therefore, this study has evaluated the effect of organizing these interactions using peer education in schools on the knowledge and attitude toward sexual health. Materials and Methods: This was an interventional study conducted on 282 girl teenagers from high schools of Isfahan that were divided into two groups of intervention and control. Peer education in the intervention group was done through 35 trained teenagers during normal communications in school. Before the training knowledge and attitude of students in both groups were evaluated; then peer education was conducted during 6 weeks through normal communications on the intervention group and then afterward the knowledge and attitude of the students were evaluated again. To analysis of data independent t-test and paired t-test were used. Results: The results showed that the mean score of knowledge and attitudetoward all sexual health dimensions during puberty in the intervention group was significantly higher after the intervention (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean score of knowledge and approach toward all the aspects of sexual health of both the studied groups. Conclusions: The results showed that using peer education in schools informally could enhance the knowledge and approach toward aspects of physical health, sexual behaviors, and social and mental changes among female adolescences and could be applied in schools.

  19. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…

  20. Development of adolescents' peer crowd identification in relation to changes in problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2012-09-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study, which included 1,313 Dutch adolescents, examined the development of peer crowd identification in relation to changes in problem behaviors. Adolescents from 2 age cohorts annually reported their identification with 7 peer crowds and their levels of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Univariate latent growth curve analyses revealed declines (i.e., "Hip Hoppers" and "Metal Heads") or declines followed by stabilization (i.e., "Nonconformists") in identification with nonconventional crowds and increases (i.e., "Elites" and "Brains") or declines followed by stabilization (i.e., "Normals" and "Jocks") in identification with conventional crowds. Multivariate latent growth curve analyses indicated that stronger and more persistent identifications with nonconventional crowds were generally associated with more problem behaviors throughout adolescence. In contrast, stronger and more persistent identifications with conventional crowds were generally associated with fewer problem behaviors throughout adolescence with the notable exception of Brains, who showed a mixed pattern. Though characterized by fewer externalizing problems, this group did report more anxiety problems. These findings and their implications are discussed. PMID:22268603

  1. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  2. Risk-taking in social settings: Group and peer effects☆

    PubMed Central

    Bougheas, Spiros; Nieboer, Jeroen; Sefton, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of consultation (unincentivized advice) on choices under risk in an incentivized investment task. We compare consultation to two benchmark treatments: one with isolated individual choices, and a second with group choice after communication. Our benchmark treatments replicate findings that groups take more risk than individuals in the investment task; content analysis of group discussions reveals that higher risk-taking in groups is positively correlated with mentions of expected value. In our consultation treatments, we find evidence of peer effects: decisions within the peer group are significantly correlated. However, average risk-taking after consultation is not significantly different from isolated individual choices. We also find that risk-taking after consultation is not affected by adding a feedback stage in which subjects see the choices of their consultation peers. PMID:24926111

  3. Variations in Patterns of Attraction to Same- and Other-Sex Peers during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie K.; Newcomb, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    Examined differences in attraction to same- and other-sex peers as a function of sex, age, individual characteristics, and context in adolescents studied longitudinally from elementary to middle school. Found attraction to aggressive peers and to peers standing out in observable ways increased with age and upon entry to middle school, whereas…

  4. Explicit and Implicit Stigma towards Peers with Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit…

  5. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  6. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  7. Analogue Study of Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schwartz, Sarah; Fox, Nathan A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18–20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions: alone, peers present, peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline there were no significant differences between the three conditions but at the experimental session there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone. PMID:24122411

  8. Relational victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescence: moderating effects of mother, father, and peer emotional support.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Tracy L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2011-05-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents' depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents' symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  9. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability Have Reduced Postural Balance and Muscle Performance in Trunk and Lower Limbs Compared to Peers without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomqvist, Sven; Olsson, Josefine; Wallin, Louise; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Borje

    2013-01-01

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched…

  10. The Moderating Role of Parental Monitoring on the Influence of Peer Pro-Drug Norms on Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason T.; Ayón, Cecilia; Blanchard, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data drawn from a study of 980 adolescents living in Tijuana, Mexico, in February 2009 to examine whether parental monitoring had a moderating impact on the influence of peer pro-drug norms on lifetime and past-30-day alcohol and cigarette use among a group of adolescents living along the United States-Mexico border. The…

  11. Adolescent disclosure of information about peers: the mediating role of perceptions of parents' right to know.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hsun-Yu; Brown, B Bradford; Von Bank, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Following the important insight that what parents know about their adolescent offspring depends primarily on what the child tells them, this study examines how attitudes about what parents have a right to know mediate the associations between several factors (quality of parent-child relationships, time spent with family and peers, levels of antisocial and prosocial behaviors, and gender and age) and adolescents' disclosures about peer relations. In two studies of early and middle adolescents (Ns = 231, 249; M ages = 14.5, 13.0; 62.3, 51.8 % female; 53.7, 67.5 % European American), a new measure of right-to-know attitudes is derived and then applied to four facets of adolescents' experiences with peers: details of activities with peers, issues in specific relationships, and positive and negative peer characteristics. The findings indicate that adolescents are more inclined to disclose certain aspects of their peer relations than others, but these inclinations are related to several factors-especially the quality of mother-child relationships and involvement in antisocial behavior-and mediated by adolescents' attitudes regarding what parents have a right to know about peers. The results are related to autonomy development and parental oversight of adolescent peer interactions. PMID:25707343

  12. Intervention Groups for Adolescents with Conduct Problems: Is Aggregation Harmful or Helpful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Wendy; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Howard, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the aggregation of deviant peers during treatment may cause harmful effects (T. J. Dishion, J. McCord, & F. Poulin, 1999). This study compared the effectiveness of problem-solving skills training groups in which all members had conduct problems ("pure" group condition) with groups that consisted of adolescents with…

  13. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7–9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n=112 boys; n=107 girls; n=7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers’ effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters’ conduct problems, whereas both fathers’ and mothers’ influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children’s conduct problems during early to mid adolescence. PMID:22648200

  14. Peer and Teacher-Selected Peer Buddies for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social, Emotional, and Mentalizing Abilities.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Federico, Francesca; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2016-05-18

    This study examined mentalizing abilities, social behavior, and social impact of adolescents who expressed the willingness to become peer buddies for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and adolescents selected by their teachers and peers. Twenty-seven teachers and 395 adolescents from public high schools completed mentalizing abilities, social status, behavioral, and peer buddy nomination measures. Findings suggest that social status and preference play a significant role in the selection of peer buddies by both teachers and classmates. Furthermore, more advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and the engagement in prosocial behaviors differentiated peers selected as buddies from other classmates. When compared with nonparticipating students, adolescents who expressed willingness to participate were more often girls, and were more prosocial. Agreement between teacher and peer nominations of best peer was moderate. PMID:26398319

  15. Gender-Related Processes and Drug Use: Self-Expression with Parents, Peer Group Selection, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzino, Brian E.; Ribordy, Sheila C.; Grant, Kathryn; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bowden, Blake S.; Zeisz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in communication with parents, peer group selection, and academic motivation as related to drug use among adolescents (290 girls, 237 boys; age range = 12-19 years). For girls, increased self-expression with parents was associated with greater academic motivation, more academically motivated friends,…

  16. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  17. Multifinality of peer victimization: maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Veenstra, René

