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Sample records for adolescent peer relationships

  1. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  2. Peer Relationship Difficulties in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…

  3. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  4. Parents, Siblings, and Peers: Close Social Relationships and Adolescent Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardelt, Monika; Day, Laurie

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between parents, older siblings, peers, adolescents' individual characteristics, and adolescents' deviant attitudes and behaviors among inner-city families. Structural equation models showed that older deviant siblings had the strongest effect on adolescent deviance. Positive family relationships, parental support, and…

  5. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  6. Mexican American Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: Exploring the Role of Culture and Adolescents' Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…

  7. Peer Relationships and Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…

  8. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  9. Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: A Comparison of Mothers' and Fathers' Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kupanoff, Kristina

    2001-01-01

    Compared mothers' and fathers' direct involvement in adolescent girls' versus boys' peer relationships, and examined the links between parents' involvement and the qualities of adolescents' friendship and peer experiences. Findings revealed mothers were more knowledgeable about adolescents' peer relationships than fathers, and both mothers and…

  10. Adolescents' and Their Mothers' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation of level and discrepancy in mothers' and adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships and parent-child conflict about peer relationships to mothers' and adolescent's reports of adolescents' drug use, delinquent behavior, and grade-point-average (GPA). An…

  11. The Mediating Role of Extreme Peer Orientation in the Relationships between Adolescent-Parent Relationship and Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Linda M.; Berg, Cynthia; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined whether the quality of the adolescent-parent relationship was associated with better diabetes management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by decreasing adolescents' extreme peer orientation. Adolescents (n=252; 46% male and 54% female) aged 10-14 years with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of extreme peer orientation (i.e., tendency to ignore parental advice and diabetes care in order to fit in with friends), adolescent-parental relationship, and adherence; HbA1c scores indexed metabolic control. Adolescents with higher quality relationships with parents reported less peer orientation and better diabetes care. The mediational model revealed that adolescents' high quality relationships with their parents (mother and father) were associated with better treatment adherence and metabolic control through less peer orientation. It is likely that high quality adolescent-parent relationships may be beneficial to adolescent diabetes management through a healthy balance between peer and parental influence. PMID:20545403

  12. Adolescent Peer Relations, Friendships, and Romantic Relationships: Do They Predict Social Anxiety and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore

    2005-01-01

    This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…

  13. Peer relationships as a source of support for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R A; Barbour, N E; Bubenzer, D L

    1995-04-01

    There is speculation that the pregnancy and parenthood of adolescent mothers cause changes in their peer relationships such that their peers become less able to provide support. Little empirical evidence exists to support such speculation. The authors assessed the relative amounts and types of support provided by friends and relatives to adolescent mothers, and examined peer support in relation to parenting stress. Invitations were sent to all 480 women recruited through public access birth records in two northeastern Ohio counties who were 19 years old and younger and who had given birth to their first child during the previous nine months. The counties incorporate urban, suburban, and rural communities. 66 women volunteered, of whom 46 eventually participated in the study. They were aged 13-19 years (mean age, 17.43 years) at the birth of their child. Approximately 66% were White and 12 were married. Of the 36 women who reported their family income, 88% reported yearly income of less than $20,000; of those, 15 reported income of less than $5000. 28 of the adolescent mothers were unemployed. 22 were enrolled in school at the time of data collection. Of the 24 who were not enrolled in school, 15 had already completed 12th grade. The Inventory of Social Contacts measured levels of perceived child-rearing, emotional, and material support and interference from family and friends, while the Parenting Stress Index assessed self-reported parenting stress arising from child and parent characteristics. Results of repeated-measures ANOVAs and Pearson correlations indicate that, compared to family, friends provide more emotional support and less interference. Parenting stress is buffered more effectively by the support provided by friends. PMID:12290303

  14. The Dilemmas of Peer Relationships Confronting Mathematically Gifted Female Adolescents: Nine Cases in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-Yao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…

  15. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  16. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  17. Social functioning and peer relationships in children and adolescents with chronic pain: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Forgeron, Paula A; King, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; McGrath, Patrick J; MacDonald, Amanda J; Chambers, Christine T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peer relationships during childhood and adolescence are acknowledged to be negatively impacted by chronic pain; however, to date there has been no synthesis of this literature. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review existing literature describing the social functioning and peer relationships in children and adolescents with recurrent or continuous chronic pain. METHODS: Articles on peer relationship factors studied in samples of children and adolescents with chronic pain published in English or French were identified using EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Two independent reviewers performed initial screenings using study titles and abstracts, and reviewed each eligible article in full. RESULTS: Of 1740 published papers yielded by the search, 42 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Nine studies had peer relationship investigation as the primary purpose of the study; the remaining 33 examined peer relationships as part of a broader study. A range of specific and more general measures was used to examine peer relationships. Across studies, children and adolescents with chronic pain were reported to have fewer friends, be subjected to more peer victimization, and were viewed as more isolated and less likeable than healthy peers. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with chronic pain have peer relationship deficiencies. However, the majority of studies to date measure peer relationships as part of a broader study and, thus, little attention has been paid specifically to peer relationships in this group. Additional research examining the quality of peer relationships of children and adolescents with chronic pain, as well as development of measures specifically designed to assess these relationships, is needed. PMID:20195556

  18. Can Developmental Changes in Inhibition and Peer Relationships Explain Why Depressive Symptoms Increase in Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Katharine Ann; Dix, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Why do depressive symptoms increase during adolescence? Because inhibition and poor peer relationships predict adolescents' depressive symptoms concurrently, we hypothesized that adolescents who cope with the stresses of this period by becoming increasingly inhibited may experience increasing depressive symptoms both directly and due to increased…

  19. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  20. Peer Relationships and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…

  1. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.

  2. Mothers' Management of Adolescent Peer Relationships: Associations With Aggressive, Prosocial, and Playful Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing.

  3. Promoting Social Competence and Peer Relationships for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Common, Eric A.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Huber, Heartley B.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Gustafson, Jenny Redding; Dykstra, Jessica; Hume, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses some of the key considerations and complexities associated with intervening to address social competence and peer relationships of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in middle and high school settings. First, we provide a brief overview of the social context during adolescence for all students. Next, we…

  4. Relationship between Parents and Peer Influences on Qualities of Adolescent Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiunu, Jude J.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between parents and peer influences on the qualities of adolescent friendship. Relevant literature in the field of adolescent friendship qualities and parental interaction were investigated. The problem of the study is the increasing incidences of emotional, imbalance among young people that manifest in…

  5. Does the Importance of Parent and Peer Relationships for Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Vary across Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…

  6. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  7. Mexican-Origin Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: A Pattern-Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Baril, Megan E.; McHale, Susan M.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    Using latent profile analysis, the authors examined patterns of mother-father involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along three dimensions--support, guidance, and restrictions--in 240 Mexican-origin families. Three profiles were identified: (a) High Mother Involvement (mothers higher than fathers on all three dimensions), (b) High…

  8. Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…

  9. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture. PMID:24352586

  10. Relationships among Shyness, Social Competence, Peer Relations, and Theory of Mind among Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…

  11. Representations of Mother-Child Attachment Relationships and Social-Information Processing of Peer Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granot, David; Mayseless, Ofra

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between early adolescents' representations of mother-child attachment relationships and how they process social information in their peer relationships. Attachment representations were examined in a normative sample of 97 males and 88 females (mean age = 10.35 years), using an adaptation of the Attachment…

  12. Peer Relationships and Adolescents' Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes: Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Peer Effects and the Mediating Role of School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. Aims: The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions…

  13. Behavioral Engagement, Peer Status, and Teacher-Student Relationships in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study on Reciprocal Influences.

    PubMed

    Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2016-06-01

    Although teachers and peers play an important role in shaping students' engagement, no previous study has directly investigated transactional associations of these classroom-based relationships in adolescence. This study investigated the transactional associations between adolescents' behavioral engagement, peer status (likeability and popularity), and (positive and negative) teacher-student relationships during secondary education. A large sample of adolescents was followed from Grade 7 to 11 (N = 1116; 49 % female; M age = 13.79 years). Multivariate autoregressive cross-lagged modeling revealed only unidirectional effects from teacher-student relationships and peer status on students' behavioral engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships were associated with more behavioral engagement over time, whereas negative teacher-student relationships, higher likeability and higher popularity were related to less behavioral engagement over time. We conclude that teachers and peers constitute different sources of influence, and play independent roles in adolescents' behavioral engagement.

  14. Parent Relationship Quality Buffers against the Effect of Peer Stressors on Depressive Symptoms from Middle Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel, Nicholas A.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Technow, Jessica R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    During the transition to adolescence, several developmental trends converge to increase the importance of peer relationships, the likelihood of peer-related stressors, and the experience of depressive symptoms. Simultaneously, there are significant changes in parent-child relationships. The current study sought to evaluate whether positive…

  15. Adolescent problem behavior: the effect of peers and the moderating role of father absence and the mother-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Mason, C A; Cauce, A M; Gonzales, N; Hiraga, Y

    1994-12-01

    Examined the effect of peer problem behavior, the absence of a father or equivalent in the home, and the mother-adolescent relationship as predictors of adolescent problem behavior in a sample of 112 African American adolescents. Statistical analyses compared a moderator model to a mediational model and a cumulative risk model. As predicted, the moderator model was superior to the alternative models. Specifically, whereas the mediational model predicted that the effect of father absence and the mother-child relationship upon adolescent problem behavior would be mediated by peer problem behavior, neither effected peer problem behavior or adolescent problem behavior. Similarly, a cumulative risk index did not predict either child or parent reports of problem behavior and was not sensitive to specific contingencies that existed between the predictor variables. In contrast, an interactive, moderator model described the data quite well. This model suggested that father or equivalent absence magnifies the negative impact of peer problem behavior, while a positive mother-adolescent relationship attenuates this risk. A strong mother-adolescent relationship also served to protect adolescents in father-absent homes from the risk of peer problem behavior. PMID:7639200

  16. The cycle of victimization: The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Benedini, Kristen M; Fagan, Abigail A; Gibson, Chris L

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment has been demonstrated to have many short- and long-term harmful consequences for victims, but whether or not child abuse is associated with an increased risk of peer victimization during adolescence is unclear. This study analyzed prospective data from 831 children and parents participating in the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to investigate the relationships between child physical and sexual abuse and adolescent victimization by peers, as well as the potential for gender to moderate these relationships. Results from ordinal logit regression models indicated that children who were physically abused prior to age 12, based on official reports, parent reports, and child reports, had a greater risk of experiencing more intimidation and physical assault by peers at age 16. Having a history of sexual abuse predicted more physical assault but not intimidation. There was no evidence that gender moderated these relationships; in all cases, the relationship between abuse and revictimization was similar for boys and girls. The findings emphasize the need to provide victims of abuse with assistance to help prevent a cycle of victimization. PMID:27568065

  17. The instability of possible selves: identity processes within late adolescents' close peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Kerpelman, J L; Pittman, J F

    2001-08-01

    Understanding how identities emerge and stabilize within the context of interpersonal relationships is an important issue in identity research. Seventy-six late adolescents and their peer partners participated in a laboratory study that focused on the possible selves tied to anticipated career, marriage, and parenthood roles. Control theory (people work to maintain existing identities) and the concept of psychosocial moratorium (identity exploration involves actively "trying on" different selves) were integrated to explain identity construction processes. Consistent with notions of exploration and commitment, emerging self-definitions for highly desired possible selves were unstable. Consistent with control theory, stable self-definitions for anticipated selves occurred when adolescents were committed to avoiding the role. The relationship context mattered only minimally for the adolescents' exploration activities. The behavior of peer partners, however, made it more likely that adolescents would engage in identity exploration of highly important possible selves. The integration of control theory with the concept of psychosocial moratorium offers explanations for the emergence of new identities and their ultimate stabilization.

  18. Dynamic Relationships Between Parental Monitoring, Peer Risk Involvement and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Bahamian Mid-Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. METHODS Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13–17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. RESULTS For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths’ sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:26308261

  19. Risky Lifestyle as a Mediator of the Relationship between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Dating Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…

  20. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  1. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  2. Peer Relationships in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J., Ed.; Ladd, Gary W., Ed.

    Although hypotheses about the consequences of peer relationships for children's development have served as the foundation for much of the research into children and adolescent peer relationships, direct assessment of the impact of such relationships on children's personality, social behavior, or cognition has rarely been done. This book discusses…

  3. Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: Is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes?

    PubMed Central

    LAIRD, ROBERT D.; PETTIT, GREGORY S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective design was used to test the generalizability of low levels of social preference and high levels of antisocial peer involvement as risk factors for delinquent behavior problems to African American (AA) and European American (EA) boys and girls (N = 384). Social preference scores were computed from peer reports in middle childhood (ages 6–9). Parents and adolescents reported antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence (ages 13–16) and adolescents reported on their own delinquent behavior in late adolescence (ages 17 and 18). Analyses tested for differences across four groups (AA boys, EA boys, AA girls, EA girls) in construct measurement, mean levels, and associations among variables. Few measurement differences were found. Mean-level differences were found for social preference and delinquent behavior. AA boys were least accepted by peers and reported the highest level of delinquent behavior. EA girls were most accepted by peers and reported the lowest level of delinquent behavior. Associations among peer experiences and delinquent behavior were equivalent across groups, with lower levels of social preference and higher levels of antisocial peer involvement associated with more delinquent behavior. Person-centered analyses showed the risk associated with low social preference and high antisocial peer involvement to be similar across groups, providing further evidence of the generalizability of the peer relationship experiences as risk factors for subsequent delinquent behavior problems. PMID:15971763

  4. The Developmental Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents.

    PubMed

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-09-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking. PMID:25976526

  5. Health Status and Peer Relationships in Early Adolescence: The Role of Peer Contact, Self-Esteem, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarroll, Elizabeth M.; Lindsey, Eric W.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations between children's health status and the quality of their peer relationships, as well as factors that may account for individual variation in the quality of chronically ill and healthy children's peer relationships. Our sample included 268 children (138 boys; 130 girls) with 149 European-Americans and 119…

  6. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704

  7. The negative effects of prejudice on interpersonal relationships within adolescent peer groups.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Mereish, Ethan H; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to identify peer groups based on sociometric nominations, followed by multilevel modeling of the effects of sexual prejudice at the group level on interpersonal interactions among individuals in these groups. As hypothesized, the interpersonal interactions in peer groups with stronger group-level sexual prejudice were distinct from and poorer than those in groups with weaker group-level sexual prejudice. Moreover, longitudinal models indicated that adolescents in groups with stronger initial sexual prejudice reported worse interpersonal interactions with their peers seven months later. These findings provide a contextual understanding of prejudice and its negative effects on how adolescents come to relate with one another over time.

  8. The Negative Effects of Prejudice on Interpersonal Relationships within Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…

  9. Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2010-07-01

    Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.

  10. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  11. Effects of Early Childhood Peer Relationships on Adolescent Mental Health: A 6- to 8-Year Follow-Up Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer relationships are one of the important factors in children's development. The present study examines the relationship between the effects of early peer relationships and adolescent psychological adjustment. Methods The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment obtained data in 2006, as the original participants reached 13–15 years of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and simple questions about peer relationships to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). Results Children's peer relationships have longitudinal effects on mental health and adjustment. Children who had qualitative peer-relation problems were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems as adolescents. Conclusion Children who have poor peer relationships might become more vulnerable to emotional problems and social adjustment as adolescents. PMID:27482238

  12. Risky lifestyle as a mediator of the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2011-07-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and routine activities theories. A sample of 550 girls (mean age = 15) drawn from a larger representative community sample in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire on three forms of dating violence victimization (psychological, physical, and sexual). Results revealed that girls with a higher level of affiliation with deviant peers were more likely to endorse a risky lifestyle and reported higher rates of all forms of dating violence victimization. Further analyses showed that, while deviant peer affiliation is associated with dating violence victimization, this relationship may be explained, at least partially for psychological violence, and completely for physical/sexual violence, by the girls' own risky lifestyle. Future preventive interventions for adolescent dating violence victimization should target deviant peer groups, as well as adolescent girls who display a risky lifestyle.

  13. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  14. Examining the Role of Peer Relationships in the Lives of Gay and Bisexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…

  15. Do differences make the heart grow fonder? Associations between differential peer experiences on adolescent sibling conflict and relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Debrown, Brina; Maupin, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Though it is known that different familial relationships influence one another (e.g., Yu & Gamble, 2008) the influence of outside relationships (i.e., peers) on family dynamics (i.e., sibling relationships) is less clear. Thus, the authors examined the association differential peer experiences had on the conflict frequency, conflict intensity, and relationship quality of the sibling relationship. A 1-year longitudinal design measured first-born siblings in Grades 8, 10, and 12 along with their second-born siblings. In the first year, participants were brought to the university to complete questionnaires and in the following year, siblings again participated by completing online questionnaires at home. Results partially confirmed the study hypotheses that adolescents would show greater sibling conflict and poorer relationship quality with greater peer group differences, revealing that when peer group differences between siblings were greater, the youngest siblings reported more intense sibling conflicts (pe = -.10 p < .05), the oldest siblings reported greater relationship positivity (pe = .13 p < .05), and the oldest second-borns reported greater relationship negativity (pe = -.12 p < .10). These findings underscore the importance of investigating siblings' differential experiences beyond familial influence to focus on outside sources to better understand developmental fluctuations in siblings' relationships.

  16. The Role of Peer Relationships in Parental Bereavement during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopp, Alex Richard; Cain, Albert Clifford

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current knowledge concerning the relationship between peer support and adjustment outcomes and experiences for parentally bereaved children. A brief overview of the effects of parental bereavement and factors influencing immediate and long-term adjustment is provided, followed by an overview of peer-provided social support and…

  17. Social Relationships and Delinquency: Revisiting Parent and Peer Influence during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauer, Jonathan R.; De Coster, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Scholars interested in delinquency have focused much attention on the influence of parent and peer relationships. Prior research has assumed that parents control delinquency because they value convention, whereas peers promote delinquency because they value and model nonconvention. We argue that it is important to assess the normative and…

  18. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA. PMID:26716791

  19. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer.

