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Sample records for adolescent population methods

  1. Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J W

    1989-06-01

    A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.

  2. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  3. Air Pollution and Prevalence of Allergic Diseases in Georgian Adolescent Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    adolescent and young population in Tbilisi a prospective epidemiological investigation has been carried out. During the last decades special attention...unified methods including a screening-questionnaire, a detailed map of epidemiological analysis. 11073 adolescent and young population of 12 to 20...in Georgian Adolescent Population 4 - 6 RTO-MP-HFM-108 Table 1: Relationship Between the Prevalence Rate of Allergic Diseases in Young Population and

  4. Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2005-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary risk factors for acquiring HPV are generally associated with sexual activity. Evidence suggests that condoms provide some protection against infection and disease progression, but any genital contact is sufficient for HPV transmission. HPV is so common and transmissible that having just one sexual partner often results in infection. Indeed, cumulative prevalence rates are as high as 82% among adolescent women in select populations. As such, nearly all sexually active adolescents are at high risk for acquiring HPV. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types (e.g., HPV 16 or 18) is considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer, whereas infection with low-risk HPV types (e.g., HPV 6 or 11) is associated with the development of genital warts and other low-grade genital abnormalities. Most infections are asymptomatic and are efficiently cleared by the immune system. Similarly, both low- and high-grade lesions caused by HPV can regress in adolescent and young adult women. Treatment guidelines allow for observation of adolescent women who develop low-grade lesions rather than immediate colposcopy. Nonetheless, a small percentage of adolescents will develop precancerous lesions that may progress to invasive cervical cancer. Adolescents should be given appropriate education about HPV and the dangers associated with infection; they should also be encouraged to obtain appropriate gynecological care after initiating sexual activity. This article discusses HPV infection and the causal role that HPV plays in the development of low- and high-grade genital lesions, cervical cancer, and genital warts.

  5. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siomos, Konstantinos E.; Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Floros, Georgios D.; Skenteris, Nikolaos; Mouzas, Odysseas D.; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between psychosocial factors and insomnia complaints in an adolescent non-clinical population. It is a cross-sectional study of a stratified sample of 2,195 Greek adolescent high-school students. Subjects were given the Athens insomnia scale, the Symptom Checklist scale (SCL-90-R) and a…

  7. Suicide methods in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego

    2017-02-01

    There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.

  8. The Rise of Concussions in the Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alan L.; Sing, David C.; Rugg, Caitlin M.; Feeley, Brian T.; Senter, Carlin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concussion injuries have been highlighted to the American public through media and research. While recent studies have shown increased traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) diagnosed in emergency departments across the United States, no studies have evaluated trends in concussion diagnoses across the general US population in various age groups. Purpose: To evaluate the current incidence and trends in concussions diagnosed across varying age groups and health care settings in a large cross-sectional population. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Administrative health records of 8,828,248 members of a large private-payer insurance group in the United States were queried. Patients diagnosed with concussion from years 2007 through 2014 were stratified by year of diagnosis, age group, sex, classification of concussion, and health care setting of diagnosis (eg, emergency department vs physician’s office). Chi-square testing was used for statistical analysis. Results: From a cohort of 8,828,248 patients, 43,884 patients were diagnosed with a concussion. Of these patients, 55% were male and over 32% were in the adolescent age group (10-19 years old). The highest incidence of concussion was seen in patients aged 15 to 19 years (16.5/1000 patients), followed by those aged 10 to 14 years (10.5/1000 patients), 20 to 24 years (5.2/1000 patients), and 5 to 9 years (3.5/1000 patients). Overall, there was a 60% increase in concussion incidence from 2007 to 2014. The largest increases were in the 10- to 14-year (143%) and 15- to 19-year (87%) age groups. Based on International Classification of Disease–9th Revision classification, 29% of concussions were associated with some form of loss of consciousness. Finally, 56% of concussions were diagnosed in the emergency department and 29% in a physician’s office, with the remainder in urgent care clinics or inpatient settings. Conclusion: The incidence of concussion diagnosed in the general US

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zambézia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

  10. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population.

    PubMed

    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S

    2015-12-01

    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling.

  11. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  12. The Rise of Concussions in the Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alan L.; Sing, David C.; Rugg, Caitlin Marie; Feeley, Brian T.; Senter, Carlin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Concussion injuries have been correlated with significant long-term deleterious effects on patients. While recent studies have shown increased traumatic brain injuries (TBI) diagnosed in U.S. emergency departments, no studies have evaluated trends in concussion diagnoses across the general U.S. population in various age groups. The objective of this study is to evaluate the current incidence and trends in concussions diagnosed across varying age groups and healthcare settings in a large cross-sectional population. Methods: Administrative health records of 8,828,248 members of a large private payer insurance group in the United States were queried. Patients diagnosed with concussion from years 2007 through 2014 were stratified by year of diagnosis, age group, gender, classification of concussion, and healthcare setting of diagnosis (e.g. ED vs. physician’s office). Chi-square testing was used to for statistical analysis. Results: From a cohort of 8,828,248 patients, 43,884 patients were diagnosed with a concussion. Fifty-five percent of concussion patients were male and over 32% were in the adolescent age group (10-19 years old). The highest incidence of concussion was seen in the 15-19 age group (16.5 cases per 1000 patients) followed by the 10-14 (10.5 per 1000), 20-24 (5.2 per 1000) and 5-9 (3.5 per 1000) age groups. Overall there was a 160% increase in concussion incidence from 2007 to 2014. The largest increases were in the 10-14 (243%) and 15-19 (187%) age groups. Based on ICD-9 classification, 29% of concussions were associated with some form of loss of consciousness. Finally, 56% of concussions were diagnosed in the ED and 29% in a physician’s office, with the remainder in urgent cares or inpatient settings. Conclusion: The incidence of concussion diagnosed in the general population in the United States is increasing, driven largely by a substantial rise in the adolescent age group. The youth population should be prioritized for ongoing work

  13. Population Heterogeneity in the Salience of Multiple Risk Factors for Adolescent Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cooper, Brittany R.; Bray, Bethany C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present mixture regression analysis as an alternative to more standard regression analysis for predicting adolescent delinquency. We demonstrate how mixture regression analysis allows for the identification of population subgroups defined by the salience of multiple risk factors. Methods We identified population subgroups (i.e., latent classes) of individuals based on their coefficients in a regression model predicting adolescent delinquency from eight previously established risk indices drawn from the community, school, family, peer, and individual levels. The study included N = 37,763 tenth-grade adolescents who participated in the Communities that Care Youth Survey. Standard, zero-inflated, and mixture Poisson and negative binomial regression models are considered. Results Standard and mixture negative binomial regression models are selected as optimal. The five-class regression model is interpreted based on the class-specific regression coefficients, indicating that risk factors have varying salience across classes of adolescents. Conclusions Standard regression shows that all risk factors are significantly associated with delinquency. Mixture regression provides more nuanced information, suggesting a unique set of risk factors that are salient for different subgroups of adolescents. Implications for the design of subgroup-specific interventions are discussed. PMID:24231260

  14. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population.

  15. Adolescent sexuality in Asia: new focus for population policy.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1989-09-01

    As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy.

  16. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  17. Microsimulation methods for population projection.

    PubMed

    Van Imhoff, E; Post, W

    1998-01-01

    The use of microsimulation methods for making population projections is examined. "A particular problem in microsimulation results from the fact that the projections are subject to random variation. Various sources of random variations are examined but the most important is the one we refer to as specification randomness: the more explanatory variables are included in the model, the greater the degree of random variation affecting the output of the model. After a brief survey of the microsimulation models which exist in demography, a number of the essential characteristics of microsimulation are illustrated using the KINSIM model for projecting the future size and structure of kinship networks." (EXCERPT)

  18. Concussion in the pediatric and adolescent population: "different population, different concerns".

    PubMed

    Karlin, Aaron M

    2011-10-01

    Sports-related concussions are common among pediatric and adolescent athletes, yet a scarcity of age-specific research often has meant that practitioners use guidelines developed for collegiate or adult populations. This situation is changing, as more studies are being published about this population that bears special attention because of the immaturity of the developing brain. This article describes existing knowledge about the epidemiology and etiology of concussions in youth athletes; discusses issues related to assessment, clinical management, and return to activity; examines special concerns related to the effects of concussion on the developing brain; and discusses prevention and education initiatives related to concussion in youth athletes.

  19. Weight perceptions in a population sample of English adolescents: cause for celebration or concern?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Johnson, F; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the proportion of normal-weight adolescents who consider themselves to be too heavy (size overestimation), and the proportion of overweight or obese adolescents who consider themselves to be about the right weight or too light (size underestimation), in large population-based samples collected over 8 years in England. Methods: Data were from the Health Survey for England between 2005 and 2012: an annual survey of households representative of the English population. We analysed data from 4979 adolescents (2668 boys, 2311 girls) aged 13 to 15 years old whose weight status was defined as normal weight or overweight/obese based on body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) derived from objective measurements of height and weight and using International Obesity Task Force standards. Weight perception was based on the adolescent's choice from the following descriptors: ‘about the right weight', ‘too heavy' or ‘too light'. Results: The majority of normal-weight adolescents (83% of boys, 84% of girls) correctly identified themselves as ‘about the right weight'. Overestimation was uncommon, with only 7% of normal-weight teens (4% of boys, 11% of girls) identifying themselves as ‘too heavy'. In contrast, only 60% of overweight/obese adolescents (53% of boys, 68% of girls) correctly identified themselves as ‘too heavy', whereas 39% (47% of boys, 32% of girls) underestimated, identifying themselves as ‘about the right weight' or ‘too light'. There were no significant changes in BMI-SDS or body size estimation over time (2005–2012). Conclusions: Overestimation of body weight among normal-weight adolescents is relatively uncommon; potentially a cause for celebration. However, almost half of boys and a third of girls with a BMI placing them in the overweight or obese BMI range perceived themselves to be about the right weight. Lack of awareness of excess weight among overweight and obese adolescents could be a cause for concern

  20. Web Intervention for Adolescents Affected by Disaster: Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Price, Matthew; Adams, Zachary; Stauffacher, Kirstin; McCauley, Jenna; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Knapp, Rebecca; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of Bounce Back Now (BBN), a modular, web-based intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents. Method A population-based randomized controlled trial used address-based sampling to enroll 2,000 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Joplin, MO, and Alabama. Data collection via baseline and follow-up semi-structured telephone interviews was completed between September 2011 and August 2013. All families were invited to access the BBN study web portal irrespective of mental health status at baseline. Families who accessed the web portal were assigned randomly to 3 groups: (1) BBN, which featured modules for adolescents and parents targeting adolescents’ mental health symptoms; (2) BBN plus additional modules targeting parents’ mental health symptoms; or (3) assessment only. The primary outcomes were adolescent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Results Nearly 50% of families accessed the web portal. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed time × condition interactions for PTSD symptoms (B=−0.24, SE=0.08, p<.01) and depressive symptoms (B=−0.23, SE=0.09, p<.01). Post-hoc comparisons revealed fewer PTSD and depressive symptoms for adolescents in the experimental vs. control conditions at 12-month follow-up (PTSD: B=−0.36, SE=0.19, p=.06; depressive symptoms: B=−0.42, SE=0.19, p=0.03). A time × condition interaction also was found favoring the BBN vs. BBN + parent self-help condition for PTSD symptoms (B=0.30, SE=0.12, p=.02), but not depressive symptoms (B=0.12, SE=0.12, p=.33). Conclusion Results supported the feasibility and initial efficacy of BBN as a scalable disaster mental health intervention for adolescents. Technology-based solutions have tremendous potential value if found to reduce the mental health burden of disasters. PMID:26299292

  1. [Analysis of a population of adolescents with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Gurovich, I Ia; Visnevskaia, L Ia; Preĭs, V B

    1983-01-01

    A study of patients registered in the adolescent rooms of the psychoneurological outpatient centres of two districts of Moscow showed that the structure of psychic pathology of this population is characterized by a greater proportion, as compared with children, of psychotic forms, with non-psychotic psychic diseases and mental retardation still occupying the leading place. Almost one-third of patients (largely those with non-psychotic forms of psychogenic and exogenous-organic nature and a superficial level of disturbances observed) have good prognosis in terms of their cure including the discarding off the record in the relevant dispensary. Activation of extrahospital forms of care including improvement of the microsocial environment is required.

  2. Novel methods to collect meaningful data from adolescents for the development of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-09-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions.

  3. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2008-01-01

    The different established screening methodologies and comprehensive assessment techniques used in evaluating adolescents suspected of or known to have substance abuse disorders are discussed. Recommendations and suggestions for establishing standards of training and professional efficiency are also highlighted to treat adolescents with substance…

  4. Which adolescents develop persistent substance dependence in adulthood? Using population-representative longitudinal data to inform universal risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Hall, Wayne; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there are no universal screening tools for substance dependence that (1) were developed using a population-based sample, (2) estimate total risk briefly and inexpensively by incorporating a relatively small number of well-established risk factors, and (3) aggregate risk factors using a simple algorithm. We created a universal screening tool that incorporates these features to identify adolescents at risk for persistent substance dependence in adulthood. Methods Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. We assessed a small set of childhood and adolescent risk factors: family history of substance dependence, childhood psychopathology (conduct disorder, depression), early exposure to substances, frequent substance use in adolescence, sex, and childhood socioeconomic status. We defined the outcome (persistent substance dependence in adulthood) as dependence on one or more of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or hard-drugs at three or more assessment ages: ages 21, 26, 32, and 38. Results A cumulative risk index, a simple sum of 9 childhood and adolescent risk factors, predicted persistent substance dependence in adulthood with considerable accuracy (AUC=0.80). Conclusions A cumulative risk score can accurately predict which adolescents in the general population will develop persistent substance dependence in adulthood. PMID:26620720

  5. Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents: prevalence and correlates in a large population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) in adolescence, and to examine the association to insomnia and school non-attendance. Methods Data stem from a large population based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study. In all, 10,220 adolescents aged 16–18 years (54% girls) provided self-reported data on a range of sleep parameters: DSPS was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-R) criteria, while insomnia was defined according to the Quantitative Criteria for Insomnia. Other sleep parameters included time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, oversleeping, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, subjective sleep need, sleep deficiency, sleepiness and tiredness. Sleep data were calculated separately for weekdays and weekends. Data on school non-attendance were provided by official registers. Results The prevalence of DSPS was 3.3%, and significantly higher among girls (3.7%) than boys (2.7%). There was a strong overlap between DSPS and insomnia, with more than half of the adolescents with DSPS also meeting the criteria for insomnia (53.8% for boys and 57.1% for girls). Adolescents with DSPS had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of non-attendance at school. After adjusting for sociodeographical factors, insomnia and depression, the adjusted ORs for days of non-attendance were OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 1.94-5.34) for boys and OR = 1.87 (95% CI: 1.25-2.80) for girls. A similar effect was found for hours of non-attendance for boys, with an adjusted OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.89-4.92). The effect for girls was no longer significant after full adjustment (OR =1.48 [95% CI: 0.94-2.32]). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of DSPS in adolescents. The high prevalence of DSPS, and overlap with insomnia, in combination with the odds of school non-attendance, suggest that a broad

  6. Psychotropic drug use in adolescents born with an orofacial cleft: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sofia; Merlo, Juan; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Psouni, Elia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Being born with an orofacial cleft (OFC) can, due to an incomplete closure of the lip and/or palate, convey a deviant speech and/or deviant facial aesthetics, which may in turn increase the risk for poor psychological health later in life. Previous investigations have been based on small samples and self-reports, not distinguishing between the three different types of OFC: cleft lip (CL), CL and palate (CLP) and cleft palate only (CPO). We present a large population-based study, considering psychotropic drug use as a proxy for poor psychological health and distinguishing between three different types of OFC. Design and methods Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and linking to it the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the National Mortality Register, the Emigration Register and the National Inpatient Register, we identified all singletons born to native mothers in Sweden between 1987 and 1993, alive and residing in Sweden at the end of an 18-year follow-up period (N=626 109). We compared psychotropic drug use among individuals with and without OFC during the individuals’ adolescence (2005–2008) by multiple logistic regressions, using ORs with 95% CIs. Results When adjusted for potential confounders, having a CL (OR=1.63, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.46) or a CPO (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.01) increased the risk of psychotropic drug use. Results were not significant regarding adolescents who had a CLP (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.80). Conclusions Being born with a CL or a CPO increases the risk for psychotropic drug use in adolescence, but not for adolescents born with a CLP. Our findings suggest that, since the three OFC types are associated with different long-term risks of poor psychological health, the three groups should be studied separately concerning long-term psychosocial consequences. PMID:25838502

  7. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  8. Novel Methods to Collect Meaningful Data From Adolescents for the Development of Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R.; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents’ experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  9. Adolescent's suicide attempts: populations at risk, vulnerability, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Monique; Plancherel, Bernard; Laget, Jacques; Halfon, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Adolescence corresponds to a transition period that requires adaptation and change capacities and skills. Most young people succeed with this challenge, whereas a minority fail. In order to identify with the teenage culture, become autonomous, and differentiate from their parents, some adolescents choose to use drugs, beginning with the use of cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, followed by other illicit drugs such as opiates and stimulants. A high proportion of these adolescents attempt suicide, which is the primary cause of death during adolescence in many European countries. Who are the "vulnerable" adolescents? What are the mechanisms that can explain the varieties of drug-use initiation or suicide attempts? Can "protective factors" be identified? What kind of strategies might be developed at a social and political level in order to prevent or to minimize drug abuse and suicide attempts, among other harmful behaviors? These issues will be discussed on the basis of the recent literature and in the light of a recent study carried out in the French-speaking part of Switzerland on large cohorts of adolescent drug users. Unresolved critical issues are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  10. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359) and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP) was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9). Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339). The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0) and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8). The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%), follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively). In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services. PMID:19930601

  11. An Analysis of Two Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report for a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed adolescent fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and 27 in Chicago, Illinois. Data were…

  12. A population-based study of quantitative sensory testing in adolescents with and without chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Tham, See Wan; Palermo, Tonya M; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Zhou, Chuan; Stubhaug, Audun; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to characterize pain sensitivity in individuals with and without pain conditions. Research remains limited in pediatric populations, hindering the ability to expand the utility of QST toward its potential application in clinical settings and clinical predictive value. The aims of this study were to examine pain sensitivity using QST in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain and identify predictors of pain sensitivity. A population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2011 provided data on 941 adolescents, 197 were classified as having chronic pain and 744 were classified without chronic pain. Self-reported data on pain characteristics, psychological functioning, and QST responses were examined. The findings revealed lower pressure pain threshold and tolerance on the trapezius (P's = 0.03) in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain, but no differences on heat or cold-pressor pain tasks. Female sex (P's = 0.02) and poorer psychological functioning (P's = 0.02) emerged as significant predictors of greater pain sensitivity across all pain modalities. Exploratory analyses revealed several associations between clinical pain characteristics and QST responses within the chronic pain cohort. Findings from this large pediatric sample provide comprehensive data that could serve as normative data on QST responses in adolescents with and without chronic pain. These findings lay the groundwork toward developing future QST research and study protocols in pediatric populations, taking into consideration sex and psychological distress.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of ϵ-aminocaproic acid in adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, P. A.; Gastonguay, M. R.; Singh, D.; Fiadjoe, J. E.; Sussman, E. M.; Pruitt, E. Y.; Goebel, T. K.; Zuppa, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite demonstrated efficacy of ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in reducing blood loss in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion, there are no population-specific pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of EACA in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion surgery and make dosing recommendations. Methods Twenty children ages 12–17 years were enrolled, with 10 children in each of two groups based on diagnosis (idiopathic scoliosis or non-idiopathic scoliosis). Previously reported data from infants undergoing craniofacial surgery were included in the model to enable dosing recommendations over a wide range of weights, ages, and diagnoses. A population non-linear mixed effects modelling approach was used to characterize EACA pharmacokinetics. Results Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a two-compartment disposition model with allometrically scaled weight and an age effect on clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the typical patient were a plasma clearance of 153 ml min−1 70 kg−1 (6.32 ml min−1 kg−0.75), intercompartmental clearance of 200 ml min−1 70 kg−1 (8.26 ml min−1 kg−0.75), central volume of distribution of 8.78 litre 70 kg−1 (0.13 litre kg−1), and peripheral volume of distribution of 15.8 litre 70 kg−1 (0.23 litre kg−1). Scoliosis aetiology did not have a clinically significant effect on drug pharmacokinetics. Conclusions The following dosing schemes are recommended according to patient weight: weight <25 kg, 100 mg kg−1 loading dose and 40 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion; weight ≤25 kg–<50 kg, 100 mg kg−1 loading dose and 35 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion; and weight ≥50 kg, 100 mg kg−1 loading dose and 30 mg kg−1 h−1 infusion. An efficacy trial employing this dosing strategy is warranted. Clinical trial registration NCT01408823. PMID:25586726

  14. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  15. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected.