    2015-10-01

    Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is known about the relative likelihood of each form of maladjustment. We used a latent profile approach to capture multiple possible outcomes and examined prediction by peer victimization. We also examined the role of peer victimization with regard to stability and change in maladjustment. Maladjustment symptoms and peer victimization were assessed from the participants of the large cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey in early and mid-adolescence. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were conducted to examine associations between victimization and maladjustment profile and to test the role of victimization in maladjustment profile transitions. Four maladjustment profiles were identified for early adolescence (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing, Comorbid) and three profiles (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing) were identified for mid-adolescence. Internalizing problems were more likely in victimized adolescents than low symptom levels or externalizing problems. Victimized adolescents were at greater risk to develop internalizing problems between early and mid-adolescence than non-victimized adolescents. Peer victimization is multifinal mostly when outcomes are examined separately. If multiple outcomes are tested simultaneously, internalizing problems seem to be the most likely outcome. PMID:25540123

  18. Short communication: Flourishing among adolescents with epilepsy: Correlates and comparison to peers.

    PubMed

    Odar Stough, Cathleen; Nabors, Laura; Merianos, Ashley; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adolescents with a seizure disorder/epilepsy display less flourishing (thriving) than peers without seizures using data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012. Adolescent demographics, symptom severity, and parents' anger toward their child were explored as possible predictors of flourishing. Adolescents with seizures exhibited lower flourishing than peers, and flourishing among adolescents with seizures was predicted by symptom severity, age, race/ethnicity, sex, and parental anger. Study results suggest adolescents with a seizure disorder/epilepsy should be targeted for interventions that promote flourishing. PMID:26313714

  19. How Do Efforts to Enhance Career Preparation Affect Peer Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Koivisto, Petri; Mutanen, Pertti; Vuori, Jukka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how efforts to enhance career preparation affect peer groups. The participants were 710 9th graders who were randomized into control and intervention groups and assessed 3 times during 1 academic year: at baseline (T1, Fall), immediately after the career preparation intervention (T2, 3 months after baseline), and 5…

  20. Moral Judgment as a Function of Peer Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Karen A.; Goldman, Jacquelin R.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents an investigation into the effects of peer group interaction on moral judgment among 36 male and female eleventh and twelfth graders. The results indicate greater social conflict and pressure in a group discussion induces greater change in the level of moral judgment. (DE)

  1. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  2. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  3. The Significance of Reciprocal and Unilateral Friendships for Peer Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor…

  4. The Nature and Correlates of Mexican-American Adolescents' Time with Parents and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on cultural-ecological and person-environment fit perspectives, this study examined links among Mexican-American adolescents' time with peers and parents, parents' cultural orientations, and adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and cultural orientations. Participants were 492 Mexican-American adolescents (Ms=15.7 and 12.8 years for older…

  5. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  6. Predictors of Susceptibility to Peer Influence regarding Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which peer influences on substance use in adolescence systematically vary in strength based on qualities of the adolescent and his or her close friend was assessed in a study of 157 adolescents (age: M = 13.35, SD = 0.64), their close friends, and their parents assessed longitudinally with a combination of observational, analogue,…

  7. Physiological correlates of peer victimization and aggression in African American urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Dibble, Ashley E; Goodman, Kimberly L; Sullivan, Terri N

    2012-05-01

    This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group × SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth's behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts. PMID:22559136

  8. Adolescent self-regulation as resilience: resistance to antisocial behavior within the deviant peer context.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Theodore W; Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin M

    2008-02-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. A multi-agent construct was created using adolescent, parent, and teacher reports of self-regulation and peer deviance. Results indicated that self-regulation shows convergent validity and covaries as expected with developmental patterns of adolescent antisocial behavior. Self-regulation moderated the association of peer deviance with later self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior after controlling for prior levels of antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for models for the development of antisocial behaviors and for intervention science are discussed. PMID:17899361

  9. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence. PMID:26857403

  10. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  11. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  12. Maternal and Peer Regulation of Adolescent Emotion: Associations with Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Craig, Wendy M; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer; O'Hara, Arland; Granic, Isabela; Hollenstein, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Emotion socialization by close relationship partners plays a role in adolescent depression. In the current study, a microsocial approach was used to examine how adolescents' emotions are socialized by their mothers and close friends in real time, and how these interpersonal emotion dynamics are related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Participants were 83 adolescents aged 16 to 17 years who participated in conflict discussions with their mothers and self-nominated close friends. Adolescents' positive and negative emotions, and mothers' and peers' supportive regulation of adolescent emotions, were coded in real time. Two multilevel survival analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework predicted the hazard rate of (1) mothers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions, and (2) peers' supportive regulation of adolescents' emotions. The likelihood of maternal supportiveness, regardless of adolescent emotions, was lower for adolescents with higher depressive symptoms. In addition, peers were less likely to up-regulate adolescent positive emotions at higher levels of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results of the current study support interpersonal models of depression and demonstrate the importance of real-time interpersonal emotion processes in adolescent depressive symptoms. PMID:26419667

  13. Mothers' Management of Adolescent Peer Relationships: Associations With Aggressive, Prosocial, and Playful Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing. PMID:26244710

  14. The Mediating Role of Extreme Peer Orientation in the Relationships between Adolescent-Parent Relationship and Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Linda M.; Berg, Cynthia; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined whether the quality of the adolescent-parent relationship was associated with better diabetes management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by decreasing adolescents' extreme peer orientation. Adolescents (n=252; 46% male and 54% female) aged 10-14 years with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of extreme peer orientation (i.e., tendency to ignore parental advice and diabetes care in order to fit in with friends), adolescent-parental relationship, and adherence; HbA1c scores indexed metabolic control. Adolescents with higher quality relationships with parents reported less peer orientation and better diabetes care. The mediational model revealed that adolescents' high quality relationships with their parents (mother and father) were associated with better treatment adherence and metabolic control through less peer orientation. It is likely that high quality adolescent-parent relationships may be beneficial to adolescent diabetes management through a healthy balance between peer and parental influence. PMID:20545403

  15. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  16. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  17. Effect of Peer Evaluation Format on Student Engagement in a Group Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Active participation in classrooms often involves group work. In order to examine the effect of using peer evaluations as part of that experience, this study measured the influence of four formats of peer evaluation on students' perceptions of fairness of the peer evaluation method, its impact on peer engagement, and peer evaluation scores. The…

  18. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  19. Women's Peer Groups and Choice of Career. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Dorothy C.; Eisenhart, Margaret A.