  20. Identity, Peer Relationships, and Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Behavior: An Exploration of the Contemporary Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy; Manning, Wendy; Longmore, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, while women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. The current research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. We explore the broader social costs and low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focus on characteristics of the adolescents’ close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n=600) provide support for the emphasis on the adolescents’ immediate network of friends: friends’ attitudes and behaviors were significant predictors of respondents’ own sexual experience, while those reporting a higher number of sex partners did not report a lack of popularity, desire for more friends, or lower self-esteem. In-depth relationship history narratives collected from a subset of respondents (n=46) provide additional context for the quantitative results. Women often recognized the existence of a double standard on a societal or school level, but support or acceptance provided by the more immediate network of similarly situated friends serves as a buffer against such negative attributions. The findings suggest that programs targeting sexual behaviors should focus on how peer norms influence girls’ sexual choices. PMID:20818574

  1. Parents, Peers, and Problem Behavior: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Impact of Relationship Perceptions and Characteristics on the Development of Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations among adolescents' family relationships, peer relationships, and problem behavior. Participants were 1,357 African American and European American adolescents who were interviewed at 3 time points: 7th grade (mean age=12.7 years), the summer after 8th grade (mean age=14.2 years), and 11th grade (mean…

  2. Loneliness and Peer Relations in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent loneliness would be lower within the context of positive relationships with peers. The core conceptual model predicted that hypothesized links between peer-rated social behaviors or victimization and loneliness would be mediated by social acceptance. Relationship experiences (i.e., social acceptance,…

  3. Development and Validation of the Relationship and Motivation (REMO) Scale to Assess Students' Perceptions of Peers and Teachers as Motivators in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Drury, Kate; Jagenow, Danilo; Hoferichter, Frances; Bukowski, William

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses of a newly developed measure designed to measure early adolescents' perceptions of peers and teachers as sources of scholastic motivation were conducted with a diverse sample of 7th and 8th grade students (N = 1088) in secondary schools. The Relationship and Motivation (REMO) scales measure perceptions of peers (P-REMO) and…

  4. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  5. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  6. Brief report: do peer relationships matter to Vietnamese adolescents' and young adults' development of identity? Towards a working theory of identity development in a changing culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that an individual's development of future hopes and aspirations is a correlate to the emergence of an independent identity. Our analyses show that peers have a positive and consistent influence on adolescents' hopes to have a happy family, good job, good income, and opportunities to do what they want. Regarding career and economic aspirations, the importance of peer relationships appears to have dropped away. It may be that when youth consider their realistic economic alternatives, the role of peers that was important for identity development in adolescence gives way to pragmatism about the attainment of a career identity.

  7. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual…

  8. Australian Adolescents' Extracurricular Activity Participation and Positive Development: Is the Relationship Mediated by Peer Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomfield, Corey; Barber, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent participation in extracurricular activities is associated with numerous positive outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. This study had two goals: to investigate the association between participation in extracurricular activities and indicators of positive and negative development for Australian…

  9. Delinquent behavior, poor relationship quality with parents, and involvement with deviant peers in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents: different processes, informant bias, or both?

    PubMed

    Asscher, Jessica J; Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes-involvement with deviant peers and parent-adolescent relationship quality-are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n = 88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent-adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents.

  10. A multi-informant longitudinal study on the relationship between aggression, peer victimization, and dating status in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Arnocky, Steven; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent peer-aggression has recently been considered from the evolutionary perspective of intrasexual competition for mates. We tested the hypothesis that peer-nominated physical aggression, indirect aggression, along with self-reported bullying behaviors at Time 1 would predict Time 2 dating status (one year later), and that Time 1 peer- and self-reported peer victimization would negatively predict Time 2 dating status. Participants were 310 adolescents who were in grades 6 through 9 (ages 11-14) at Time 1.  Results showed that for both boys and girls, peer-nominated indirect aggression was predictive of dating one year later even when controlling for age, peer-rated attractiveness, and peer-perceived popularity, as well as initial dating status. For both sexes, self-reported peer victimization was negatively related to having a dating partner at Time 2. Findings are discussed within the framework of intrasexual competition. PMID:22947638

  11. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  12. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  13. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship Between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, C Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1-15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (n = 2066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51 % white, 27 % black, 22 % Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  14. The Relationships among Interparental Conflict, Peer, Media Effects and the Violence Behaviour of Adolescents: The Mediator Role of Attitudes towards Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songül Sonay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate interparental conflict, peer and media effects and its direct relationship with the violence behaviour of adolescents and the mediator role of attitudes towards violence. 2120 students, 964 girls and 1156 boys chosen from 7th and 8th grades of one private and eleven public elementary schools in Adana have…

  15. Supportive Relationships as a Moderator of the Effects of Parent and Peer Drinking on Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urberg, Kathryn; Goldstein, Marilyn S.; Toro, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether supportiveness from a parent or a friend moderated the effects of the supportive person's drinking on the trajectory of adolescent alcohol abuse dependence symptoms. High-risk adolescents recruited from shelters and a matched sample of adolescents recruited from the sheltered adolescent's former…

  16. Differences and Consistency between Same-Sex and Other-Sex Peer Relationships during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found that individual differences in children's preference for same-sex peers were (1) derived from liking same-sex peers rather than disliking other-sex peers; (2) consistent over long intervals; and (3) related to children's preference for activities that required gross motor skills. (BC)

  17. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain. PMID:26808145

  18. What Protects Rejected Adolescents from Also Being Bullied by Their Peers? The Moderating Role of Peer-Valued Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knack, Jennifer M.; Tsar, Vasilinka; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Hymel, Shelley; McDougall, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents rejected by peers are often targets of bullying. However, peer rejection is not a sure path to victimization. We examined whether characteristics valued by peers (i.e., attractiveness, wealth, academic, and athletic ability) moderated the relationship between peer rejection and victimization. We predicted rejected adolescents high on…

  19. Associations of Extroversion and Parental Overprotection with Forming Relationships with Peers among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study that focused on three risk factors that may be relevant for forming relationships with peers, namely, level of vision loss, low extroversion (high introversion), and parental overprotection. The authors analyzed the role of parental overprotection and extroversion in forming relationships with peers among 158 adolescents…

  20. Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults' communication on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain.

  1. Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults' communication on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005

  2. Adolescents' Collaboration in the Classroom: Do Peer Relationships or Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Lisa M.; Strough, Jonell

    2008-01-01

    Peer collaboration can be a useful tool in a school classroom to help students perform at their best. With whom should students be paired, though? Previous research yields inconsistent findings regarding whether the benefits of peer collaboration depend on the gender or friendship of collaborators. We paired students with a same-gender friend or a…

  3. The Relationship of Peer Victimization to Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Brassard, Marla R.; Masia-Warner, Carrie L.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations among overt and relational victimization, social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviors from peers in ninth- and tenth-graders. Found that boys reported higher overt victimization rates and fewer peer prosocial behaviors compared to girls. Found support for the hypothesis that overt and relational victimization were…

  4. Peer and romantic relationships among adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood hematological cancer: a review of challenges and positive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca H; Stern, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on peer and romantic relationship experiences of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, highlighting those surviving leukemia or lymphoma. While most AYA survivors adjust well to life following a hematological cancer diagnosis and treatment, many unique experiences, both positive and challenging, have been documented with respect to successfully navigating developmentally normative social goals. Therefore, the social implications of surviving childhood leukemia or lymphoma are explored. Specifically, the development of peer and romantic relationships, perceptions of social acceptance, parental influences and attachment, perceived vulnerabilities and body image, and risks to fertility are discussed. PMID:25228563

  5. The relationship between body mass index and unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents: the role of family and peer social support.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2012-12-01

    Adolescents classified as overweight or obese are more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors such as skipping meals or fasting than their healthy weight peers. Adolescents with low perceived social support may be at particular risk. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity, indices of perceived peer and family social support, and their interaction in the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents. The present study used data from the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children collaborative survey. Participants included 4598 adolescent girls and boys in the ninth and tenth grades. Results of binary logistic regression analyses showed that obese boys and girls were more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors than their healthy weight peers. Boys and girls who endorsed difficult communication with their parents, low levels of parent school support, or frequent bullying were more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors than relevant comparison groups. Among girls, poor classmate relationships were associated with increased use of unhealthy weight control behaviors whereas fewer friendships were associated with decreased use. Results suggest that adolescents are at high risk for use of unhealthy weight control behaviors and would benefit from interventions to increase knowledge and social support for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. PMID:22609397

  6. Adolescent-Peer Relationships, Separation and Detachment from Parents, and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Linkages and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Most research exploring the interplay between context and adolescent separation and detachment has focused on the family; in contrast, this investigation directs its attention outside of the family to peers. Utilizing a latent variable approach for modeling interactions and incorporating reports of behavioral adjustment from 14-year-old…

  7. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual Differences and Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armsden, Gay G.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    The development and validation of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents, is described. Item content of the instrument was suggested by Bowlby's theoretical formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. A hierarchical regression model was employed to…

  8. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed.

  9. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  10. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study. PMID:26867785

  11. The Role of Intrusive Parenting in the Relationship between Peer Management Strategies and Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Smits, Ilse; Lowet, Koen; Goossens, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The role of intrusive (i.e., psychologically controlling) parenting in the relationship between three peer management strategies ("prohibiting, guiding, supporting") and adolescents' peer deviant behavior and peer group belongingness was examined. Three important findings emerged. First, consistent with previous research, "prohibiting" was…

  12. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    PubMed

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  13. Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

  14. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? The Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Karakos, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, recovery school staff members discuss peers in the school as sources of positive support and peers outside the schools as sources of risky influence. Themes and quotes are presented to highlight the diverse ways that staff members discussed peer influence. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24839335

  15. The Moderating Effect of Machiavellianism on the Relationships between Bullying, Peer Acceptance, and School Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path…

  16. Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Sexual Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…

  17. Depressive symptoms among Hong Kong adolescents: relation to atypical sexual feelings and behaviors, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, and family and peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Lam, T H; Stewart, Sunita M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lee, Peter W H; Wong, Joy P S; Ho, L M; Youth Sexuality Task Force

    2004-10-01

    A representative community sample of Hong Kong boys (n = 1,024) and girls (n = 1,403), age 14-18 years, provided information regarding same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, early experience with sexual intercourse, and depressive symptoms. They also rated the quality of their family and peer relationships and self-perceived attractiveness. Depressive symptoms were higher in youths reporting same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, early pubertal maturation, and early sexual intercourse. Family relationships were less satisfactory for those who reported same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, and early sexual intercourse, and peer relationships were also worse for those who reported gender dissatisfaction. In multivariate analyses, same-sex attraction, early sexual intercourse, and early pubertal maturation were unique and direct contributors to depressive symptoms; however, gender dissatisfaction's association with depressive symptoms was largely accounted for by shared correlations with negative family and peer relationships. The multivariate model explained 11% of the variance of depressive symptoms. These findings offer a preliminary documentation of the prevalence and correlates of atypical sexual self-assessments and behavior among adolescents in Hong Kong. Such information is important if theories of sexual identity and risk factors for depressive symptoms are to have cross-cultural utility. PMID:15305119

  18. Adolescents׳ perceptions of peers with depression: an attributional analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Louise; Hennessy, Eilis

    2014-08-30

    Understanding adolescents׳ perceptions of peers with depression is vital in order to tackle peer exclusion and lessen stigmatization. To examine adolescents׳ perceptions of a hypothetical peer with depression, we test an attributional model: that stigma towards persons with mental disorders is influenced by attributions about the causes of their disorders and inferences of personal responsibility. Participants were 401 adolescents from 4th year/10th grade with an age range of 14.75-17.08 years (M=15.90 years; S.D.=0.403 years). Structural Equation Modeling was employed to assess the relationships among causal attributions (personal control), perceived responsibility, and emotional reactions, in predicting social acceptance/exclusion of a peer with depression. Results indicated that (a) if the peer with depression is perceived as having little control over the cause of depression, responsibility is not inferred, participants feel sympathy and pity, and are likely to socially accept the peer (b) gender of vignette character and participant influence these responses. This study builds on our theoretical understanding of why adolescents with depression may face social exclusion from peers by applying a well-established theory in social psychology. Findings should be incorporated into the design of interventions aimed at reducing peer exclusion and stigmatization of adolescents with depression.

  19. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  20. Brief Report: Do Peer Relationships Matter to Vietnamese Adolescents' and Young Adults' Development of Identity? Towards a Working Theory of Identity Development in a Changing Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that…

  1. Exploring the Role of Parental Monitoring of Peers on the Relationship between Family Functioning and Delinquency in the Lives of African American and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Frank R.; Pantin, Hilda; Robbins, Michael S.; Szapocznik, Jose

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores potential mediating effects of parental monitoring of peers on three adolescent problem behaviors (externalizing behavior, drug use, sexual risk behavior) among juvenile delinquents and their families. Participants are 190 African American and Hispanic adolescents and parent guardians enrolled in a family…

  2. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  3. Adolescent Peers as Facilitators of Contraceptive Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuehlke, Martha E.; Rogel, Mary J.

    This paper describes the Young Adult and Adolescent Decision Making About Contraception program, an ongoing clinical research project designed to address the problem of unplanned adolescent pregnancy from a biopsychosocial perspective. The program is described as a peer-led intervention to promote the use of contraception by teenage girls at high…

  4. Psychopathic Traits Moderate Peer Influence on Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…

  5. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  6. Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and Drinking Diffusion in Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…

  7. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  8. [Peer social pressure on the sexual debut of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2007-12-01

    Considering that scientific articles have emphasized the link between the onset of sexual life and peer pressure, the aim of this study was to identify peer pressure in the adolescents' sexual initiation from the point of view of their relationship with the group of friends. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 363 15-19 year-old teens that represented a sample ofthe adolescents enrolled in a family health unit in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. Results showed a relation between sexual initiation and age, being involved in physical experience with someone without wishing, having the majority of friends with sexual experience and dating. Eventually, data show that peers might play some influence on adolescents' option for sexual debut.

  9. Testing the effects of peer socialization versus selection on alcohol and marijuana use among treated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  10. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Angela K; Tolan, Patrick H; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.

  11. Social Adjustment of Deaf Early Adolescents at the Start of Secondary School: The Divergent Role of Withdrawn Behavior in Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from…

  12. Understanding the Link between Social and Emotional Well-Being and Peer Relations in Early Adolescence: Gender-Specific Predictors of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Thomson, Kimberly C.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have investigated relationships between peer acceptance and peer-rated social behaviors. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which indices of well-being such as optimism and positive affect may predict peer acceptance above and beyond peer ratings of antisocial and prosocial behaviors. Early adolescence--roughly…

  13. Adolescent risk behaviours and protective factors against peer influence.

    PubMed

    Cattelino, Elena; Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel; Testa, Silvia; Bina, Manuela; Calandri, Emanuela

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers and from individual skills (perceived regulatory self-efficacy, intolerant attitudes about deviance) and orientation (to health, school, religion). The data are from two waves, 1 year apart, of a questionnaire survey of adolescents in northwestern Italy. Participants were 908 adolescents (42% boys) ages 14-16 years. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed that religiosity is a protective factor and that friends' models for conventional behaviours and positive attitude about health can mitigate the influence of deviant friends on adolescent risk behaviour 1 year later, even after controlling for prior levels of risk behaviour. Possible implications of this study suggest the importance of implementing preventive interventions by involving the peer group, especially at about 16 years, and working with heterogeneous (deviant and nondeviant) groups. PMID:25448830

  14. Cross-Situational Coping with Peer and Family Stressors in Adolescent Offspring of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…

  15. Perceived Parental Behavior and Peer Affiliations among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe. Margaret; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role of parenting behavior in adolescents' peer group formation using a sample of 238 African American adolescents living in urban public housing projects. The study also assesses the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between parenting behavior and peer affiliations. Girls reported significantly…

  16. School, Family, and Peer Factors and Their Association with Substance Use in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how relationships among family, school, and peer factors relate to likelihood of substance use in Hispanic adolescents. Results indicated that only perceived peer substance use was directly related to adolescents' own substance use. A significant interaction was found between parental monitoring and…

  17. Injunctive and Descriptive Peer Group Norms and the Academic Adjustment of Rural Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…

  18. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  19. Peer Influences on Adolescent Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts to account for elevated risk behavior among adolescents have arrived at an exciting new stage. Moving beyond laboratory studies of age differences in “cool” cognitive processes related to risk perception and reasoning, new approaches have shifted focus to the influence of social and emotional factors on adolescent neurocognition. We review recent research suggesting that adolescent risk-taking propensity derives in part from a maturational gap between early adolescent remodeling of the brain's socio-emotional reward system and a gradual, prolonged strengthening of the cognitive control system. At a time when adolescents spend an increasing amount of time with their peers, research suggests that peer-related stimuli may sensitize the reward system to respond to the reward value of risky behavior. As the cognitive control system gradually matures over the course of the teenage years, adolescents grow in their capacity to coordinate affect and cognition, and to exercise self-regulation even in emotionally arousing situations. These capacities are reflected in gradual growth in the capacity to resist peer influence. PMID:25544805

  20. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. PMID:23827938

  1. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  2. Predicting violence in romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: a critical review of the mechanisms by which familial and peer influences operate.

    PubMed

    Olsen, James P; Parra, Gilbert R; Bennett, Shira A

    2010-06-01

    For three decades, researchers have sought to gain a greater understanding of the developmental antecedents to later perpetration or victimization of violence in romantic relationships. Whereas the majority of early studies focused on family-of-origin factors, attention in recent years has turned to additional ecologies such as peer relationships. This review highlights accomplishments of both family and peer studies that focus on violent romantic relationships in an effort to summarize the current state of knowledge. Attention is given to epidemiology and developmental family and peer factors, with special attention given to mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relation between family and peer factors and later participation in violent relationships. A critical approach is taken throughout the review in order to identify limitations of previous studies, and to highlight key findings. A case is made for viewing these developmental antecedents as a result of multiple developmental ecologies that is perhaps best summarized as a culture of violence.

  3. Relationship violence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alison J; Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    Previous experience with violence or a deficit in interpersonal skills may lead to violence in adolescent relationships. In this article we focus on various forms of interpersonal violence (bullying, sexual harassment, coercion, and relationship violence) that adolescents may experience and pay special attention to risk factors, help-seeking behaviors, and sequelae.