  16. Characterizing Adolescent Prescription Misusers: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Ty S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with the abuse of opiods, stimulants, tranquilizers and other sedatives among adolescents aged between 12 to 17 years and the presence of one more symptoms of a substance use disorder from prescription misuse. Results indicated that poor academic performance; enjoyment of…

  17. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

  18. Adolescent Self-Concept among International Native Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpes, Donald K.

    Most researchers continue to assume that one's self-concept is primarily governed by environmental determinants despite abundant evidence of the strong influence of genetic heritability. Ways in which the self-concept is developmental in the organism, particularly how adolescents' perceptions of personal, relational, and academic self-identity…

  19. Noninvasive methods for monitoring bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a grizzly bear research project in 2009 in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) of northwestern Montana. This work uses hair collection and DNA analysis methods similar to those used in the 2004 Northern Divide Grizzly Bear Project. However, instead of producing a snapshot of population size, the objectives of this new work are to estimate population growth rates by collecting hair at natural bear rubs along trails, roads, and fence and power lines. This approach holds promise of providing reliable estimates of population trends in an efficient, cost-effective, and unobtrusive way.

  20. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies.

  1. [Theory and methods in China's population policy].

    PubMed

    Qian, X

    1983-11-29

    Before 1949, China's population development was noted for its high birth rate, high death rate, and low natural growth rate. After 1949, the death rate showed a large-scale decline, the birth rate was maintained at a high level, and natural growth rate also remained high. Between 1949 and 1973, the natural growth rate was kept above a 2% annual rate. Since then, the need for population control has become increasingly obvious. The theory and methods of China's population policy can be summarized in the following points: (1) material production has to keep up with the pace of population growth, and that means the quantity and quality of the population have to match athe production of materials needed for life and consumption; (2) in a Socialist society, material production and population growth have to develop with well-designed plans; (3) the population question has a direct impact on social and economic development; (4) through enforcement of a national policy, cooperation from different individuals, and ideological education, family planning will gradually be accepted by the general public for the well-being of the country.

  2. An Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adolescent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, James; Dennison, Darwin

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze high school students' self-reports and to determine biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adolescent population. Factors evaluated included smoking frequency, dietary fat intake, saturated fat intake, and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. (JN)

  3. Evaluating the Invariance and Validity of the Structure of Dysfunctional Attitudes in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prenoveau, Jason M.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Griffith, James W.; Rose, Raphael D.

    2009-01-01

    Form A of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A), a self-report measure of depressive beliefs, is widely used to test Beck's cognitive model of depression. The present study is the first to evaluate the DAS-A factor structure in an adolescent population of 542 high school juniors and the first to examine a hierarchical model. Findings support…

  4. A New Method for Mapping Population Distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Human population counts are collected and commonly displayed uniformly across areas, such as U.S. Census Bureau block-groups and tracts. The limitation inherent in this type of representation is the assumption that people are evenly distributed across each areal unit, when in actuality many areas such as parks, open spaces, and industrial zones are uninhabited. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a geospatial tool that uses a 'dasymetric' mapping method to redistribute census population values to homogenous, inhabited, zones, enhancing visualization and accuracy.

  5. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey)

    PubMed Central

    Kanata, Sho; Koike, Shinsuke; Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Morimoto, Yuko; Toriyama, Rie; Fujikawa, Shinya; Sugimoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Background Enuresis (9% at age 9.5) negatively affects children’s psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age) is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old) and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS), a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children’s enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention. Results The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD) = 3.8 (2.3), non-enuretic: M (SD) = 3.0 (2.1), Hedge’s g = 0.39, p < .001). This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), low birth weight and parents’ education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028–.080], p < .001). Conclusions Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention. PMID:27414399

  6. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical

  7. Engaging Adolescents Through Participatory and Qualitative Research Methods to Develop a Digital Communication Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Obesity.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Monticalvo, David; Bernhardt, Jay M; Wells, Kelli T; Harris, Todd; Kee, Kadra; Hayes, Johnathan; George, Donald; Woodhouse, Lynn D

    2016-11-02

    Background The complexity of the childhood obesity epidemic requires the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in a manner that can transcend multiple communities of stakeholders, including youth, the broader community, and the community of health care providers. Aim To (a) describe participatory processes for engaging youth within context of CBPR and broader community, (b) share youth-engaged research findings related to the use of digital communication and implications for adolescent obesity intervention research, and (c) describe and discuss lessons learned from participatory approaches. Method CBPR principles and qualitative methods were synergistically applied in a predominantly African American part of the city that experiences major obesity-related issues. A Youth Research Advisory Board was developed to deeply engage youth in research that was integrated with other community-based efforts, including an academic-community partnership, a city-wide obesity coalition, and a primary care practice research network. Volunteers from the youth board were trained to apply qualitative methods, including facilitating focus group interviews and analyzing and interpreting data with the goal of informing a primary care provider-based obesity reduction intervention. Results The primary results of these efforts were the development of critical insights about adolescent use of digital communication and the potential importance of messaging, mobile and computer apps, gaming, wearable technology, and rapid changes in youth communication and use of digital technology in developing adolescent nutrition and physical activity health promotion. Conclusions The youth led work helped identify key elements for a digital communication intervention that was sensitive and responsive to urban youth. Many valuable lessons were also learned from 3 years of partnerships and collaborations, providing important insights on applying CBPR with minority youth populations.

  8. Evaluation of shoulder balance in the normal adolescent population and its correlation with radiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Akel, Ibrahim; Pekmezci, Murat; Hayran, Mutlu; Genc, Yasemin; Kocak, Ozgur; Derman, Orhan; Erdoğan, Ilkay; Yazici, Muharrem

    2008-03-01

    A descriptive clinical study in healthy adolescents was done to evaluate the clinical shoulder balance and analyze the correlation between clinical and radiological parameters which are currently used to evaluate shoulder balance. In addition to trunk shift and rib hump, shoulder balance is one of the criteria that are used to evaluate the outcomes in spinal deformity surgery. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate the shoulder balance in scoliotic patients; however, there is no uniformity to these methods in the current literature. Patients who applied to pediatric clinic without musculoskeletal pathology formed the patient population. Volunteers were asked to fill out a questionnaire assessing shoulder balance perception and had their clinical photograph taken simultaneously with a P-A chest X-ray. The clinical shoulder balance was evaluated through analysis of the clinical photograph. The X-rays were used to evaluate the radiological shoulder balance. The evaluated parameters included coracoid height difference (CHD), clavicular angle (CA), the clavicle-rib cage intersection difference (CRID), clavicular tilt angle difference (CTAD), and T1-tilt. The study group was composed of 48 male and 43 female patients with an average age of 13.6 +/- 2.1 (10-18) years. In the questionnaire, all patients stated that their shoulders were level. The digital photographs revealed that only 17(18.7%) adolescents had absolutely level shoulders. The average height difference between shoulders was 7.5 +/- 5.8 mm. The average CHD was 6.9 +/- 5.8 mm, average CA was 2.2 +/- 1.7 degrees , average CRID was 4.8 +/- 3.6 mm, average CTAD was 4 +/- 3.2 degrees , and average T1-tilt was 1.3 +/- 1.4 degrees . CHD, CA, and CRID demonstrated high correlation with clinical pictures, whereas CTAD demonstrated moderate and T1-tilt demonstrated only mild correlation. The radiological parameters used to evaluate the shoulder balance correlate with the clinical appearance. Contrary to popular

  9. Temperament and Character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): Comparison to the General Population, and Genetic Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Cloninger, C. Robert; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1) to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items) of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2) to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3) to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. Method Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs). Results The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence) had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. Conclusions Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence). This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no shared

  10. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  11. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  12. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  13. Is low health literacy associated with overweight and obesity in adolescents: an epidemiology study in a 12–16 years old population, Nanning, China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is considered an epidemic in both developed and developing world by the WHO. There has been little study on the relationship between health literacy and body weight among adolescents. This epidemiological study aims to investigate the association between low health literacy and overweight and obesity among a population of Chinese adolescents aged 12–16 years in the city of Nanning, China in 2012. Methods This study was a population-based cross-sectional health survey utilising a two-stage random cluster sampling design. The sample consisted of high school students aged between 12–16 years with the total student population attending high schools in a large city as the sample frame. Health literacy was measured by the Chinese version of the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy translated for and validated among Taiwanese adolescents. Overweight and obesity were assessed in accordance to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database of Body Mass Index classification methods. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling techniques with adjustment to the cluster sampling effect. Results A total of 1035 students responded to the survey providing usable information with 628 (48.1%) respondents classified as high, 558 (42.8%) moderate, and 119 (9.1%) low levels of health literacy. After adjusting for potential confounding factors and the cluster sampling effect, low health literacy was significantly associated with overweight and obesity (OR = 1.84, 95% C.I. = 1.13-2.99). Conclusion Results suggested that low health literacy level was associated with many aspects of adolescence health including their body weight. These results have public health implications on an important global problem of adolescence body weight. Enhancing the health literacy should be considered as part of the strategies in combating adolescence weight problem. PMID

  14. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood.

  15. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  16. Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

    PubMed Central

    Berra, Silvina; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Erhart, Michael; Tebé, Cristian; Bisegger, Corinna; Duer, Wolfgang; von Rueden, Ursula; Herdman, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Rajmil, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data) and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%). Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR <1). Parents in lower educational categories were less likely to participate (PFR <1 in 5 countries). Parents in higher educational categories were overrepresented when the school and household sampling strategies were used (PFR = 1.78–2.97). Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument. PMID:17655756

  17. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  18. [Trends in the methods of feeding school children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Konieczna, W

    1982-01-01

    In the years 1972-1975 studies on the nutritional state and mode of nutrition were carried out in 6789 children aged 8, 11 and 14 years attending elementary schools in five different regions of the country. In the years 1977-1978 similar studies were done in 1288 children aged 16 years from selected secondary vocational schools in Warsaw. The statistical sample included 4740 children from 76 schools in cities (including those from Warsaw) and 2337 children from 82 elementary schools in rural regions. In the studies on the mode of nutrition of children from the elementary schools a uniform and verified qualitative method was used based on interviews of the children. In the case of adolescents from the secondary schools a quantitative-estimation method was applied using colour photographs illustrating portions of food products and dishes of varying size. Table 1 and Fig.I show the obtained results concerning the usual frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products in children from the elementary schools. It was found that the consumption of milk and its products was irregular in about 40% of children. A higher proportion of children in the urban areas in relation to those in the rural areas consumed more frequently milk products, and the amount of meat, pork products and butter in their diet was much higher. Irregular and rare consumption of vegetables and fruit was a characteristic feature of rural children. In a high proportion of all children a relatively frequent consumption of various sweets and cakes was found (Table 1, Fig. I). Furthermore, in only 14-21% of the studied population the proportion of brown bread, various cereals and dry grains of pulse crops in the diet was relatively satisfactory. The quantitative estimates of the average daily consumption of the basic groups of food products by the Warsaw adolescents compared with the recommended quantities showed a too low content of cereals in daily food portions, this content was nearly 40

  19. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group.

  20. Suicide method runs in families: a birth certificate cohort study of adolescent suicide in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-12-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal parent and that of a matched peer control adolescent with no exposure to parental suicide and living in the same area. In 10 of the 12 suicidal parent-adolescent dyads, the same suicide method was employed by parent and adolescent. Of seven adolescents whose age at parental suicide was 15 years or above, six used the same suicide method as their suicidal parent had. On the contrary, of 12 exposure-nonexposure suicidal adolescent dyads, the same method was used in only four. Adolescents exposed to parental suicide are more likely to use the suicide method employed by their suicidal parents than the method used by adolescent peers with no exposure to parental suicide.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Three Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report of a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 27 fathers in Chicago, Illinois, and 48 fathers and…

  2. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  3. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  4. Methods Needed to Curb Rising Pet Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses socioeconomic problems of pet population explosion and recommends the conduct of educational programs and the implementation of surgical sterilization as a short-term answer to dog and cat control. Also considered are problems of using chemical contraceptives in human population control. (CC)

  5. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure…

  6. Association between Periodontal Condition and Nutritional Status of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.; RAMOS, Ianny A.; CARDOSO, Andreia M. R.; FERNANDES, Liege Helena F.; ARAGÃO, Amanda S.; SANTOS, Fábio G.; AGUIAR, Yêska P. C.; CARVALHO, Danielle F.; MEDEIROS, Carla C. M.; De S. C. SOARES, Renata; CASTRO, Ricardo D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a serious problem of public health and affects all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontal condition and nutritional status of adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a probability cluster sampling, and the sample was defined by statistical criterion, consisting of 559 students aged 15–19 yr enrolled in public schools of adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil in 2012. Socioeconomic characteristics were analyzed, as well as self-reported general and oral health, anthropometric data and periodontal condition (CPI and OHI-S). Descriptive and analytical analysis from bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analysis with 5% significance level was performed. Results: Of the 559 adolescents, 18.6% were overweight and 98.4% had some form of periodontal changes such as: bleeding (34.3%), calculus (38.8%), shallow pocket (22.9%) and deep pocket (2.3%). There was association between presence of periodontal changes with obesity (P<0.05; CI 95%: 0.99 [0.98 – 0.99]). Conclusion: The association between presence of periodontal changes and obesity status in adolescents was indicated. PMID:28053924

  7. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.

  8. Prevalence of auditory hallucinations in Norwegian adolescents: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kompus, Kristiina; Løberg, Else-Marie; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in adolescents is important for estimations of need for mental health care and assessment of psychosis risk. In this report we assess the prevalence of AVH in a population-based sample of 16–19 years old Norwegian adolescents (n = 9,646, 46.4% male) using two items assessing AVH (from the extended Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale). The prevalence of hearing a voice speaking thoughts aloud was 10.6%. The prevalence of being troubled by voices was 5.3%, showing that negative emotionality about AVH is less frequent than the experience of hearing voices. Female respondents had slightly increased risk for being troubled by voices than males (odds ratio = 1.3), while age did not modulate prevalence. This AVH prevalence is in line with earlier reports in smaller samples of adolescents and indicates that AVH are not uncommon in this period of life. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the value of AVH in predicting psychiatric disorder. PMID:25968251

  9. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology.

  10. Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate

    PubMed Central

    Cranwell, Jo; Opazo-Breton, Magdalena; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background We estimate exposure of British adults and adolescents to tobacco and alcohol content from a sample of popular YouTube music videos. Methods British viewing figures were generated from 2 representative online national surveys of adult and adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular videos containing content. 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years (1010 boys, 1058 girls), and 2232 adults aged 19+years (1052 male, 1180 female) completed the surveys. We used the number of 10 s intervals in the 32 most popular videos containing content to estimate the number of impressions. We extrapolated gross and per capita impressions for the British population from census data and estimated numbers of adults and adolescents who had ever watched the sampled videos. Results From video release to the point of survey, the videos delivered an estimated 1006 million gross impressions of alcohol (95% CI 748 to 1264 million), and 203 million of tobacco (95% CI 151 to 255 million), to the British population. Per capita exposure was around 5 times higher for alcohol than for tobacco, and nearly 4 times higher in adolescents, who were exposed to an average of 52.1 (95% CI 43.4 to 60.9) and 10.5 (95% CI 8.8 to 12.3) alcohol and tobacco impressions, respectively, than in adults (14.1 (95% CI 10.2 to 18.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 3.6)). Exposure rates were higher in girls than in boys. Conclusions YouTube music videos deliver millions of gross impressions of alcohol and tobacco content. Adolescents are exposed much more than adults. Music videos are a major global medium of exposure to such content. PMID:26767404

  11. Method for spatially distributing a population

    DOEpatents

    Bright, Edward A [Knoxville, TN; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [Knoxville, TN; Coleman, Phillip R [Knoxville, TN; Dobson, Jerome E [Lawrence, KS

    2007-07-24

    A process for spatially distributing a population count within a geographically defined area can include the steps of logically correlating land usages apparent from a geographically defined area to geospatial features in the geographically defined area and allocating portions of the population count to regions of the geographically defined area having the land usages, according to the logical correlation. The process can also include weighing the logical correlation for determining the allocation of portions of the population count and storing the allocated portions within a searchable data store. The logically correlating step can include the step of logically correlating time-based land usages to geospatial features of the geographically defined area. The process can also include obtaining a population count for the geographically defined area, organizing the geographically defined area into a plurality of sectors, and verifying the allocated portions according to direct observation.

  12. Youth Mental Health in a Populous City of the Developing World: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Zambrano, Joaquin; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because the epidemiologic data available for adolescents from the developing world is scarce, the objective is to estimate the prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders among Mexico City adolescents, the socio-demographic correlates associated with these disorders and service utilization patterns. Methods: This is a multistage…

  13. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  14. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  15. Impact of Malocclusion on the Quality of Life of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Freitas Gomes E; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Freitas, Heloiza Viana; Pereira, Alex Luiz Pozzobon; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coelho

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on the quality of life (QOL) of adolescents in Brazil. We carried out a cross-sectional study in a sample population of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The explanatory variable was malocclusion, evaluated on the basis of the normative need or the adolescent's self-perceived need for dental treatment. Normative need for dental treatment was determined by professional diagnosis, made on the basis of Angle's classification, the Dental Aesthetic Index, and other morphological deviations (e.g., posterior crossbite, posterior open bite, and deep overbite). We analyzed the impact of malocclusion on the QOL using the Portuguese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Associations were estimated by using the prevalence ratio (PR) in Poisson regression analysis, with hierarchized modeling. An alpha of 5% was adopted as the criterion for statistical significance. The QOL of adolescents was impacted by malocclusion, classified by a normative need for treatment according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (PR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.56) or by the self-perceived need for treatment (PR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.81-3.56). Certain sociodemographic variables, including the head of the family (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02-2.23), greater educational level of the head of the family (PR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.17-0.61), and female sex (PR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), had negative associations with QOL. We conclude that malocclusion has a negative impact on the QOL of adolescents, associated with socioeconomic conditions and the cosmetic effects of malocclusion.