    The role of women's college peer groups in aiding women to continue along or in encouraging them to drop out of certain career paths was investigated. During an ethnographic phase, freshmen were interviewed; during the survey phase a survey instrument was administered to sophomores. Respondents were from predominately black Bradford University…

  20. Play Chronotopes: Laughter-Talk in Peer Group Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Although research has investigated laughter in professional communication settings, fewer studies have explored laughter-talk in second language (L2) classrooms. This study examines L2 university students' use of laughter-talk in peer group conversation to understand the linguistics of affect and its interactional effects. The author draws upon…

  1. Peer-Group Mentoring as a Tool for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geeraerts, Kendra; Tynjälä, Päivi; Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Markkanen, Ilona; Pennanen, Matti; Gijbels, David

    2015-01-01

    Peer-group mentoring (PGM) is a new model designed to support the professional development of teachers in Finland. This study examines the experiences of mentees participating in PGM and potential differences in the experiences of teachers in general education and vocational education. It also addresses the mentees' perceptions of the results of…

  2. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the information necessary to make an informed decision is explicitly provided. We used a novel probabilistic gambling task in which participants decided whether to play or pass on a series of offers for which the reward and loss outcome probabilities were made explicit. Adolescent participants completed the task either alone or under the belief that they were being observed by an unknown peer in a neighboring room. Participants who believed a peer was observing them chose to gamble more often than participants who completed the task alone, and this effect was most evident for decisions with a greater probability of loss. These results suggest that the presence of peers can increase risk taking among adolescents even when specific information regarding the likelihood of positive and negative outcomes is provided. The findings expand our understanding of how peers influence adolescent decision making and have important implications regarding the value of educational programs aimed at reducing risky behaviors during adolescence. PMID:24447118

  3. Experimentally-Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental “chat room” paradigm involving “e-confederates” who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the “chat room” were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partner sat baseline, and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. PMID:24999763

  4. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. PMID:24999763

  5. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent intentions to initiate alcohol and cigarette use, and how social goals moderate this relationship. Results support the moderating role of social goals, and suggest important differences across alcohol and cigarette use. Peer use and approval of cigarette use was associated with future intentions to smoke for adolescents with strong agentic goals, and peer use and approval of alcohol use was associated with intentions to drink for adolescents with strong communal goals. These findings suggest that adolescent substance use theories and prevention programs focusing on peer socialization should consider individual differences in social goals and potential differences in peer influence across drugs. PMID:21857763

  6. Peer emotion socialization and somatic complaints in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee

    2016-07-01

    Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence. PMID:27176784

  7. Sociometric classification methods in school peer groups: a comparative investigation.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, N L; Furnham, A F

    1998-09-01

    The categorical consequences and psychometric properties of different sociometric classification methods were evaluated. Children aged 9 to 12 years (N = 254) completed three sociometric questionnaires and a peer assessment measure on two occasions 5 weeks apart. The sociometric data were analysed using 13 different methods. Analysis of kappa values indicated relatively poor agreement across methods on subject classification. Temporal stability of the classifications was also poor. Assessment of construct validity involved analysis of the peer assessment items, using MANOVA to test hypotheses based on ideas from social exchange theory. Cross-sex rating biases and difficulties with the neglected and controversial classifications are discussed as indicating a need for the application of theoretically based approaches which consider features of the peer group social system and a need for caution in selecting methods for clinical use. PMID:9758200

  8. Socio-demographic variability in adolescent substance use: mediation by parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Farhat, Tilda; Farhart, Tilda; Luk, Jeremy W

    2009-12-01

    The current study examined socio-demographic variability in adolescent substance use and the mediating roles of maternal knowledge, paternal knowledge and peer substance use. The data were obtained from the United States records (N = 8,795) of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2005/2006 Survey, in grades 6 through 10. The analyses employed multiple indicator multiple cause and structural equation models. Adolescent substance use was measured by frequencies of alcohol use, being drunk, and cigarette and marijuana use in the past month. Peer influence had a direct influence on adolescent substance use. Maternal knowledge had both direct and indirect influences on adolescent substance use through its negative association with substance-using peers, whereas paternal knowledge only had an indirect influence. Parental knowledge and peer substance use totally mediated differences in adolescent substance use by grade; differences between Caucasian and African-American or Hispanic adolescents; and differences between adolescents from two-parent families and those from single-mother, single-father or mother-stepfather families. Parental knowledge and peer substance were important mediators which largely accounted for variability in the prevalence of adolescent substance use by grade, race/ethnicity, and family structure. PMID:19582581

  9. Adolescent Secretive Behavior: African American and Hmong Adolescents' Strategies and Justifications for Managing Parents' Knowledge about Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeremy P.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon the expectancy violation-realignment theory of autonomy development, this qualitative study examined African American and Hmong adolescent autonomy-seeking behaviors and parent-child communication about activities and relationships with peers. Twenty-two African American and 11 Hmong adolescents in grades 6-12 and 14 African American…

  10. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent…

  11. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  12. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023

  13. Forbidden friends as forbidden fruit: parental supervision of friendships, contact with deviant peers, and adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T; Schwartz, Seth J; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age = 13 years at baseline), their best friends, and both parents. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed strong longitudinal links from contacts with deviant peers to adolescent delinquency, but not vice versa. Parent-reported prohibition of friendships positively predicted contacts with deviant peers and indirectly predicted higher adolescent delinquency. Similar indirect effects were not found for parental control. The results suggest that forbidden friends may become "forbidden fruit," leading to unintended increases in adolescents' own delinquency. PMID:22181711

  14. On Variations in Adolescent Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of adolescents involved in marihuana and nonmarihuana-using peer groups are described. Adolescent subcultures are highly differentiated and involvement with peers does not necessarily entail rejection and estrangement from parents. (Author/AM)

  15. Do Peers Matter? A Review of Peer and/or Friends' Influence on Physical Activity among American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles…

  16. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997

  17. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  18. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  19. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…

  20. A two-method investigation of early adolescents' responses upon witnessing peer victimization in school.

    PubMed

    Bellmore, Amy; Ma, Ting-Lan; You, Ji-in; Hughes, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Given the passivity of many adolescents upon witnessing peer victimization, the goal of this study was to evaluate the features of school-based peer victimization events that promote helping. A sample of 470 early adolescents (52% girls; 71% White, 9% Black, 6% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% American Indian, 8% Multiethnic, and 3% Other) reported likelihood of helping and specific helping and non-helping behaviors with an experimental vignette method and through descriptions of recently witnessed real-life victimization events. With both methods, an adolescent's relationship with the victim predicted likelihood of helping and specific helping behaviors above and beyond the contribution of other key personal characteristics including gender, empathy, communal goal orientation, and previous victimization experiences. Examination of adolescents' real-life experiences yielded systematic patterns between their responses and their reasoning about the responses undertaken. The results illustrate the relevance of taking into account peer victimization event characteristics for promoting witness intervention in adolescence. PMID:22633915

  1. Family, peer and individual factors related to methylenedioxymethamphetamine use in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Hsu, Sen-Yen

    2007-10-01

    Examination of the correlates of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is crucial for the development and implementation of effective prevention programs for adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify the family, peer and individual factors that were related to MDMA use in Taiwanese adolescents. Two hundred adolescents who used MDMA and 200 who did not use MDMA were recruited into the study. The family, peer and individual factors related to MDMA use were examined using chi(2) automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analysis. The results indicated that the adolescents who had more friends involved with substance use, disruptive family and attitude favoring MDMA use were more likely to use MDMA. Multiple factors of family, peer and individuals were related to MDMA use among Taiwanese adolescents. This knowledge may be helpful when designing and implementing preventive intervention programs. PMID:17875035

  2. Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Context: How Neighborhoods, Parents and Peers Impact Youth

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  3. Early adolescent alcohol use in context: how neighborhoods, parents, and peers impact youth.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W

    2014-05-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  4. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  5. Peer Interactions of Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    LaFreniere, Lucas; Cain, Albert

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates peer interaction and peer support for parentally bereaved children and adolescents. Using data from an extensive study of bereaved families in southeastern Michigan, previously transcribed semistructured interviews on peer relationships from a sample of 35 parentally bereaved children aged 6 to 15 were qualitatively analyzed using the constant comparative method. This analysis explores peer interaction in the context of parental loss, revealing the nearly ubiquitous desire of bereaved children to be perceived as "normal" and maintain their social life as it was before the death, the avoidance of bereavement-related peer interaction, the nature of and possible reasons for the relative lack of peer support, deliberately hurtful peer behavior, the multiple functions of peer support, and the value of close friends in bereavement. PMID:27132378

  6. Time with Peers from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental course and adjustment correlates of time with peers from age 8 to 18. On 7 occasions over 8 years, the two eldest siblings from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire and/or phone diary data. Multilevel models revealed that girls’ time with mixed/opposite-sex peers increased beginning in middle childhood, but boys’ time increased beginning in early adolescence. For both girls and boys, time with same-sex peers peaked in mid-adolescence. At the within-person level, unsupervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted problem behaviors and depressive symptoms, and supervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted better school performance. Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding peer involvement and its implications for youth development. PMID:24673293

  7. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  8. Mothers, Peers, and Perceived Pressure to Diet among Japanese Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo

    1996-01-01

    Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)

  9. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  10. Peer Relationships and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…

  11. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  12. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  13. Peer-victimization and mental health problems in adolescents: are parental and school support protective?