  4. Academically Gifted Students' Perceived Interpersonal Competence and Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Thomson, Dana Turner

    2012-01-01

    Perceptions of the interpersonal competence and peer relationships of 1,526 gifted adolescents who had previously participated in academic gifted programs at the Center for Talent Development were examined, using an online survey. Major findings included that the gifted students had generally positive perceptions of their abilities to initiate,…

  5. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  6. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent intentions to initiate alcohol and cigarette use, and how social goals moderate this relationship. Results support the moderating role of social goals, and suggest important differences across alcohol and cigarette use. Peer use and approval of cigarette use was associated with future intentions to smoke for adolescents with strong agentic goals, and peer use and approval of alcohol use was associated with intentions to drink for adolescents with strong communal goals. These findings suggest that adolescent substance use theories and prevention programs focusing on peer socialization should consider individual differences in social goals and potential differences in peer influence across drugs. PMID:21857763

  7. Family process and peer influences on substance use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-Wah

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are "authoritarian" (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are "permissive" were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends' invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  8. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-wah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772

  9. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships.

  10. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  11. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents’ self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys’ peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls’ peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  12. Peer Relationships of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Predictors of Peer Entry and Peer Interaction Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one…

  13. Adolescent Secretive Behavior: African American and Hmong Adolescents' Strategies and Justifications for Managing Parents' Knowledge about Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeremy P.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon the expectancy violation-realignment theory of autonomy development, this qualitative study examined African American and Hmong adolescent autonomy-seeking behaviors and parent-child communication about activities and relationships with peers. Twenty-two African American and 11 Hmong adolescents in grades 6-12 and 14 African American…

  14. Running With the Pack: Teen Peer-Relationship Qualities as Predictors of Adult Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph P; Uchino, Bert N; Hafen, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed qualities of adolescent peer relationships as long-term predictors of physical health quality in adulthood. In an intensive multimethod, multireporter study of a community sample of 171 individuals assessed repeatedly from the ages of 13 to 27 years, physical health quality in adulthood was robustly predicted by independent reports of early-adolescent close-friendship quality and by a pattern of acquiescence to social norms in adolescent peer relationships. Predictions remained after accounting for numerous potential confounds, including prior health problems, concurrent body mass index, anxious and depressive symptoms, personality characteristics, adolescent-era financial adversity, and adolescent-era physical attractiveness. These findings have important implications for understanding the unique intensity of peer relationships in adolescence. PMID:26290522

  15. Features of Groups and Status Hierarchies in Girls' and Boys' Early Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Davidson, Alice J.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Moody, James; Welsh, Janet A.

    2007-01-01

    The near universality of gender segregation in middle childhood and early adolescence has stimulated extensive research on sex differences in peer relationship processes. Recent reviews of the literature suggest that although some claims of two-cultures theory have clear empirical support, such as strong preference for same-sex peers over…

  16. Gender, Peer Relations, and Challenges for Girlfriends and Boyfriends Coming Together in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how girls' and boys' different peer cultures in middle childhood may set the stage for challenges in emerging heterosexual romantic relationships in adolescence. Two theoretical frameworks are presented for understanding gender differences in children's same-gender friendships and peer groups in middle childhood: the two…

  17. The myth of peer influence in adolescent smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-08-01

    The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as depicting the more complex role of the peer context. Finally, a new model of the role of peers in smoking initiation is offered, with an emphasis on how adolescents' characteristics lead to the selection of their friends, who then provide a peer context that may or may not support smoking.

  18. Shifts in Attachment Relationships: A Study of Adolescents in Wilderness Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Tucker, Anita R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined shifts in adolescents' attachment relationships with parents and peers during a 7-week wilderness therapy program. Ninety-six adolescents, aged 14-17, completed three quantitative measurements evaluating attachment relationships with mother, father and peers pre and post treatment. Adolescents reported improved attachment…

  19. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Tracy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of…

  20. Peer Acceptance and Friendship as Predictors of Early Adolescents' Adjustment across the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Erdley, Cynthia A.; Marshall, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines several aspects of adolescents' pretransition peer relationships as predictors of their adjustment to middle school. Participants were 365 students (175 boys; 99% Caucasian) involved in the Time 1 (the spring of fifth grade) and Time 2 (the fall of sixth grade) assessments. Adolescents completed measures that assessed peer…

  1. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation. PMID:26171331

  2. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  3. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  4. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  5. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from…

  6. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2010-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network "types" may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among…

  7. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023

  8. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.

  9. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.

  10. The Gender Structure of Adolescent Peer Influence on Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics…

  11. The Myth of Peer Influence in Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-01-01

    The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as…

  12. Psychophysiology of Adolescent Peer Relations I: Theory and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how psychophysiological processes relate to adolescent peer functioning. This review discusses advances in the study of the psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations, with a focus on how the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems relate to antisocial behavior, victimization, and…

  13. The Influence of Emotional Difficulty, Parent-Child Relationship, Peer Relationships, Materially-Oriented and Appearance-Oriented Attitudes on Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sung Man

    2016-01-01

    This study explored predictors of adolescent problem behavior utilizing panel data from the National Youth Policy Institute. Data were collected from June 2013 to August 2013 from 3195 middle school students living in 15 cities of South Korea. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression in two steps. The first step included gender and school…

  14. A prospective study of intraindividual and peer influences on adolescents' heterosexual romantic and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Collins, W Andrew

    2004-08-01

    Theories and empirical studies of adolescent sexual behavior have identified the contributions of personal attributes and social experiences; however, it is rare that models have clarified developmental pathways to adolescent sexual behavior that include (1) factors assessed prior to and early in adolescence and (2) dyadic experiences in adolescence that provide the opportunity for sexual behavior (i.e., dating). Using data from a prospective study, structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting adolescent sexual behavior at age 19, denoted by the number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors examined were sociability and impulsivity assessed at 30 months of age, physical characteristics and experiences with peers measured at age 12-13, the age of first romantic relationship, and frequency of alcohol use at age 16. The pathway to greater sexual involvement was marked by some desired personal attributes (e.g., sociability) and peer experiences (e.g., higher quality friendships). These associations were mediated, however, by earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent use of alcohol in middle adolescence. Earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent alcohol use were predicted by greater sociability and less impulsivity in childhood, higher quality friendships and greater peer acceptance in early adolescence, and a more mature appearance and physical attractiveness (among females) at age 13. The findings imply a complex pathway that leads to a greater accumulation of sexual partners by age 19. This pathway begins in childhood and includes individual qualities, peer acceptance, romantic relationships, and alcohol use. PMID:15162084

  15. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking, discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking; consider socialization and selection processes with respect to smoking; investigate the relative influence of best friends, close friends, and crowd affiliations; and examine parenting behaviors that could buffer the effects of peer influence. Our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. We conclude with implications for research and prevention programs. PMID:20614184

  16. Peer Influence on Gender Identity Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…

  17. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  18. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  19. Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Context: How Neighborhoods, Parents and Peers Impact Youth

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  20. Peer victimization and parental psychological control in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2012-04-01

    With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the relevance of adolescent-to-parent influences during adolescence by demonstrating that physical peer victimization was predictive of increases in mother's psychological control but parental psychological control did not predict subsequent peer victimization. These direct effects were present above and beyond the contribution of adolescent internalizing symptoms to higher parental psychological control. Practical implications of the primacy of adolescent-to-parent influences in predicting the social adjustment of victims of peer harassment are discussed.

  1. Peer acceptance among Chinese adolescents: the role of emotional empathy, cognitive empathy and gender.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy.

  2. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:26002848

  3. The role of family and peer relations in adolescent antisocial behaviour: comparison of four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Deković, Maja; Wissink, Inge B; Marie Meijer, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is applicable to adolescents belonging to different ethnic groups. The sample included 603 adolescents (318 females and 285 males) from four ethnic groups: 68% of adolescents were Dutch, 11% were Moroccan, 13% were Turkish and 8% were Surinamese. The questionnaires assessing antisocial behaviour, quality of parent-adolescent relationship and involvement with deviant peers were completed by adolescents individually at schools. Results show few ethnic differences in the mean level of the assessed constructs: adolescents from different ethnic groups show similar levels of antisocial behaviour, are to a similar degree satisfied with their relationships with parents, disclose as much information to them, and do not differ in their involvement with deviant peers. However, the associations of parent and peer relations with antisocial behaviour differed across the ethnic groups.

  4. Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: Predicting adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju

    2016-08-01

    Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798

  5. Helping Responses of Parents and Peers and Adolescent Well Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ronald J.; Weir, Tamara

    This study examines the experiences of adolescents when they seek help with their problems and anxieties from within their natural support systems. The following questions were posed: (1) How do adolescents perceive their parents' and peers' responses when they seek help? (2) Do the response behaviors of the helpers affect adolescents' willingness…

  6. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  7. Where Are the Guys in Peer Education? A Survey of Peer Education Programs Related to Adolescent Sexual Health in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with adolescent male participation in sexual health peer education programs. Research questions focused on identifying the percentages of male peer educators in these programs, exploring the relationship between financial compensation and male participation, and identifying male-specific recruitment strategies, if…

  8. Peer Relationships Among Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    As new treatments allow chronically ill children to live longer, the relationship between the child's psychological state and his physical condition becomes paramount. Diabetics (N=42) between the ages of 10 and 21 answered questions about their disease. While most respondents did not feel that diabetes had affected relationships with peers,…

  9. Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

  10. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of An Arab Version of the Family Peer Relationship Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Edythe S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about parent and peer relationships in immigrant adolescents due to a dearth of culturally sensitive measures. We adapted the Family Peer Relationship Questionnaire (FPRQ) for Arab immigrant mothers and their adolescents. Mothers and adolescents completed parallel versions of the Arab FPRQ and measures of child behavior problems, child social relations, and maternal depression. Data analyses included confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity. The proposed four-factor structure was replicated in both the mother and child forms. Scores from the Arab FPRQ subscales and the other measures provided evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity, suggesting that the Arab FPRQ is a viable assessment tool. PMID:18389498

  12. Gendered-peer relationships in educational contexts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A; Hanish, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them.

  13. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12–17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a “proself” orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than “prosocial” participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  14. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a "proself" orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than "prosocial" participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction.

  15. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a "proself" orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than "prosocial" participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  16. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents.

  17. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data.…

  18. Peer Relationships Among Institutionalized Juvenile Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preveaux, Neal E.; Ray, Glen E.; LoBello, Steven G.; Mehta, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    This study examined peer relationships (sociometric status and friendship) of institutionalized juvenile males ages 12 to 18. Results replicated previous studies using "normal" nondelinquent samples demonstrating that sociometrically popular status juveniles were evaluated higher on sociability and leadership than were average- or rejected-status…

  19. Peer status beyond adolescence: Types and behavioral associations.

    PubMed

    Ruschoff, Britta; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the types and behavioral associations of peer status in school-bound young adults in the Netherlands. We argue that adolescent peer popularity and its link with aggressive and norm-breaking behavior result from adolescents' desire to create an image of maturity among their peers. We expect that in young adults who are approaching working life, peer status is defined by affective measures of status and prosociality rather than adverse behaviors. Analyses revealed a three cluster solution of (1) liked, (2) liked-popular and (3) neutral members of the peer group, showing that status is primarily defined by being well-liked, though popularity remains relevant. Status was primarily associated with prosocial behavior, especially for females. Peer status in young males remained associated with overt aggressive behavior.

  20. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    PubMed Central

    WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793

  1. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  2. Predicting Children's Liking of School from Their Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Michael J.; Don, Jacqui; Boulton, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have established that children's peer relationships and school adjustment are associated. The main aims of the current study were to test if four measures of peer relationships (Peer Acceptance, Presence/Absence of Best Friend, Number of Friends, and Perceived Peer Support) could predict School Liking concurrently and longitudinally…

  3. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  4. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  5. Precursors of Running Away during Adolescence: Do Peers Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Adams, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Although peer influence is a salient predictor of delinquency, how it operates in the etiology of runaway behavior is not fully understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study demonstrates the importance of taking peers into account in understanding the etiology of running away. The findings suggest…

  6. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  7. Peer Context of Mathematics Classroom Belonging in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Faircloth, Beverly S.

    2005-01-01

    Classroom peer factors were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. After controlling for fall sense of classroom belonging, spring sense of belonging was greater when teens perceived a more supportive peer context, minimal emotional risk in participating, and when they…

  8. Evaluation of Peer Comforting Strategies by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ruth Anne; MacGeorge, Erina L.; Robinson, Lakesha

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of social support across the lifespan and extensive research on supportive communication between adults, little is known about how children or adolescents respond to the comforting efforts of their peers. The current study was designed to examine how 5th, 7th, and 9th graders evaluate six peer comforting strategies…

  9. Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence.

  10. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  12. Estimating Peer Effects in Sexual Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…

  13. Music Listening, Coping, Peer Affiliation and Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…

  14. Peer Approach in Adolescent Reproductive Health Education: Some Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This package is one of a series of repackaged products aimed at alerting UNESCO users to a wealth of highly valuable educational resources that exist in the field of adolescent reproductive and sexual health. This document focuses on what research says is the impact of peer education in promoting necessary changes among adolescents in attitudes…

  15. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  16. Adolescents' Online Social Networking Following the Death of a Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how online social networking facilitates adolescent grieving following the sudden death of a peer. Researchers reviewed 20 profiles authored by adolescents who had died between 2005 and 2007 collecting information from commentary posted to the profiles posthumously. Observed themes included adolescent…

  17. Peer Victimization and Parental Psychological Control in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2012-01-01

    With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the…

  18. Interracial Panjabi in a British Adolescent Peer Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, M. B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration of the use of Panjabi by British Black adolescents and White adolescents in a mixed peer group, analyzing contexts of Panjabi occurrence and crossing, showed that Panjabi was important in managing the divisions that cross-cut youth community and in extending horizons beyond the confines of local neighborhood experience. (31…

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  20. The Adolescent Peer Group Revisited: Turbulence or Adaptation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidlinger, Saul

    1984-01-01

    Charges that although the potent influence of the peer group on the psychosocial development of adolescents is undisputed, most clinical writings portray it in a one-sided vein. Proposes a more balanced view of adolescent group life with emphasis on the adaptive and growth-promoting aspects. (JAC)

  1. Peer relationships of deaf children with cochlear implants: predictors of peer entry and peer interaction success.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one situations compared to interactions including two other hearing children and better performance among girls than boys. In addition, longer duration of implant use and higher self-esteem were associated with better performance on the Peer Task, which was in turn related to parental reports of children's social functioning outside the experimental situation. These findings contribute to the growing literature describing the benefits of cochlear implantation in the areas of communication and socialization, while pointing to interventions that may enhance deaf children's social competence.

  2. Linking Executive Function and Peer Problems from Early Childhood Through Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa. PMID:26096194

  3. Linking Executive Function and Peer Problems from Early Childhood Through Middle Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Peer interactions and executive function play central roles in the development of healthy children, as peer problems have been indicative of lower cognitive competencies such as self-regulatory behavior and poor executive function has been indicative of problem behaviors and social dysfunction. However, few studies have focused on the relation between peer interactions and executive function and the underlying mechanisms that may create this link. Using a national sample (n = 1164, 48.6% female) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), we analyzed executive function and peer problems (including victimization and rejection) across three waves within each domain (executive function or peer problems), beginning in early childhood and ending in middle adolescence. Executive function was measured as a multi-method, multi-informant composite including reports from parents on the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist and child's performance on behavioral tasks including the Continuous Performance Task, Woodcock-Johnson, Tower of Hanoi, Operation Span Task, Stroop, and Tower of London. Peer problems were measured as a multi-informant composite including self, teacher, and afterschool caregiver reports on multiple peer-relationship scales. Using a cross-lagged design, our Structural Equation Modeling findings suggested that experiencing peer problems contributed to lower executive function later in childhood and better executive function reduced the likelihood of experiencing peer problems later in childhood and middle adolescence, although these relations weakened as a child moves into adolescence. The results highlight that peer relationships are involved in the development of strengths and deficits in executive function and vice versa.

  4. Adolescent Siblings' Daily Discussions: Connections to Perceived Academic, Athletic, and Peer Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Winzeler, Abby

    2007-01-01

    First- and second-born adolescent siblings from 21 families completed a daily diary on each of 7 days. The frequency and content of siblings' conversations are described and the relationship between the content of siblings' discussion and their perceived academic, athletic, and peer competency is explored. Siblings most often talked about…

  5. Automatic Activation of Adolescents' Peer-Relational Schemas: Evidence from Priming with Facial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Katlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the…

  6. The Role of Parental and Peer Attachment in the Psychological Health and Self-Esteem of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ross B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…

  7. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…

  8. Simulating Dynamic Network Models and Adolescent Smoking: The Impact of Varying Peer Influence and Peer Selection.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa

    2015-12-01

    We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.

  9. Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, B B; Mounts, N; Lamborn, S D; Steinberg, L

    1993-04-01

    Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15-19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.

  10. The Interpersonal Relationships and Social Perceptions of Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Adams, Ryan; Nounopoulos, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism, self-reported interpersonal relationships, and peer-reported prosocial, disruptive, and academic behaviors among a general sample of 984 9th-grade adolescents. Cut-scores from the "Almost Perfect Scale-Revised" (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001)…

  11. Gender Development and Heterosexual Romantic Relationships During Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…

  12. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2016-07-01

    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Coping with Daily Hassles in the Peer Group during Early Adolescence: Variations as a Function of Peer Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Anne; Bukowski, William M.; Hymel, Shelley; Sippola, Lorrie K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined impact of peer experience on seventh graders' strategies for coping with peer hassles. Found that more aggressive adolescents perceived more control over hassles. More aggressive, unpopular adolescents used more negative strategies; more popular aggressive females used more problem-focused strategies. Withdrawn adolescents perceived less…

  14. Explaining Educational Differences in Adolescent Substance Use and Early Sexual Debut: The Role of Parents and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Harakeh, Zeena; van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies from a wide variety of European countries have demonstrated that low educated adolescents engage more frequently in health risk behaviors compared to high educated adolescents. The present study investigates the mediating roles of parental knowledge and time spent with peers in this relationship. Data were retrieved from a…

  15. Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

  16. Revisiting “What They Think”: Adolescent Drinking and the Importance of Peer Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    The association between delinquent peers and delinquent behavior is among the most consistent findings in the criminological literature, and a number of recent studies have raised the standards for determining the nature and extent of peer influence. Despite these advances, however, key questions about how deviant behavior is socially transmitted remain unresolved. In particular, much of the research examining peer influence is limited to peer behavior, despite a rich literature supporting the salience of beliefs, such as expectations and moral approval, in shaping behaviors. The current study takes advantage of advances in the modeling of peer influence and selection processes to re-examine the contributions of peer beliefs and behaviors to adolescent drinking. I employ longitudinal social network analysis to examine how peers contribute to the complex interplay between deviant beliefs and behaviors. I find evidence that beliefs related to peer drinking have both a direct and indirect impact on behavior and also play an important role in the friendship selection process. These results highlight the importance of understanding how peers influence deviant behavior and suggest that peer beliefs are an important part of this relationship. PMID:25382862

  17. The relationships of family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization: an analysis of their gender differences.