  16. Sleep problems and depression in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2014-08-01

    Both sleep problems and depression are common problems in adolescence, but well-defined large epidemiological studies on the relationship are missing in this age group. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depression and several sleep parameters, including insomnia, in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-18 years, and to explore potential gender differences. A large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study, surveyed 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls) about sleep and depression. The sleep assessment included measures of the basic sleep parameters for weekdays and weekends. Depression was defined as scoring above the 90th percentile on the total score of Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). There was a large overlap between insomnia and depression in both genders and across depressive symptoms. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly shorter sleep duration and time in bed as well as significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Adolescents with insomnia had a 4- to 5-fold increased odds of depression compared to good sleepers. There was also a significant interaction between insomnia, sleep duration and depression, with a more than eightfold increase in odds of depression for those who met criteria for insomnia and who slept <6 h. These associations held for both genders, but were stronger in boys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to investigate sleep and insomnia in relation to depression among adolescents. The findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems and depression as a major public health issue.

  17. Social relationships among adolescents as described in an electronic diary: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents' social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents' social relationships and their need for personalized support.

  18. Effect of different casting methods on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S; Lee, J T C; Luk, K D K; Chan, L C K

    2003-08-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Although orthotic treatment for moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been well recognized, there are few studies documenting the effectiveness of different casting methods in the fabrication of thoracolumbo-sacral orthoses (TLSO). The current study was a retrospective clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of two commonly used casting methods namely, the frame casting method and the supine with traction casting method in the treatment of AIS. Eighty (80) female patients with AIS were recruited and they were all treated by TLSOs. The frame casting method was used in 37 patients while the remaining 43 patients were under the supine with traction casting method. The responses of spinal deformities under the two different casting methods were analyzed for the period from pre-brace to 2 years after bracing. The studied parameters included the AP Cobb's angle, the apical vertebral rotation and the trunk listing (cervico-sacral lateral offset). The results of the current study showed that the orthoses manufactured from the two casting methods could provide an effective control of AIS (change of Cobb's angle within (+/- 5 degrees). For the frame casting, the Cobb's angles at pre-brace and 2 years after off-brace were 36.0 degrees and 33.8 degrees respectively while for the supine with traction casting, the corresponding Cobb's angles were 32.7 degrees and 34.0 degrees. The frame casting method could give a better control of the apical vertebral rotation at the early stage of treatment (pre-brace = 18.2 degrees and the 4th month = 13.8 degrees while the supine with traction casting method was more effective in the long-term control of the trunk listing (pre-brace = 10mm and 2 years after off-brace = 3.3mm).

  19. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  20. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  1. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Gender: Patterns of Prevalence, Methods, and Locations among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornberger, Michael J.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; McLouth, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents is a growing concern. However, little is known about gender and features of this behavior. Gender differences in NSSI among a sample of 7,126 adolescents were investigated, 1,774 of whom reported having engaged in NSSI. Gender differences in prevalence, method, and location of NSSI were examined.…

  2. Being Bicultural: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Implicitly and Explicitly Measured Multiethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how ethnic identities develop in adolescence is currently limited by a reliance on self-report paper-and-pencil measures. This mixed-methods study presents a novel response time measure, the Multiethnic Identities Processing Task (MIPT), to quantify bicultural adolescents' implicit identifications with ethnic and racial identity…

  3. Review: An urgent need for research on factors impacting adherence to and retention in care among HIV-positive youth and adolescents from key populations

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Priya; Lim, Sin How; Khairuddin, Norliana; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The 50% increase in HIV-related deaths in youth and adolescents (aged 10–24) from 2005 to 2012 highlights the need to improve HIV treatment and care in this population, including treatment adherence and retention. Youth and adolescents from key populations or young key populations (YKP) in particular are highly stigmatized and may face additional barrier(s) in adhering to HIV treatment and services. We reviewed the current knowledge on treatment adherence and retention in HIV care among YKP to identify gaps in the literature and suggest future directions to improve HIV care for YKP. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search for YKP and their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in HIV care on PsycInfo (Ovid), PubMed and Google Scholar using combinations of the keywords HIV/AIDS, ART, adolescents, young adults, adherence (or compliance), retention, men who have sex with men, transgender, injection drug users, people who inject drugs and prisoners. We included empirical studies on key populations defined by WHO; included the terms youth and adolescents and/or aged between 10 and 24; examined adherence to or retention in HIV care; and published in English-language journals. All articles were coded using NVivo. Results and discussion The systematic search yielded 10 articles on YKP and 16 articles on behaviourally infected youth and adolescents from 1999 to 2014. We found no studies reporting on youth and adolescents identified as sex workers, transgender people and prisoners. From existing literature, adherence to ART was reported to be influenced by age, access to healthcare, the burden of multiple vulnerabilities, policy involving risk behaviours and mental health. A combination of two or more of these factors negatively impacted adherence to ART among YKP. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that future programmes need to be tailored specifically to YKP to ensure adherence. Conclusions There is an urgent need for

  4. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  5. A Population-Based Study of Genetic Variation and Psychotic Experiences in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Stanley; Hamshere, Marian; Dwyer, Sarah; Georgiva, Lyudmila; Timpson, Nic; Moskvina, Valentina; Richards, Alexander; Evans, David M; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic experiences are not uncommon in general population samples, but no studies have examined to what extent confirmed risk variants for schizophrenia are associated with such experiences. A total of 3483 children in a birth cohort study participated in semistructured interviews for psychotic experiences at ages 12 and 18. We examined whether (1) a composite measure of risk for schizophrenia conferred by common alleles (polygenic score) was associated with psychotic experiences, (2) variants with genome-wide evidence for association with schizophrenia were associated with psychotic experiences, and (3) we could identify genetic variants for psychotic experiences using a genome-wide association (GWA) approach. We found no evidence that a schizophrenia polygenic score, or variants showing genome-wide evidence of association with schizophrenia, were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences within the general population. In fact, individuals who had a higher number of risk alleles for genome-wide hits for schizophrenia showed a decreased risk of psychotic experiences. In the GWA study, no variants showed GWA for psychotic experiences, and there was no evidence that the strongest hits (P < 5 × 10−5) were enriched for variants associated with schizophrenia in large consortia. Although polygenic scores are weak tools for prediction of schizophrenia, they show strong evidence of association with this disorder. Our findings, however, lend little support to the hypothesis that psychotic experiences in population-based samples of adolescents share a comparable genetic architecture to schizophrenia, or that utilizing a broader and more common phenotype of psychotic experiences will be an efficient approach to increase understanding of the genetic etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:24174267

  6. Are computer and cell phone use associated with body mass index and overweight? A population study among twin adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2007-01-01

    Background Overweight in children and adolescents has reached dimensions of a global epidemic during recent years. Simultaneously, information and communication technology use has rapidly increased. Methods A population-based sample of Finnish twins born in 1983–1987 (N = 4098) was assessed by self-report questionnaires at 17 y during 2000–2005. The association of overweight (defined by Cole's BMI-for-age cut-offs) with computer and cell phone use and ownership was analyzed by logistic regression and their association with BMI by linear regression models. The effect of twinship was taken into account by correcting for clustered sampling of families. All models were adjusted for gender, physical exercise, and parents' education and occupational class. Results The proportion of adolescents who did not have a computer at home decreased from 18% to 8% from 2000 to 2005. Compared to them, having a home computer (without an Internet connection) was associated with a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.8) and BMI (beta coefficient 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98). However, having a computer with an Internet connection was not associated with weight status. Belonging to the highest quintile (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8) and second-highest quintile (OR 1.6 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4) of weekly computer use was positively associated with overweight. The proportion of adolescents without a personal cell phone decreased from 12% to 1% across 2000 to 2005. There was a positive linear trend of increasing monthly phone bill with BMI (beta 0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30), but the association of a cell phone bill with overweight was very weak. Conclusion Time spent using a home computer was associated with an increased risk of overweight. Cell phone use correlated weakly with BMI. Increasing use of information and communication technology may be related to the obesity epidemic among adolescents. PMID:17324280

  7. Mass screening for celiac disease from the perspective of newly diagnosed adolescents and their parents: A mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass screening for celiac disease (CD) as a public health intervention is controversial. Prior to implementation, acceptability to the targeted population should be addressed. We aimed at exploring adolescents' and parents' experiences of having the adolescents' CD detected through mass screening, and their attitudes towards possible future mass screening. Methods All adolescents (n = 145) with screening-detected CD found in a Swedish school-based screening study, and their parents, were invited to this study about one year after diagnosis. In all, 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 31 adolescents and 43 parents. Written narrative was completed by 91 adolescents (63%) and 105 parents (72%), and questionnaires returned by 114 parents (79%). Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. In addition, narratives and questionnaire data allowed for quantified measures. Results Adolescents and parents described how they agreed to participate "for the good of others," without considering consequences for themselves. However, since the screening also introduced a potential risk of having the disease, the invitation was regarded as "an offer hard to resist." For the majority, receiving the diagnosis was described as "a bolt of lightning," but for some it provided an explanation for previous health problems, and "suddenly everything made sense." Looking back at the screening, the predominant attitude was "feeling grateful for being made aware," but some adolescents and parents also expressed "ambivalent feelings about personal benefits." Among parents, 92% supported future CD screening. The most common opinion among both adolescents and parents was that future CD mass screening should be "a right for everyone" and should be offered as early as possible. However, some argued that it should be "only for sufferers" with symptoms, whereas others were "questioning the benefits" of CD mass screening. Conclusions Although the incentives to participate

  8. Impact of Malocclusion on the Quality of Life of Brazilian Adolescents: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luciana Freitas Gomes e; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Freitas, Heloiza Viana; Pereira, Alex Luiz Pozzobon; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coelho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on the quality of life (QOL) of adolescents in Brazil. We carried out a cross-sectional study in a sample population of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The explanatory variable was malocclusion, evaluated on the basis of the normative need or the adolescent’s self-perceived need for dental treatment. Normative need for dental treatment was determined by professional diagnosis, made on the basis of Angle’s classification, the Dental Aesthetic Index, and other morphological deviations (e.g., posterior crossbite, posterior open bite, and deep overbite). We analyzed the impact of malocclusion on the QOL using the Portuguese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Associations were estimated by using the prevalence ratio (PR) in Poisson regression analysis, with hierarchized modeling. An alpha of 5% was adopted as the criterion for statistical significance. The QOL of adolescents was impacted by malocclusion, classified by a normative need for treatment according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (PR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.56) or by the self-perceived need for treatment (PR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.81–3.56). Certain sociodemographic variables, including the head of the family (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02–2.23), greater educational level of the head of the family (PR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.17–0.61), and female sex (PR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05–1.89), had negative associations with QOL. We conclude that malocclusion has a negative impact on the QOL of adolescents, associated with socioeconomic conditions and the cosmetic effects of malocclusion. PMID:27690356

  9. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ellgren, Maria; Spano, Sabrina M; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2007-03-01

    Cannabis use is a hypothesized gateway to subsequent abuse of other drugs such as heroin. We currently assessed whether Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during adolescence modulates opiate reinforcement and opioid neural systems in adulthood. Long-Evan male rats received THC (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle every third day during postnatal days (PNDs) 28-49. Heroin self-administration behavior (fixed ratio-1; 3-h sessions) was studied from young adulthood (PND 57) into full adults (PND 102). THC-pretreated rats showed an upward shift throughout the heroin self-administration acquisition (30 microg/kg/infusion) phase, whereas control animals maintained the same pattern once stable intake was obtained. Heightened opiate sensitivity in THC animals was also evidenced by higher heroin consumption during the maintenance phase (30 and 60 microg/kg/infusion) and greater responding for moderate-low heroin doses (dose-response curve: 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 microg/kg/injection). Specific disturbance of the endogenous opioid system was also apparent in the brain of adults with adolescent THC exposure. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression was exclusively increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell; the relative elevation of preproenkephalin mRNA in the THC rats was maintained even after heroin self-administration. Moreover, mu opioid receptor (muOR) GTP-coupling was potentiated in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal brainstem regions in THC-pretreated animals. muOR function in the NAc shell was specifically correlated to heroin intake. The current findings support the gateway hypothesis demonstrating that adolescence cannabis exposure has an enduring impact on hedonic processing resulting in enhanced opiate intake, possibly as a consequence of alterations in limbic opioid neuronal populations.

  10. Acne scars in 18-year-old male adolescents: a population-based study of prevalence and associated factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, Fernanda Tcatch; de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar

    2016-01-01

    Background Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring. PMID:27438194

  11. Resident and parental perceptions of adolescent problems and family communications in a low socioeconomic population.

    PubMed

    Hawley, L E; Shear, C L; Stark, A M; Goodman, P R

    1984-11-01

    This cross-sectional survey of a low socioeconomic patient group was designed to determine the prevalence and severity of parentally perceived behavioral problems in adolescents as well as to investigate the correlation between such problems and single parenting, family communications, and medical care delivered. The sample population consisted of 79 parents and 121 teenagers selected from a family practice center. The medical record and telephone interview were the sources of information. Results include a parental perception of a high prevalence of problems with school grades (48 percent), school attendance (38 percent), and household problems (chores and sibling rivalry). Of low prevalence but high severity were perceived problems related to suicidal ideation, running away, sexual activity, and gang membership. Single-parent homes had a threefold higher incidence of behavioral problems, a greater degree of communication, and a lower use of community resources than two-parent families. None of the approximately 400 perceived behavioral problems listed by parents was found in the family physicians' master problem list. The results indicate the need for physician education of low socioeconomic and single-parent patients with regard to communication and coping style. In addition, it appears that training programs should provide more education in the care of adolescents.

  12. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Social relationships among adolescents as described in an electronic diary: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents’ social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents’ social relationships and their need for personalized support. PMID:28280307

  15. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden.

  16. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  17. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  18. Phenotypic Manifestation of Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia During Adolescence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hannah J.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tansey, Katherine E.; Hubbard, Leon; Heron, Jon; Cannon, Mary; Holmans, Peter; Lewis, Glyn; Linden, David E. J.; Jones, Peter B.; Davey Smith, George; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Walters, James T.; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Importance Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, polygenic condition characterized by a relatively diverse phenotype and frequent comorbid conditions, such as anxiety and depression. At present, limited evidence explains how genetic risk for schizophrenia is manifest in the general population. Objective To investigate the extent to which genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with different phenotypes during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Of 14 062 children in the birth cohort, genetic data were available for 9912 adolescents. Data were collected periodically from September 6, 1990, and collection is ongoing. Data were analyzed from March 4 to August 13, 2015. Exposures Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia generated for individuals in the ALSPAC cohort using results of the second Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia genome-wide association study as a training set. Main Outcomes and Measures Logistic regression was used to assess associations between the schizophrenia PRS and (1) psychotic experiences (Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview at 12 and 18 years of age), (2) negative symptoms (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences at 16.5 years of age), (3) depressive disorder (Development and Well-Being Assessment at 15.5 years of age), and (4) anxiety disorder (Development and Well-Being Assessment at 15.5 years of age) in adolescence. Results Of the 8230 ALSPAC participants whose genetic data passed quality control checks (51.2% male, 48.8% female), 3676 to 5444 participated in assessments from 12 to 18 years of age. The PRSs created using single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a training-set P ≤ .05 threshold were associated with negative symptoms (odds ratio [OR] per SD increase in PRS, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36; R2 = 0.007) and anxiety disorder (OR per SD increase in PRS, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.29; R

  19. Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Cockburn, Emma; Russell, Mark; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01) but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1). For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such

  20. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3

  1. Accuracy of robot-assisted pedicle screw placement for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Macke, Jeremy J; Woo, Raymund; Varich, Laura

    2016-06-01

    This is a retrospective review of pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under 18 years of age who underwent robot-assisted corrective surgery. Our primary objective was to characterize the accuracy of pedicle screw placement with evaluation by computed tomography (CT) after robot-assisted surgery in AIS patients. Screw malposition is the most frequent complication of pedicle screw placement and is more frequent in AIS. Given the potential for serious complications, the need for improved accuracy of screw placement has spurred multiple innovations including robot-assisted guidance devices. No studies to date have evaluated this robot-assisted technique using CT exclusively within the AIS population. Fifty patients were included in the study. All operative procedures were performed at a single institution by a single pediatric orthopedic surgeon. We evaluated the grade of screw breach, the direction of screw breach, and the positioning of the patient for preoperative scan (supine versus prone). Of 662 screws evaluated, 48 screws (7.2 %) demonstrated a breach of greater than 2 mm. With preoperative prone position CT scanning, only 2.4 % of screws were found to have this degree of breach. Medial malposition was found in 3 % of screws, a rate which decreased to 0 % with preoperative prone position scanning. Based on our results, we conclude that the proper use of image-guided robot-assisted surgery can improve the accuracy and safety of thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is the first study to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using CT assessment in robot-assisted surgical correction of patients with AIS. In our study, the robot-assisted screw misplacement rate was lower than similarly constructed studies evaluating conventional (non-robot-assisted) procedures. If patients are preoperatively scanned in the prone position, the misplacement rate is further

  2. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  3. Mental health problems in adolescents with delayed sleep phase: results from a large population-based study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare mental health problems, resilience and family characteristics in adolescents with and without delayed sleep phase (DSP) in a population-based sample. Data were taken from the youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012. In all, 9338 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls) provided self-reported data on a wide range of instruments assessing mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms, perfectionism, resilience and sleep. Measures of socioeconomic status were also included. Three hundred and six adolescents (prevalence 3.3%) were classified as having DSP [according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 (ICSD-2)] criteria. Adolescents with DSP reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and ADHD symptoms. Adolescents with DSP also exhibited significantly lower levels of resilience. The Cohen's d effect sizes ranged from small [obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): d = 0.15] to moderate (inattention: d = 0.71). In the fully adjusted model, the significant predictors of DSP included inattention [odds ratio (OR): 2.11], lack of personal structure (OR: 2.07), low (OR: 1.85) and high (OR: 1.91) paternal education, parents not living together (OR: 1.81), hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 1.71) and poorer family economy (OR: 1.59). In conclusion, the high symptom load across a range of mental health measures suggests that a broad and thorough clinical approach is warranted when adolescents present with DSP.

  4. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  5. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-09-24

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  6. Access and Completion of a Web-Based Treatment in a Population-Based Sample of Tornado-Affected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071

  7. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context.

  8. A photographic method for multi-plane assessment of adolescent posture.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Filadelfio; Donati, Paolo; Marini, Mirca; Romeo, Loris; Scidone, Stefano; Ferrari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To date there have been no photographic methods reported for assessing the standing postural alignment in a manner that can be used in large scale populations. The purpose of this study was to describe a photographic, multi-plane postural measurement method in a pilot group of subjects in a school setting. A total of 83 healthy male adolescents, volunteered for the study, were photographed. The mean age was 14.5 +/- 0.7 years (range 14-16). The mean height was 170.7 +/- 3.5 cm, (range 155-187), and the mean weight was 63.2 +/- 13.9 kg (range 37-110). During procedure, subjects stood on a platform, with specific markers placed on landmarks that could be identified photographically. Photography was accomplished from above, below, each side, and front and back. These six photographs permit views to be projected onto the six sides of an ideal parallelepiped enclosing the body. Five angles were calculated and reported to describe the alignments of the head, shoulders, torso, and pelvis. As expected the means of each of the five angles were small, the absolute value varying from 0 to 7 degrees. This paper describes the results of a simple, practical, and effective way to gather data concerning standing postural alignment in adolescents using a photographic technique. This technique will be used to form a normative database by large-scale studies. Using this approach, a number of angles can be calculated and eventually models can be developed, relating these angles to sitting posture measurements and to symptoms.

  9. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Tettey, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Method In this study, we assessed the relationship between the life time duration of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period and birth outcomes (LBW and PTB) among a sample of 6023 female respondents who took part in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We used the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to assess these relationships. Results Exposure to elevated depressive symptoms in late adolescence, but not in adulthood, was associated with increased odds of LBW by more than 2-fold in early and young adulthoods (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.19; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.56, 3.08). Depressive symptoms in early adulthood were independently associated with increased odds of PTB and were higher for black mothers. Maternal race modified the relationship between consistent reporting of depressive symptoms in adolescence and LBW or PTB in adulthood. Conclusion This study provides compelling evidence that effects of elevated depressive symptomatology on LBW or PTB appear to be linked to a specific development period in adolescence. National policies to address social inequalities and stratification particularly in health at all stages of human development, will provide an important step in reducing depressive symptoms prior to early adulthood and in pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:26844093

  10. Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them.