    PubMed

    Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age and gender were additionally considered as moderating factors. The Social and Health Assessment survey was conducted among 986 students aged 11-18 years in order to assess peer-victimization, risk and protective factors and mental health problems. For mental health problems, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. Effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems were additionally compared with normative SDQ data in order to obtain information about clinically relevant psychopathology in our study sample. Results of this study show that peer-victimization carries a serious risk for mental health problems in adolescents. School support is effective in both male and female adolescents by acting as a buffer against the effect of victimization, and school support gains increasing importance in more senior students. Parental support seems to be protective against maladjustment, especially in peer-victimized girls entering secondary school. Since the effect of peer-victimization can be reduced by parental and school support, educational interventions are of great importance in cases of peer-victimization. PMID:20221691

  14. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  15. The Peer Context of Adolescent Substance Use: Findings from Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Foshee, Vangie A.; Cai, Li; DuRant, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for…

  16. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  17. Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…

  18. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  19. Validation of Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Social systems, particularly family, school, and peer, are especially critical in influencing adolescents to participate in volunteer service; however, no objective measures of this construct exist. Objectives: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism scale (FSPV) among Chinese…

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2004-01-01

    Relations between adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships (consulting, mediating, and autonomy granting in regard to peer relationships) and positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, delinquent activity, and drug use were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 322 7th and 8th graders. Regression analyses…

  1. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  2. Forbidden Friends as Forbidden Fruit: Parental Supervision of Friendships, Contact with Deviant Peers, and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age =…

  3. Parents and Peers as Providers of Support in Adolescents' Social Network: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Valle, Jorge F.; Bravo, Amaia; Lopez, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The authors carried out an assessment of social support networks with a sample of 884 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17. The main goal was to analyze the development of the figures of parents and peers as providers of social support in the two basic dimensions of emotional and instrumental support. In peers, they distinguished between the contexts…

  4. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  5. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  6. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  7. School Functioning in Early Adolescence: Gender-Linked Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that peer victimization contributes to poor school functioning in childhood and adolescence, yet the processes by which victimization interferes with school functioning are unclear. This study examined internalizing and externalizing problems as domain-specific mediators of the association between subtypes of peer victimization…

  8. Alcohol Use in Adolescent Twins and Affiliation with Substance Using Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennifer; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Affiliation with substance using peers is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use. This association is typically interpreted causally: peers who drink incite their friends to drink. This association may be complicated by uncontrolled genetic and environmental confounds because teens with familial predispositions for adolescent…

  9. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  10. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from…

  11. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition. PMID:22494811

  12. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship. PMID:26254219

  13. Determinants of binge drinking in a permissive environment: focus group interviews with Dutch adolescents and parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to other European countries, the Netherlands score among the highest of binge drinking rates of 16 to 18 year old adolescents. Dutch adolescents aged 16 are legally allowed to buy and consume low strength alcoholic beverages. This study focused on determinants of binge drinking in such a permissive environment from the perspectives of adolescents and parents. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 16 to 18 (N = 83), and parents of adolescents from this age group (N = 24). Data was analysed using thematic analyses methods. Results Most reasons adolescents mentioned for drinking were to relax, increase a good mood and to be social. Also peers around them influenced and increased adolescents’ drinking. Comparing adolescents and parental statements about their perspectives how alcohol use is handled and accepted by the parents we found that generally, those perspectives match. Parents as well as adolescents stated that alcohol use is accepted by parents. However, when looking at essential details, like the acceptable amounts that children may consume, the perspectives differ enormously. Adolescents think their parents accept any amount of drinking as long as they do not get drunk, whereas parents reported acceptable limits of 1 or 2 glasses every two weeks. Parents further indicated that they felt unsupported by the Dutch policies and regulations of alcohol use. Most of them were in favour of an increase of the legal purchasing age to 18 years. Conclusions Parents and adolescents should both be targeted in interventions to reduce alcohol use among adolescents. In particular, communication between parents and children should be improved, in order to avoid misconceptions about acceptable alcohol use. Further, adolescents should be supported to handle difficult social situations with peers where they feel obliged to drink. Additionally, revisions of policies towards a less permissive standpoint are advised to

  14. Measuring Peer Pressure, Popularity, and Conformity in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Predicting School Performance, Sexual Attitudes, and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2000-01-01

    Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…

  15. Sand Tray Group Counseling with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Kay; Ritter, Kelli B.; Willingham, Elizabeth U.

    2003-01-01

    Sand tray group counseling with adolescents is an activity-based intervention designed to help participants address specific intrapersonal concerns, learn important skills of socialization, and develop a caring community. The main focus of the group is building small worlds with miniature figures in individual trays of sand and having an…

  16. Pregnancy-Prevention Groups for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Betty J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of group training in decision making and interpersonal skills to prevent unwanted adolescent pregnancy. Evaluation of the program suggests that group intervention is an effective social work approach. Participants reported greater commitment to postponing pregnancy and greater reliance on birth control methods. (JAC)

  17. Does the Importance of Parent and Peer Relationships for Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Vary across Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…

  18. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  19. Promoting Social Competence and Peer Relationships for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Common, Eric A.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Huber, Heartley B.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Gustafson, Jenny Redding; Dykstra, Jessica; Hume, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses some of the key considerations and complexities associated with intervening to address social competence and peer relationships of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in middle and high school settings. First, we provide a brief overview of the social context during adolescence for all students. Next, we…

  20. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  1. Relationship between Parents and Peer Influences on Qualities of Adolescent Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiunu, Jude J.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between parents and peer influences on the qualities of adolescent friendship. Relevant literature in the field of adolescent friendship qualities and parental interaction were investigated. The problem of the study is the increasing incidences of emotional, imbalance among young people that manifest in…

  2. Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Natalie P.; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to…

  3. Peer Acceptance and Friendship as Predictors of Early Adolescents' Adjustment across the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Erdley, Cynthia A.; Marshall, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines several aspects of adolescents' pretransition peer relationships as predictors of their adjustment to middle school. Participants were 365 students (175 boys; 99% Caucasian) involved in the Time 1 (the spring of fifth grade) and Time 2 (the fall of sixth grade) assessments. Adolescents completed measures that assessed peer…

  4. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  5. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  6. Family Heritage and Depression Guides: Family and Peer Views Influence Adolescent Attitudes about Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal

    2007-01-01

    While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…

  7. Adolescents' Implicit Theories Predict Desire for Vengeance after Peer Conflicts: Correlational and Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an…