    PubMed

    Jesús Cava, María; Musitu, Gonzalo; Buelga, Sofia; Murgui, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of their family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization, taking into account that these relationships could be mediated by adolescents' self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and sociometric status. These relationships, and their possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5). A structural equation modeling was calculated for boys and girls separately. The findings suggested that the adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on peer relational victimization for boys, and adolescents' loneliness and sociometric status for girls. Their perceptions of family and classroom environments had a significant indirect effect on peer relational victimization for boys and girls, but the paths were different. Overall, findings suggested that a negative classroom environment had a more relevant effect in relational victimization for boys.

  18. Moderators of the Association Between Peer and Target Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Vitaro, Frank; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Associating with substance using peers is generally considered as one of the most important predictors of adolescent substance use. However, peer association does not affect all adolescents in the same way. To better understand when and under what conditions peer association is most linked with adolescent substance use (SU), this review focuses on the factors that may operate as moderators of this association. The review highlighted several potential moderators reflecting adolescents’ individual characteristics (e.g., pubertal status, genes and personality), peer and parental factors (e.g., nature of relationships and parental monitoring), and contextual factors (e.g., peer, school and neighborhood context). As peer association is a broad concept, important methodological aspects were also addressed in order to illustrate how they can potentially bias interpretation. Taking these into account, we suggest that, while the effects of some moderators are clear (e.g., parental monitoring and sensation seeking), others are less straightforward (e.g., neighborhood) and need to be further examined. This review also provides recommendations for addressing different methodological concerns in the study of moderators, including: the use of longitudinal and experimental studies and the use of mediated moderation. These will be key for developing theory and effective prevention. PMID:24183303

  19. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator effects were identified. Parental “acceptance” of the child moderated the effects of IPV exposure on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy and running away from home. Both peer communication and peer trust moderated the relationship between exposure to IPV and depression and running from home. Peer communication also moderated the effects of IPV exposure on high school dropout. Interventions that influence parenting practices and strengthen peer support for youth exposed to IPV may increase protection and decrease risk of several tested outcomes. PMID:21765624

  20. Reactive/proactive aggression and the development of internalizing problems in males: the moderating effect of parent and peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time.

  1. Adolescent substance use and peer use: a multilevel analysis of cross-sectional population data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists concerning the importance of social contexts in adolescent substance use prevention. In addition to the important role schools play in educating young people, they are important ecological platforms for adolescent health, development and behaviors. In this light, school community contexts represent an important, but largely neglected, area of research in adolescent substance use and prevention, particularly with regard to peer influences. This study sought to add to a growing body of literature into peer contexts by testing a model of peer substance use simultaneously on individual and school community levels while taking account of several well established individual level factors. Method We analyzed population-based data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland school survey, with 7,084 participants (response rate of 83.5%) nested within 140 schools across Iceland. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results School-level peer smoking and drunkenness were positively related to adolescent daily smoking and lifetime drunkenness after taking account of individual level peer smoking and drunkenness. These relationships held true for all respondents, irrespective of socio-economic status and other background variables, time spent with parents, academic performance, self-assessed peer respect for smoking and alcohol use, or if they have substance-using friends or not. On the other hand, the same relationships were not found with regard to individual and peer cannabis use. Conclusions The school-level findings in this study represent context effects that are over and above individual-level associations. This holds although we accounted for a large number of individual level variables that studies generally have not included. For the purpose of prevention, school communities should be targeted as a whole in substance use prevention programs in addition to reaching to individuals of particular concern. PMID:23902743

  2. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  3. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relations among Peer-Reported Trustworthiness, Social Relationships, and Psychological Adjustment in Children and Early Adolescents from the United Kingdom and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; McDougall, Patricia; Boulton, Michael J.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Fox, Claire; Hymel, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Trustworthiness was examined in children and early adolescents from two countries. In Study 1,505 children in the fifth and sixth school years in the United Kingdom (mean age = 9 years 7 months) were tested across an 8-month period. In Study 2,350 sixth- through eighth-grade Canadian children and early adolescents (mean age = 12 years 11 months)…

  4. Associations of Peer Acceptance and Perceived Popularity with Bullying and Victimization in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Wissink, Inge B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of peer acceptance and perceived popularity in bullying and victimization in early adolescent peer groups. Peer acceptance is the degree to which adolescents are well liked by their peers; perceived popularity indicates visibility, dominance, and prestige. It was hypothesized that acceptance negatively predicts…

  5. The Role of Feared Possible Selves on the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Jennifer; Schmidt, Carissa; Stoddard, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of a feared delinquent possible self on the relationship between exposure to negative peer behaviors and violent and non-violent self-reported delinquency. Previous research strongly supports that deviant peers influence adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Yet, few studies have explored intrapersonal factors that may moderate this influence. Possible selves include what one hopes, expects and fears becoming and are believed to motivate behavior. Thus, it was hypothesized that adolescents who were exposed to deviant peers and also feared engaging in delinquency would be more likely to self-report delinquency. Seventh grade students (n = 176) identified feared possible selves in the future, their exposure to negative peer behavior and self-reported violent and non-violent delinquent behavior. Findings suggest that exposure to negative peer behavior is associated with self-reported delinquent behavior. For violent behavior, possessing a feared delinquent possible self moderates this relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25460676

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  7. The Association between Violence Exposure and Aggression and Anxiety: The Role of Peer Relationships in Adaptation for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodearl, Anna Ward; Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how peer relationships contribute to young adolescents' adaptation in the face of exposure to community and family violence. It tested hypotheses about peers' role in processes relating exposure to behavioral and psychological outcomes, specifically, aggression and anxiety. Data were collected from 667 middle school…

  8. Adolescents' reports of physical violence by peers in residential care settings: an ecological examination.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2014-03-01

    Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.

  9. Peer status and aggression as predictors of dating popularity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Houser, John J; Mayeux, Lara; Cross, Cassandra

    2015-03-01

    Research has identified links between dating and aversive behavior such as aggression and bullying in adolescence, highlighting the need for studies that further our understanding of romantic relationships and their dynamics during this period. This study tested the associations between dating popularity and overt and relational aggression, social preference, and peer popularity. Of particular interest were the moderating roles of social preference and peer popularity in the association of aggression with dating popularity. Further moderation by gender was also explored. Participants were 478 ninth-graders (48% girls) with peer nomination scores for peer status, aggression, and dating popularity. Dating popularity was positively correlated with popularity, social preference, and overt and relational aggression. Regression models indicated that popular, overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers. Relational aggression was associated with dating popularity for both boys and girls, especially for youths who were well-liked by peers. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental-contextual perspectives on adolescent romantic relationships and Resource Control Theory.

  10. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Veronneau, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle…

  11. Stability and Change in Peer Relationships during the Transition to Middle-Level School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Cindy L.; Bukowski, William M.; Sippola Lorrie K.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Canadian young adolescents' peer relationships as students moved from grade 6 in small elementary schools to middle-level schools offering grades 7 to 12. Found that girls experienced greater instability in reciprocated friendships than boys. Found that girls, more so than boys, lost old friendships and formed new friendships with…

  12. Mediator and Moderator Role of Loneliness in the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ozgur Erdur; Bugay, Asli

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator roles of loneliness in the relationship between peer victimisation and depressive symptoms. The participants of the study were 144 adolescents (66 girls, 78 boys) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the relations of…

  13. Social Behavior and Peer Relationships of Victims, Bully-Victims, and Bullies in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of bully/victim problems in school-age children and adolescents has been investigated in many countries, only a few studies have been carried out among younger children. This study examines social behaviors and peer relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems in kindergarten. Methods: Three…

  14. Effects of Teacher-Student Relationships on Peer Harassment: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Williamson, Ariel A.; Pulido, Rosa; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Peer harassment is a major social problem affecting children and adolescents internationally. Much research has focused on student-to-student harassment from either an individual or a multilevel perspective. There is a paucity of multilevel research on students' relationships with the classroom teacher. The purpose of this study was to use a…

  15. Peer Cybervictimization Among Adolescents and the Associated Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Benjamin W; Gardella, Joseph H; Teurbe-Tolon, Abbie R

    2016-09-01

    Numerous adolescents in the United States experience peer cybervictimization, which is associated with a series of internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger) and externalizing (e.g., aggression, substance use, risky sexual behavior) problems. The current study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing research on these relationships. Included in the meta-analyses are 239 effect sizes from 55 reports, representing responses from 257,678 adolescents. The results of a series of random effects meta-analyses using robust variance estimation indicated positive and significant relationships between peer cybervictimization and a series of internalizing and externalizing problems, with point estimates of this relationship ranging from Pearson's r = .14 to .34. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27447707

  16. Changing Relationships, Changing Youth: Interpersonal Contexts of Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, W. Andrew; Laursen, Brett

    2004-01-01

    In the past quarter century, research on adolescence has expanded from a near exclusive focus on intraindividual processes to a concern with individuals in an interpersonal context. Today, studies of the impact of relationships within families, with peers, and with romantic partners account for a large proportion of research in the field. This…

  17. Processes of adolescent socialization by parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Kandel, D B; Andrews, K

    1987-04-01

    Basic processes of socialization by parents and peers involving modeling and social reinforcement, in their direct, indirect, and contingent manifestations, are investigated with respect to adolescent use of alcohol and marijuana. Four causal models are tested for frequency of alcohol and of marijuana use and for initiation into alcohol and into marijuana. The analyses are based on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal samples of adolescent-parent-best schoolfriend triads. The basic socialization processes are found to vary depending upon the source of influence, the specific drug, and the phases of behavior engaged in by the adolescent. Implications of the results for socialization theory are discussed.

  18. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  19. Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: contributions by parents, peers and the media.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina M; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Kerrick, Madeleine R; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents--mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content--and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication.

  20. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  1. Individual, Family, and Peer predictors of Violence among Samoan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…

  2. The Influence of Peer Group Pressure Upon Adolescents' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilanian, Seta M.

    An adolescent's learning patterns are developed throughout the student's socialization process, suggesting that peer pressure may influence learning. Female college students (N=15) aged 19-21 participated in a pencil-maze learning task performed while blindfolded. The task was presented in three categories of stimuli conditions: (1) normal…

  3. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  4. Parents and Peers in Relation to Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent and prospective associations between parent-youth dyadic hostility and adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior were examined in a sample of 416 families. Parenting control, parents' well-being, and youths' affiliation with deviant peers were included as integral covariates. Information from multiple sources was…

  5. The Short-Term Longitudinal and Reciprocal Relations Between Peer Victimization on Facebook and Adolescents' Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and adolescents' online peer victimization are associated, there remain critical gaps in our understanding of these relationships. To address these gaps, the present two-wave panel study (N Time1 = 1840) (1) examines the short-term longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between peer victimization on Facebook, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction during adolescence, and (2) explores the moderating role of adolescents' gender, age, and perceived friend support. Self-report data from 1621 adolescent Facebook users (48 % girls; M Age  = 14.76; SD = 1.41) were used to test our hypotheses. The majority of the sample (92 %) was born in Belgium. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that peer victimization on Facebook marginally predicted decreases in life satisfaction, and life satisfaction predicted decreases in peer victimization on Facebook. However, depressive symptoms were a risk factor for peer victimization on Facebook, rather than an outcome. In addition, support from friends protected adolescents from the harmful outcomes of peer victimization on Facebook. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. The Relation between Early Adolescents' Trust Beliefs in Peers and Reactions to Peer Provocation: Attributions of Intention and Retaliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…

  7. Adolescents' Social Network Site Use, Peer Appearance-Related Feedback, and Body Dissatisfaction: Testing a Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen; de Graaf, Hanneke; Nikken, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational research indicates that adolescent girls who use social network sites more frequently are more dissatisfied with their bodies. However, we know little about the causal direction of this relationship, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and whether this relationship also occurs among boys to the same extent. The present two-wave panel study (18 month time lag) among 604 Dutch adolescents (aged 11-18; 50.7% female; 97.7% native Dutch) aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge. Structural equation modeling showed that social network site use predicted increased body dissatisfaction and increased peer influence on body image in the form of receiving peer appearance-related feedback. Peer appearance-related feedback did not predict body dissatisfaction and thus did not mediate the effect of social network site use on body dissatisfaction. Gender did not moderate the findings. Hence, social network sites can play an adverse role in the body image of both adolescent boys and girls.

  8. Mexican-origin Mothers’ and Fathers’ Involvement in Adolescents’ Peer Relationships: A Pattern-Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Baril, Megan E.; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2013-01-01

    Using latent profile analysis, this study examined patterns of mother-father involvement in adolescents’ peer relationships along three dimensions, support, guidance, and restrictions, in 240 Mexican-origin families. Three profiles were identified: (a) High Mother Involvement (mothers higher than fathers on all three dimensions); (b) High Support/Congruent (mothers and fathers reported the highest levels of peer support and similar levels of guidance and restrictions); and (c) Differentiated (more guidance and restrictions by fathers than by mothers, similar levels of parent support). These profiles were linked to mothers’ and fathers’ familism values, traditional patriarchal gender role attitudes, and socioeconomic status, and to adolescents’ friendship intimacy and risky behaviors measured longitudinally from early to late adolescence. Adolescent gender moderated the linkages between parents’ involvement in adolescents’ peer relationships and youth adjustment. PMID:24092949

  9. Paradoxical Inequalities: Adolescent Peer Relations in Indian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Murray, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Peer relationships in secondary schools in two different cultural areas of India are compared. A general theory of status relations and a specification of the distinctive cultural features of each area are used to explain the observed differences in peer inequality, clique formation, petty deviance, putdowns, fashion consciousness, romantic…

  10. Automatic activation of adolescents' peer-relational schemas: evidence from priming with facial identity.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study provides experimental evidence for automatic, relationship-specific social information processing in 13-year-old adolescents. Photographs of participants' liked, disliked, and unknown peers were used as primes in an affective priming task with happy and angry facial expression probes and in a hypothetical vignette task. For the affective priming, reaction times were faster for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs when the prime visibility was high and the prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony was long. In the vignette task, participants attributed more hostility toward the protagonist, experienced more anger, and were more likely to retaliate when the disliked peer served as a prime. It is concluded that peer-relational schemas and related affect are activated automatically upon perception of a peer. PMID:19037941

  11. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  12. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P.; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). Results Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth. PMID:24987497

  13. Peer Influences on Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Rhonda; Hinman, Agatha; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance; Campbell, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of family environment and peer networks in abstinence outcomes for adolescents 1 year after intake to alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design Survey of 419 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age at consecutive intakes to AOD treatment programs at four sites of a large health system, with telephone follow-up survey 1 year after intake. Methods Examined association of 1-year abstinence with baseline characteristics. Using logistic regression, we examined characteristics predicting 1-year abstinence and predicting having fewer than four substance-using friends at 1 year. Results We found that family environment scores related to family conflict, limit setting, and positive family experiences, were not related to abstinence outcomes, but peer networks were related. Adolescents with fewer (less than four) AOD-using friends were more likely to be abstinent than those with four or more AOD-using friends (65% vs. 41%, p = .0002). Having fewer than four AOD-using friends at intake predicted abstinence at 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.904, p = .0002) and also predicted having fewer than four AOD-using friends at 1 year (OR = 2.557, p = 0.0007). Conclusions Although family environment is an important factor in the development of AOD problems in adolescents, it did not play a significant role in treatment success. The quality of adolescent peer networks did independently predict positive outcomes. Clinical Relevance For physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and other primary and behavioral care providers who screen and care for adolescents with AOD and other behavioral problems, our finding suggest the importance of focusing on improving the quality of their peer networks. PMID:22339982

  14. Is it the music? Peer substance use as a mediator of the link between music preferences and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2010-06-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations.

  15. Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…

  16. Social Coping by Masking? Parental Support and Peer Victimization as Mediators of the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Expressive Suppression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Eisinga, Rob; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Hofman, Elin; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Expressive suppression is regarded as a generally ineffective emotion regulation strategy and appears to be associated with the development of depressive symptoms among adolescents. However, the mechanisms linking suppression to depressive symptoms are not well understood. The main aim of this study was to examine two potential mediators of the…

  17. How the quality of peer relationships influences college alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Borsari, Brian; Carey, Kate B

    2006-07-01

    Peer relationships are consistently linked to alcohol use in college students. However, this disparate literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of peer influence. In this review, we use an organisational framework based on social learning theory (SLT) to demonstrate how the quality of peer relationships may influence personal alcohol use. We propose that the quality of peer relationships enhance the influence of social reinforcement, modelling and cognitive processes on personal alcohol use. Research indicates that the quality of peer relationships influences drinking via three pathways: the lack or breakdown of quality peer relationships, alcohol use being an integral part of peer interactions, and if peers disapprove of alcohol use or do not drink. This conceptualisation of peer influence informs the consistent finding of gender differences in college student drinking. Limitations of the reviewed research include reliance on cross-sectional surveys, self-report and homogeneous populations. Future directions for research on quality peer relationships involve detailed longitudinal assessment and the application of advanced statistical methods.