  11. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  12. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents: a multi-informant and multi-methods approach to diagnostic classification

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031

  13. New methods of pregnancy testing in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Saxena, B B

    1981-05-01

    The knowledge and use of newer, more sensitive, and reliable pregnancy tests which are easily accessible and of moderate cost are the 1st steps in the early diagnosis and management of pregnancy, especially in adolescent girls. Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy soon after conception offers the option of abortion by simple, effective, and inexpensive procedures or early initiation of prenatal maternity care. Discussion focuses on the symptoms of pregnancy and the historical development and basis of pregnancy tests as well as the specific types of pregnancy tests. The most familiar sign of pregnancy is the missed period. Other symptoms that provide presumptive evidence of pregnancy include fatigue and lassitude, increased body temperature, and breast fullness or pain. Feelings of nausea, vomiting, and weight gain may appear after 2 weeks. The diagnosis of pregnancy by the detection of the human chorionic gonadotropin was initially described 53 years ago by Selmar Aschheim and Bernhardt Zondek. Improvements in the techniques for the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been directly related to the progress in the purification and isolation of hCG and elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the hormone-nonspecific alpha subunit and hormone-specific beta subunit of hCG. The history, physical examination, and pregnancy tests will generally provide sufficient information for a definite diagnosis of pregnancy. The presence of hCG in the urine or blood is the most accurate of all the indications of pregnancy. During the last century, 4 different techniques for the determination of hCG in blood and/or urine have been developed. These include the following and are reviewed in detail: 1) bioassays in intact laboratory animals; 2) immunologic tube or slide methods with heme- or latex-agglutination inhibition, as well as the more recently developed competitive protein binding method such as 3) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the use of radioisotope labeled hormone

  14. Challenges in application of bioanalytical method on different populations and effect of population on PK.

    PubMed

    Kale, Prashant; Shukla, Manoj; Soni, Gunjan; Patel, Ronak; Gupta, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Prashant Kale has 22 years of immense experience in the analytical and bioanalytical domain. He is Senior Vice President, Bioequivalence Operations of Lambda Therapeutic Research, India which includes Bioanalytical, Clinics, Clinical data management, Pharmacokinetics and Biostatistics, Protocol writing, Clinical lab and Quality Assurance departments. He has been with Lambda for over 14 years. By qualification he is a M.Sc. and an MBA. Mr. Kale is responsible for the management, technical and administrative functions of the BE unit located at Ahmedabad and Mumbai, India. He is also responsible for leading the process of integration between bioanalytical laboratories and services offered by Lambda at global locations (India and Canada). Mr. Kale has faced several regulatory audits and inspections from leading regulatory bodies including but not limited to DCGI, USFDA, ANVISA, Health Canada, UK MHRA, Turkey MoH, WHO. There are many challenges involved in the application of bioanalytical method on different populations. This includes difference in equipment, material and environment across laboratories, variations in the matrix characteristics in different populations, differences in techniques between analysts such as sample processing and handling and others. Additionally, there is variability in the PK of a drug in different populations. This article shows the effect of different populations on validated bioanalytical method and on the PK of a drug. Hence, the bioanalytical method developed and validated for a specific population may need required modification when applied to another population. Critical consideration of all such aspects is the key to successful implementation of a validated method on different populations.

  15. Off-label medicine use in children and adolescents: results of a population-based study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based self-reported data on off-label medicine use independent from health care provisions are lacking. The purpose of this study is to investigate off-label medicine use in children and adolescents in Germany in a non-clinical setting and to identify prevalence, determinants and spectrum of off-label medicine use. Methods Data were obtained from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (2003–2006). 17,450 randomly selected children aged 0–17 years took part in the drug interviews. Of those, 8,899 took at least one medicine during the 7 days preceding the interview. Off-label medicine use was defined as the discrepancy between actual use and the intended use described in the summary of product characteristics. Off-label medicine use was stratified into off-label indication, off-label age, off-label over-dosing, and off-label under-dosing. Results The prevalence rate of off-label medicine use among those who used medicines amount of is 40.2%. The prevalence rate is significantly higher in boys (41.4%), in children aged 3 to 6 years (48.7%), without migration background (40.9%), with high social status (42.5%), living in small (42.0%) and medium sized cities (41.6%), and with a poor parents rated health status (41.7%). 12,667 preparations (attributable in respect to off-label use) were taken by 8,899 children. 30% of the medicines have been used off-label. Off-label medicine use was highest in preparations of the ATC-class “C00 Cardiovascular System”. In all origins of medicine, all age groups and all ATC-classes under-dosing was the most frequent reason for off-label medicine use. Conclusions There is a considerable level of self-reported off-label medicines use in the general paediatric population. Further investigations are needed to examine in how far off-label medicine use is based on lack of knowledge or on empiricism in paediatric

  16. Numerical integration of population models satisfying conservation laws: NSFD methods.

    PubMed

    Mickens, Ronald E

    2007-10-01

    Population models arising in ecology, epidemiology and mathematical biology may involve a conservation law, i.e. the total population is constant. In addition to these cases, other situations may occur for which the total population, asymptotically in time, approach a constant value. Since it is rarely the situation that the equations of motion can be analytically solved to obtain exact solutions, it follows that numerical techniques are needed to provide solutions. However, numerical procedures are only valid if they can reproduce fundamental properties of the differential equations modeling the phenomena of interest. We show that for population models, involving a dynamical conservation law the use of nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) methods allows the construction of discretization schemes such that they are dynamically consistent (DC) with the original differential equations. The paper will briefly discuss the NSFD methodology, the concept of DC, and illustrate their application to specific problems for population models.

  17. Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Placek, Caitlyn D; Quinlan, Robert J

    2012-10-07

    Timing of first reproduction is a key life-history variable with important implications for global economic development and health. Life-history theory predicts that human reproductive strategies are shaped by mortality regimes. This study provides the first test of the relationship between population-level adolescent fertility (AF) and extrinsic risk at two time points. Data are from United Nations database and were analysed using mediation and moderation techniques. The goals were to determine whether (i) early risk has a stronger impact on fertility than current risk; (ii) current risk mediates the relationship between early risk and fertility outcomes; and (iii) different levels of early risk influence the relationship between current risk and fertility. Results indicated that current risk partially mediated the relationship between early risk and fertility, with early risk having the strongest impact on reproduction. Measures for early and current mortality did not show significant interaction effects. However, a series of separate regression analyses using a quantile split of early risk indicated that high levels of early risk strengthened the relationship between current risk and AF. Overall, these findings demonstrate that reproductive strategies are significantly influenced by fluctuations of early mortality as well as current environmental cues of harshness.

  18. Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Placek, Caitlyn D.; Quinlan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Timing of first reproduction is a key life-history variable with important implications for global economic development and health. Life-history theory predicts that human reproductive strategies are shaped by mortality regimes. This study provides the first test of the relationship between population-level adolescent fertility (AF) and extrinsic risk at two time points. Data are from United Nations database and were analysed using mediation and moderation techniques. The goals were to determine whether (i) early risk has a stronger impact on fertility than current risk; (ii) current risk mediates the relationship between early risk and fertility outcomes; and (iii) different levels of early risk influence the relationship between current risk and fertility. Results indicated that current risk partially mediated the relationship between early risk and fertility, with early risk having the strongest impact on reproduction. Measures for early and current mortality did not show significant interaction effects. However, a series of separate regression analyses using a quantile split of early risk indicated that high levels of early risk strengthened the relationship between current risk and AF. Overall, these findings demonstrate that reproductive strategies are significantly influenced by fluctuations of early mortality as well as current environmental cues of harshness. PMID:22833268

  19. ASSERT--the Autism Symptom SElf-ReporT for adolescents and adults: bifactor analysis and validation in a large adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-12-01

    With a view to developing a brief screening instrument for autism symptoms in a general population of adolescents, seven items from the Asperger syndrome (and high-functioning autism) diagnostic interview were adapted for use as self-report in an online questionnaire for youths aged 16-19 years (N=10,220). The selected items target lack of social understanding (4 items) and rigid and repetitive behavior and interests (RRBI; 3 items). Factor analyses were performed, and the seven items were also validated against self-reported ASD diagnosis. Best statistical model fit was found for a bifactor model with one general factor and two domain specific factors tied to social difficulties and RRBI. Both the general and the domain specific factors were associated with self-reported ASD diagnoses. The scale (referred to as the Autism Symptom SElf-ReporT for Adolescents and Adults--ASSERT) had good screening properties with a receiver operating curve-area under the curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.87 and a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 15.8. Applying a modified scoring of the scale further improved the screening properties leading to a ROC-AUC of 0.89 and a DOR of 24.9. The ASSERT holds promise as a brief self-report screen for autism symptoms in adolescents, and further studies should explore its usefulness for adults.

  20. Ultrasonographic reference values for peripheral nerves and nerve roots in the normal population of children and adolescents: study protocol for an observational-prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Décard, Bernhard F; Schädelin, Sabine; Grimm, Alexander; Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background High-resolution ultrasonography is a new and promising technique to evaluate peripheral and spinal nerves. Its validity as a diagnostic tool in neurological diseases has been demonstrated in adults. Up to now no reference values have been published in children and adolescents although this technique would be ideal in this population as it is fast and non-invasive. Methods/design Our aim is to generate ultrasonographic reference values for several peripheral nerves (median, ulnar, radial, tibial, sural, peroneal and tibial nerve) as well as for the spinal nerves C5 and C6 and the vagus nerve in children and adolescents. In an observational prospective study, we will recruit 205 children and adolescents aged between ≥2 and ≤18 years without neuromuscular symptoms/signs and without a history of neuromuscular disease. After the collection of demographic and anthropometric data (height, weight, body mass index, age, gender and handedness) and a neurologic examination, a high-resolution ultrasonography of peripheral and spinal nerves at several anatomic landmarks will be performed. These data will be used to estimate age-dependent percentile curves and to evaluate inter-rater, intrarater and interequipment reliability of the measurements. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local ethics committee (EKNZ 2015-210). The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number NCT02570802, pre-results publication. PMID:27940636

  1. Let’s Get Physical: Sexual Orientation Disparities in Physical Activity, Sports Involvement, and Obesity Among a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and obesity among a population-based adolescent sample. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment for 13 933 students in grades 9 through 12 in 22 Wisconsin high schools. We conducted logistic regressions to examine sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and body mass index among male and female adolescents. Results. When we accounted for several covariates, compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were less likely to participate in team sports (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.53) and more likely to be overweight (AOR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.62) or obese (AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.48). Sexual minority males were less likely than heterosexual males to be physically active (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.83) or to participate in team sports (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.32), but the 2 groups did not differ in their risk of obesity. Conclusions. Sexual orientation health disparities in physical activity and obesity are evident during adolescence. Culturally affirming research, interventions, and policies are needed for sexual minority youths. PMID:26180946

  2. Validity of body composition methods across ethnic population groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2003-10-01

    Most in vivo body composition methods rely on assumptions that may vary among different population groups as well as within the same population group. The assumptions are based on in vitro body composition (carcass) analyses. The majority of body composition studies were performed on Caucasians and much of the information on validity methods and assumptions were available only for this ethnic group. It is assumed that these assumptions are also valid for other ethnic groups. However, if apparent differences across ethnic groups in body composition 'constants' and body composition 'rules' are not taken into account, biased information on body composition will be the result. This in turn may lead to misclassification of obesity or underweight at an individual as well as a population level. There is a need for more cross-ethnic population studies on body composition. Those studies should be carried out carefully, with adequate methodology and standardization for the obtained information to be valuable.

  3. Unbiased methods for population-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Devlin, B; Roeder, K; Bacanu, S A

    2001-12-01

    Large, population-based samples and large-scale genotyping are being used to evaluate disease/gene associations. A substantial drawback to such samples is the fact that population substructure can induce spurious associations between genes and disease. We review two methods, called genomic control (GC) and structured association (SA), that obviate many of the concerns about population substructure by using the features of the genomes present in the sample to correct for stratification. The GC approach exploits the fact that population substructure generates "over dispersion" of statistics used to assess association. By testing multiple polymorphisms throughout the genome, only some of which are pertinent to the disease of interest, the degree of overdispersion generated by population substructure can be estimated and taken into account. The SA approach assumes that the sampled population, although heterogeneous, is composed of subpopulations that are themselves homogeneous. By using multiple polymorphisms throughout the genome, this "latent class method" estimates the probability sampled individuals derive from each of these latent subpopulations. GC has the advantage of robustness, simplicity, and wide applicability, even to experimental designs such as DNA pooling. SA is a bit more complicated but has the advantage of greater power in some realistic settings, such as admixed populations or when association varies widely across subpopulations. It, too, is widely applicable. Both also have weaknesses, as elaborated in our review.

  4. A mixed methods study of Canadian adolescents' perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Vandemeer, Eleanor; Taylor, Brian; Davison, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies. Through intentional consideration of the perspectives of this population group, this study makes both empirical and theoretical contributions to appreciating how cultural environments shape health perceptions.

  5. Trend of Suicide Rates According to Urbanity among Adolescents by Gender and Suicide Method in Korea, 1997–2012

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to quantifiably evaluate the trend of the suicide rate among Korean adolescents from 1997 to 2012 according to urbanity. We used national death certificates and registration population data by administrative district for 15–19 years-old adolescents. The annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) were estimated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. The suicide rate in the rural areas was higher than that in the urban areas in both genders (males (/100,000), 12.2 vs. 8.5; females (/100,000), 10.2 vs. 7.4 in 2012). However, the trend significantly increased only in the urban area (AAPC [95% CI]: males 2.6 [0.7, 4.6], females 3.3 [1.4, 5.2]). In urban areas, the suicide rate by jumping significantly increased in both genders (AAPC [95% CI]: males, 6.7 [4.3, 9.1]; females, 4.5 [3.0, 6.1]). In rural areas, the rate by self-poisoning significantly decreased by 7.9% per year for males (95% CI: −12.5, −3.0) and the rate by hanging significantly increased by 10.1% per year for females (95% CI: 2.6, 18.2). The trend and methods of suicide differ according to urbanity; therefore, a suicide prevention policy based on urbanity needs to be established for adolescents in Korea. PMID:25985313

  6. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  7. Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Katherine M.; Martin, Laurie T.; Lurie, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Sanofi Pasteur asked RAND Health, a division of the RAND Corporation, to study the current climate for adolescent immunization in the United States, to recommend broad strategies for immunizing low-income adolescents (through age 18), and to identify promising "on the ground" practices consistent with the proposed strategic…

  8. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms.

  9. Crime and Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in the US Population: An Analysis of National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Kendell L.; Smith, Philip H.; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. Method The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N=10,123; ages 13–17; 2001–2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Results Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD; OR=57.5; 95% CI=30.4,108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR=19.5; 95% CI=8.8,43.2), and drug use disorders (OR=16.1; 95% CI=9.3,27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing those with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness report never committing any crime. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. PMID:25062596

  10. The psychometric properties of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) in a general population sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mewton, Louise; Kessler, Ronald C; Slade, Tim; Hobbs, Megan J; Brownhill, Louise; Birrell, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-10-01

    The 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) is a screener for psychological distress that has robust psychometric properties among adults. Given that a significant proportion of adolescents experience mental illness, there is a need for measures that accurately and reliably screen for mental disorders in this age group. This study examined the psychometric properties of the K6 in a large general population sample of adolescents (N = 4,434; mean age = 13.5 years; 44.6% male). Factor analyses were conducted to examine the dimensionality of the K6 in adolescents and to investigate sex-based measurement invariance. This study also evaluated the K6 as a predictor of scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The K6 demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, with the 6 items loading primarily on 1 factor. Consistent with previous research, females reported higher mean levels of psychological distress when compared with males. The identification of sex-based measurement noninvariance in the item thresholds indicated that these mean differences most likely represented reporting bias in the K6 items rather than true differences in the underlying psychological distress construct. The K6 was a fair to good predictor of abnormal scores on the SDQ, but predictive utility was relatively low among males. Future research needs to focus on refining and augmenting the K6 scale to maximize its utility in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  12. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  13. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  14. Temporal Patterns of Medications Dispensed to Children and Adolescents in a National Insured Population

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Karen L.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively describe prevalence and temporal dispensing patterns for medications prescribed to children and adolescents in the United States. Participants were 1.6 million children (49% female) under 18 years old enrolled in a nation-wide, employer-provided insurance plan. All medication claims from 1999–2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Drugs were assigned to 16 broad therapeutic categories. Effects of trend over time, seasonality, age and gender on overall and within category prevalence were examined. Results: Mean monthly prevalence for dispensed medications was 23.5% (range 19.4–27.5), with highest rates in winter and lowest in July. The age group with the highest prevalence was one-year-old children. On average each month, 17.1% of all children were dispensed a single drug and 6.4% were dispensed two or more. Over time, prevalence for two or more drugs did not change, but the proportion of children dispensed a single drug decreased (slope -.02%, p = .001). Overall, boys had higher monthly rates than girls (average difference 0.9%, p = .002). However, differences by gender were greatest during middle childhood, especially for respiratory and central nervous system agents. Contraceptives accounted for a large proportion of dispensed medication to older teenage girls. Rates for the drugs with the highest prevalence in this study were moderately correlated (average Pearson r.66) with those from a previously published national survey. Conclusion: On average, nearly one quarter of a population of insured children in the United States was dispensed medication each month. This rate decreased somewhat over time, primarily because proportionally fewer children were dispensed a single medication. The rate for two or more drugs dispensed simultaneously remained steady. PMID:22829905

  15. Skin disorders associated with obesity in children and adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi; Carpenter, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in children is a major public health concern in the United States. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of various groups of cutaneous disorders in obese children and adolescents and to compare the use of dermatology services in obese subjects with that those with a normal body mass index (BMI). This was a retrospective, population-based study at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Managed Healthcare System. The main outcome measures were the relative risk of cutaneous disorders associated with insulin resistance, androgen excess, bacterial infection, fungal infection, viral infection, inflammation, mechanical changes, and other skin conditions (hidradenitis, hyperhidrosis) in three weight groups (normal, overweight, obese) and the number of dermatology visits. A total of 248,775 subjects were included. Bivariate analyses showed a higher proportion of insulin resistance disorders, bacterial infection, fungal infection, inflammatory disorders, mechanical changes, and other skin conditions in obese subjects than in subjects with a normal BMI (p < 0.001). Disorders of androgen excess and viral infection were significantly less common in obese subjects (p < 0.001). Obese subjects had significantly lower odds of having at least one dermatology encounter than subjects with a normal BMI (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.88, 0.96, p = 0.003). Early onset obesity is associated with cutaneous disorders characterized by hyperproliferation, inflammation, bacterial and fungal infection, and mechanical changes but lower rates of disorders of androgen excess and viral infection. The use of dermatology services was not greater in obese patients. Heightened recognition and further analysis of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ that is capable of affecting the skin is warranted.

  16. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  17. Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in health research. The present study investigated whether two measures of subjective social capital were related to psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13-18 year old students anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, and ill health. Results Low neighbourhood social capital and low general social trust were associated with higher rates of psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression. Individuals with low general social trust had more than three times increased odds of being depressed, three times increased odds of having many psychosomatic symptoms, and double the odds of having many symptoms of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions The findings make an important contribution to the social capital - health debate by demonstrating relations between social capital factors and self-reported ill health in a young population. PMID:21092130

  18. Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael M

    2014-10-28

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake.