  8. Being in "Bad" Company: Power Dependence and Status in Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Theories of susceptibility to peer influence have centered on the idea that lower status adolescents are likely to adopt the behaviors of high status adolescents. While status is important, social exchange theorists have shown the value of analyzing exchange relations between actors to understand differences in power. To build on status-based…

  9. Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Englesakis, Marina; Rizo, Carlos; Stern, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compile and evaluate the evidence on the effects on health and social outcomes of computer based peer to peer communities and electronic self support groups, used by people to discuss health related issues remotely. Design and data sources Analysis of studies identified from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Electronics and Communications Abstracts, Computer and Information Systems Abstracts, ERIC, LISA, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, Web of Science. Selection of studies We searched for before and after studies, interrupted time series, cohort studies, or studies with control groups; evaluating health or social outcomes of virtual peer to peer communities, either as stand alone interventions or in the context of more complex systems with peer to peer components. Main outcome measures Peer to peer interventions and co-interventions studied, general characteristics of studies, outcome measures used, and study results. Results 45 publications describing 38 distinct studies met our inclusion criteria: 20 randomised trials, three meta-analyses of n of 1 trials, three non-randomised controlled trials, one cohort study, and 11 before and after studies. Only six of these evaluated “pure” peer to peer communities, and one had a factorial design with a “peer to peer only” arm, whereas 31 studies evaluated complex interventions, which often included psychoeducational programmes or one to one communication with healthcare professionals, making it impossible to attribute intervention effects to the peer to peer community component. The outcomes measured most often were depression and social support measures; most studies did not show an effect. We found no evidence to support concerns over virtual communities harming people. Conclusions No robust evidence exists of consumer led peer to peer communities, partly because most peer to peer communities have been evaluated only in conjunction with more complex interventions or

  10. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  11. Effect of peer led programme for asthma education in adolescents: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Smita; Peat, Jennifer K; Mazurski, Evalynn J; Wang, Han; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Bruce, Colleen; Henry, Richard L; Gibson, Peter G

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of a peer led programme for asthma education on quality of life and related morbidity in adolescents with asthma. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six high schools in rural Australia. Participants 272 students with recent wheeze, recruited from a cohort of 1515 students from two school years (mean age 12.5 and 15.5 years); 251 (92.3%) completed the study. Intervention A structured education programme for peers comprising three steps (the “Triple A Program”). Main outcome measures Quality of life, school absenteeism, asthma attacks, and lung function. Results When adjusted for year and sex, mean total quality of life scores showed significant improvement in the intervention than control group. Clinically important improvement in quality of life (>0.5 units) occurred in 25% of students with asthma in the intervention group compared with 12% in the control group (P=0.01). The number needed to treat was 8 (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 35.7). The effect of the intervention was greatest in students in year 10 and in females. Significant improvements occurred in the activities domain (41% v 28%) and in the emotions domain (39% v 19%) in males in the intervention group. School absenteeism significantly decreased in the intervention group only. Asthma attacks at school increased in the control group only. Conclusion The triple A programme leads to a clinically relevant improvement in quality of life and related morbidity in students with asthma. Wider dissemination of this programme in schools could play an important part in reducing the burden of asthma in adolescents. PMID:11238152

  12. Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

  13. Media as Social Influence: Racial Differences in the Effects of Peers and Media on Adolescent Alcohol Cognitions and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents’ alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in: the favorability of the adolescents’ drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence, and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. PMID:21198226

  14. Age differences in the impact of peers on adolescents' and adults' neural response to reward.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley R; Steinberg, Laurence; Strang, Nicole; Chein, Jason

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that increased adolescent risk-taking in the presence of peers may be linked to the influence of peers on the valuation and processing of rewards during decision-making. The current study explores this idea by examining how peer observation impacts the processing of rewards when such processing is isolated from other facets of risky decision-making (e.g. risk-perception and preference, inhibitory processing, etc.). In an fMRI paradigm, a sample of adolescents (ages 14-19) and adults (ages 25-35) completed a modified High/Low Card Guessing Task that included rewarded and un-rewarded trials. Social context was manipulated by having participants complete the task both alone and while being observed by two, same-age, same-sex peers. Results indicated an interaction of age and social context on the activation of reward circuitry during the receipt of reward; when observed by peers adolescents exhibited greater ventral striatal activation than adults, but no age-related differences were evinced when the task was completed alone. These findings suggest that, during adolescence, peers influence recruitment of reward-related regions even when they are engaged outside of the context of risk-taking. Implications for engagement in prosocial, as well as risky, behaviors during adolescence are discussed. PMID:25280778

  15. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  16. Child neglect and adolescent violence: examining the effects of self-control and peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Constance L; Tyler, Kimberly A; Bersani, Bianca E

    2005-02-01

    Child maltreatment researchers have often suggested that experiences with child neglect have long-term, negative effects. Child neglect is thought to have particularly adverse effects on self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. In this research, we examine the relationship of child neglect with adolescent violence via self-control and peer rejection. Using prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample, we find that child neglect adversely affects peer rejection and violence. Neglected children were more likely to be rejected by their peers in early adolescence and were more likely to be violent later in adolescence. Contrary to theoretical predictions, child neglect was not a significant predictor of self-control. Implications for delinquency and child maltreatment researchers are discussed. PMID:16047934

  17. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships. PMID:25501657

  18. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents. PMID:26026598

  19. Peer Network Counseling with Urban Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Moderate Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Light, John; Campbell, Leah; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Crewe, Stephanie; Way, Thomas; Saunders, Heather; King, Laura; Zaharakis, Nikola M; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-11-01

    Close peer networks can affect adolescents' health behaviors by altering their social environments, and thus their risk for and protection against substance use involvement. We tested a 20 minute intervention named Peer Network Counseling that integrates motivational interviewing and peer network strategies with 119 urban adolescents who reported occasional or problem substance use. Adolescents presenting at primary care clinic were randomized to intervention or control conditions and followed for 6 months. Mixed-effect latent growth models were used to evaluate intervention effects on trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use, offers to use substances, and moderation models to test for interactions between intervention condition and peer network characteristics. A significant intervention effect was found for boys for offers to use alcohol from friends (p<.05), along with a trend significant effect for alcohol use (p<.08). Intervention was more effective in reducing marijuana use, vs. control, for participants with more peer social support (p<.001) and with more peer encouragement for prosocial behavior (school, clubs, sports, religious activities); however, intervention did not affect these network characteristics. Results provide support to continue this line of research to test brief interventions that activate protective peer network characteristics among at-risk adolescents, while also raising some interesting gender-based intervention questions for future research. PMID:26234955

  20. Genetic Influences on Peer and Family Relationships Across Adolescent Development: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Mullineaux, Paula Y; DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher

    2015-07-01

    Nearly all aspects of human development are influenced by genetic and environmental factors, which conjointly shape development through several gene-environment interplay mechanisms. More recently, researchers have begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on peer and family relationships across the pre-adolescent and adolescent time periods. This article introduces the special issue by providing a critical overview of behavior genetic methodology and existing research demonstrating gene-environment processes operating on the link between peer and family relationships and adolescent adjustment. The overview is followed by a summary of new research studies, which use genetically informed samples to examine how peer and family environment work together with genetic factors to influence behavioral outcomes across adolescence. The studies in this special issue provide further evidence of gene-environment interplay through innovative behavior genetic methodological approaches across international samples. Results from the quantitative models indicate environmental moderation of genetic risk for coercive adolescent-parent relationships and deviant peer affiliation. The molecular genetics studies provide support for a gene-environment interaction differential susceptibility model for dopamine regulation genes across positive and negative peer and family environments. Overall, the findings from the studies in this special issue demonstrate the importance of considering how genes and environments work in concert to shape developmental outcomes during adolescence. PMID:26006709