  18. Perceived Family and Peer Invalidation as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors and Self-Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Kevin; Tezanos, Katherine; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Solomon, Joel; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study investigates the longitudinal relationship between perceived family and peer invalidation and adolescent suicidal events (SE) and self-mutilation (SM) in a 6 month follow-up (f/u) study of adolescents admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit for suicide risk. Methods: Adolescents (n=119) and their parent(s) were administered interviews and self-report assessments at baseline and at a 6 month f/u, with 99 (83%) completing both assessments. The Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (A-LIFE) was modified to provide weekly ratings (baseline and each week of f/u) for perceived family and peer invalidation. Regression analyses examined whether: 1) Prospectively rated perceived family and peer invalidation at baseline predicted SE and SM during f/u; and 2) chronicity of perceived invalidation operationalized as proportion of weeks at moderate to high invalidation during f/u was associated with SE and SM during f/u. Results: Multiple regression analyses, controlling for previously identified covariates, revealed that perceived family invalidation predicted SE over f/u for boys only and perceived peer invalidation predicted SM over f/u in the overall sample. This was the case for both baseline and f/u ratings of perceived invalidation. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the adverse impact of perceived family and peer invalidation. Specifically, boys who experienced high perceived family invalidation were more likely to have an SE over f/u. Both boys and girls who experienced high perceived peer invalidation were more likely to engage in SM over f/u. PMID:25264807

  19. American adolescents touch each other less and are more aggressive toward their peers as compared with French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Field, T

    1999-01-01

    Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Paris and Miami to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more aggressive verbal and physical behavior. PMID:10730699

  20. American Adolescents Touch Each Other Less and Are More Aggressive toward Their Peers as Compared with French Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Miami and Paris to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more…

  1. Family Process and Peer Deviance Influences on Adolescent Aggression: Longitudinal Effects across Early and Middle Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in sixth grade, 416 adolescents and their parents participated in four waves of data collection involving family observations and multiple-reporter assessments. Ecological theory and the Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) model guided the hypotheses and analyses. Lagged, growth curve models revealed that both hostile family interactions and peer deviance affiliation predicted adolescent aggression in the subsequent year. Family warmth played only a minor role in protecting against adolescent aggression. In hostile or low warmth families, peer deviance affiliation linked to a declining aggression trajectory consistent with the arena of comfort hypothesis. The longitudinal findings suggest a non-additive, synergistic interplay between family and peer contexts across time in adding nuance to the understanding adolescent aggression. PMID:22497273

  2. Peer selection and socialization in adolescent depression: the role of school transitions.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Natalie P; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to investigate prospective relationships between adolescents' and their friends' depressive symptoms in middle school and in high school. Results revealed that students selected friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms after each school transition. Additionally, friends appeared to socialize adolescents to become more similar in depressive affect in late middle school years. These findings suggest normative selection effects after school transitions, followed by socialization effects in middle school, but not high school.

  3. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  4. Applying Depression-Distortion Hypotheses to the Assessment of Peer Victimization in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior were associated with discrepancies between self- and peer-reports of peer victimization experiences. A sample of 203 10th-grade adolescents completed self-report measures of victimization and depressive symptoms as well as peer nominations of victimization and…

  5. Gender Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Parental Monitoring and Peer Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in adolescent drug use in terms of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Surveys of Swedish adolescents indicated that girls were more highly monitored than boys, and boys were more exposed to deviant peers than girls. There was a significant interaction for parental monitoring and peer deviance for the sample as a…

  6. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  7. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Peer Victimization to Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hilt, Lori M.

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization experiences represent developmentally salient stressors among adolescents and are associated with the development of internalizing symptoms. However, the mechanisms linking peer victimization to adolescent psychopathology remain inadequately understood. This study examined emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer stress…

  8. Basking in Reflected Glory and Its Limits: Why Adolescents Hang out with Popular Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether popularity and likability were related to associating with popular peers in adolescence. Participants were 3,312 adolescents (M age = 13.60 years) from 172 classrooms in 32 schools. Four types of peer affiliations of the participants with the popular peers in their classrooms were distinguished: "best…

  9. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  10. Development of Sexual Expectancies among Adolescents: Contributions by Parents, Peers and the Media

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Kathleen; Bersamin, Melina; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kerrick, R.; Grube, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents’ exposure to four socializing agents—mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content—and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: Social Benefit, Pleasure, Social Risk, and Health Risk. Data are from Waves 2–3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were non-sexually active (N=914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and Social Benefit, Pleasure and Social Risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and Social Benefit expectancies and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and Health Risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted Pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted Social Risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision-making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication. PMID:23631710

  11. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use.

  12. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  13. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  14. Efficacy of a Peer-Guided Exercise Programme for Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer support is strongly associated with physical activity of adolescents. This study examined the efficacy of a YMCA-based, peer-guided exercise training programme for increasing health-related physical fitness among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Adolescents with intellectual disabilities and…

  15. Parents, Peers, Youth Culture and Autonomy in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasick, Frank A.

    1984-01-01

    Explores the relationship between adolescent lifestyle and the development of autonomy. Suggests that the expansion of the high school system with its emphasis on continued dependence, and the rise of the market economy emphasizing economic independence, create potential discontinuity in adolescent socialization. (JAC)

  16. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  17. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-08-01

    When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

  19. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  20. Friendship expectations among immigrant adolescents and their host peers.

    PubMed

    Horenczyk, G; Tatar, M

    1998-02-01

    This study investigated differences in friendship expectations between immigrants in early and middle adolescence and their Israeli-born peers. Israeli newcomers from the former Soviet Union and their non-immigrant classmates were asked to rate behavioural characteristics of peers according to the extent of their importance for friendship, and also to assess the importance of these characteristics as friendship expectations of members of the other group. Results indicate that immigrants assign greater importance than their host counterparts to all aspects of friendship expectations (help and assistance, status, similarity, and avoidance of harm). Immigrants also tend to view their host peers as expecting more of their friendship in terms of status and similarity, whereas host adolescents perceive the help and avoidance functions of friendship to be a strong factor in the friendship expectations of their immigrant counterparts. Immigrants' friendship expectations were found to be correlated with social distress, especially among early adolescent girls. The results are discussed in terms of the functions of friendships and friendship expectations in the immigrants' adaptation process, and of institutional differences in allocation of immigrants to integrated or segregated classrooms.

  1. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345

  2. Adolescents Prefer More Immediate Rewards when in the Presence of Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Lia; Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents take more risks in the presence of their peers, but the mechanism through which peer presence affects risky decision-making is unknown. We propose that the presence of peers increases the salience of the immediate rewards of a risky choice. The current study examined the effect of peer presence on reward sensitivity in a sample of 100…

  3. Adolescent academic achievement and school engagement: an examination of the role of school-wide peer culture.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M; Leventhal, Tama

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to smaller peer groups, within each school exists a school-wide peer culture that is comprised of two components (a relational and a behavioral component), each of which is related to individual academic outcomes. The relational component describes the aggregate of students' perceptions of the quality of peer relationships within each school. The behavioral component is an aggregate representation of students' actual behaviors in regard to academic tasks. We used data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, which surveyed 1,718 5th grade students (45.9 % male, 51.4 % White, 17.8 % Hispanic, 7.6 % African American) in 30 schools, to explore the idea that, during adolescence, the relational and behavioral components of a school's peer culture are related to students' academic achievement and school engagement. Results suggested that above and beyond a variety of individual, familial, peer, and school characteristics that have previously been associated with academic outcomes, aspects of behavioral peer culture are associated with individual achievement while components of both relational and behavioral peer culture are related to school engagement. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23076767

  4. Adolescent academic achievement and school engagement: an examination of the role of school-wide peer culture.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M; Leventhal, Tama

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to smaller peer groups, within each school exists a school-wide peer culture that is comprised of two components (a relational and a behavioral component), each of which is related to individual academic outcomes. The relational component describes the aggregate of students' perceptions of the quality of peer relationships within each school. The behavioral component is an aggregate representation of students' actual behaviors in regard to academic tasks. We used data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, which surveyed 1,718 5th grade students (45.9 % male, 51.4 % White, 17.8 % Hispanic, 7.6 % African American) in 30 schools, to explore the idea that, during adolescence, the relational and behavioral components of a school's peer culture are related to students' academic achievement and school engagement. Results suggested that above and beyond a variety of individual, familial, peer, and school characteristics that have previously been associated with academic outcomes, aspects of behavioral peer culture are associated with individual achievement while components of both relational and behavioral peer culture are related to school engagement. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships With Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior.

    PubMed

    Clemans, Katherine H; Graber, Julia A; Bettencourt, Amie F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed.

  6. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships With Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Bettencourt, Amie F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed. PMID:23329877

  7. Relationships during adolescence: constructive vs. negative themes and relational dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Marcoen, A

    1999-02-01

    The present study set out to test Coleman's focal theory of adolescence in a cross-national context. The London Sentence Completion Test (LSCT) and the Louvain Loneliness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LLCA) were administered to 370 adolescents (11 to 17 years of age) in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. The findings confirm those of earlier work using the London Sentence Completion Test (LSCT) and other questionnaire-type measures in various English-speaking countries (England, Scotland, New Zealand and United States). The general pattern of peak ages for adolescents' interpersonal concerns provided support for the focal model. Negative feelings about being alone, relationships with parents, heterosexual relationships, small groups and rejection from larger groups do not emerge all at once, but seem to be dealt with issue by issue. The results for the Louvain Loneliness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LLCA), which measures loneliness in relationships with both parents and peers, and adolescents' attitudes towards being alone, confirmed the age trends observed with the sentence completion measure. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the changes in adolescent relationships are intimately linked to the general process of individuation, as implied by the focal model. It should be pointed out, however, that important parts of the focal theory remain at present untested. Suggestions for future empirical and conceptual work related to these aspects of Coleman's model are outlined.

  8. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical…

  9. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended.

  10. Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended. PMID:26993636

  11. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  12. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  13. The Role of Social Relationships in the Association between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Laura K; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Granillo, M Teresa; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    While research has established that depression interferes with academic achievement, less is understood about the processes by which social relationships may buffer the relationship between depression and academic outcomes. In this study we examined the role of positive relationships in the school, family and peer contexts in the association between depressive symptoms and academic achievement among 894 adolescents aged 12-17 years living in Santiago, Chile. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of academic achievement; parental monitoring, school belonging, positive mother relationships, and having academically inclined peers moderated this relationship, though some interactions differed by sex and age. Implications for promoting the academic success of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms are discussed.

  14. Moderation of Harsh Parenting on Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Deviant Peer Affiliation: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is associated with biologically influenced personal attributes, and is itself a major contributor to growth in antisocial behavior over childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown that variance in child and adolescent deviant peer affiliation includes genetic and non-genetic influences, but none have examined longitudinal genetic and environmental stability or change within the context of harsh parenting. To address this gap, we tested the moderating role of harsh parenting on genetic and environmental stability or change of deviant peer affiliation in a longitudinal (spanning one and a half years) study of Chinese child and adolescent twin pairs (N = 993, 52.0% female). Using multiple informants (child- and parent-reports) and measurement methods to minimize rater bias, we found that individual differences in deviant peer affiliation at each assessment were similarly explained by moderate genetic and nonshared environmental variance. The longitudinal stability and change of deviant peer affiliation were explained by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results also revealed that the genetic variance for deviant peer affiliation is higher in the families with harsher parenting. This amplified genetic risk underscores the role of harsh parenting in the selection and socialization process of deviant peer relationships.

  15. Peer pressures: social instability stress in adolescence and social deficits in adulthood in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Hodges, Travis E; Simone, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stage-specific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.

  16. The role of feared possible selves in the relationship between peer influence and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer; Schmidt, Carissa; Stoddard, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of a feared delinquent possible self on the relationship between exposure to negative peer behaviors and violent and non-violent self-reported delinquency. Previous research strongly supports that deviant peers influence adolescents' delinquent behavior. Yet, few studies have explored intrapersonal factors that may moderate this influence. Possible selves include what one hopes, expects and fears becoming and are believed to motivate behavior. Thus, it was hypothesized that adolescents who were exposed to deviant peers and also feared engaging in delinquency would be more likely to self-report delinquency. Seventh grade students (n = 176) identified feared possible selves in the future, their exposure to negative peer behavior and self-reported violent and non-violent delinquent behavior. Findings suggest that exposure to negative peer behavior is associated with self-reported delinquent behavior. For violent behavior, possessing a feared delinquent possible self moderates this relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25460676

  17. The relationship between stress and body satisfaction in female and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844

  18. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  19. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement.

  20. Adolescent peer group identification and characteristics: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Ashmore, Richard D.; Brown, B. Bradford

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an exhaustive review of 44 peer-reviewed quantitative or qualitative data-based peer-reviewed studies completed on adolescent peer group identification. Adolescent peer group identification is one’s self-perceived or other-perceived membership in discrete teenage peer groups. The studies reviewed suggest that adolescent peer groups consist of five general categories differentiable by lifestyle characteristics: Elites, Athletes, Academics, Deviants, and Others. We found that the Deviant adolescent group category reported relatively greater participation in drug use and other problem behaviors across studies, whereas Academics and Athletes exhibited the least participation in these problem behaviors. Additional research is needed in this arena to better understand the operation of adolescent group labels. PMID:17188815

  1. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  2. Self-Reported Peer Victimization: Concordance and Discordance between Measures of Bullying and Peer Aggression among Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…

  3. Peers increase adolescent risk taking by enhancing activity in the brain’s reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O’Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a simulated driving task. Participants completed one task block while alone, and one block while their performance was observed by peers in an adjacent room. During peer observation blocks, adolescents selectively demonstrated greater activation in reward-related brain regions, including the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, and activity in these regions predicted subsequent risk taking. Brain areas associated with cognitive control were less strongly recruited by adolescents than adults, but activity in the cognitive control system did not vary with social context. Results suggest that the presence of peers increases adolescent risk taking by heightening sensitivity to the potential reward value of risky decisions. PMID:21499511

  4. Measuring sex differences in violence victimization and perpetration within date and same-sex peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Simon, Thomas R; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk school district. Analyses of adolescents who dated in the past year (n = 2,888) show that girls are significantly more likely than boys to report physical violence and psychological aggression perpetration within dating relationships. However, boys are significantly more likely than girls to report physically injuring a date. Boys are also significantly more likely than girls to report physical violence victimization and perpetration within same-sex peer relationships. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Pre-Adolescents' Representations of Multiple Attachment Relationships: The Role of Perceived Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Apota, Ekaterini; Iliadou, Anastasia; Iosifidou, Maria; Moysidou, Sofia; Vriza, Ekaterini

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that early parent-child relationships provide the basis for all future close relationships of the individual, through childhood and adolescence into later life. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment, peer attachment and students' perceptions of their teacher's…

  6. Peer and Parent Influences on School Engagement among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Rusan, Chen,

    2009-01-01

    Students who are not motivated and do not try to do well are unlikely to achieve consistent with their abilities. This research assesses the relationships over time between school engagement and parenting practices and peer affiliation among sixth to ninth graders using latent growth models. Participants included 2,453 students recruited from…

  7. Probing the neural correlates of anticipated peer evaluation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Amanda E; McClure-Tone, Erin B; Shiffrin, Nina D; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric E

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of social-cognition were assessed in 9- to- 17-year-olds (N = 34) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants appraised how unfamiliar peers they had previously identified as being of high or low interest would evaluate them for an anticipated online chat session. Differential age- and sex-related activation patterns emerged in several regions previously implicated in affective processing. These included the ventral striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and insula. In general, activation patterns shifted with age in older relative to younger females but showed no association with age in males. Relating these neural response patterns to changes in adolescent social-cognition enriches theories of adolescent social development through enhanced neurobiological understanding of social behavior. PMID:19630890

  8. Adolescent Judgments and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Social Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…

  9. Predictors of Complicated Grief among Adolescents Exposed to a Peer's Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Day, Nancy; Shear, M. Katherine; Day, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brent, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the predictors of complicated grief, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents exposed to the suicide of a peer. One hundred and forty six peers of adolescent suicide victims were interviewed at 6, 12-18, and 36 months following the suicide. The roles of previous psychiatric…

  10. Reciprocal Associations between Family and Peer Conflict in Adolescents' Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…

  11. Peer Victimization and Perceived Life Satisfaction among Early Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Kerr, Jelani C.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Peer victimization among adolescents has been linked to increased psychological stress, psychosomatic illness, anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, suicide ideation and poor physical health. Purpose: This study explored associations between peer victimization and adolescents' perceptions of life satisfaction. Methods: Public middle…

  12. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  13. The Dynamic Reality of Adolescent Peer Networks and Sense of Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Beverly S.; Hamm, Jill V.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic features of peer network experiences (membership fluidity and network interconnectedness) were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. Because these dynamic features are naturally present in adolescents' peer group affiliations, attention to them provides a more…

  14. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  15. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…

  16. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885

  17. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced by High-Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and…

  18. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  19. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  20. Variations in Patterns of Attraction to Same- and Other-Sex Peers during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie K.; Newcomb, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    Examined differences in attraction to same- and other-sex peers as a function of sex, age, individual characteristics, and context in adolescents studied longitudinally from elementary to middle school. Found attraction to aggressive peers and to peers standing out in observable ways increased with age and upon entry to middle school, whereas…

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…

  2. Psychophysiology of Adolescent Peer Relations II: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have made significant progress in the investigation of how physiological measures can inform the study of adolescent peer functioning, including peer processes involving antisocial behavior, victimization, and peer social status. This paper highlights how the inclusion of physiological processes in research studies can address several…

  3. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  4. School connectedness and problematic internet use in adolescents: a moderated mediation model of deviant peer affiliation and self-control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wen, Fangfang

    2013-11-01

    Although a growing body of research documents the negative association between school connectedness and adolescent problematic Internet use (PIU), little is known about the mediating mechanism (i.e., how school connectedness relates to PIU?) and moderating mechanism (i.e., when the protection is most potent?) underlying this relation. The present study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the relationship between school connectedness and PIU, and whether this mediating process was moderated by adolescent self-control. A total of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (46 % male; mean age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school connectedness, deviant peer affiliation, self-control, and PIU. After controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and parental attachment, it was found that the negative association between school connectedness and adolescent PIU was partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Moreover, this indirect link was stronger for adolescents with low self-control than for those with high self-control. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the social control theory and organism-environment interaction model to understand how and when school connectedness impacts adolescent PIU.

  5. Latina adolescent suicide ideations and attempts: associations with connectedness to parents, peers, and teachers.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Susan M; Wyman, Peter; Warren, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Associations between suicidal behavior and social-ecological variables were examined among 1,618 Latina high school students (mean age = 15) from the nationally representative Add Health sample (68% were U.S.-born). Ideations were associated with having a suicidal friend, lower perceived father support, and overall parental caring. Attempts were associated with having a suicidal friend, and lower perceived teacher and parental support. Peer and mother relationship variables were not predictors of ideations or attempts. The protective role of father and teacher support has not previously been emphasized in the literature. Strengthening connections to parents and teachers may reduce suicidal behavior in adolescent Latinas.