  19. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.

  20. Teacher Support and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…

  1. Evaluating the Individual Counseling of Conduct Problem Adolescents: The Goal Attainment Scaling Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Charles A.; Barbrack, Christopher R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) as a potentially useful way of evaluating goal attainment of individual counseling provided to public school adolescents with conduct problems. Presents an application of the GAS method and reports formative evaluation data pertaining to practical and technical properties of the approach. (LLL)

  2. Work and Family Plans among At-Risk Israeli Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods were used to investigate attributions of importance to work and family roles and anticipated work--family conflict and facilitation among 353 at-risk Israeli male and female adolescents. Qualitative interviews conducted with 26 of the at-risk youth explored future work and family perceptions. Findings indicated that both sexes…

  3. Integrated Prevention of Social Dependencies in Adolescents through the Scenario Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maznichenko, Marina A.; Neskoromnykh, Nataliya I.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for the need to take an integrated approach to prevention of social dependencies in adolescents. Through this approach, the authors fine-tune the determination of the phenomenon of prevention of social dependencies. The authors bring to light the potential of the scenario method in resolving the above objective.…

  4. Childhood and Adolescent Animal Cruelty Methods and Their Possible Link to Adult Violent Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods as they are associated with subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several…

  5. Predictors of Disordered Eating in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Population-Based, Longitudinal Study of Females and Males in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Torgersen, Leila; Lien, Lars; Hafstad, Gertrud S.; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal predictors for disordered eating from early adolescence to young adulthood (12-34 years) across gender and different developmental phases among Norwegian young people. Survey data from a population-based sample were collected at four time points (T) over a 13-year time span. A population-based sample of 5,679 females…

  6. A prospective study of childhood and adolescent antecedents of homelessness among a community population of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2012-06-01

    Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, family, school, and behavioral influences. Nearly 22% of males and 16% of females reported homelessness between ages 15 and 42, providing a rare estimate within an African American urban community population. In bivariate analyses, lower school bonds, depressed mood, violent behavior, and running away in adolescence are predictive for both males and females. Teen parenting and angry mood are unique influences for females, while for males, poor first grade classroom conduct and adolescent substance use are unique risks. In multivariate analyses, poor classroom conduct and weaker school bonds predict homelessness among males, while teen parenting does so for females. Running away before age 15 is strongly predictive of later homelessness for both males and females. These results reveal the relative influence of multiple, interrelated early risks on homelessness and confirm our hypothesis that factors linked to other poor outcomes also relate to homelessness, underscoring another benefit to early prevention efforts.

  7. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Juan; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive. PMID:28151983

  8. Adolescent Substance Use Following a Deadly U.S. Tornado Outbreak: A Population-Based Study of 2,000 Families.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sumner, Jennifer A; Adams, Zachary W; McCauley, Jenna L; Carpenter, Matthew; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-11-25

    Despite conceptual links between disaster exposure and substance use, few studies have examined prevalence and risk factors for adolescent substance use and abuse in large, population-based samples affected by a recent natural disaster. We addressed this gap using a novel address-based sampling methodology to interview adolescents and parents who were affected by the 4th deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S.

  9. Use of Social Networking Sites and Risk of Cyberbullying Victimization: A Population-Level Study of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained considerable popularity among youth in recent years; however, there is a noticeable paucity of research examining the association between the use of these web-based platforms and cyberbullying victimization at the population level. This study examines the association between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization using a large-scale survey of Canadian middle and high school students. Data on 5,329 students aged 11-20 years were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization while adjusting for covariates. Overall, 19 percent of adolescents were cyberbullied in the past 12 months. Adolescents who were female, younger, of lower socioeconomic status, and who used alcohol or tobacco were at greater odds of being cyberbullied. The use of SNSs was associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimization in a dose-response manner (p-trend <0.001). Gender was not a significant moderator of the association between use of SNSs and being cyberbullied. Results from this study underscore the need for raising awareness and educating adolescents on effective strategies to prevent cyberbullying victimization.

  10. Parent-youth agreement on symptoms and diagnosis: assessment with a diagnostic interview in an adolescent inpatient clinical population.

    PubMed

    Lauth, Bertrand; Arnkelsson, Guðmundur B; Magnússon, Páll; Skarphéðinsson, Guðmundur Á; Ferrari, Pierre; Pétursson, Hannes

    2010-12-01

    Diagnostic information on adolescents may be elicited from both youths and their parents, especially for depressive and suicidal symptomatology. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between parent and adolescent reports of major psychiatric disorders, at the diagnostic and at the symptom level, in a severely affected inpatient clinical population. 64 parent-adolescent pairs were interviewed separately with the semi-structured diagnostic interview Kiddie-SADS-PL. Symptomatology was also assessed with 11 self-report and parent-report scales, all translated, adapted and in most cases validated in Iceland. A total of 25 subscales were included to assess emotional dimensions such as depression or anxiety and cognitive dimensions such as attention deficit or self-concept. Good agreement was found for social phobia and fair agreement for generalized anxiety disorder. Although parent-youth agreement was poor in most cases at the symptoms level, significant correlations indicated consistency for most severity scores, except those related to depressive symptomatology, attention deficit, separation anxiety or conduct disorder. The low agreement between reports of suicidal ideation is in line with results from previous studies and suggests that parents might under- or over-estimate this symptomatology. The combination of data obtained with diagnostic interviews and rating-scales confirmed results from prior empirical work, giving greater weight to parents' reports of observable behavior and to adolescents' reports of subjective experiences, especially depressive symptomatology. Our findings suggest that both parent and child informants are necessary to obtain adequate assessments in adolescents. Further research should explore the correspondence between discrepant diagnoses and external criteria such as parental psychopathology or parent-child relationships and attachment. Psychoanalysis could benefit from cognitive neuroscience and use cognitive

  11. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  12. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a National Sample of Adolescent Population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III Study.

    PubMed

    Khashayar, Patricia; Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahere; Ardalan, Gelayol; Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha, Yasin; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Larijani, Bagher; Kelishadi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls) with mean age of 14.7 ± 2.4 years) living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants), whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65-14.09) the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory evidence for

  14. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  15. Visual Voices: A Participatory Method for Engaging Adolescents in Research and Knowledge Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the expertise and perspectives of adolescents in the process of generating and translating research knowledge into practice is often missed, yet is essential for designing and implementing programs to promote adolescent health. This paper describes the use of the arts-based participatory Visual Voices method in translational research. Visual Voices involves systematic creative writing, drawing and painting activities to yield culturally relevant information which is generated by and examined with adolescents. Qualitative data products include the created art products and transcripts from group discussions of the content developed and presented. Data are analyzed and compared across traditional (e.g., transcripts) and non-traditional (e.g., drawings and paintings) media. Findings are reviewed and interpreted with participants and shared publicly to stimulate community discussions and local policy and practice changes. Visual Voices is a novel method for involving adolescents in translational research though Integrated Knowledge Transfer (IKT), a process for bringing researchers and stakeholders together from the stage of idea generation to implementing evidence-based initiatives. PMID:23399093

  16. [Children and adolescents in Germany with a migration background. Methodical aspects in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Schenk, L; Ellert, U; Neuhauser, H

    2007-01-01

    A migration-specific approach was used in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and thus it was possible for the first time to include children with a migration background in a nationwide health survey in Germany in a number corresponding to their percentage of the population. This article presents the migration-specific approach used in KiGGS as well as a definition of the term "migrant" and its operationalisation. In addition, we analyse the representativity of the migrant subsample and present data on its composition. Altogether 2,590 children and adolescents with a migration background (both parents) took part in the study; in the weighted sample they account for 17.1% of all children and adolescents. Another 8.3% of the children and adolescents have one parent with a migration background. The two largest groups among the migrant children are Germans from Russia (29.9%) and children and adolescents of Turkish origin (28.2%). There are differences between migrants and non-migrants related to socio-economic status and place of living (rural/urban and East/West). Analyses of the representativity of the migrant sample show that children and adolescents with a lower level of education are under-represented, whereas there were no differences with regard to sex, the fathers' occupation or the mothers' smoking status. Non-respondents rate their children's health better than respondents. Since the successful integration of children and adolescents with a migration background into the KiGGS study brings with it a sufficiently large number of cases and since KiGGS covers a wide range of health-related topics, comprehensive migration-specific analyses can be performed. Thus, KiGGS will contribute to filling some of the current gaps in our knowledge of migrant children's health.

  17. Population Dynamics of the Stationary Phase Utilizing the ARGOS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarni, S.; Charest, A. J.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    The Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach to light scattering employs large image capture array allowing for a well-defined geometry in which images may be manipulated to extract structure with intensity at a specific scattering wave vector (I(q)) and dynamics with intensity at a specific scattering wave vector over time (I (q,t)). The ARGOS method provides morphological dynamics noninvasively over a long time period and allows for a variety of aqueous conditions. This is important because traditional growth models do not provide for conditions similar to the natural environment. The present study found that the population dynamics of bacteria do not follow a traditional growth model and that the ARGOS method allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. The observations of relative total intensity suggest that there is no stationary phase and that the bacterial population demonstrates sinusoidal type patterns consistently subsequent to the log phase growth. These observation were compared to shape changes by modeling fractal dimension and size changes by modeling effective radius.

  18. Adolescent Children of Vietnam Combat Veteran Fathers: A Population at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Virginia S.; Marinelli, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of adolescent children of Vietnam combat veterans with non-combat veterans found the majority of outcomes were not significantly different. However, children of combat veterans showed poorer attitudes towards school; more negative attitudes towards their father; experienced more depression, tension, apprehension, and anxiety; and…

  19. Incarceration Recidivism in the Adolescent Special Education Population: Perceptions and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Tina D.

    2013-01-01

    In 1990, The Americans with Disabilities Act ruled that, regardless of age, inmates were entitled to continued special education services in correctional facilities. This qualitative case study identified perceptions of recidivism in incarcerated adolescents with special education needs. In this study the correctional education programs were…

  20. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  1. A Profile of Adolescent Wellness: Implications for Working with a Help-Seeking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.; Lemon, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined wellness profiles for 114 adolescents receiving counseling services at a local community mental health center. Participants were administered the Five Factor Wellness Inventory-Teenage Version and their responses were compared with a norm group (n = 1,142). Participants scored significantly lower on 13 of 23 variables assessed.…

  2. Sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in a school going population of Sri Lankan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath

    2015-03-01

    The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean=16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs.

  3. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  4. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  5. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Internationally Adopted Adolescents: Results From a Norwegian Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; La Greca, Annette M; Tell, Grethe S; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hysing, Mari

    2017-03-02

    Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Validity and intra-observer reliability of three-dimensional scanning compared to conventional anthropometry for children and adolescents from a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Glock, Fabian; Vogel, Mandy; Naumann, Stephanie; Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Scholz, Markus; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kirsten, Toralf; Rieger, Kristin; Koerner, Antje; Loeffler, Markus; Kiess, Wieland

    2017-01-04

    BackgroundConventional anthropometric measurements are time consuming and require well trained medical staff. To use three-dimensional whole body laser scanning in daily clinical work, validity and reliability have to be confirmed.MethodsWe compared a whole body laser scanner to conventional anthropometry in a group of 473 children and adolescents from the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE-Child). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated separately for sex, weight and age to assess validity. Overall CCC (OCCC) were used to analyze intra-observer reliability.ResultsBody height and the circumferences of waist, hip, upper arm and calf had an "excellent" (CCC ≥ 0.9), neck and thigh circumference a "good" (CCC ≥ 0.7) and head circumference a "low" (CCC < 0.5) degree of concordance over the complete study population. We observed dependencies of validity on sex, weight and age. Intra-observer reliability of both techniques is "excellent" (OCCC ≥ 0.9).ConclusionScanning is faster, requires a less intensive staff training and provides more information. It can be used in an epidemiologic setting with children and adolescents but some measurements should be considered with caution due to reduced agreement with conventional anthropometry.Pediatric Research (2017); doi:10.1038/pr.2016.274.

  7. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) in a population-based birth cohort. Methods Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR), 95% CI). The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately. Results Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders. Conclusion For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD) confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD) is crucial regardless of ADHD. PMID:27294778

  8. Willingness to use ADHD Self-Management: Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents and Parents.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Gurnani, Tina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about perceptions surrounding self-management for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although such interventions appear commonly used and are considered essential components of the chronic care model. Our research is part of a mixed methods study that followed students at high and low risk for ADHD over 11 years. During the final study years, area-representative samples of 148 adolescents (54.8% participation; 97 ADHD high-risk group; 51 low-risk peers) and 161 parents (59.4% participation; 108 parents of high-risk adolescent; 53 parents of low-risk peer) completed a cross-sectional survey on community-identified self-management interventions for ADHD (activity outlets, sleep regulation, dietary restriction, homework help, family rules, and prayer). Respondents also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable self-management effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. High-risk adolescents expressed significantly lower willingness towards all self-management interventions than did adult respondents, except for increased activity outlets. They also reported lower receptivity towards sleep regulation and dietary restriction than did their low-risk peer group. No gender or race differences in self-management willingness were found, except for higher receptivity to prayer in African American respondents. Cost, perceived ineffectiveness, disruptions to routines, causation of interpersonal conflicts, and reduced future self-reliance were seen as potential undesirable effects. Findings suggest that activity-based ADHD interventions appear particularly acceptable across all demographic and risk groups, unlike sleep regulation and dietary approaches. Further research on self-care effectiveness is needed to incorporate adolescents' viewpoints about ADHD self-management, as interventions may be acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents.

  9. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  10. Association of family structure to later criminality: a population-based follow-up study of adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Ikäheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2013-04-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure and DSM-IV based psychiatric diagnoses were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview and criminality on criminal records provided by the Finnish Legal Register Centre. After adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and family factors, the adolescents from single parent families, child welfare placements and those not living with their biological parents showed an increased risk of committing crimes at an earlier age than adolescents from two parent families. Lack of a safe and stable family environment has important implications for adolescents with severe mental disorder. When these adolescents are discharged from hospital, special attention should be focused on organizing stable and long term psychosocial support which compensates for the lack of stable family environment and seeks to prevent future adversities.

  11. [Methods for early detection of predisposition to abnormal increases in body weight of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a special method designed for the early identification of children's and adolescents' propensity for abnormal weight gain. The basis of this technique is the principle of monitoring the actual values of body mass index for each child or young person at the age of dynamic changes in the index of the normal range. The weekly body weight of each child or adolescent who participates in the study is measured and the results are included in a special registry. Measurement of the body weight of the children and adolescents occurs in the morning at the same hour on an empty stomach after use of the toilet and performance of necessary hygiene. Afterwards, the obtained values of their body mass indices are compared with those considered normal for age, according to official data. In cases when the resulting body mass index of a child or young person exceeds the range of normal-for-age values, an in-depth medical examination of the child or adolescent is conducted together with the nature of their food intake and mode of physical activity, which may then be corrected.

  12. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  13. A Method for Diagnosing and Planning the Treatment of Adolescent Drug Abusers (The Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis [ADAD] Instrument).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Utada, Arlene

    1989-01-01

    Describes development of Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD), a 150-item instrument with a structured interview format, which produces a comprehensive evaluation of the life problem areas pertinent to the needs of adolescent drug abuse clients. A series of validity and reliability tests are described, along with characteristics of the…

  14. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  15. Romantic and Sexual Behavior in Young Adolescents: Repeated Surveys in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waylen, Andrea E.; Ness, Andrew; McGovern, Phil; Wolke, Dieter; Low, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Adverse outcomes of teenage sexual activity are common in the United Kingdom. The authors used a computer-assisted interview to ask young adolescents aged 11 to 12 years (N = 6,856) and 12 to 13 years (N = 6,801) who were part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children about romantic and intimate behaviors. A total of 24% of 11- to…

  16. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior. PMID:27257081

  17. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laureen H; Petosa, Rick L

    2016-10-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be reversed without a strong contribution from local schools. This article describes how a structured peer-mentoring method provides a feasible, flexible, and tailored means to meet the current guidelines for best practice in a school setting. Structured peer mentoring using trained high school mentors to support behavior change in younger peers is an innovative method to meeting the School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Through structured peer mentoring, adolescents are provided consistent social support in a caring and personalized manner. This support builds skills and competencies enhancing self-efficacy to sustain a lifetime of physical activity behavior.

  18. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  19. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  20. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  1. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons.

  2. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14–18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits—especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students. PMID:28241432

  3. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual's strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research-prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents-and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks.

  4. European youth care sites serve different populations of adolescents with cannabis use disorder. Baseline and referral data from the INCANT trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy) is a family based outpatient treatment programme for adolescent problem behaviour. MDFT has been found effective in the USA in adolescent samples differing in severity and treatment delivery settings. On request of five governments (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland), MDFT has now been tested in the joint INCANT trial (International Cannabis Need of Treatment) for applicability in Western Europe. In each of the five countries, study participants were recruited from the local population of youth seeking or guided to treatment for, among other things, cannabis use disorder. There is little information in the literature if these populations are comparable between sites/countries or not. Therefore, we examined if the study samples enrolled in the five countries differed in baseline characteristics regarding demographics, clinical profile, and treatment delivery setting. Methods INCANT was a multicentre phase III(b) randomized controlled trial with an open-label, parallel group design. It compared MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU) at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague and Paris. Participants of INCANT were adolescents of either sex, from 13 through 18 years of age, with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse), and at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. In total, 450 cases/families were randomized (concealed) into INCANT. Results We collected data about adolescent and family demographics (age, gender, family composition, school, work, friends, and leisure time). In addition, we gathered data about problem behaviour (substance use, alcohol and cannabis use disorders, delinquency, psychiatric co-morbidity). There were no major differences on any of these measures between the treatment conditions (MDFT and TAU) for any of the sites. However, there were cross-site differences on many variables. Most of these could be explained by variations in treatment

  5. Parents' School Satisfaction and Academic Socialization Predict Adolescents' Autonomous Motivation: A Mixed-Method Study of Low-Income Ethnic Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…

  6. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  7. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  8. A mixed-method exploration of body image and sexual health among adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Impett, Emily A; Hirschman, Celeste; Bonem, Lathem

    2008-12-01

    This study uses a mixed-method approach to examine the relationship between body image and sexual health among adolescent boys. In Study 1, eight 12th-grade boys participated in semistructured interviews focusing on dating and sexuality. Qualitative analyses revealed several differences between boys who were satisfied with their bodies and boys who were not. Specifically, boys who were satisfied with their bodies indicated that they were clear about what they wanted sexually and were comfortable communicating those wants with partners. In contrast, boys with low body satisfaction were often unclear about their sexual choices and resisted talking about sexuality with partners. Study 2 examined these same themes using quantitative data from 149 boys from the 12th grade who completed surveys assessing body image, sexual experiences, and sexual attitudes. Body satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual agency and with clarity of personal sexual values. Implications for promoting adolescent sexual health are discussed.

  9. Practical Methods for Locating Abandoned Wells in Populated Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Lynn, R.J.