  1. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. PMID:23827938

  2. Keeping Quiet Just Wouldn't be Right: Children's and Adolescents' Evaluations of Challenges to Peer Relational and Physical Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2016-09-01

    Youth peer groups hold many different types of norms, including norms supporting aggressive behavior. Challenging or standing up to such aggressive norms can be difficult for children and adolescents, given the pressures to conform to groups. In the current study, the relationship between individual judgments and expectations of the judgments of a peer group about the acceptability of challenging aggressive group norms was investigated. The sample included 9-10 and 13-14 year-olds (N = 292, 52.4 % female). Participants evaluated groups with norms condoning physical and relational aggression. Participants were more supportive of challenges to relational aggression than challenges to physical aggression. Additionally, age-related differences were found, with younger children perceiving challenges to group norms as more feasible than did adolescents. Participants individually rated challenging aggressive norms as okay, but thought that groups would be much less supportive of such challenges. The results also documented the influence of gender stereotypes about aggressive behavior on children's and adolescents' evaluations. PMID:27002969

  3. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. PMID:25240191

  4. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs. PMID:25126969

  5. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826

  6. Expectations About Ethnic Peer Group Inclusivity: The Role of Shared Interests, Group Norms, and Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three factors that contribute to social exclusion: group norms, individual characteristics, and stereotypes. Non-Arab American 12- and 16-year-olds (N = 199) judged their expectations about the inclusivity of Arab American and non-Arab American peer groups toward new peers characterized by: (a) different ethnic identity but similar interests (e.g., hobbies) and (b) same ethnic identity but different interests. Participants expected that when groups had exclusive norms, Arab American peers would base inclusion decisions on ethnic identity, but that their own non-Arab group would base decisions on shared interests. Participants who reported stereotypes expected their in-group to be ethnically less inclusive. With age, ethnic-based exclusion increased. The findings are discussed in light of current research on developmental intergroup relationships. PMID:26154412

  7. Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Perceived Family, Peer and School Relations: Commonalities and Differences Across Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Haynie, Denise L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although bullying is recognized as a serious problem in the U.S., little is known about racial/ethnic differences in bullying risk. This study examined associations between bullying and family, peer, and school relations for White, Black and Hispanic adolescents. Methods A nationally-representative sample (n=11,033) of adolescents in grades six to ten participated in the 2001 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey, self-reporting bullying involvement and information on family, peer and school relations. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, age and affluence were stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Nine percent of respondents were victims of bullying, 9% were bullies, and 3% were bully-victims. Black adolescents reported a significantly lower prevalence of victimization than White and Hispanic students. Multivariate results indicated modest racial/ethnic variation in associations between bullying and family, peer and school factors. Parental communication, social isolation, and classmate relationships were similarly related to bullying across racial/ethnic groups. Living with two biological parents was protective against bullying involvement for White students only. Further, although school satisfaction and performance were negatively associated with bullying involvement for White and Hispanic students, school factors were largely unrelated to bullying among Black students. Conclusions Although school attachment and performance were inconsistently related to bullying behavior across race/ethnicity, bullying behaviors are consistently related to peer relationships across Black, White and Hispanic adolescents. Negative associations between family communication and bullying behaviors for White, Black and Hispanic adolescents suggest the importance of addressing family interactions in future bullying prevention efforts. PMID:17707299

  8. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  9. Desire for Increased Autonomy and Adolescents' Perceptions of Peer Autonomy: "Everyone Else Can; Why Can't I?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined adolescents' personal autonomy beliefs and their perceptions of peer autonomy. Study 1 sampled 527 adolescents (M = 15.40 years) and found that adolescents desired increased autonomy most over personal and multifaceted issues and least over moral and conventional issues. Younger adolescents and girls desired increased autonomy…

  10. "Me, My Classmates and My Buddies": Analysing Peer Group Effects on Student Marijuana Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…

  11. Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Episodes among Middle School Students: Individual and Peer-Group Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy; Green, Harold; Polanin, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations among gender, empathy, attitudes toward bullying, willingness to intervene, and bullying within peer groups in a sample of sixth and seventh-grade students (N = 346; M Age = 12.22 years). Peer groups were identified via social network analysis using NEGOPY (Richards, 1995) and peer-group predictors were…

  12. Group Process and Adolescent Leadership Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an approach to leadership development which is particularly supportive of the needs of adolescents and reflective of a democratic style of leadership. It is an outgrowth of the High/Scope Summer Workshop for Teenagers, which helped young people acquire leadership skills through group membership and cooperation. (Author)

  13. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  14. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship Between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents’ participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a “double-standard” for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21052800

  15. Peer Programs for HIV Prevention by and for Incarcerated Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Patricia F.; Barthlow, Diana J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a peer helping program that targets prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among incarcerated youth within the context of the National Peer Helper Association's Standards for Peer Programs. The program emphasizes the relative and reciprocal influences among behavioral, personal, and environmental variables hypothesized to…

  16. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  17. Adolescents' Media-related Cognitions and Substance Use in the Context of Parental and Peer Influences

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.

    2013-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence. PMID:19795197

  18. Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older

    PubMed Central

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' perception of parents' and peers' smoking approval influences adolescent smoking intention, and how age affects this influence in a Swiss sample of adolescents. To know the influence of age can help to develop specific prevention programs tailored to the age groups needs. Method in a cross sectional survey, students aged between 11 and 14 from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) answered questions on smoking habits, parents' and peers' approval and intention to smoke. Results peers' and parents' approval significantly influence students' smoking intention, and students' age significantly moderates this relation: the effect of parents' approval decreases for older adolescents, while the effect of peers' approval increases with age. No difference is found between girls and boys, while non-Swiss are more likely to smoke than Swiss students. Conclusions as literature suggests, results evidence the role parents play during early adolescence. Prevention programs targeting parent-child communication in early adolescence for preventing children's tobacco consumption are strongly supported. PMID:24991921

  19. The ABC's of teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the classroom: the UCLA PEERS (®) Program.

    PubMed

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon

    2014-09-01

    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all. PMID:24715256

  20. Bi-directional Effects of Peer Relationships and Adolescent Substance Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Meghan H; Jose, Paul E; Stuart, Jaimee

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the predictors of the onset and maintenance of substance use in adolescence is important because it is a recognized health risk. The present longitudinal study examined whether negative peer influence and peer connectedness predicted changes in adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and other illegal drug use, and reciprocally whether substance use predicted changes in peer relationships. Adolescents (N = 1940; 52 % female; 52 % European New Zealanders, 30 % Maori, 12 % Pacific Islander) aged 10-15 years completed measures annually for 3 years. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine bi-directional effects. Negative peer influence predicted increased use of all substances. In turn, alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use predicted increased negative peer influence, but this effect was inconsistent over time. Peer connectedness, predicted to diminish the frequency of substance use, was found to be unrelated to it. Breaking the reciprocal cycle between peer coercion and substance use would seem to be useful for reducing substance use. PMID:26391360

  1. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns. PMID:24262144

  2. Externalizing Problem Behavior in Adolescence: Dopaminergic Genes in Interaction with Peer Acceptance and Rejection.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; De Laet, Steven; Claes, Stephan; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2015-07-01