  6. Latina Adolescent Suicide Ideations and Attempts: Associations with Connectedness to Parents, Peers, and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Susan M.; Wyman, Peter; Warren, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Associations between suicidal behavior and social-ecological variables were examined among 1,618 Latina high school students (mean age = 15) from the nationally representative Add Health sample (68% were U.S.-born). Ideations were associated with having a suicidal friend, lower perceived father support, and overall parental caring. Attempts were associated with having a suicidal friend, and lower perceived teacher and parental support. Peer and mother relationship variables were not predictors of ideations or attempts. The protective role of father and teacher support has not previously been emphasized in the literature. Strengthening connections to parents and teachers may reduce suicidal behavior in adolescent Latinas. PMID:23062099

  7. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.

  8. Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders in the transition from adolescence to young adulthood: Selection versus socialization effects.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana R; Goodman, Rebecca J; Erath, Stephen A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-05-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of socialization (i.e., the effect of antisocial peer affiliation on subsequent externalizing disorders) and selection (i.e., the effect of externalizing disorders on subsequent antisocial peer affiliation) in the prospective relationships between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders from adolescence through young adulthood. Data from a community sample of 2,769 individuals (52% female) with assessments at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29 were used. Analyses with a latent externalizing measure (estimated using clinical symptom counts of nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder, illicit drug use disorder, and adult antisocial behavior) and self-reported antisocial peer affiliation revealed significantly stronger socialization effects from age 17 to 20, followed by significantly stronger selection effects from age 20 to 24 and 24 to 29. To better understand the impact of college experience, moderation by college status was evaluated at each developmental transition. Results were generally consistent for those who were in or were not in college. Results suggest selection effects are more important in later developmental periods than earlier periods, particularly in relation to an overall liability toward externalizing disorders, likely due to more freedom in peer selection postadolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Peer influence and drug use among adolescents in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, B E; Kingery, P M; Mirzaee, E; Heuberger, G; Hurley, R S

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 1,004 eighth and tenth grade students in twenty-three small Central/East Texas communities was assessed to determine 1) their perception of the number of their friends who use drugs, 2) the amount of information they received about drugs from their friends, and 3) the connection between those perceptions and drug use. A multiple regression model which included grade, gender, the degree to which friends are perceived to use drugs and the amount of information about drugs received from friends explained 39 percent of the variance in the degree to which rural adolescents were involved in drug use. An item specific analysis of the subcomponents of these composite variables explained 44 percent of the variance in the degree to which rural adolescents were involved in drug use. This same four-factor model accurately classified over 81 percent of non-drug-users and 67 percent of users using discriminant analysis. Students who perceived a higher degree of drug use among their friends and who received more information about drugs from their friends used drugs more frequently. Lower marijuana use in these rural areas as compared to the nation, both as a peer perception and as a fact, may protect these students to a degree from broader patterns of drug use. The findings of this study support the theory that peer pressure is related to drug abuse, even in rural areas.

  10. Adolescent romance: between experience and relationships.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Seiffge-Krenke, I

    2001-06-01

    This concluding and integrative paper calls attention to several features and conceptual issues addressed by the contributors of this special issue. The first issue pertains to developmental perspectives in the study of how adolescent romance evolves. The second deals with the various features and concepts of adolescent romance. The third topic discusses the association of adolescent romance with other close relationships occurring during this time span. The fourth topic highlights the importance of the diversity of developmental contexts in shaping romantic relationships. Finally, conceptual issues in the study of adolescent romance are reviewed and the need for future studies of early adolescent romantic experiences is discussed.

  11. Susceptibility to peer influence: using a performance-based measure to identify adolescent males at heightened risk for deviant peer socialization.

    PubMed

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Brechwald, Whitney A; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2011-07-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents' susceptibility to peers. A total of 36 adolescent boys participated in a "chat room" experiment in which they ostensibly were exposed to deviant or risky social norms communicated either by high-peer-status (i.e., popular, well-liked) or low-peer-status (i.e., unpopular, disliked) grade mates who actually were electronic confederates. Changes in adolescents' responses before and after exposure to peer norms were used as a measure of peer influence susceptibility. These same adolescents completed a questionnaire assessment at the study outset and again 18 months later to assess their actual engagement in deviant behavior and their perceptions of their best friend's engagement in deviant behavior. Only among adolescents with high levels of susceptibility to high-status peers was a significant longitudinal association revealed between their best friend's baseline deviant behavior and adolescents' own deviant behavior 18 months later. Findings support the predictive validity of a performance-based susceptibility measure and suggest that adolescents' peer influence susceptibility may generalize across peer contexts.

  12. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.

  13. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  14. Effects of parenting and deviant peers on early to mid-adolescent conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers' effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters' conduct problems, whereas both fathers' and mothers' influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children's conduct problems during early to mid adolescence.

  15. An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Colich, Natalie L.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives. PMID:22318914

  16. How Can Peer Group Influence the Behavior of Adolescents: Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José

    2012-01-01

    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148

  17. Multifinality of peer victimization: maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Veenstra, René

    2015-10-01

    Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is known about the relative likelihood of each form of maladjustment. We used a latent profile approach to capture multiple possible outcomes and examined prediction by peer victimization. We also examined the role of peer victimization with regard to stability and change in maladjustment. Maladjustment symptoms and peer victimization were assessed from the participants of the large cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey in early and mid-adolescence. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were conducted to examine associations between victimization and maladjustment profile and to test the role of victimization in maladjustment profile transitions. Four maladjustment profiles were identified for early adolescence (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing, Comorbid) and three profiles (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing) were identified for mid-adolescence. Internalizing problems were more likely in victimized adolescents than low symptom levels or externalizing problems. Victimized adolescents were at greater risk to develop internalizing problems between early and mid-adolescence than non-victimized adolescents. Peer victimization is multifinal mostly when outcomes are examined separately. If multiple outcomes are tested simultaneously, internalizing problems seem to be the most likely outcome.

  18. Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Having a distant relationship with parents seems to increase the risk of developing a more negative global self-esteem. This article describes a longitudinal study of 1,090 Norwegian adolescents from the age of 13-23 (54 % males) that explored whether peer acceptance can act as a moderator and protect global self-esteem against the negative effects of experiencing low closeness in relationships with parents. A quadratic latent growth curve for global self-esteem with closeness to parents and peer acceptance as time-varying covariates was modeled, taking partial measurement invariance in global self-esteem into account. Peer acceptance was found to have a general protective effect on global self-esteem for all adolescents. In addition, at most ages, peer acceptance was found to have a protective-stabilizing effect on the relationship between closeness to parents and global self-esteem. This indicates that peer acceptance can be an especially valuable source of global self-esteem when closeness to parents is low. PMID:23435859

  19. Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Having a distant relationship with parents seems to increase the risk of developing a more negative global self-esteem. This article describes a longitudinal study of 1,090 Norwegian adolescents from the age of 13-23 (54 % males) that explored whether peer acceptance can act as a moderator and protect global self-esteem against the negative effects of experiencing low closeness in relationships with parents. A quadratic latent growth curve for global self-esteem with closeness to parents and peer acceptance as time-varying covariates was modeled, taking partial measurement invariance in global self-esteem into account. Peer acceptance was found to have a general protective effect on global self-esteem for all adolescents. In addition, at most ages, peer acceptance was found to have a protective-stabilizing effect on the relationship between closeness to parents and global self-esteem. This indicates that peer acceptance can be an especially valuable source of global self-esteem when closeness to parents is low.

  20. Short communication: Flourishing among adolescents with epilepsy: Correlates and comparison to peers.

    PubMed

    Odar Stough, Cathleen; Nabors, Laura; Merianos, Ashley; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adolescents with a seizure disorder/epilepsy display less flourishing (thriving) than peers without seizures using data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012. Adolescent demographics, symptom severity, and parents' anger toward their child were explored as possible predictors of flourishing. Adolescents with seizures exhibited lower flourishing than peers, and flourishing among adolescents with seizures was predicted by symptom severity, age, race/ethnicity, sex, and parental anger. Study results suggest adolescents with a seizure disorder/epilepsy should be targeted for interventions that promote flourishing. PMID:26313714

  1. Peer attitudes effects on adolescent substance use: the moderating role of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J; Mennis, Jeremy; Linker, Julie; Bares, Cristina; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2014-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of their close friends' attitudes about substance use, and their own use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Using data from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a multistage area probability sample sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (n = 17,865), we tested the direct and moderating effects of subgroups of race and gender on perceptions of adolescents' close friends on past month substance use. Significant effects were found on peer attitudes influencing substance use for all race and gender subgroups. Close friends' attitudes of indifference were associated with increased substance use and disapproval associated with reduced use, controlling for age, income, family structure, and adolescents' own attitudes of risk of substance use. Significant moderating effects of peer attitudes on cigarette and marijuana use were found for both gender and race moderators. Conditional effects of the moderation by race were also examined for gender subgroups. The moderating effect of race on close friends' attitudes impacting cigarette and marijuana use was stronger in magnitude and significance for females compared to males. Female marijuana and cigarette use was more influenced by close friends' attitudes than males, and whites were more influenced by their close friends than Hispanics and blacks. White females are more susceptible to close friends' attitudes on cigarette use as compared to white males and youth of other races. Implications for socially oriented preventive interventions are discussed.

  2. Structuring the Future: Anticipated Life Events, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Haynie, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    While prior research has established associations between individual expectations of future events and risk behavior among adolescents, the potential effects of peers’ future perceptions on risk-taking have been overlooked. We extend prior research by testing whether peers’ anticipation of college completion is associated with adolescent sexual risk-taking. We also examine whether adolescents’ perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and idealized romantic relationship scripts mediate the association between peers’ anticipation of college completion and sexual risk-taking. Results from multivariate regression models with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicate peers’ anticipation of college completion is negatively associated with a composite measure of sexual risk-taking and positively associated with the odds of abstaining from sexual intercourse and only engaging in intercourse with a romantic partner (compared to having intercourse with a non-romantic partner). In addition, perceptions of the negative consequences of pregnancy and sexualized relationship scripts appear to mediate a large portion of the association between peers’ anticipation of future success and sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of abstaining (but not engaging in romantic-only intercourse). Results from our study underscore the importance of peers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:24223438

  3. Predictors of Susceptibility to Peer Influence regarding Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which peer influences on substance use in adolescence systematically vary in strength based on qualities of the adolescent and his or her close friend was assessed in a study of 157 adolescents (age: M = 13.35, SD = 0.64), their close friends, and their parents assessed longitudinally with a combination of observational, analogue,…

  4. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  5. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  6. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  7. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  8. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…

  9. Social Relationships among Adolescents with Disabilities: Unique and Cumulative Associations with Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Yen K.; Murray, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated linkages between parent, peer, teacher, and mentor relationships and adjustment among adolescents with disabilities. The sample included 228 high school students with disabilities (65% male, 50% White) across four states. Overall findings indicate that students' social relationships were significantly associated…

  10. Adolescent self-regulation as resilience: resistance to antisocial behavior within the deviant peer context.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Theodore W; Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin M

    2008-02-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. A multi-agent construct was created using adolescent, parent, and teacher reports of self-regulation and peer deviance. Results indicated that self-regulation shows convergent validity and covaries as expected with developmental patterns of adolescent antisocial behavior. Self-regulation moderated the association of peer deviance with later self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior after controlling for prior levels of antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for models for the development of antisocial behaviors and for intervention science are discussed.

  11. Pathways to self-esteem in late adolescence: the role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah J; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students (M age = 18.6 years, S.D. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour, and self-esteem. Structural equation modelling revealed that parental attachment had mostly direct effects on self-esteem. Among females, the links between peer attachment and self-esteem, however, were entirely mediated by empathy and prosocial behaviour. The findings from this study suggest that although close supportive relationships with parents and peers are related to adolescent self-esteem, these links are complex.

  12. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  13. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  14. Peer Influences on Academic Motivation: Exploring Multiple Methods of Assessing Youths' Most "Influential" Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Rulison, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the relative role of three distinct types of peer relationships (reciprocated friendships, frequent interactions, and shared group membership) in within-year changes in academic self-concept and engagement before and after the transition to middle school (fifth and seventh grade). In a series of linear regression…

  15. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Joung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  16. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  17. Peer emotion socialization and somatic complaints in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee

    2016-07-01

    Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence. PMID:27176784

  18. Bringing Boys and Girls Together: Supporting Preschoolers' Positive Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Hillary; Jobe, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Children thrive in inclusive settings where each child is an important part of the community. When differences are celebrated and similarities discovered, children learn to value themselves, appreciate their peers, and develop meaningful and significant relationships with one another. A sizable body of research indicates that promoting positive…

  19. Peer Relationships and Depressive Symptomatology in Boys at Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Graber, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The physical changes of puberty coincide with an increase in the salience of peer relationships and a growing risk for depression and other forms of psychopathology. Previously, we reported that pubertal tempo, defined as a child's rate of intraindividual change in pubertal status (measured using parent-reported Tanner stages; Marshall & Tanner,…

  20. Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Perceived Family, Peer and School Relations: Commonalities and Differences Across Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Haynie, Denise L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although bullying is recognized as a serious problem in the U.S., little is known about racial/ethnic differences in bullying risk. This study examined associations between bullying and family, peer, and school relations for White, Black and Hispanic adolescents. Methods A nationally-representative sample (n=11,033) of adolescents in grades six to ten participated in the 2001 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey, self-reporting bullying involvement and information on family, peer and school relations. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, age and affluence were stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Nine percent of respondents were victims of bullying, 9% were bullies, and 3% were bully-victims. Black adolescents reported a significantly lower prevalence of victimization than White and Hispanic students. Multivariate results indicated modest racial/ethnic variation in associations between bullying and family, peer and school factors. Parental communication, social isolation, and classmate relationships were similarly related to bullying across racial/ethnic groups. Living with two biological parents was protective against bullying involvement for White students only. Further, although school satisfaction and performance were negatively associated with bullying involvement for White and Hispanic students, school factors were largely unrelated to bullying among Black students. Conclusions Although school attachment and performance were inconsistently related to bullying behavior across race/ethnicity, bullying behaviors are consistently related to peer relationships across Black, White and Hispanic adolescents. Negative associations between family communication and bullying behaviors for White, Black and Hispanic adolescents suggest the importance of addressing family interactions in future bullying prevention efforts. PMID:17707299

  1. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S

    2014-04-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  2. Consider the Source: Adolescents and Adults Similarly Follow Older Adult Advice More than Peer Advice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gloria A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Casey, B. J.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts. PMID:26030134

  3. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla; Di Maggio, Rosanna

    2016-10-01

    The study was aimed to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, whether perceived peer support would mediate the relationship between attachment and internalizing problems. Longitudinal participants included 482 adolescents (245 boys) aged 14-15 years in Wave 1 and 17-18 years in Wave 2. Participants in Wave 1 completed the Relationship Questionnaire, and those in Wave 2 completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results showed that secure attachment positively predicted high levels of perceived peer support and negatively predicted internalizing problems, whereas fearful and preoccupied attachment negatively predicted perceived peer support and positively predicted internalizing problems. The mediation models showed that perceived peer support partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and internalizing problems as well as between preoccupied attachment and internalizing problems and between fearful attachment and internalizing problems. Our results confirm the role of subjective perception of peer support in contributing to the prediction of internalizing problems beyond attachment styles.

  4. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C

    2015-08-01

    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.

  5. Race-Based Humor and Peer Group Dynamics in Adolescence: Bystander Intervention and Social Exclusion.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Palmer, Sally B; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of discriminatory race-based humor and their expectations about peer responses to discrimination were investigated in 8th- (Mage  = 13.80) and 10th-grade (Mage  = 16.11) primarily European-American participants (N = 256). Older adolescents judged race-based humor as more acceptable than did younger adolescents and were less likely to expect peer intervention. Participants who rejected discrimination were more likely to reference welfare/rights and prejudice and to anticipate that peers would intervene. Showing awareness of group processes, adolescents who rejected race-based humor believed that peers who intervened would be more likely to be excluded. They also disapproved of exclusion more than did participants who supported race-based humor. Results expose the complexity of situations involving subtle discrimination. Implications for bullying interventions are discussed. PMID:27684393

  6. Forbidden friends as forbidden fruit: parental supervision of friendships, contact with deviant peers, and adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T; Schwartz, Seth J; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age = 13 years at baseline), their best friends, and both parents. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed strong longitudinal links from contacts with deviant peers to adolescent delinquency, but not vice versa. Parent-reported prohibition of friendships positively predicted contacts with deviant peers and indirectly predicted higher adolescent delinquency. Similar indirect effects were not found for parental control. The results suggest that forbidden friends may become "forbidden fruit," leading to unintended increases in adolescents' own delinquency.

  7. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent…

  8. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  9. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition. PMID:22494811

  10. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition.

  11. Convergence and Non-convergence in the Quality of Adolescent Relationships and its Association with Adolescent Adjustment and Young Adult Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one’s set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one’s set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13–19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no “high” converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have “first-rate” relations in every relational domain. PMID:22334764

  12. Is it the music? Peer substance use as a mediator of the link between music preferences and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2010-06-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations. PMID:19818488

  13. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

  14. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  15. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  16. Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

  17. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  18. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.