    2007-09-01

    An estimated 12 million wells have been drilled during the 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. Many old oil and gas fields are now populated areas where the presence of improperly plugged wells may constitute a hazard to residents. Natural gas emissions from wells have forced people from their houses and businesses and have caused explosions that injured or killed people and destroyed property. To mitigate this hazard, wells must be located and properly plugged, a task made more difficult by the presence of houses, businesses, and associated utilities. This paper describes well finding methods conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that were effective at two small towns in Wyoming and in a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  10. Willingness to use ADHD Self-Management: Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Gurnani, Tina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Albarracin, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about perceptions surrounding self-management for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although such interventions appear commonly used and are considered essential components of the chronic care model. Our research is part of a mixed methods study that followed students at high and low risk for ADHD over 11 years. During the final study years, area-representative samples of 148 adolescents (54.8% participation; 97 ADHD high-risk group; 51 low-risk peers) and 161 parents (59.4% participation; 108 parents of high-risk adolescent; 53 parents of low-risk peer) completed a cross-sectional survey on community-identified self-management interventions for ADHD (activity outlets, sleep regulation, dietary restriction, homework help, family rules, and prayer). Respondents also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable self-management effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. High-risk adolescents expressed significantly lower willingness towards all self-management interventions than did adult respondents, except for increased activity outlets. They also reported lower receptivity towards sleep regulation and dietary restriction than did their low-risk peer group. No gender or race differences in self-management willingness were found, except for higher receptivity to prayer in African American respondents. Cost, perceived ineffectiveness, disruptions to routines, causation of interpersonal conflicts, and reduced future self-reliance were seen as potential undesirable effects. Findings suggest that activity-based ADHD interventions appear particularly acceptable across all demographic and risk groups, unlike sleep regulation and dietary approaches. Further research on self-care effectiveness is needed to incorporate adolescents’ viewpoints about ADHD self-management, as interventions may be acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:26834448

  11. Effective population size of natural populations of Drosophila buzzatii, with a comparative evaluation of nine methods of estimation.

    PubMed

    Barker, J S F

    2011-11-01

    Allozyme and microsatellite data from numerous populations of Drosophila buzzatii have been used (i) to determine to what degree N(e) varies among generations within populations, and among populations, and (ii) to evaluate the congruence of four temporal and five single-sample estimators of N(e) . Effective size of different populations varied over two orders of magnitude, most populations are not temporally stable in genetic composition, and N(e) showed large variation over generations in some populations. Short-term N(e) estimates from the temporal methods were highly correlated, but the smallest estimates were the most precise for all four methods, and the most consistent across methods. Except for one population, N(e) estimates were lower when assuming gene flow than when assuming populations that were closed. However, attempts to jointly estimate N(e) and immigration rate were of little value because the source of migrants was unknown. Correlations among the estimates from the single-sample methods generally were not significant although, as for the temporal methods, estimates were most consistent when they were small. These single-sample estimates of current N(e) are generally smaller than the short-term temporal estimates. Nevertheless, population genetic variation is not being depleted, presumably because of past or ongoing migration. A clearer picture of current and short-term effective population sizes will only follow with better knowledge of migration rates between populations. Different methods are not necessarily estimating the same N(e) , they are subject to different bias, and the biology, demography and history of the population(s) may affect different estimators differently.

  12. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  13. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  14. Lifestyle and nickel allergy in a Swedish adolescent population: effects of piercing, tattooing and orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Fors, Ronny; Persson, Maurits; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Stymne, Birgitta; Stenberg, Berndt

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of life-style practices in adolescents and their association with nickel allergy. Upper secondary school pupils (n = 4,376; 15-23 years) were patch-tested for nickel aller-gy, follow-ing completion of a questionnaire (answered by 6,095). Almost 86% girls and 21% of boys reported piercing. More girls (6%) than boys (3%) had a tattoo. Twenty-six percent of the girls and 18% of the boys were regular smokers. Vegetarian/vegan diets were reported by 20% of girls and by 6% of boys. Piercing, female gender, and vocational programme increased the risk of nickel allergy, whereas orthodontic appliance treat-ment prior to piercing reduced the risk of nickel allergy. Pupils in vocational programmes had the highest prevalence of nickel allergy. Lifestyle behaviours are interconnected and cluster in subgroups of adolescents. Female sex, piercing and choice of educational programme are prominent lifestyle markers. A trend shift is observed, where more girls than boys report tattooing.

  15. Understanding exoplanet populations with simulation-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert Charles

    The Kepler candidate catalog represents an unprecedented sample of exoplanet host stars. This dataset is ideal for probing the populations of exoplanet systems and exploring their architectures. Confirming transiting exoplanets candidates through traditional follow-up methods is challenging, especially for faint host stars. Most of Kepler's validated planets relied on statistical methods to separate true planets from false-positives. Multiple transiting planet systems (MTPS) have been previously shown to have low false-positive rates and over 850 planets in MTPSs have been statistically validated so far. We show that the period-normalized transit duration ratio (xi) offers additional information that can be used to establish the planetary nature of these systems. We briefly discuss the observed distribution of xi for the Q1-Q17 Kepler Candidate Search. We also use xi to develop a Bayesian statistical framework combined with Monte Carlo methods to determine which pairs of planet candidates in an MTPS are consistent with the planet hypothesis for a sample of 862 MTPSs that include candidate planets, confirmed planets, and known false-positives. This analysis proves to be efficient and advantageous in that it only requires catalog-level bulk candidate properties and galactic population modeling to compute the probabilities of a myriad of feasible scenarios composed of background and companion stellar blends in the photometric aperture, without needing additional observational follow-up. Our results agree with the previous results of a low false-positive rate in the Kepler MTPSs. This implies, independently of any other estimates, that most of the MTPSs detected by Kepler are planetary in nature, but that a substantial fraction could be orbiting stars other than then the putative target star, and therefore may be subject to significant error in the inferred planet parameters resulting from unknown or mismeasured stellar host attributes. We also apply approximate

  16. Management of Sport-Related Concussion in the Pediatric and Adolescent Population.

    PubMed

    Provance, Aaron J; Engelman, Glenn H; Terhune, E Bailey; Coel, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Concussions make up nearly 10% of all high school athletic injuries. Recent changes in concussion management guidelines and legislation aim to make concussion care more standardized and safe but simultaneously pose a challenge for the primary care and sports medicine physician. Pediatric and adolescent concussions may cause anxiety for the treating physician due to concerns over return-to-play decisions, academic issues, and the potential for second impact syndrome. Determining when to refer a patient to an emergency department acutely, to an outpatient concussion clinic, or to other subspecialists may be a difficult decision for the primary care physician. The aim of this article is to review current evidence regarding concussion treatment and return-to-school and return-to-play recommendations to provide the primary care and sports medicine physician with practical guidelines for managing concussions.

  17. Overweight and constipation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between overweight and gastrointestinal symptoms has been recently studied in the literature; however, few studies have evaluated the association between overweight and constipation in adolescents in a community-based sample. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of constipation and its association with being overweight in a community-based survey with adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,077 adolescents who were enrolled in five schools in the city of Sao José dos Campos, Brazil. Constipation was defined according to modified and combined Rome III criteria for adolescents and adults. Being overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) that was equal to or greater than that of the 85th percentile for age and gender. Results Constipation was diagnosed in 18.2% (196/1077) of the included adolescents. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of constipation in males and females who were both younger and older than 14 years. Fecal incontinence was observed in 25 adolescents, 22 (88.0%) of whom were diagnosed as being constipated. The prevalence of being overweight was found in 13.5% (145/1077) of the study population. The prevalence of constipation was observed to be similar in adolescents who were (19.4%; 28/144) and were not (18.0%; 168/933) overweight (p = 0.764; OR = 1.10). Fecal incontinence that was associated with constipation was more frequent in adolescents who were overweight (37.0%; 8/28) than in adolescents who were not overweight (8.5%; 14/168; p = 0.005; OR = 4.40). Conclusions The prevalence of constipation was high among the investigated adolescents. There was no association between being overweight and constipation; however, an association between being overweight and fecal incontinence in constipated adolescents was confirmed. PMID:21496346

  18. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do.

  19. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2011-08-10

    Highlights: {yields} Weight transfer functions for Monte Carlo simulation of coagulation. {yields} Efficient support for single-particle growth processes. {yields} Comparisons to analytic solutions and soot formation problems. {yields} Better numerical accuracy for less common particles. - Abstract: A class of coagulation weight transfer functions is constructed, each member of which leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. These algorithms are based on systems of weighted computational particles and the weight transfer functions are constructed such that the number of computational particles does not change during coagulation events. The algorithms also facilitate the simulation of physical processes that change single particles, such as growth, or other surface reactions. Four members of the algorithm family have been numerically validated by comparison to analytic solutions to simple problems. Numerical experiments have been performed for complex laminar premixed flame systems in which members of the class of stochastic weighted particle methods were compared to each other and to a direct simulation algorithm. Two of the weighted algorithms have been shown to offer performance advantages over the direct simulation algorithm in situations where interest is focused on the larger particles in a system. The extent of this advantage depends on the particular system and on the quantities of interest.

  20. Working Memory Capacity and Psychotic-Like Experiences in a General Population Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ziermans, Tim B.

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies. However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum. To address this issue, the current study investigated the relation of WM capacity with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in a large Swedish population sample (N = 1012) of adolescents and young adults (M = 24.4 years, range 12–35). WM was assessed with two online computer tasks: a task where participants had to identify and remember the location of an odd shape and a task of remembering and following instructions. PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences), which includes positive, negative, and depressive symptom scales. Positive and negative symptom scales were further subdivided into symptom clusters based on factor analyses. The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences (BE) and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores. Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of BE for young adults (20–27 years) and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28–35 years). These findings suggest that specific PLEs can be indicative of reduced WM capacity in early adulthood, which in turn may reflect an increased risk for psychosis and a greater need for targeted intervention. In contrast, during adolescence individual differences in cognitive development may influence the strength of the relationships and thereby mask potential vulnerabilities for psychopathology. PMID:24348432

  1. Justice System Involvement Into Young Adulthood: Comparison of Adolescent Girls in the Public Mental Health System and in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William H.; Gershenson, Bernice; Grudzinskas, Albert J.; Banks, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    We compared arrest onset and frequency and types of charges between a statewide cohort of adolescent girls in the public mental health system and girls of the same age in the general population to investigate important differences that could have policy or intervention implications. Girls in the public mental health system were arrested at earlier ages more frequently and were charged with more serious offenses than were girls in the general population. Our results strongly argue for cooperation between the public mental health and justice systems to provide mental health and offender rehabilitation in their shared population. PMID:19059845

  2. A population-based study of antipsychotic prescription trends in children and adolescents in British Columbia, from 1996 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Scott, David; Warburton, William P; Hamdi, Ramsay D; Louie, Dianna Clare; Davidson, Jana; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-06-01

    Objectifs : Établir les taux de prévalence des prescriptions d’antipsychotiques (AP) à des enfants et des adolescents de 18 ans et moins en Colombie-Britannique (C.-B.) de 1996 à 2011 selon l’âge, le sexe, le type d’AP, et le diagnostic primaire; et identifier les prescripteurs d’AP prédominants pour les enfants par formation de spécialité. Méthodes : Les données administratives du ministère de la Santé de la C.-B. ont servi à décrire les prescriptions d’AP à des adolescents de 18 ans ou moins. Des comparaisons ont été effectuées au moyen de la prévalence de la population selon le sexe, le groupe d’âge, les AP, la 9e édition de la Classification internationale des maladies, le diagnostic, et la spécialité du prescripteur. Résultats : De 1996 à 2011, le taux global de prévalence des prescriptions d’AP (de la première et de la deuxième génération) a augmenté 3,8 fois (1,66 à 6,37 par 1000 de population); les prescriptions d’AP de deuxième génération (ADG) ont augmenté 18,1 fois (0,33 à 5,98 par 1000 de population). L’augmentation la plus élevée de toutes les prescriptions d’AP a touché les jeunes hommes de 13 à 18 ans (3,3 à 14,4 par 1000 de population; soit 4,4 fois plus), suivie par des augmentations semblables chez les garçons de 6 à 12 ans (2,3 à 8,6 par 1000 de population; soit 3,7 fois plus) et chez les filles de 13 à 18 ans (2,8 à 10,7 par 1000 de population; soit 3,8 fois plus). En général, les 3 diagnostics les plus communs associés à toutes les prescriptions d’AP étaient les troubles dépressifs (12,8 %), l’instabilité de l’enfance (11,7 %), et les troubles névrotiques (11,1 %); toutefois, une variation a été observée dans la formation de spécialité du prescripteur. Parmi toutes les nouvelles prescriptions d’AP en 2010-2011, 38,6 %, 34,3 %, et 15,6 % ont été fournies par des psychiatres, des médecins de famille, et des pédiatres, respectivement. Conclusions : Il y a

  3. Trajectories of Multiple Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in a Low-Income African American Population

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Byck, Gayle R.; Dymnicki, Allison; Sterrett, Emma; Henry, David; Bolland, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined interdependent trajectories of sexual risk, substance use, and conduct problems among 12–18 year-old African American youth who were followed annually as part of the Mobile Youth Study (MYS). We used growth-mixture modeling (GMM) to model the development of these three outcomes in the 1406 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate that there were four distinct classes: normative low risk (74.3% of sample); increasing high risk takers (11.9%); adolescent-limited conduct problems and drug risk with high risky sex (8.0%); and early experimenters (5.8%) The higher risk classes had higher rates of pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) diagnoses than the normative sample at each of the ages we examined. Differing somewhat from our hypothesis, all of the non-normative classes exhibited high sexual risk behavior. While prevention efforts should be focused on addressing all three risk behaviors, the high rate of risky sexual behavior in the 25% of the sample that fall into the three non-normative classes, underscores an urgent need for improved sex education, including teen pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, in this community. PMID:24229555

  4. Psychometric update of the Social Anxiety Screening Scale (SASS/EDAS) in a Spanish adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, José Antonio; Olivares, José; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Marzo, Juan Carlos

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to update the validation of the Social Anxiety Screening Scale (SASS/EDAS) in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To achieve this, one study with a sample of 1489 students in secondary education, of ages 14 to 17 years, were carried out. The psychometric properties of EDAS were examined through confirmatory factor analysis, reliability (Cronbach's alpha), temporal stability (test-retest), and concurrent criterion validity. The results supported the three-independent-factor structure (avoidance, distress and interference), that showed best fit indices compared to alternative models. They also showed that the scores of participants on EDAS scales were reliable in terms of internal consistency (alpha > .80) and moderately reliable concerning temporal stability (r = .48-.60) over a five-week period. The correlations between the EDAS factors and other social anxiety measures were positive and significant. Data provide empirical evidence of the estimation of reliability and validity of this scale. Future work should extend the validation of the EDAS in clinical samples.

  5. The mediating role of deviant peers on the link between depressed mood and harmful drinking: Analyses in a population-based sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H.; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Maughan, Barbara; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One’s peer group can have a strong impact on depressed mood and harmful drinking in adolescence. It remains unclear whether affiliation with deviant peers explains the link between these traits. Our study aims to: a) explore the developmental relationship between harmful drinking and depressed mood in adolescence; and b) establish to which extent affiliation with deviant peers explains this relationship. Methods 4,863 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed between the ages of 14 and 16. Harmful drinking was established using age-appropriate measures: the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) in mid-adolescence (age 14) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in late adolescence (age 16). Depressed mood was measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at both ages. Affiliation with deviant peers was assessed at age 15. Results Harmful drinking at age 14 predicted depressed mood two years later. This association was explained by affiliation with deviant peers and remained present even after adjustment for earlier depressed mood. Depressed mood at age 14 predicted harmful drinking at age 16 via affiliation with deviant peers; however, this indirect effect disappeared when adjusting for adolescents’ earlier harmful alcohol use (age 14). No gender differences were observed. Conclusions Adolescents who engage in early harmful drinking and subsequently become affiliated with a deviant peer group may be at particular risk of later depressed mood. PMID:25620300

  6. Multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later mental health disorders: a population-based registry study of Norwegian youth: the NAAHS cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eckhoff, Christian; Straume, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and mental health disorders in young adulthood. Design and setting Data were obtained from a linkage between the Norwegian Patient Registry (2008–2012) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey conducted among 10th grade students in North Norway (2003–2005). Participants In total, 3987 (68%) of all 5877 invited participants consented to the registry linkage. Outcome measures Mental healthcare use and disorders from age 18–20 to 23–25 years (5 years). Methods Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association with later mental healthcare use and disorders. Results Multisite adolescent musculoskeletal pain was significantly associated with an increase in mental healthcare use and mental health disorders in young adulthood. The relationship was stronger for anxiety and mood disorders, in both genders. Overall, the association between musculoskeletal pain and later mental health problems was attenuated after controlling for adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems, not by physical or sedentary activity. This could be due to confounding or mediation. However, when examining different mental health disorders, we found musculoskeletal pain to be significantly associated with anxiety disorders, and showing a strong trend in mood disorders, when adjusted for the adolescent factors. Conclusions Physicians should be aware that multisite adolescent pain is associated with mental health problems in adolescence, and that these adolescents are at increased risk of mental health disorders in young adulthood. As youth troubled by mental health problems commonly present physical symptoms it is important to examine for psychosocial problems in order to offer early interventions. PMID:28188150

  7. Structural Neuroimaging in Adolescents with a First Psychotic Episode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Dolores; Burdalo, Maite; Reig, Santiago; Parellada, Mara; Zabala, Arantzazu; Desco, Manuel; Baca-Baldomero, Enrique; Arango, Celso

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study is to replicate findings in first-episode psychosis reporting a smaller volume in brain structures in a population with adolescent onset. Method: Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on 23 psychotic adolescents (12-18 years old, 17 males, 6 females) consecutively admitted to an adolescent…

  8. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  9. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four…

  10. Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

  11. A mixed-methods study of condom use and decision making among adolescent gay and bisexual males

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; DuBois, L. Zachary; Prescott, Tonya L.; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men have the highest rates of new HIV infections in the U.S., but they have been understudied relative to other populations. As a formative step for the development of a text messaging HIV prevention intervention, this mixed methods study aimed to understand how adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) make decisions about condom use and factors that may differ based on age, sexual experience, and rural versus urban residency. Four online, asynchronous focus groups were conducted with 75 14–18 year old AGBM across the U.S. Qualitative analyses uncovered themes related to relationship influences on condom use (e.g. marriage, trust), access issues, and attitudes and experiences that both encouraged as well as discouraged condom use. Mixed methods analyses explored differences between groups in endorsement of themes. For example, younger and sexually experienced participants were more likely to report the cost of condoms was prohibitive and sexually experienced and rural youth were more likely to describe being influenced by emotional aspects of the relationship. These data highlight both opportunities for as well as the importance of tailoring HIV prevention programs for sub-groups of AGBM. PMID:24906532

  12. Blood pressure and associated factors in a North African adolescent population. a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In southern and eastern Mediterranean countries, changes in lifestyle and the increasing prevalence of excess weight in childhood are risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) during adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BP status of Tunisian adolescents and to identify associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study in 2005, based on a national, stratified, random cluster sample of 1294 boys and 1576 girls aged 15-19 surveyed in home visits. The socio-economic and behavioral characteristics of the adolescents were recorded. Overweight/obesity were assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI) from measured height and weight (WHO, 2007), abdominal obesity by waist circumference (WC). BP was measured twice during the same visit. Elevated BP was systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90th of the international reference or ≥ 120/80 mm Hg for 15-17 y., and SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg for 18-19 y.; hypertension was SBP/DBP ≥ 95th for 15-17 y. and ≥ 140/90 mm Hg for 18-19 y. Adjusted associations were assessed by logistic regression. Results The prevalence of elevated BP was 35.1%[32.9-37.4]: higher among boys (46.1% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.0001); 4.7%[3.8-5.9] of adolescents had hypertension. Associations adjusted for all covariates showed independent relationships with BMI and WC: - obesity vs. no excess weight increased elevated BP (boys OR = 2.1[1.0-4.2], girls OR = 2.3[1.3-3.9]) and hypertension (boys OR = 3.5[1.4-8.9], girls OR = 5.4[2.2-13.4]), - abdominal obesity (WC) was also associated with elevated BP in both genders (for boys: 2nd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.7[1.3-2.3], 3rd vs.1st tertile OR = 2.8[1.9-4.2]; for girls: 2nd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.6[1.2-2.1], 3rd vs.1st tertile OR = 2.1[1.5-3.0]) but only among boys for hypertension. Associations with other covariates were weaker: for boys, hypertension increased somewhat with sedentary lifestyle, while elevated BP was slightly more prevalent among urban girls and those not

  13. Feasibility of School-Based ADHD Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Study of Perceptions of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Mason, Dana M.; Ellison, Anne; Noguchi, Kenji; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about perceptions surrounding academic interventions for ADHD that determine intervention feasibility. Method As part of a longitudinal mixed-methods research project, representative school district samples of 148 adolescents (54.8%), 161 parents (59.4%), 122 teachers (50.0%), 46 health care providers (53.5%), and 92 school health professionals (65.7%) completed a cross-sectional survey. They also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable intervention effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results Adolescents expressed significantly lower receptivity toward academic interventions than adult respondents. Stigma emerged as a significant threat to ADHD intervention feasibility, as did perceptions that individualized interventions foster inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that adolescents’ viewpoints must be included in intervention development to enhance feasibility and avoid interventions acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:24448222

  14. Bayesian Population Forecasting: Extending the Lee-Carter Method.

    PubMed

    Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; Smith, Peter W F; Bijak, Jakub; Raymer, James; Forster, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we develop a fully integrated and dynamic Bayesian approach to forecast populations by age and sex. The approach embeds the Lee-Carter type models for forecasting the age patterns, with associated measures of uncertainty, of fertility, mortality, immigration, and emigration within a cohort projection model. The methodology may be adapted to handle different data types and sources of information. To illustrate, we analyze time series data for the United Kingdom and forecast the components of population change to the year 2024. We also compare the results obtained from different forecast models for age-specific fertility, mortality, and migration. In doing so, we demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of adopting the Bayesian approach for population forecasting and highlight areas where this work could be extended.