    Molecular gene-by-environment studies primarily have focuses on the parent-child relationship as an environmental factor, whereas studies including peer relationships as environmental factor are rare. However, the effects of the peer context may not be the same for all adolescents due to biological characteristics. This study examined whether the effects of peer rejection and acceptance on externalizing behavior depend upon adolescents' genotype for the dopamine transporter (DAT1) or receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. In a sample of 563 adolescents (52% girls; Mage = 13.81), saliva samples, within-classroom peer nominations, and multi-informant behavior ratings were collected. Peer rejection, but not acceptance, was associated with externalizing problems. One out of eight models tested for rule-breaking behavior showed genetic moderation. According to the Roisman criteria, there was evidence for the differential susceptibility hypothesis. DAT1 10R carriers showed more rule-breaking behavior according to parents when experiencing high peer rejection, but less rule-breaking behavior when experiencing low peer rejection. The long DRD4 variant was associated with less aggression, but no moderation effects were found. The results are discussed in light of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and the reward sensitivity mechanism. PMID:26006708

  3. Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300

  4. Social anxiety and peer relations among adolescents: testing a psychobiological model.

    PubMed

    Walters, K S; Inderbitzen, H M

    1998-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses derived from Trower and Gilbert's (1989) model of social anxiety. Participants were 1,179 students (594 males and 585 females) in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11. Participants completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a sociometric nomination task. Nominations from the following behavioral descriptors: most cooperative, class leader, fights the most, and easiest to push around, were used to classify students into four peer nomination groups (i.e., cooperative, friendly dominant, hostile dominant, and submissive). Results indicated that students classified as submissive reported greater social anxiety than those classified as cooperative, friendly dominant, and hostile dominant. Implications of these results for further study of the Trower and Gilbert (1989) model of social anxiety are discussed. PMID:9653678

  5. Linking Executive Function and Peer Problems from Early Childhood Through Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa. PMID:26096194

  6. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  7. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5,...

  8. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  9. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  10. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  11. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  12. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.3 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable,...

  13. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE RANGELAND RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7,...

  14. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the...

  15. Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Delyse M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls' self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures of dieting, EWLB and binge eating, but not body image concern. Average clique scores for dieting, EWLB and binge eating, were also correlated significantly with clique averages on measures of perceived peer influence, body mass index and psychological variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived peer influences in weight-related attitudes and behaviours were predictive of individual girls' level of body image concern, dieting, EWLB use and binge eating. Notably, an individual girl's dieting and EWLB use could be predicted from her friends' respective dieting and EWLB scores. Findings highlight the significance of the peer environment in body image and eating problems during early adolescence. PMID:17258173

  16. Moderating Effects of Aggression on the Associations between Social Withdrawal Subtypes and Peer Difficulties during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age = 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related…

  17. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  18. Enhancing Peer Cultures of Academic Effort and Achievement in Early Adolescence: Promotive Effects of the Seals Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…

  19. Adolescent Voting for Right-Wing Extremist Parties and Readiness to Use Violence in Political Action: Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Almost all shapes of adolescent risky and deviant behaviour take place in the context of peer-relations. The present study examined the role of parents and peer-relations with respect to two indicators of deviant political development. In the fall 1998, directly after the German parliamentary elections, 1309 East German adolescents were asked…

  20. Associations between Peer Victimization, Self-Reported Depression and Social Phobia among Adolescents: The Role of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…

  1. Stress Response and the Adolescent Transition: Performance versus Peer Rejection Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Foster, Elizabeth; Papandonatos, George D.; Handwerger, Kathryn; Granger, Douglas A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about normative variation in stress response over the adolescent transition. This study examined neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to performance and peer rejection stressors over the adolescent transition in a normative sample. Participants were 82 healthy children (ages 7-12 years, n=39, 22 females) and adolescents (ages 13-17, n=43, 20 females) recruited through community postings. Following a habituation session, participants completed a performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) or peer rejection (exclusion challenges) stress session. Salivary cortisol, alpha amylase (sAA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout. Adolescents showed significantly greater cortisol, sAA, SBP and DBP stress response relative to children. Developmental differences were most pronounced in the performance stress session for cortisol and DBP, and in the peer rejection session for sAA and SBP. Heightened physiological stress responses in typical adolescents may facilitate adaptation to new challenges of adolescence and adulthood. In high-risk adolescents, this normative shift may tip the balance toward stress response dysregulation associated with depression and other psychopathology. Specificity of physiological response by stressor type highlights the importance of a multi-system approach to the psychobiology of stress and may also have implications for understanding trajectories to psychopathology. PMID:19144222

  2. Children's group nous: understanding and applying peer exclusion within and between groups.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous) was predicted by theory of social mind (a social perspective taking measure) but not multiple classification skill. In Study 2, the number of groups children belonged to (an index of peer group experience) also predicted group nous. Supporting the developmental subjective group dynamics model (D. Abrams, A. Rutland, & L. Cameron, 2003), children's experience and perspective taking help them make sense of inter- and intragroup inclusion and exclusion. PMID:19236403

  3. Heterosocial Involvement, Peer Pressure for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction among Young Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. PMID:21354882

  4. Adolescent Girls’ ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. Method The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6–12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11–18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17–24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder. Results Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. Additionally, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Conclusions Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD. PMID:23330831

  5. Revisiting "What They Think": Adolescent Drinking and the Importance of Peer Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The association between delinquent peers and delinquent behavior is among the most consistent findings in the criminological literature, and a number of recent studies have raised the standards for determining the nature and extent of peer influence. Despite these advances, however, key questions about how deviant behavior is socially transmitted remain unresolved. In particular, much of the research examining peer influence is limited to peer behavior, despite a rich literature supporting the salience of beliefs, such as expectations and moral approval, in shaping behaviors. The current study takes advantage of advances in the modeling of peer influence and selection processes to re-examine the contributions of peer beliefs and behaviors to adolescent drinking. I employ longitudinal social network analysis to examine how peers contribute to the complex interplay between deviant beliefs and behaviors. I find evidence that beliefs related to peer drinking have both a direct and indirect impact on behavior and also play an important role in the friendship selection process. These results highlight the importance of understanding how peers influence deviant behavior and suggest that peer beliefs are an important part of this relationship. PMID:25382862

  6. Revisiting “What They Think”: Adolescent Drinking and the Importance of Peer Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    The association between delinquent peers and delinquent behavior is among the most consistent findings in the criminological literature, and a number of recent studies have raised the standards for determining the nature and extent of peer influence. Despite these advances, however, key questions about how deviant behavior is socially transmitted remain unresolved. In particular, much of the research examining peer influence is limited to peer behavior, despite a rich literature supporting the salience of beliefs, such as expectations and moral approval, in shaping behaviors. The current study takes advantage of advances in the modeling of peer influence and selection processes to re-examine the contributions of peer beliefs and behaviors to adolescent drinking. I employ longitudinal social network analysis to examine how peers contribute to the complex interplay between deviant beliefs and behaviors. I find evidence that beliefs related to peer drinking have both a direct and indirect impact on behavior and also play an important role in the friendship selection process. These results highlight the importance of understanding how peers influence deviant behavior and suggest that peer beliefs are an important part of this relationship. PMID:25382862