  19. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  20. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  1. Peer beliefs and smoking in adolescence: A longitudinal social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peer smoking is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent cigarette use, but less is known about whether other peer characteristics also contribute to this behavior. Objectives This study examines the links between adolescent cigarette use and peer beliefs about smoking. It tests whether peer beliefs about smoking are associated with changes in cigarette use, whether this association is a result of changes in individual beliefs about smoking, and how beliefs inform friendship choices. Methods Analyses draw on data collected from 29 school-based networks, each measured at five occasions as students moved from 6th through 9th grade, as part of the study of the PROSPER partnership model. Longitudinal social network models provide estimates of friendship selection and behavior for an average of 6,200 students at each measurement point and more than 9,000 students overall. Results Peer beliefs about smoking influence cigarette use both directly and through their impact on individual beliefs. Respondents tend to name friends whose beliefs about smoking are similar to their own, and the likelihood of being named as a friend is higher for those who report more positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that peer beliefs about smoking, in addition to peer cigarette use itself, are associated with adolescent smoking through several mechanisms. Because beliefs favorable to cigarette use are present before adolescents actually smoke, these results underscore the importance of implementing smoking prevention programs in early adolescence. PMID:26809592

  2. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  3. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…

  4. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  5. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  6. Parents and Peers as Providers of Support in Adolescents' Social Network: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Valle, Jorge F.; Bravo, Amaia; Lopez, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The authors carried out an assessment of social support networks with a sample of 884 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17. The main goal was to analyze the development of the figures of parents and peers as providers of social support in the two basic dimensions of emotional and instrumental support. In peers, they distinguished between the contexts…

  7. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  8. Forbidden Friends as Forbidden Fruit: Parental Supervision of Friendships, Contact with Deviant Peers, and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Frijns, Tom; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Spending leisure time with deviant peers may have strong influences on adolescents' delinquency. The current 3-wave multi-informant study examined how parental control and parental prohibition of friendships relate to these undesirable peer influences. To this end, annual questionnaires were administered to 497 Dutch youths (283 boys, mean age =…

  9. Relations among Peer Acceptance, Inhibitory Control, and Math Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among peer acceptance, inhibitory control, and math achievement in ninety-nine 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Teachers rated students on peer acceptance and students completed a computerized executive function task assessing inhibitory control. Math achievement was assessed via end of year math grades. Results…

  10. Improving Early Adolescents' Peer Relations through Classroom Creative Drama: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard; Basso, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Describes two creative drama programs designed to improve peer-relations skills of early adolescents in classrooms. Discusses the utility of creative drama programs in relation to improved peer relations, staff training, and practical program evaluation. School social workers might find that this approach can be an effective modality for…

  11. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  12. Relations among Sadness Regulation, Peer Acceptance, and Social Functioning in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-informant approach, this study examined emotion regulation within the social context of White and Black adolescent peer groups by assessing two aspects of sadness expression management (i.e., inhibition, disinhibition) and their linkages to peer acceptance and social functioning as a function of gender and ethnicity. Seventh- and…

  13. Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior and Peer Rejection: A Dynamic Test of a Developmental Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, John M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that adolescent peer groups play a significant role in the genesis of youth antisocial behavior. A longstanding interest in research focused on individual differences in teen exposure to deviant peer groups is the notion that high-risk youth aggregate because of their common rejection within social contexts, such…

  14. Alcohol Use in Adolescent Twins and Affiliation with Substance Using Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennifer; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Affiliation with substance using peers is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use. This association is typically interpreted causally: peers who drink incite their friends to drink. This association may be complicated by uncontrolled genetic and environmental confounds because teens with familial predispositions for adolescent…

  15. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  16. The Peer Context of Adolescent Substance Use: Findings from Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Foshee, Vangie A.; Cai, Li; DuRant, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for…

  17. Brief Report: Associations of Parental Warmth, Peer Support, and Gender with Adolescent Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Tschann, Jeanne; Flores, Elena; Bridges, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the associations among parental warmth, peer support, gender, and emotional distress in a sample of 308 adolescents in the United States. Parental warmth was associated with less emotional distress, whereas turning to peers for support during family conflict was associated with more emotional distress. Gender…

  18. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  19. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  20. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  1. Validation of Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Social systems, particularly family, school, and peer, are especially critical in influencing adolescents to participate in volunteer service; however, no objective measures of this construct exist. Objectives: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism scale (FSPV) among Chinese…

  2. Mothers, Peers, and Perceived Pressure to Diet among Japanese Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo

    1996-01-01

    Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)

  3. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  4. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  5. Being Left Out: Rejecting Outsiders and Communicating Group Boundaries in Childhood and Adolescent Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunwolf; Leets, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Although communication scholars have examined adult group processes, they have paid little attention to the peer group experiences of children and adolescents. Successfully gaining entry to peer groups is significant, in that rejection in childhood affects self-concept, social skills, and school successes. Guided by a bona fide groups perspective,…

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences in Adolescent Peer Socialization: Evidence from Two Genetically Sensitive Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iervolino, Alessandra C.; Pike, Alison; Manke, Beth; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E. Maris; Plomin, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examined genetic and environmental contribution to self-reported peer-group characteristics among adoptive and nonadoptive adolescent sibling pairs. Found that although peer preference is influenced, in large part, by nonshared environment factors, genetic influence is present. Substantial genetic influence emerged for college orientation, and…

  7. The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

  8. "He Cheated on Me, I Cheated on Him Back'': Mexican American and White Adolescents' Perceptions of Cheating in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Hickle, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning and perceptions of cheating in adolescent romantic relationships. Mexican American and White adolescents (N = 75; 53.3% girls; 56.1% Mexican American), separated by gender and ethnicity into 12 focus groups (three groups per type), discussed personal and peer experiences of cheating in dating…

  9. The role of peer communication in the socialization of adolescents' pain experiences: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hatchette, Jill E; McGrath, Patrick J; Murray, Michael; Finley, G Allen

    2008-01-01

    Background Recurrent pain is a common complaint among adolescents. Children learn to resolve or cope with pain largely through family dynamics, particularly maternal influences. By adolescence, young people possess an array of pain behaviors, the culmination of multiple opportunities for modeling and reinforcement of attitudes and beliefs about pain. Adolescence is a time of increased autonomy characterized by, among other complex factors, significant increases in peer influence. Although peers are influential in health-risk behavior, little is known how peers impact adolescents' pain experience. The present study explored the role of peers in adolescents' attitudes toward pain, pain behaviors and over-the-counter analgesics. Methods Sixty-minute focus groups were conducted with a sample 24 junior high school students from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (11 male: mean age = 13.45 years, range = 12–15 years; 13 female: mean age = 13.31 years, range = 12–15 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of five same-gender focus groups designed to explore a wide breadth and depth of information. Sessions were run until theoretical data saturation. Textual data, from transcribed audiotapes, were analyzed with the constant comparative method. Results Peer influences were apparent in how adolescents communicate about pain and how those communications effect pain expression. Overt pain responses to injury were primarily contextual and depended on perceived threats to peer-time and pain severity. Adolescents were intolerant of peers' pain behaviors when the cause was perceived as not severe. These attitudes impacted how adolescents responded to their own pain; males were careful not to express embarrassing pain in front of peers, females felt no restrictions on pain talk or pain expression. Evidence for peer influence on attitudes toward OTC analgesics was apparent in perceptions of over-use and ease of access. Findings are discussed within the context of social

  10. Neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on public goods game donations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-06-01

    A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence.

  11. Self-Esteem, Perceived Stress, and Gender During Adolescence: Interactive Links to Different Types of Interpersonal Relationships.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanling; Ma, Lijie; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-esteem, perceived stress, the quality of different types of interpersonal relationships, and gender in adolescents. This study used a sample of 1614 adolescent high school students and robust data analytic techniques to test the proposed relationships. The results partially supported the initial hypothesis in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and four of the types of interpersonal relationships (i.e., same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and teacher-student relationships) and moderated the relationship between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships. In addition, a moderated role of gender was also partially supported in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, and the parent-child relationship for girls, but not boys. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that perceived stress plays an intervening role in the relationship between self-esteem and different types of interpersonal relationships and that gender seems to be a moderator for some of the patterns of the relationships between these variables. These findings are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms by which the variables could influence each other. Implications for theory and practice as well as some directions for future research were also suggested.

  12. Being in "Bad" Company: Power Dependence and Status in Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Theories of susceptibility to peer influence have centered on the idea that lower status adolescents are likely to adopt the behaviors of high status adolescents. While status is important, social exchange theorists have shown the value of analyzing exchange relations between actors to understand differences in power. To build on status-based…

  13. Adolescents' Implicit Theories Predict Desire for Vengeance after Peer Conflicts: Correlational and Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an…

  14. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  15. Adolescents' Peer Crowd Identification in the Netherlands: Structure and Associations with Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper examined the underlying structure of Dutch adolescents' peer crowd identification and its relations with delinquency, aggression, depression, and anxiety. Questionnaire data were gathered from 2,334 adolescents between ages 12 and 19. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed four clearly interpretable…

  16. Family Heritage and Depression Guides: Family and Peer Views Influence Adolescent Attitudes about Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Agnor, Chrystal

    2007-01-01

    While adolescents tend to under-use professional mental health services for depression, they informally seek health-related information from parents and peers. In this study, we interviewed 15 adolescents to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression. Using a grounded theory…

  17. The Role of Family and Peer Relations in Adolescent Antisocial Behaviour: Comparison of Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja; Wissink, Inge B.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The dominant theories about the development of antisocial behaviour during adolescence are based almost entirely on research conducted with mainstream, white, middle-class adolescents. The present study addresses this significant gap in the literature by examining whether the same model of family and peer influence on antisocial behaviour is…

  18. Experiences of Adolescents Participating in a Developmental Peer Group Counselling Career Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study, part of a larger study that tested 6 counseling workshops based on a "Life Skills" developmental group model, involved a thematic analysis of taped descriptions of experiences of 27 adolescents in relation to their career aspirations and participation in an adolescent developmental peer counseling program at House of Shalom, a youth…

  19. Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Natalie P.; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to…

  20. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  1. Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and…

  2. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  3. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  4. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing (SIP) and both relational and overt, physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt…

  5. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  6. Antisocial Behavior of Adoptees and Nonadoptees: Prediction from Early History and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Dunbar, Nora; Nelson-Christinedaughter, Justine; Christensen, Mathew; Fan, Xitao; Miller, Brent C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of demographic characteristics, early maltreatment, and peer and family relationships during adolescence to the prediction of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior (AASB and NAASB, respectively) during young adulthood; and determined whether adoption status has additional ability to predict ASB, once…

  7. Conceptualizing the Prospective Relationship between Social Support, Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Randy Patrick; Bigda-Peyton, Joseph S.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Webb, Christian A.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to examine the relationship amongst social support, stress, and depressive symptoms within a transactional and diathesis-stress framework using a multi-wave, longitudinal design. At the initial assessment, adolescents (n = 258) completed self-report measures assessing social support (peer, classmate, parent, and…

  8. The Relationship between Emotional Competence and Social Competence in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorbach, Anne Marie; Foster, Sharon F.

    This study examined emotional and social competence in early adolescence, focusing on the relationship between the ability to identify the emotions of another, emotion regulation, friendship quality, and peer-identified prosocial and overtly aggressive behavior. Gender was examined for potential moderator status. Participating in the study were…

  9. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    PubMed

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood.

  10. Risk-taking and social exclusion in adolescence: Neural mechanisms underlying peer influences on decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Peake, Shannon J.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Moore, William E.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Social exclusion and risk-taking are both common experiences of concern in adolescence, yet little is known about how the two may be related at behavioral or neural levels. In this fMRI study, adolescents (N=27, 14 male, 14–17 years-old) completed a series of tasks in the scanner assessing risky decision-making before and after an episode of social exclusion. In this particular context, exclusion was associated with greater behavioral risk-taking among adolescents with low self-reported resistance to peer influence (RPI). When making risky decisions after social exclusion, adolescents who had lower RPI exhibited higher levels of activity in right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), and this response in rTPJ was a significant mediator of the relationship between RPI and greater risk-taking after social exclusion. Lower RPI was also associated with lower levels of activity in lPFC during crashes following social exclusion, but unlike rTPJ this response in lPFC was not a significant mediator of the relationship between RPI and greater risk-taking after social exclusion. The results suggest that mentalizing and/or attentional mechanisms have a unique direct effect on adolescents’ vulnerability to peer influence on risk-taking. PMID:23707590

  11. Mexican origin youths' trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence: variation by neighborhood ethnic concentration.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9% female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats.

  12. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.

  13. PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: Development of a Peer Relationships Item Bank as Part of Social Health Measurement

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D.; Langer, Michelle M.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Irwin, Debra E.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B.; Gross, Heather E.; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8–17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima’s Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. Results The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. Conclusions The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health. PMID:23772887

  14. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. PMID:25240191

  15. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.

  16. Adolescent Mice, Unlike Adults, Consume More Alcohol in the Presence of Peers than Alone

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Sheree; Chein, Jason; Gould, Thomas; Holliday, Erica; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of adolescent risk taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents’ immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model. A sample of mice were raised in same-sex triads and were tested for alcohol consumption either as juveniles or as adults, with half in each age group tested alone and half tested with their cagemates. The presence of “peers” increased alcohol consumption among adolescent mice, but not adults. The peer effect on human adolescent reward-seeking may reflect a hard-wired, evolutionarily conserved process through which the presence of agemates increases individuals’ sensitivity to potential rewards in their immediate environment. PMID:24341974

  17. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data.

  18. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented.

  19. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826

  20. The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents' task values and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kiuru, Noona; Watt, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity. PMID:21526593

  1. Relation of academic support from parents, teachers, and peers to Hong Kong adolescents' academic achievement: the mediating role of academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li

    2005-05-01

    The author tested a model hypothesizing that students' self-perceived academic support (from parents, teachers, and peers) is related to their achievement directly and indirectly through their own perceived academic engagement. The participants were 270 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, range = 14-20 years) from 3 grade levels (Forms 3-5, equivalent to Grades 9-11 in the United States) in a Hong Kong secondary school. The school principal and teachers helped to collect data based on these adolescents' responses to a self-report questionnaire, consisting of a demographic profile and 4 scales assessing their self-perceptions of the extent of parental, teacher, and peer support, and their own academic engagement. Academic achievement was measured by self-reported grades in math, English, and Chinese. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that adolescents' perceived parental, teacher, and peer support were all indirectly related to their academic achievement mediated by their own perceived academic engagement. The strength of the relationships, however, varied by support system, with perceived teacher support to achievement being the strongest, followed closely by perceived parental support, and then perceived peer support. In addition, both perceived parental support and perceived teacher support were directly related to academic achievement. However, perceived teacher support made the most total (direct and indirect) contribution to student achievement. Perceived peer support had the smallest, nonetheless significant, indirect relationship to academic achievement. However, the negative, direct influence of perceived peer support canceled out its positive, indirect influence on academic achievement. PMID:16779945

  2. Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents Attitudes toward Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risch, Sharon C.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jaquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    The quality of father-adolescent relationships, especially for non-traditional fathers, has been neglected in investigating adolescents beliefs. Closeness of father-adolescent relationships was examined as a predictor of adolescents attitudes toward divorce. A sample of European and African American adolescents N=300 reported on the quality of…

  3. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  4. Self-rejection/derogation, peer factors, and alcohol, drug, and cigarette use among a sample of Hispanic, African-American, and white non-Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Warheit, G J; Biafora, F A; Zimmerman, R S; Gil, A G; Vega, W A; Apospori, E

    1995-01-01

    Data from the first two waves of a longitudinal study are reported on the relationships between self-rejection/derogation and substance use among a multiracial/ethnic sample of adolescents (N = 4,983). Significant increases were found for all three groups between Waves 1 and 2. African-Americans had the lowest rates at both time periods. Peer factors, rejection/derogation, and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of alcohol and cigarette use but not of illicit drug use. Peer factors were more powerful predictors of substance use than rejection/derogation. Interaction analyses indicated peer and rejection/derogation factors were independent predictors of substance use. PMID:7759176

  5. Peer victimization as a risk factor for schizotypal personality in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Raine, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    There has been no prior research on peer victimization and child or adolescent schizotypal personality. This study tests the hypothesis that increased peer victimization is associated with increased schizotypal personality. Schizotypy was assessed using the SPQ-C (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child) in 3,508 male and female schoolchildren aged 8 to 16 years. All forms of peer victimization (physical, verbal, social manipulation, attack on property) were associated with schizotypal personality in both males and females across all age groups. Significant victimization more than doubled schizotypy scores. It is hypothesized that peer victimization may predispose to paranoid ideation, social anxiety, and lack of close friends, and consequently heightened schizotypal personality.

  6. A Qualitative Study for Understanding Family and Peer Influences on Obesity-Related Health Behaviors in Low-Income African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Methods Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n=45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6±1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000–$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r=0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Results Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer–adolescent

  7. Developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    De Goede, Irene H A; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses showed that support declined from early to middle adolescence for boys and girls and increased from middle to late adolescence for girls, while stabilizing for boys. Conflict was found to temporarily increase during middle adolescence. Parental power (relative power and dominance of parents) decreased from early to late adolescence. Results indicated that: (1) parent-adolescent relationships become more egalitarian during adolescence, (2) parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are viewed as supportive, especially in early adolescence, and (3) perceived conflict with parents is related to but not an impetus for changes in parent-adolescent relationships towards more equality.

  8. Family Relationships and Adolescent Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Catherine J.

    Previous research relating the quality of the relationship with the mother, father, and sibling to adolescent self-concept only investigated social and general self-concept and not various social and cognitive dimensions of self-concept. This study investigated family relationships and their link to the several domains of self-concept.…

  9. Desire for Increased Autonomy and Adolescents' Perceptions of Peer Autonomy: "Everyone Else Can; Why Can't I?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined adolescents' personal autonomy beliefs and their perceptions of peer autonomy. Study 1 sampled 527 adolescents (M = 15.40 years) and found that adolescents desired increased autonomy most over personal and multifaceted issues and least over moral and conventional issues. Younger adolescents and girls desired increased autonomy…

  10. Adolescents' Media-related Cognitions and Substance Use in the Context of Parental and Peer Influences

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.

    2013-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence. PMID:19795197

  11. Adolescents' media-related cognitions and substance use in the context of parental and peer influences.

    PubMed

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Parker, Alison E; Elmore, Kristen C; Benson, Jessica W

    2010-09-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence.

  12. Bidirectional Associations between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derkman, Marleen M. S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; van der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental support to be associated with each other.…

  13. Early Career Development among Child and Family Development Professionals: The Role of Professor and Peer Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Harriet Watkins; Endsley, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated mentor-protege and peer-peer relationships during graduate school and postgraduate employment. Data from 64 family and child development doctoral students and graduates indicated that both mentor and peer relationships were related to career success and that influence of various psychosocial dimensions varied by both type of…

  14. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Peer Pressure Susceptibility, Peer Popularity and General Conformity in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bivariate and more fully controlled (with socio-demographic measures) relationship between self-reported drinking behaviour and peer pressure susceptibility, desire for peer popularity and general conformity in a sample of 11-16-year-old school children in Northern Ireland. Self-reported drinking…

  15. Peer-Perceived Admiration and Social Preference: Contextual Correlates of Positive Peer Regard Among Suburban and Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand further the heterogeneity of popularity, by exploring contextual correlates of two dimensions of positive peer regard among seventh graders within two highly disparate sociodemographic groups: affluent suburban and low-income urban (N = 636). Three sets of attributes were examined, all consistently linked to social status in past research: rebellious behaviors (aggression, academic disengagement, delinquency, and substance use), academic application (effort at school and good grades), and physical attributes (attractiveness and athletic ability). The data provide empirical validation for the conceptual distinctions among peer-perceived admiration and social preference with adolescents from diverse contexts. More specifically, results showed that within each socioeconomic context (a) some forms of rebellious behaviors are clearly admired, (b) prosocial attributes are linked with peer-perceived admiration and social preference, (c) physical attractiveness and athletic skills are important for positive peer regard, the former particularly for suburban girls and the latter for suburban boys, and (d) aggression elicits admiration among early adolescents, but can also generate their disdain (i.e., lowered social preference). In the urban context, results provided evidence for the salience of distinct forms of rebellious and achievement oriented behaviors among different racial/ethnic groups as well. PMID:18193097

  16. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns.