  15. Optimal control methods for controlling bacterial populations with persister dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial tolerance to antibiotics is a well-known phenomena; however, only recent studies of bacterial biofilms have shown how multifaceted tolerance really is. By joining into a structured community and offering shared protection and gene transfer, bacterial populations can protect themselves genotypically, phenotypically and physically. In this study, we collect a line of research that focuses on phenotypic (or plastic) tolerance. The dynamics of persister formation are becoming better understood, even though there are major questions that remain. The thrust of our results indicate that even without detailed description of the biological mechanisms, theoretical studies can offer strategies that can eradicate bacterial populations with existing drugs.

  16. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold

  17. Online Positive Interventions to Promote Well-being and Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Baños, Rosa M.; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Mira, Adriana; Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Botella, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown an alarming prevalence of depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in youth. Thus, prevention of psychological problems in this population becomes crucial. According to the World Health Organization (1), prevention should also include the promotion and development of the individual’s strengths in order to reduce vulnerability to suffering from mental disorders. In addition, other key elements of prevention are the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions. The information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have much to offer in terms of the prevention and promotion of positive mental health in adolescents. This paper reviews these fields of research—prevention, positive psychology, Internet, and adolescents—and discusses the potential of positive interventions delivered over the Internet as effective and sustainable health promotion tools. The paper provides a brief description of the systems developed so far and a summary of selected features of the studies detected in the literature review. The overall conclusions are that there is a need for more controlled studies with long-term follow-ups, the interventions should be designed considering the specific features of the target users and the specific contexts where the interventions will be delivered, and they could be enhanced by the use of other technologies, such as smartphones, sensors, or social networks. PMID:28194117

  18. The Diagnostic Interview of Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children: psychometric properties in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; de la Osa, Núria; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep Maria; Reich, Wendy

    2011-11-30

    There is a need for reliable and well-validated diagnostic measures for studying psychopathology in preschool and young children. The goal is to study the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children (DICA-PPYC) in the general population. A sample of 852 Spanish school children, aged 3 to 7 years, were randomly selected and screened for a double phase design. A total of 251 families were interviewed with the DICA-PPYC and 244 participated in a test-retest design. Different measures of psychopathology and functional impairment were also administered. Test-retest agreement with a mean interval of 8.8 days ranged from excellent to slight (kappa from 1 to 0.39) for DSM-IV-TR and from good to fair (kappa from 0.77 to 0.49) for Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age diagnoses. Attenuation between test and retest was not significant for the prevalence of diagnoses, although it was significant for the number of externalising and total symptoms in the interview. The diagnoses converged moderately with the CBCL and Dominic scores. The presence of diagnoses in the DICA-PPYC significantly differentiated preschoolers and young children who had used mental health services, were more impaired, and presented more severe psychopathology measured by dimensional scales. The DICA-PPYC is a reliable and valid semi-structured interview schedule for preschool and young children, and can serve to advance the knowledge and mental health care of this population.

  19. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  20. Childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods and their possible link to adult violent crimes.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods as they are associated with subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several retrospectively reported animal cruelty methods (drowned, hit or kicked, shot, choked, burned, and had sex) and violent criminal acts committed against humans (assault, rape, and murder). More than half of the sample reported they had shot animals, and almost half had either kicked or hit them. About one in five said they had choked animals, and about one in seven said they had either drowned, burned, or had sex with them. Regression analyses revealed that drowning and having sex with an animal was predictive of later interpersonal violence as adults.

  1. Prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Mainuddin, A. K. M.; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Chowdhury, Kamrun Nahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is an alarming public health problem worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality. In many developing countries tobacco use starts at a relative younger age. However, data on tobacco use among adolescents in Bangladesh is scarce. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) Bangladesh 2007 which was a school-based survey of 2,135 students aged 13-15 years in grades 7-10. Analysis: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for Bangladesh. At the first stage, schools were selected with probability proportional to enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. The GYTS sample design produced representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates for Bangladesh. Results: The overall prevalence of ever cigarette smokers in Bangladeshi students was about 9%, which was more than 3 times higher in boys compared to girls (15.8% versus 4.8%). Almost 4 in 10 students start smoking before the age of 10 in Bangladesh. In addition to current cigarette smoking, another 6% also reported to use other tobacco products currently. Nine in 10 current smokers reported that they had ever received help to stop smoking. More than 4 in 10 students were exposed to smoke from other people in public places. Among current smokers, 38.3% reported that they usually buy tobacco in a store and of which 97.8% reported that they were not refused cigarette purchase because of their age. Conclusion: Implementation and enforcement of tobacco control act is an urgent public health priority in Bangladesh. PMID:28032084

  2. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W., III.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20% of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. Objectives: We analyzed generalized…

  3. Estimating the Prevalence of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in an Adolescent General Population: An Evaluation of the GHQ12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Robert E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Beitchman, Joseph; Wolfe, David; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley A.; Rehm, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) may be more common among adolescents than previously thought, and epidemiological research would benefit from an easily-administered measure of AMD. We assessed the ability of the GHQ12 to estimate the prevalence of AMD in a representative sample of Ontario adolescents. Data were based on self-administered…

  4. Suicide and Its Association with Individual, Family, Peer, and School Factors in an Adolescent Population in Southern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Tze-Chun; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2009-01-01

    A representative sample of 10,233 adolescent students was recruited to examine the rate of suicidal attempt and its correlates in the adolescents living in southern Taiwan. Five questions from the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Kiddie-SADS-E) were used to inquire about the participants' suicidality. The associations…

  5. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  6. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    PubMed

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  7. Epilepsy among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-10-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Epilepsy was associated with ASD regardless of the subgroup after adjusting for covariates. The associations were stronger among cases with intellectual disability, especially among females. Epilepsy's age at onset was similar between the cases and controls regardless of the ASD subgroup. These findings emphasize the importance to examine the neurodevelopmental pathways in ASD, epilepsy and intellectual disability.

  8. [Video games: are the motivations and intensity of use changing with age? Comparison between a population of adolescent and adult gamers].

    PubMed

    Caillon, J; Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the popularity of video games, few studies have been conducted in France on their use. The objective of this study was to gather data from a sample of French video game players to learn more about this population. This approach also aimed to examine whether differences exist between adolescent and adult gamers in terms of their motivations to play and whether this practice met the criteria for problem video game playing. A questionnaire collecting sociodemographic data and assessing the problems associated with the use of video games, as well as motivations to play, was distributed during a video game festival and on the Internet. A total of 778 people responded to the questionnaire. The results showed that there were few differences between adolescent and adult gamers. Both groups had an intense video game habit. The majority of them sometimes had the feeling of losing control of their use and sacrificed other activities to play video games. This last dimension was most frequently cited by adults. The feeling of spending more time playing was most frequently cited by adolescents. Concerning motivations to play, the two groups differed only on the score of the "social" dimension, significantly higher among adolescents.

  9. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  10. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  11. Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Oppositional-Defiant Symptoms in Brazilian Adolescents: Gender Prevalence and Agreement between Teachers and Parents in a Non-English Speaking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Mattos, Paulo; Regalla, Maria Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess hyperactivity (H/I), inattention (IN), and oppositional-defiant (OP) symptoms in a nonclinical Brazilian sample of adolescents, and to investigate the association between scoring profiles of teachers and parents, symptom levels, and gender. Method: Symptoms were assessed through the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelhman (SNAP-IV)…

  12. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  13. Social Representation of Cyberbullying and Adolescent Suicide: A Mixed-Method Analysis of News Stories.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Miles, Stephanie; Hinnant, Amanda; Andsager, Julie L

    2016-08-26

    Cyberbullying has provoked public concern after well-publicized suicides of adolescents. This mixed-methods study investigates the social representation of these suicides. A content analysis of 184 U.S. newspaper articles on death by suicide associated with cyberbullying or aggression found that few articles adhered to guidelines suggested by the World Health Organization and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention to protect against suicidal behavioral contagion. Few articles made reference to suicide or bullying prevention resources, and most suggested that the suicide had a single cause. Thematic analysis of a subset of articles found that individual deaths by suicide were used as cautionary tales to prompt attention to cyberbullying. This research suggests that newspaper coverage of these events veers from evidence-based guidelines and that more work is needed to determine how best to engage with journalists about the potential consequences of cyberbullying and suicide coverage.

  14. Use of the Ilizarov method to correct lower limb deformities in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Birch, John G; Samchukov, Mikhail L

    2004-01-01

    The introduction to the West in the early 1980s of the Ilizarov circular external fixator and method resulted in rapid advances in limb lengthening, deformity correction, and segmental long-bone defect reconstruction. The mechanical features of and biologic response to using distraction osteogenesis with the circular external fixator are the unique aspects of Ilizarov's contribution. The most common indications for children and adolescents are limb lengthening and angular deformity correction. Surgical application and postoperative management of the device require diligent attention to detail by both patient and surgeon. Also required of the surgeon is a thorough appreciation of the basic principles of the apparatus, mechanical axial realignment, potential complications, and biologic response to stretching.

  15. "Gateway hypothesis" and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Minelli, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors.

  16. Cognitive development and adolescent contraception: integrating theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E; Chambers, C V

    1987-01-01

    The cognitive skills that develop during adolescence are crucial to successful contraceptive practice because most birth control methods require at least a minimal ability to plan for, acquire, and utilize them at the appropriate time. Consequently, we must understand the special developmental setting in which adolescent sexual growth and experimentation occurs in order to have an impact on their contraceptive use. To provide optimal service to adolescents, the developmental and medical aspects should be taken into account in order to determine the best choice for each patient. This article demonstrates how mental health and medical providers can work together to better serve the adolescent population.

  17. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  18. Self-Reported Eating Disorders of Black, Low-Income Adolescents: Behavior, Body Weight Perceptions, and Methods of Dieting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balentine, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study identified African-American low-income adolescents who thought they had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, identified common behaviors, and compared actual and perceived body weight and dieting methods. About 12 percent suspected an eating disorder and perceived themselves as heavier more often than their peers. Fasting was the most common dieting…

  19. Early Age of First Sex and Health Risk in an Urban Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Deborah L.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sex is associated with high-risk behaviors and outcomes, including sexual risk behaviors, forced sex, physical dating violence, and becoming pregnant or impregnating someone. Methods: Using 2005 and 2007 data from the New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 17,220), this study examined the prevalence of early sex among…

  20. Bayesian data analysis in population ecology: motivations, methods, and benefits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century ecologists largely relied on the frequentist system of inference for the analysis of their data. However, in the past few decades ecologists have become increasingly interested in the use of Bayesian methods of data analysis. In this article I provide guidance to ecologists who would like to decide whether Bayesian methods can be used to improve their conclusions and predictions. I begin by providing a concise summary of Bayesian methods of analysis, including a comparison of differences between Bayesian and frequentist approaches to inference when using hierarchical models. Next I provide a list of problems where Bayesian methods of analysis may arguably be preferred over frequentist methods. These problems are usually encountered in analyses based on hierarchical models of data. I describe the essentials required for applying modern methods of Bayesian computation, and I use real-world examples to illustrate these methods. I conclude by summarizing what I perceive to be the main strengths and weaknesses of using Bayesian methods to solve ecological inference problems.

  1. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  2. A new method for identifying rapid decline dynamics in wild vertebrate populations

    PubMed Central

    Fonzo, Martina Di; Collen, Ben; Mace, Georgina M

    2013-01-01

    Tracking trends in the abundance of wildlife populations is a sensitive method for assessing biodiversity change due to the short time-lag between human pressures and corresponding shifts in population trends. This study tests for proposed associations between different types of human pressures and wildlife population abundance decline-curves and introduces a method to distinguish decline trajectories from natural fluctuations in population time-series. First, we simulated typical mammalian population time-series under different human pressure types and intensities and identified significant distinctions in population dynamics. Based on the concavity of the smoothed population trend and the algebraic function which was the closest fit to the data, we determined those differences in decline dynamics that were consistently attributable to each pressure type. We examined the robustness of the attribution of pressure type to population decline dynamics under more realistic conditions by simulating populations under different levels of environmental stochasticity and time-series data quality. Finally, we applied our newly developed method to 124 wildlife population time-series and investigated how those threat types diagnosed by our method compare to the specific threatening processes reported for those populations. We show how wildlife population decline curves can be used to discern between broad categories of pressure or threat types, but do not work for detailed threat attributions. More usefully, we find that differences in population decline curves can reliably identify populations where pressure is increasing over time, even when data quality is poor, and propose this method as a cost-effective technique for prioritizing conservation actions between populations. PMID:23919177

  3. Use of the Family Interaction Macro-coding System with Families of Adolescents: Psychometric Properties Among Pediatric and Healthy Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zebracki, Kathy; Kichler, Jessica C.; Fitzgerald, Christopher J.; Neff Greenley, Rachel; Alemzadeh, Ramin; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine reliability and validity data for the Family Interaction Macro-coding System (FIMS) with adolescents with spina bifida (SB), adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and healthy adolescents and their families. Methods Sixty-eight families of children with SB, 58 families of adolescents with T1DM, and 68 families in a healthy comparison group completed family interaction tasks and self-report questionnaires. Trained coders rated family interactions using the FIMS. Results Acceptable interrater and scale reliabilities were obtained for FIMS items and subscales. Observed FIMS parental acceptance, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, family cohesion, and family conflict scores demonstrated convergent validity with conceptually similar self-report measures. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports the use of the FIMS with families of youths with SB and T1DM and healthy youths. Future research on overall family functioning may be enhanced by use of the FIMS. PMID:21097956

  4. Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857

  5. Genetic epidemiology of self-reported lifetime DSM-IV major depressive disorder in a population-based twin sample of female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glowinski, Anne L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: In adults, about 40% of the variance in risk of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is due to genetic factors, but little data exist on the heritability of youth MDD. The goal of this study was the genetic analysis of MDD in an epidemiologically and genetically representative sample of adolescent female twins. Methods: A sample of 3416 female adolescent twins systematically ascertained from birth records was assessed using a structured telephone interview that included a comprehensive DSM-IV-based section for the diagnostic assessment of MDD. Mean subject age at time of assessment was 15.5 and participation rate exceeded 85%. Genetic modeling was conducted taking into consideration the problem of censoring, i.e., that younger adolescents were not through their period of risk for adolescent onset of MDD. Results: Lifetime self-reported MDD prevalence ranged from 1% under age 12 to 17.4% at age 19 and older. The genetic variance in risk of MDD was 40.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.9–55.1), with the remaining variance explained by non-shared environmental effects 59.6% (95%CI: 44.9–76.1). Shared environmental effects were not significant. A significant recall bias was observed with older respondents on average reporting later onsets for their first episode of MDD. Conclusions: The genetic and environmental contributions to risk of MDD in this representative sample of female adolescent twins are remarkably analogous to findings from adult samples. These results are congruent with a conceptualization of adolescent MDD and adult MDD as having very similar etiologic determinants. PMID:14531581

  6. Characterizing Patterns of Smoking Initiation in Adolescence: Comparison of Methods for Dealing With Missing Data

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is common and remains one of the leading causes of preventable death in developed countries. Smoking commonly begins in adolescence, and hence, it is important to understand how smoking behavior develops during this period. Methods: In a U.K.-based birth cohort, we analyzed repeated measures of smoking frequency in a sample of 7,322 young adolescents. Latent class analysis was used to summarize the data, and the resulting classes of behavior were related to a range of smoking risk factors. Results from a complete case analysis were compared with estimation using full-information maximum likelihood (FIML) and estimation using multiple imputation (MI). Results: Fifty-three percent of the sample reported having smoked a whole cigarette by age 16 years. The longitudinal data were summarized by 4 distinct patterns of smoking initiation: nonsmokers (79.7%), experimenters (10.3%), late-onset regular smokers (5.5%), and early-onset regular smokers (4.5%). Social disadvantage, other substance use, conduct problems, and female sex were strongly related to being a regular smoker; however, no risk factors studied showed any strong or consistent association with experimentation. In the complete case sample, smoking prevalence was lower, and in addition, the association between different smoking patterns and covariates was often inconsistent with those obtained through FIML/MI. Conclusions: Most young people have experimented with tobacco smoking by age 16 years, and regular smoking is established in a substantial minority characterized by social disadvantage, other substance, use and conduct disorder. Prevention strategies should focus on this subgroup as most children who experiment with tobacco do not progress to regular smoking. PMID:21994336

  7. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  8. Interpersonal Theory and Depressed Adolescents: An Overview of Method and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth Anne

    In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…

  9. Developing Recruitment Methods for Vulnerable, Traumatized Adolescents: A Feminist Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the process by which we created a recruitment protocol for engaging adolescent sexual assault victims in a qualitative evaluation study. Working in collaboration with forensic nurses, rape victim advocates, adolescent rape survivors, and our institutional review board (IRB), we created a prospective recruitment method…

  10. A Two-Method Investigation of Early Adolescents' Responses upon Witnessing Peer Victimization in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Ma, Ting-Lan; You, Ji-in; Hughes, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Given the passivity of many adolescents upon witnessing peer victimization, the goal of this study was to evaluate the features of school-based peer victimization events that promote helping. A sample of 470 early adolescents (52% girls; 71% White, 9% Black, 6% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% American Indian, 8% Multiethnic, and 3% Other) reported likelihood…

  11. Adolescent Motivation to Attend Youth Programs: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiva, Thomas; Horner, Christy Galletta

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that adolescents can benefit from participating in youth programs; however, recruitment and retention are challenging for many programs, and youth living in low-income, urban areas can be the hardest to reach. We investigated motivation to attend a neighborhood-based program for urban adolescents. Participants completed…

  12. The Development of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study from NOLS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Learning transfer and prosocial behavior (PSB) are critical components of many outdoor education programs for adolescents. This study examined the effects of a theoretically grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of general and contextual PSB (also called expedition behavior) among adolescents enrolled on 14-day…

  13. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  14. Why Missing Data Matter in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Development: Using the 4-H Study to Understand the Uses of Different Missing Data Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of adolescent development rests on methodologically appropriate collection and interpretation of longitudinal data. While all longitudinal studies of adolescent development involve missing data, the methods to treat missingness that have been recommended most often focus on missing data from cross-sectional studies. The problems of…

  15. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  16. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  17. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  18. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  19. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  20. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  1. Integral structural-functional method for characterizing microbial populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    An original integral structural-functional method has been proposed for characterizing microbial communities. The novelty of the approach is the in situ study of microorganisms based on the growth kinetics of microbial associations in liquid nutrient broth media under selective conditions rather than on the level of taxa or large functional groups. The method involves the analysis of the integral growth model of a periodic culture. The kinetic parameters of such associations reflect their capacity of growing on different media, i.e., their physiological diversity, and the metabolic capacity of the microorganisms for growth on a nutrient medium. Therefore, the obtained parameters are determined by the features of the microbial ecological strategies. The inoculation of a dense medium from the original inoculate allows characterizing the taxonomic composition of the dominants in the soil community. The inoculation from the associations developed on selective media characterizes the composition of syntrophic groups, which fulfill a specific function in nature. This method is of greater information value than the classical methods of inoculation on selective media.