  7. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    PubMed Central

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents’ individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents’ susceptibility to peers. A total of 36 adolescent boys participated in a “chat room” experiment in which they ostensibly were exposed to deviant or risky social norms communicated either by high-peer-status (i.e., popular, well-liked) or low-peer-status (i.e., unpopular, disliked) grade mates who actually were electronic confederates. Changes in adolescents’ responses before and after exposure to peer norms were used as a measure of peer influence susceptibility. These same adolescents completed a questionnaire assessment at the study outset and again 18 months later to assess their actual engagement in deviant behavior and their perceptions of their best friend’s engagement in deviant behavior. Only among adolescents with high levels of susceptibility to high-status peers was a significant longitudinal association revealed between their best friend’s baseline deviant behavior and adolescents’ own deviant behavior 18 months later. Findings support the predictive validity of a performance-based susceptibility measure and suggest that adolescents’ peer influence susceptibility may generalize across peer contexts. PMID:21463036

  8. Smoke in the Looking Glass: Effects of Discordance between Self- and Peer Rated Crowd Affiliation on Adolescent Anxiety, Depression and Self-Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Von Bank, Heather; Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Peer crowds serve as an identity marker for adolescents, indicating their image and status among peers; but adolescents do not always endorse peer appraisals of crowd affiliation. We report on two studies--one with 924 adolescents in grades 7-12 and a second with a more diverse population of 2,728 students in grades 9-11, followed for 2…

  9. Early Childhood Precursors and Adolescent Sequelae of Gradeschool Peer Rejection and Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Kalvin, Carla B.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with gradeschool peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. A central goal was to better understand the common and unique developmental correlates associated with these two types of peer adversity. Method 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male; average age 5.65 at kindergarten entry) were followed into seventh grade. Six waves of data were included in structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing problems in kindergarten and grade 1 (waves 1–2); peer sociometric nominations tracked “least liked” and victimization in grades 2, 3, and 4 (waves 3–5); and youth reported on social problems, depressed mood, school adjustment difficulties, and delinquent activities in early adolescence (grade 7, wave 6). Results Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to gradeschool peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to gradeschool victimization. Early internalizing problems and gradeschool victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and gradeschool peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Conclusions Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer rejection and victimization, and these two types of peer adversity had distinct, as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research. PMID:24527989

  10. Early childhood precursors and adolescent sequelae of grade school peer rejection and victimization.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Kalvin, Carla B; Heinrichs, Brenda S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with grade school peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. A central goal was to better understand the common and unique developmental correlates associated with these two types of peer adversity. There were 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male; average age=5.65 at kindergarten entry) followed into seventh grade. Six waves of data were included in structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing problems in kindergarten and Grade 1 (Waves 1-2); peer sociometric nominations tracked "least liked" and victimization in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (Waves 3-5); and youth reported on social problems, depressed mood, school adjustment difficulties, and delinquent activities in early adolescence (Grade 7, Wave 6). Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to grade school peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to grade school victimization. Early internalizing problems and grade school victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and grade school peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer rejection and victimization, and these two types of peer adversity had distinct as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research. PMID:24527989

  11. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  12. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth. PMID:18703225

  13. Normative Integration, Alienation, and Conformity in Adolescent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ronald A.

    Data from 61 children's groups indicate that early adolescent (modal age 10 years) and late adolescent (modal age 15 years) children's groups are characterized by high levels of normative integration, or norm consensus. In contrast, groups passing through middle adolescence (modal age 11-14 years) are characterized by significantly lower levels of…

  14. Patient Perspectives on Peer Mentoring: Type 1 Diabetes Management in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Peters, Anne L.; Wood, Jamie R.; Kipke, Michele; Cohen, Marisa; Sequeira, Paola A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify attitudes and topics relevant to peer mentoring as an adherence-promoting intervention for adolescents and young adults (YAs) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Self-administered survey data were collected in two diabetes clinics from a convenience sample of adolescents as prospective mentees (ages 13–18) and YAs as prospective mentors (ages 19–25) with T1D. Survey topics included demographics, disease history, glycemic control, adherence, depression, barriers to disease management, social support, and interest in peer mentoring. Descriptive statistical analyses, thematic coding, and stepwise multivariate logistic regression were performed. Results A majority of the 54 adolescents and 46 YAs expressed interest in a peer mentoring program. Having supportive friends and living in a large household positively predicted adolescent interest in having a peer mentor. Approximately one third of all participants experienced social barriers to diabetes management. For adolescents, barriers included inflexible schedules, unfamiliar foods, and the embarrassment of checking blood glucose in front of others. Young adults reported barriers in tracking food consumption and remembering to check blood glucose. Various diabetes management skills were in high demand by adolescents, who especially desired to learn about managing T1D on their own and in college. Participants were open to multiple communication modes, including in-person meetings, phone, text messaging, and social media. Conclusions Many adolescents and young adults with T1D are interested in peer mentoring as a way to facilitate learning and sharing essential diabetes management skills and experiences. PMID:25394732

  15. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  16. Parental and peer influences on the risk of adolescent drug use.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Stephen J; Hoffmann, John P; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2005-11-01

    Using a probability sample of 4,230 adolescents from grades 7-12, we used negative binomial regression to estimate the effects of peer and six family variables on the risk of adolescent drug use. Peer drug use had relatively strong effects of adolescent drug use. Parental drug attitudes, sibling drug use, and adult drug use had significant direct effects net of peer influences. In addition, they had significant indirect effects that were mediated by peer drug use. The influences of parental monitoring, attachment to mother, and attachment to father were statistically significant but relatively small. The findings applied to alcohol, binge drinking, cigarettes, marijuana, and other illicit drugs. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors interpret their findings as being more consistent with social learning than social control theory. This research, although cross-sectional and limited to adolescents' self-reports, contributes to a growing literature on the direct and indirect influences of parents on their teens' substance use rates. It speaks to the need for school- and community-based prevention efforts to focus on families as well as peers. PMID:16228115

  17. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  18. Sibling, peer, neighbor, and schoolmate correlations as indicators of the importance of context for adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, G J; Boisjoly, J; Harris, K M

    2001-08-01

    We use nationally representative data to calculate correlations in achievement and delinquency between genetically differentiated siblings within a family, between peers as defined by adolescents' "best friend" nominations, between schoolmates living in the same neighborhood, and between grademates within a school. We find the largest correlations between siblings, especially identical twins. Grademate and neighbor correlations are small. Peer-based correlations are considerably larger than grademate and neighbor correlations but not larger than most sibling correlations. The data suggest that family-based factors are several times more powerful than neighborhood and school contexts in affecting adolescents' achievement and behavior. PMID:11523270

  19. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  20. Peer Status and Victimization as Possible Reinforcements of Adolescent Girls’ and Boys’ Weight-Related Behaviors and Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Reciprocal longitudinal associations among weight-related behaviors and cognitions and peer relations constructs were examined among adolescent males and females. Methods Participants included 576 adolescents aged 10–14 years, in grades 6–8. Measures assessed body dissatisfaction, negative weight-related cognitions, weight management behaviors, muscle-gaining behaviors, body mass index (BMI), likeability, popularity, and victimization at two time points, approximately 11 months apart. Multiple group path analyses were conducted to examine the reciprocal longitudinal associations between the peer relations constructs and weight-related behaviors and cognitions, controlling for participants’ Time 1 BMI, pubertal development, and age. Results Higher levels of body dissatisfaction were associated longitudinally with decreases in popularity. Higher popularity and lower likeability each were associated longitudinally with increases in negative body-related cognitions. Higher popularity was associated longitudinally with muscle-gaining behaviors for boys. Conclusions Findings suggest highly popular and disliked adolescents may be at greater risk of weight-related behaviors and cognitions than other adolescents. PMID:19667053