  17. Adolescents' beliefs about the fairness of exclusion of peers with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    Stigma research suggests that exclusion of peers with mental health problems is acceptable, however, no research has explored young people's beliefs about the fairness of exclusion. Group interviews with 148 adolescents explored judgements about the fairness of excluding peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups. Young people evaluated exclusion of peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups, with the exception of group exclusion of the peer with ADHD, as mostly unfair. Beliefs about the fairness of exclusion were influenced by the attributions that they applied to the target peer's behaviour, social obligations and loyalty within friendships and concerns about the adverse psychological effects of exclusion. Furthermore, their evaluations were influenced by personal beliefs about the social and personal costs of including the target peer. Evaluations of exclusion highlight novel avenues for to develop knowledge on the stigma of mental health problems.

  18. Chronic Childhood Peer Rejection is Associated with Heightened Neural Responses to Social Exclusion During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Will, Geert-Jan; van Lier, Pol A C; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents reported similar increases in distress after being excluded in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball), but adolescents with a history of chronic peer rejection showed higher activity in brain regions previously linked to the detection of, and the distress caused by, social exclusion. Specifically, compared with stably accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents displayed: 1) higher activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during social exclusion and 2) higher activity in the dACC and anterior prefrontal cortex when they were incidentally excluded in a social interaction in which they were overall included. These findings demonstrate that chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence, which has implications for understanding the processes through which peer rejection may lead to adverse effects on mental health over time.

  19. Adolescents' Relationships with Father, Mother, and Same-Gender Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayseless, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas; Hai, Ilan

    1998-01-01

    This study examined age differences in autonomy and relatedness in adolescents' relationship with parents, and same-gender friend. Questionnaire responses of 205 Israeli adolescents indicated that older adolescents had greater autonomy in relationships with parents than did younger adolescents. No age differences were reported in closeness and…

  20. Peer and Parent Influences on School Engagement Among Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rusan

    2008-01-01

    This PDF receipt will only be used as the basis for generating PubMed Central (PMC) documents. PMC documents will be made available for review after conversion (approx. 2-3 weeks time). Any corrections that need to be made will be done at that time. No materials will be released to PMC without the approval of an author. Only the PMC documents will appear on PubMed Central -- this PDF Receipt will not appear on PubMed Central. Students who are not motivated and do not try to do well are unlikely to achieve at a level consistent with their abilities. This research assessed the relationships over time between school engagement and parenting practices and peer affiliation among 6th–9th graders using latent growth models (LGM). Participants included 2,453 students recruited from 7 public middle schools who were assessed 5 times between fall of 6th and 9th grades as part of a program evaluation study. During this period school engagement and adjustment declined somewhat, while substance use, conduct problems, and problem behaving friends increased, and authoritative parenting practices declined. The significant, positive over-time associations between school engagement and parent involvement, expectations, and monitoring were fully mediated by growth in problem behaving friends. School adjustment mediated the relationship between school engagement and parent expectations. These findings suggest that authoritative parenting practices may foster school engagement directly and also indirectly by discouraging affiliation with problem behaving friends and facilitating school adjustment. PMID:19888349

  1. Peer and Parent Influences on School Engagement Among Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan

    2009-09-01

    This PDF receipt will only be used as the basis for generating PubMed Central (PMC) documents. PMC documents will be made available for review after conversion (approx. 2-3 weeks time). Any corrections that need to be made will be done at that time. No materials will be released to PMC without the approval of an author. Only the PMC documents will appear on PubMed Central -- this PDF Receipt will not appear on PubMed Central.Students who are not motivated and do not try to do well are unlikely to achieve at a level consistent with their abilities. This research assessed the relationships over time between school engagement and parenting practices and peer affiliation among 6(th)-9(th) graders using latent growth models (LGM). Participants included 2,453 students recruited from 7 public middle schools who were assessed 5 times between fall of 6(th) and 9(th) grades as part of a program evaluation study. During this period school engagement and adjustment declined somewhat, while substance use, conduct problems, and problem behaving friends increased, and authoritative parenting practices declined. The significant, positive over-time associations between school engagement and parent involvement, expectations, and monitoring were fully mediated by growth in problem behaving friends. School adjustment mediated the relationship between school engagement and parent expectations. These findings suggest that authoritative parenting practices may foster school engagement directly and also indirectly by discouraging affiliation with problem behaving friends and facilitating school adjustment. PMID:19888349

  2. Moderating effects of aggression on the associations between social withdrawal subtypes and peer difficulties during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi

    2012-08-01

    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age= 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related to self-reported social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance) varied as a function of peer-nominated overt and relational aggression, and gender. Regression analyses revealed that overt aggression and gender moderated the pathways between shyness and peer exclusion and peer victimization such that the associations were significant and positive only for boys who were high and girls who were low in overt aggression. Several additional moderator effects were found, including results revealing that relational aggression (in certain cases, in conjunction with gender) moderated the association between: (1) avoidance and peer exclusion and peer rejection, (2) shyness and peer rejection, and (3) unsociability and peer victimization. For adolescents who were average and low in relational aggression, avoidance was positively related to peer rejection, and unsociability was positively related to peer victimization. However, only for boys who were high in relational aggression, avoidance was found to be positively related to peer exclusion, and shyness was positively related to peer rejection. The findings highlight the importance of considering additional individual risk factors in studies of social withdrawal subtypes and point to important differences for young adolescent withdrawn boys and girls.

  3. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  4. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  5. The moderating effects of peer substance use on the family structure-adolescent substance use association: quantity versus quality of parenting.

    PubMed

    Eitle, David

    2005-06-01

    This study examines the association between family structure and adolescent substance use, specifically focusing on the potential conditioning effects of the level of exposure to substance-using peers. Using data from a statewide study of Florida students, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use was regressed on measures of family structure, exposure to deviant peers, family process variables (including supervision, attachment, and discipline), and an array of salient predictors of adolescent substance use. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the level of exposure to substance-using peers moderates the relationship between family structure and substance use for three of the four dependent variables. The core finding is that living with two natural parents serves as a protective factor against using tobacco, alcohol, or other illicit drugs, but only under conditions when exposure to deviant peers is lowest. Under conditions when exposure to deviant peers is highest, teens residing in a traditional two-parent family are most likely to report substance use. However, some evidence suggests that this latter finding may be due to differences in the duration of exposure to deviant peers. These findings reinforce the need to continue to explore how the quantity of parenting may provide additional protection against adolescent substance use beyond quality of parenting factors.

  6. Direct and Indirect Peer Socialization of Adolescent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    PubMed Central

    Giletta, Matteo; Burk, William J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined direct and indirect forms of peer socialization of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent friendship networks. Data were collected among 348 adolescents (55% females; Mage = 15.02 years; SD = 0.53) at 4 assessment waves. Stochastic actor-based models revealed no evidence for direct socialization of NSSI: adolescents whose friends reported higher NSSI did not increase their NSSI over time. However, indirect forms of socialization were found. After controlling for direct socialization and selection effects, friends’ depressive symptoms predicted changes in male and female adolescents’ NSSI and friends’ impulsivity predicted changes in male adolescents’ NSSI. Findings highlight the importance of extending peer influence research beyond the classical “modeling” paradigm by providing evidence that peers may indirectly socialize adolescents’ NSSI. PMID:26412955

  7. Heterosocial Involvement, Peer Pressure for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction among Young Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. PMID:21354882

  8. Moderating Effects of Aggression on the Associations between Social Withdrawal Subtypes and Peer Difficulties during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age = 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related…

  9. Associations between Peer Victimization, Self-Reported Depression and Social Phobia among Adolescents: The Role of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…

  10. Adolescent Voting for Right-Wing Extremist Parties and Readiness to Use Violence in Political Action: Parent and Peer Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Almost all shapes of adolescent risky and deviant behaviour take place in the context of peer-relations. The present study examined the role of parents and peer-relations with respect to two indicators of deviant political development. In the fall 1998, directly after the German parliamentary elections, 1309 East German adolescents were asked…

  11. Enhancing Peer Cultures of Academic Effort and Achievement in Early Adolescence: Promotive Effects of the Seals Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…

  12. Adolescent girls' ADHD symptoms and young adult driving: the role of perceived deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.

  13. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  14. Early Childhood Precursors and Adolescent Sequelae of Gradeschool Peer Rejection and Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Kalvin, Carla B.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with gradeschool peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. A central goal was to better understand the common and unique developmental correlates associated with these two types of peer adversity. Method 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male; average age 5.65 at kindergarten entry) were followed into seventh grade. Six waves of data were included in structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing problems in kindergarten and grade 1 (waves 1–2); peer sociometric nominations tracked “least liked” and victimization in grades 2, 3, and 4 (waves 3–5); and youth reported on social problems, depressed mood, school adjustment difficulties, and delinquent activities in early adolescence (grade 7, wave 6). Results Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to gradeschool peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to gradeschool victimization. Early internalizing problems and gradeschool victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and gradeschool peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Conclusions Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer rejection and victimization, and these two types of peer adversity had distinct, as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research. PMID:24527989

  15. Adolescent peer-rejection persistently alters pain perception and CB1 receptor expression in female rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peggy; Hannusch, Christin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Peer-interactions are particularly important during adolescence and teenagers display enhanced sensitivity toward rejection by peers. Social rejection has been shown to induce alterations in pain perception in humans. However, the neurobiological consequences of adolescent social rejection have yet to be extensively characterized, and no appropriate animal model is available. Here, we propose inadequate playful interactions in adolescent rats as a novel animal model for social peer-rejection and examine potential long-term consequences into adulthood. Acute social pairing of female adolescent Wistar rats with an age-matched rat from the less playful Fischer344 strain was found to alter social play and decrease pain reactivity, indicating Fischer rats as inadequate social partners for Wistar animals. Therefore, in a second experiment, adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with another Wistar rat (adequate social rearing; control) or with a Fischer rat (inadequate social rearing; play-deprived). Beginning on day 50, all Wistar rats were group housed with same-strain partners and tested for behavioral, neurobiological and endocrine differences in adulthood. Playful peer-interactions were decreased during adolescence in play-deprived animals, without affecting social contact behavior. Consequently, adult play-deprived rats showed decreased pain sensitivity and increased startle reactivity compared to controls, but did not differ in activity, anxiety-related behavior or social interaction. Both groups also differed in their endocrine stress-response, and expression levels of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor were increased in the thalamus, whereas FAAH levels were decreased in the amygdala. The present animal model therefore represents a novel approach to assess the long-term consequences of peer-rejection during adolescence. PMID:23669059

  16. Sibling, peer, neighbor, and schoolmate correlations as indicators of the importance of context for adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, G J; Boisjoly, J; Harris, K M

    2001-08-01

    We use nationally representative data to calculate correlations in achievement and delinquency between genetically differentiated siblings within a family, between peers as defined by adolescents' "best friend" nominations, between schoolmates living in the same neighborhood, and between grademates within a school. We find the largest correlations between siblings, especially identical twins. Grademate and neighbor correlations are small. Peer-based correlations are considerably larger than grademate and neighbor correlations but not larger than most sibling correlations. The data suggest that family-based factors are several times more powerful than neighborhood and school contexts in affecting adolescents' achievement and behavior. PMID:11523270

  17. Smoke in the Looking Glass: Effects of Discordance between Self- and Peer Rated Crowd Affiliation on Adolescent Anxiety, Depression and Self-Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Von Bank, Heather; Steinberg, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Peer crowds serve as an identity marker for adolescents, indicating their image and status among peers; but adolescents do not always endorse peer appraisals of crowd affiliation. We report on two studies--one with 924 adolescents in grades 7-12 and a second with a more diverse population of 2,728 students in grades 9-11, followed for 2…

  18. The changing influences of self-worth and peer deviance on drinking problems in urban American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Radin, Sandra M; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Marlatt, G Alan; Larimer, Mary

    2006-06-01

    This study explored the changing relations among self-worth, peer deviance, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 224 urban-dwelling, American Indian adolescents. Data were collected annually at 7 time points to test a proposed mediational model. As expected, peer deviance mediated the relation between low self-worth and alcohol-related problems in younger adolescents; however, this relation did not hold as participants became older. In older adolescents, low self-worth and peer deviance directly and independently contributed to alcohol problems. Possible explanations for and implications of these findings are discussed in terms of developmental changes during adolescence. PMID:16784362

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood.

  1. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls. PMID:17051436

  2. The Developmental Pattern of Resistance to Peer Influence in Adolescence: Will the Teenager Ever Be Able to Resist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Sindy R.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Steinberg, Laurence; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Common folklore seems to suggest that adolescents are particularly susceptible to peer influence. However, from the literature the exact age differences in susceptibility to peer influence remain unclear. The current study's main focus was to chart the development of general susceptibility to peer pressure in a community sample of 10-18 year olds…

  3. Aggression in Adolescent Dating Relationships: Predictors and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…

  4. Peer Provocation in Physical Education: Experiences of Botswana Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehu, Jimoh

    2009-01-01

    Critical incidents of peer provocation in physical education were investigated among 675 junior secondary school students in Botswana. Data were generated through a brief, open-ended questionnaire requesting the students to narrate their experiences of bad, hurtful and offensive peer behaviours during physical education classes. Six overlapping…

  5. Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

  6. Interpersonal Relationships and Emotional Distress in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…

  7. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  8. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.

    2015-01-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  9. The Relationship between Peer Assessment and the Cognition Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khabiri, Mona; Sabbaghan, Soroush; Sabbaghan, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that peer assessment equips learners with a skill set withheld from them by teacher assessments that enhances language learning. However, the benefits of peer assessment are limited to how well learners can conduct peer assessment tasks. Therefore, improving the efficacy of peer assessment is essential. One way to increase the…

  10. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts. PMID:26748922

  11. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between Three Types of Peer Norms and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed=.40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed=.22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed=.10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed=.11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies.

  13. Preschoolers' Cognitive Representations of Peer Relationships: Family Origins and Behavioural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive representations of peer relationships were conceptualised as the attributions children make about the intentions of others and children's peer affiliation, or desire to interact with peers. Measures of these two constructs were developed and administered to 55 four- to six-year-olds. Findings indicate that measures of both measures of…

  14. Cognitive Representations of Peer Relationships: Linkages with Discrete Social Cognition and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects of young children's cognitive representations of peer relationships-peer affiliative motivation and feelings and beliefs about the self and peers-were assessed among a sample of 75 children (37 girls), who ranged in age from 32 to 76 months (M = 58.2 months). Measures of three aspects of discrete social cognition, encoding of social…

  15. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 4-wave longitudinal study examines developmental changes in adolescents' perceptions of parent-adolescent relationships by assessing parental support, conflict with parents, and parental power. A total of 951 early adolescents (50.4% boys) and 390 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Univariate and multivariate growth curve analyses…

  16. The influence of authoritative parenting during adolescence on depressive symptoms in young adulthood: examining the mediating roles of self-development and peer support.

    PubMed

    Liem, Joan H; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara

    2010-01-01

    A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between authoritative parenting during adolescence (T1) and depressive symptoms during young adulthood (T3). T2 sense of self as worthy and efficacious and depressive symptoms, but not peer support, fully mediated the effect of authoritative parenting on T3 depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the importance of parenting for healthy, emerging adult self-development and the continuing influence of parenting styles during adolescence on young adult depressive symptoms.

  17. Peer Victimization as a Predictor of Depression and Body Mass Index in Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The current study examined the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) as mediated by self-concept for physical appearance in both obese and non-obese adolescents. It was thought that this pathway would be particularly important for obese adolescents because, compared to non-obese adolescents,…

  18. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…

  19. Effect of theory of mind and peer victimization on the schizotypy–aggression relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Bess Y H; Raine, Adrian; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-01-01

    Prior longitudinal studies have established the relationship between schizophrenia and violence. However, previous studies on aggression and schizotypal personality are scarce. The present study examines whether peer victimization mediates the relationship between schizotypy and reactive-proactive aggression, and whether theory of mind (ToM) moderates this mediation. Schizotypy, peer victimization, reactive-proactive aggression, and ToM were assessed in 237 undergraduates. Peer victimization mediated the relationship between schizotypy and reactive aggression. ToM moderated this mediation effect; although peer victimization partially explains the schizotypy–aggression relationship, higher ToM skills weakened the detrimental effect of schizotypy on peer victimization which in turn reduces reactive aggression. In contrast, the moderated mediation was not significant for the proactive aggression model. Findings help delineate the underlying mechanism of the relationship between schizotypy and aggression. It is suggested that aggression could be reduced by enhancing ToM skills, thereby reducing peer victimization and the resultant schizotypy. PMID:27336052

  20. Effect of theory of mind and peer victimization on the schizotypy-aggression relationship.

    PubMed

    Lam, Bess Y H; Raine, Adrian; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-01-01

    Prior longitudinal studies have established the relationship between schizophrenia and violence. However, previous studies on aggression and schizotypal personality are scarce. The present study examines whether peer victimization mediates the relationship between schizotypy and reactive-proactive aggression, and whether theory of mind (ToM) moderates this mediation. Schizotypy, peer victimization, reactive-proactive aggression, and ToM were assessed in 237 undergraduates. Peer victimization mediated the relationship between schizotypy and reactive aggression. ToM moderated this mediation effect; although peer victimization partially explains the schizotypy-aggression relationship, higher ToM skills weakened the detrimental effect of schizotypy on peer victimization which in turn reduces reactive aggression. In contrast, the moderated mediation was not significant for the proactive aggression model. Findings help delineate the underlying mechanism of the relationship between schizotypy and aggression. It is suggested that aggression could be reduced by enhancing ToM skills, thereby reducing peer victimization and the resultant schizotypy. PMID:27336052