  2. Is Older Better? Adolescent Parenthood and Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed findings of previous studies of the adolescent parent population to determine the relationship between age of parent and maltreatment, and whether adolescent parents are overrepresented within the maltreating and foster care populations. Found that adolescents are not overrepresented, suggesting that programs for adolescents should focus…

  3. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  4. Key Data on Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John

    In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom…

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent), a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument for adolescents, in a healthy Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment, encompassing the adolescents' perceptions of their mental, physical, and social health and well-being is increasingly considered an important outcome to be used to identify population health needs and to provide targeted medical care. Although validated instruments are essential for accurately assessing HRQoL outcomes, there are few cross-culturally adapted tools for use in Brazil, and none designed exclusively for use among adolescents. The Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent (VSP-A) is a generic, multidimensional self-reported instrument originally developed and validated in France that evaluates HRQoL of ill and healthy adolescents. Purpose To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A, a generic HRQoL measure for adolescents originally developed in France. Methods The VSP-A was translated following a well-validated forward-backward process leading to the Brazilian version. The psychometric evaluation was conducted in a sample of 446 adolescents (14-18 years) attending 2 public high schools of São Gonçalo City. The adolescents self-reported the Brazilian VSP-A, the validated Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and socio-demographic information. A retest evaluation was carried out on a sub-sample (n = 195) at a two-week interval. The internal construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multi-trait scaling analyses, Rasch analysis evaluating unidimensionality of each scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Zumbo's ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between the Brazilian and the French items. External construct validity was investigated testing expected differences between groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney tests and the univariate general regression linear model

  6. Adolescent health psychology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff

    2002-06-01

    In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.

  7. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15–39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Methods: Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Results: Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Conclusion: Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies. PMID:26812451

  8. New methods employing multilocus genotypes to select or exclude populations as origins of individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Cornuet, J M; Piry, S; Luikart, G; Estoup, A; Solignac, M

    1999-01-01

    A new method for assigning individuals of unknown origin to populations, based on the genetic distance between individuals and populations, was compared to two existing methods based on the likelihood of multilocus genotypes. The distribution of the assignment criterion (genetic distance or genotype likelihood) for individuals of a given population was used to define the probability that an individual belongs to the population. Using this definition, it becomes possible to exclude a population as the origin of an individual, a useful extension of the currently available assignment methods. Using simulated data based on the coalescent process, the different methods were evaluated, varying the time of divergence of populations, the mutation model, the sample size, and the number of loci. Likelihood-based methods (especially the Bayesian method) always performed better than distance methods. Other things being equal, genetic markers were always more efficient when evolving under the infinite allele model than under the stepwise mutation model, even for equal values of the differentiation parameter F(st). Using the Bayesian method, a 100% correct assignment rate can be achieved by scoring ca. 10 microsatellite loci (H approximately 0.6) on 30-50 individuals from each of 10 populations when the F(st) is near 0.1. PMID:10581301

  9. Exploring associations in developmental trends of adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S C; Strycker, L A; Duncan, T E

    1999-02-01

    This study examined associations between the development of adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and risky sexual behavior, over time, using latent growth modeling methodology. Gender differences in the development and relationships between use of substances and risky sexual behavior were also examined. Participants were 257 adolescents (mean age = 15.96 years) assessed at three time points over an 18-month period. The intercepts of marijuana with cigarettes and alcohol, and all three substances with risky sexual behavior were significantly related. Development of the three substances showed similar patterns and development of cigarette use covaried with development of risky sexual behavior. There were no significant differences for boys and girls in these relationships. Results are discussed in relation to the need for greater understanding of nonsexual and sex-related problem behaviors and for analyses examining development and change in these behaviors during adolescence.

  10. Evaluating methods for estimating local effective population size with and without migration.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kimberly J; Whitlock, Michael C

    2015-08-01

    Effective population size is a fundamental parameter in population genetics, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology, yet its estimation can be fraught with difficulties. Several methods to estimate Ne from genetic data have been developed that take advantage of various approaches for inferring Ne . The ability of these methods to accurately estimate Ne , however, has not been comprehensively examined. In this study, we employ seven of the most cited methods for estimating Ne from genetic data (Colony2, CoNe, Estim, MLNe, ONeSAMP, TMVP, and NeEstimator including LDNe) across simulated datasets with populations experiencing migration or no migration. The simulated population demographies are an isolated population with no immigration, an island model metapopulation with a sink population receiving immigrants, and an isolation by distance stepping stone model of populations. We find considerable variance in performance of these methods, both within and across demographic scenarios, with some methods performing very poorly. The most accurate estimates of Ne can be obtained by using LDNe, MLNe, or TMVP; however each of these approaches is outperformed by another in a differing demographic scenario. Knowledge of the approximate demography of population as well as the availability of temporal data largely improves Ne estimates.

  11. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  12. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    PubMed

    Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  13. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.

  14. Gambling in Ethnic Adolescent Populations: An Exploratory Study of the Utility of Problem Behaviour Theory as an Explanatory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangeneh, Masood; Mann, Robert E.; McCready, John; Oseni, Lola

    2010-01-01

    Problem gambling is a growing concern among adolescents today. According to recent studies, rates of problem gambling among youth are higher than those reported by adults. Though few in number, studies have also shown certain ethnic communities to be prone to gambling-related problems and related problematic behaviours. As yet, there is no…

  15. Description and validation of a method for simultaneous estimation of effective population size and mutation rate from human population data.

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, R; Neel, J V

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for utilizing population data on electrophoretic variants of proteins to estimate simultaneously the effective sizes (Ne values) of the populations in question and the rate of mutation resulting in electromorphs at the loci whose products were surveyed. The method is applied to data from 12 relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes for whom census data and independent estimates of the number of different electrophoretic variants at 27 loci are available. Because of tribal demographic structure, Ne should be less than the current number of reproductive-aged adults. In fact, it is substantially greater for 7 tribes, most likely due to intertribal migration and a recent decrease in tribal size. Estimates of locus mutation rates for the 27 loci vary by more than a factor of 20, with an average of 1.1 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. This latter estimate is in satisfactory agreement with the results of other indirect approaches to the estimation of mutation rates in these tribes but about two times higher than the results of direct estimates based on these same loci in studies on civilized populations. This discrepancy could be due to the above-hypothesized migration and to decreases in tribal size. PMID:2594777

  16. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  17. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Longitudinally in a Representative Sample of Hospitalized Injured Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatzick, Douglas F.; Grossman, David C.; Russo, Joan; Pynoos, Robert; Berliner, Lucy; Jurkovich, Gregory; Sabin, Janice A.; Katon, Wayne; Ghesquiere, Angela; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents constitute a high-risk population for traumatic physical injury, yet few longitudinal investigations have assessed the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time in representative samples. Method: Between July 2002 and August 2003,108 randomly selected injured adolescent patients ages 12 to 18 and…

  18. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Adolescents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharko, Alexander M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the existing literature on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction in adolescents. Method: A literature review of SSRI-induced adverse effects in adolescents focusing on sexual dysfunction was done. Nonsexual SSRI-induced adverse effects were compared in adult and pediatric populations.…

  19. Probability of Walking, Wheeled Mobility, and Assisted Mobility in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palisano, Robert J.; Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Tieman, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to describe how the probability of walking, wheeled mobility, and assisted mobility changes with environmental setting and age in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The parents of a population-based sample of 642 children and adolescents (360 males, 282 females; age range 16mo-21y) reported their children's…

  20. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities. PMID:23606864

  1. Prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia among the UAE adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

  2. A narrative synthesis of the applicability of the CaR-FA-X model in child and adolescent populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tracy M; Hunter, Simon C; Rhodes, Sinéad M

    2017-03-13

    The CaR-FA-X model [Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hermans, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., … Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ] is the most prominent and comprehensive model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and provides a framework for OGM. The model comprises of three mechanisms, capture and rumination, functional avoidance and impaired executive control. These can independently, or in interaction, account for OGM. This systematic review aims to evaluate the existing research on the CaR-FA-X model, and trauma exposure studies specific to child and adolescent populations. The following databases were searched: "PsychInfo", "PsychArticles", "PubMed", "Web of Science", "Medline", "SCOPUS" and "Embase" for English-language, peer-reviewed papers with samples adolescent populations. Recommendations, proposals for future research and plausible explanations for the mixed findings are discussed.

  3. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed Central

    Muhib, F. B.; Lin, L. S.; Stueve, A.; Miller, R. L.; Ford, W. L.; Johnson, W. D.; Smith, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures. PMID:11889287

  4. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Ali, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.

  5. Method-induced Differences of Energy Contributions in Adolescent Female Kayaking.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongming; Niessen, Margot; Chen, Xiaoping; Hartmann, Ulrich

    2017-03-24

    Purpose Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the two female Olympic kayaking disciplines (i.e. 200 and 500m). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influenced the value of WAER% during the kayaking time trials. Methods Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14±1 yrs, height 172±4 cm, body mass 65.4±4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6±4.9 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), training experience 1.5±0.3 yrs) volunteered to participate in one incremental exercise test and two time trials (40s and 120s) on the kayak ergometer. A portable spirometric system was used to measure gas metabolism. Capillary blood was taken from the ear lobe during and after the tests, and analyzed for lactate afterwards. The method of modified maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (m-MAOD) and the method based on the fast component of oxygen uptake off-kinetics (PCr-La-O2) were utilized to calculate the energy contributions. Results The anaerobic energy portions from m-MAOD were lower than those from PCr-La-O2 in the 40s (41.9±8.8 vs. 52.8±4.0 kJ, p<0.05) and 120s (64.1±27.9 vs. 68.2±10.0 kJ, p>0.05) time trials, which induced differences of WAER% between m-MAOD and PCr-La-O2 (36.0 vs. 30.0% in 40s, p<0.05; 60.9 vs. 57.5% in 120s, p>0.05). Conclusions The reported different WAER% in the female Olympic kayaking could be partly attributed to the adopted method of energy calculation (i.e. m-MAOD vs. PCr-La-O2). A fixed method of energy calculation is recommended during the longitudinal assessment on the relative energy contribution in female Olympic kayaking.

  6. [Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient.

  7. Estimation of the size of the female sex worker population in Rwanda using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gwiza, Aimé; Ruton, Hinda; Koleros, Andrew; Gupta, Neil; Balisanga, Helene; Riedel, David J; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2015-10-01

    HIV prevalence is disproportionately high among female sex workers compared to the general population. Many African countries lack useful data on the size of female sex worker populations to inform national HIV programmes. A female sex worker size estimation exercise using three different venue-based methodologies was conducted among female sex workers in all provinces of Rwanda in August 2010. The female sex worker national population size was estimated using capture-recapture and enumeration methods, and the multiplier method was used to estimate the size of the female sex worker population in Kigali. A structured questionnaire was also used to supplement the data. The estimated number of female sex workers by the capture-recapture method was 3205 (95% confidence interval: 2998-3412). The female sex worker size was estimated at 3348 using the enumeration method. In Kigali, the female sex worker size was estimated at 2253 (95% confidence interval: 1916-2524) using the multiplier method. Nearly 80% of all female sex workers in Rwanda were found to be based in the capital, Kigali. This study provided a first-time estimate of the female sex worker population size in Rwanda using capture-recapture, enumeration, and multiplier methods. The capture-recapture and enumeration methods provided similar estimates of female sex worker in Rwanda. Combination of such size estimation methods is feasible and productive in low-resource settings and should be considered vital to inform national HIV programmes.

  8. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  9. Bone Mineral Density Is Positively Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Findings From a Population-Based Study in Adolescents and Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Frysz, Monika; Deere, Kevin; Lawlor, Debbie A; Benfield, Li; Tobias, Jon H; Gregson, Celia L

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both common causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies, mainly of people older than 60 years, suggest a relationship between these conditions. Our aim was to determine the association between bone characteristics and CVD markers in younger and middle-aged individuals. Women (n = 3366) and their adolescent offspring (n = 4368) from the UK population-based cohort study, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were investigated. We measured total body (TB) and hip bone mineral density (BMD), TB bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound. Arterial distensibility was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic arterial diameters. Linear regression determined associations between bone exposures and cIMT (in adolescents) and both cIMT and arterial distensibility (in women), generating partial correlation coefficients. Mean (SD) age of women was 48 (4.2) years, body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 (5.0) kg/m(2) , and 71% were premenopausal. In confounder-adjusted analyses (age, height, lean mass, fat mass, menopause, smoking, estrogen replacement, calcium/vitamin D supplementation, and education) TB and hip BMD were both positively associated with cIMT (0.071 [0.030, 0.112], p = 0.001; 0.063 [0.025, 0.101], p = 0.001, respectively). Femoral neck BMD and TB BMD, BMC, and BA were positively associated with arterial distensibility. Mean (SD) age of adolescents was 17 (0.4) years, BMI was 23 (4.1) kg/m(2) , and 44.5% were male. Total hip and TB measurements were positively associated with cIMT, with similar magnitudes of association to those found in their mothers. In contrast to most published findings, we identified weak positive associations between BMD and cIMT in predominantly premenopausal women and their adolescent offspring. We found greater femoral

  10. When stable-stage equilibrium is unlikely: integrating transient population dynamics improves asymptotic methods

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Raymond L.; Raventos, Josep; Ackerman, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Evaluation of population projection matrices (PPMs) that are focused on asymptotically based properties of populations is a commonly used approach to evaluate projected dynamics of managed populations. Recently, a set of tools for evaluating the properties of transient dynamics has been expanded to evaluate PPMs and to consider the dynamics of populations prior to attaining the stable-stage distribution, a state that may never be achieved in disturbed or otherwise ephemeral habitats or persistently small populations. This study re-evaluates data for a tropical orchid and examines the value of including such analyses in an integrative approach. Methods Six small populations of Lepanthes rubripetala were used as a model system and the R software package popdemo was used to produce estimates of the indices for the asymptotic growth rate (lambda), sensitivities, reactivity, first-time step attenuation, maximum amplification, maximum attenuation, maximal inertia and maximal attenuation. The response in lambda to perturbations of demographic parameters using transfer functions and multiple perturbations on growth, stasis and fecundity were also determined. The results were compared with previously published asymptotic indices. Key Results It was found that combining asymptotic and transient dynamics expands the understanding of possible population changes. Comparison of the predicted density from reactivity and first-time step attenuation with the observed change in population size in two orchid populations showed that the observed density was within the predicted range. However, transfer function analysis suggests that the traditional approach of measuring perturbation of growth rates and persistence (inertia) may be misleading and is likely to result in erroneous management decisions. Conclusions Based on the results, an integrative approach is recommended using traditional PPMs (asymptotic processes) with an evaluation of the diversity of dynamics

  11. The Bender-Gestalt as a method of personality assessment with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belter, R W; McIntosh, J A; Finch, A J; Williams, L D; Edwards, G L

    1989-05-01

    Normative data are presented for two Bender-Gestalt scoring systems with a sample of "normal" controls (n = 150), emotionally disturbed (n = 140), and mentally retarded/neurologically impaired (MR/NI) adolescents (n = 47), aged 12 to 17 years. The results failed to support the use of Hutt's (1985) Psychopathology Scale and Adolescent Configuration in differentiating the "normal" and emotionally disturbed groups, but did support their use in differentiating the MR/NI group from the other two. The Hutt scores also were found to be related inversely to age and IQ. By contrast, the Koppitz scores differentiated the three groups from each other and were not related significantly to IQ. The results supported limited use of Koppitz's (1975) Emotional Indicators as a "sign" approach to brief screening for emotional disturbance in adolescents.

  12. Cultural Socialization in Families with Adopted Korean Adolescents: A Mixed-Method, Multi-Informant Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Myo; Reichwald, Reed; Lee, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regarding the level of parental engagement in cultural socialization. Of the thirty families with at least one adolescent-aged child (60% female, average age 17.8 years) who was adopted from South Korea, nine families acknowledged racial and ethnic differences, six families rejected racial and ethnic differences, and fifteen families held a discrepancy of views. Parents also reported significantly greater engagement in cultural socialization than adolescents’ reports of parental engagement. However, only adolescent self-reports of parental engagement in cultural socialization matched the qualitative coding of family conversations. PMID:24235782

  13. Application of Holt exponential smoothing and ARIMA method for data population in West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriatna, A.; Susanti, D.; Hertini, E.

    2017-01-01

    One method of time series that is often used to predict data that contains trend is Holt. Holt method using different parameters used in the original data which aims to smooth the trend value. In addition to Holt, ARIMA method can be used on a wide variety of data including data pattern containing a pattern trend. Data actual of population from 1998-2015 contains the trends so can be solved by Holt and ARIMA method to obtain the prediction value of some periods. The best method is measured by looking at the smallest MAPE and MAE error. The result using Holt method is 47.205.749 populations in 2016, 47.535.324 populations in 2017, and 48.041.672 populations in 2018, with MAPE error is 0,469744 and MAE error is 189.731. While the result using ARIMA method is 46.964.682 populations in 2016, 47.342.189 in 2017, and 47.899.696 in 2018, with MAPE error is 0,4380 and MAE is 176.626.

  14. Development of a novel cell sorting method that samples population diversity in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Geoffrey W; Andersen, Stacey B; Battye, Francis L

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry based electrostatic cell sorting is an important tool in the separation of cell populations. Existing instruments can sort single cells into multi-well collection plates, and keep track of cell of origin and sorted well location. However currently single sorted cell results reflect the population distribution and fail to capture the population diversity. Software was designed that implements a novel sorting approach, "Slice and Dice Sorting," that links a graphical representation of a multi-well plate to logic that ensures that single cells are sampled and sorted from all areas defined by the sort region/s. Therefore the diversity of the total population is captured, and the more frequently occurring or rarer cell types are all sampled. The sorting approach was tested computationally, and using functional cell based assays. Computationally we demonstrate that conventional single cell sorting can sample as little as 50% of the population diversity dependant on the population distribution, and that Slice and Dice sorting samples much more of the variety present within a cell population. We then show by sorting single cells into wells using the Slice and Dice sorting method that there are cells sorted using this method that would be either rarely sorted, or not sorted at all using conventional single cell sorting approaches. The present study demonstrates a novel single cell sorting method that samples much more of the population diversity than current methods. It has implications in clonal selection, stem cell sorting, single cell sequencing and any areas where population heterogeneity is of importance.

  15. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  16. Intellectual evaluations of adolescents via human figure drawings: an empirical comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Abell, S C; Horkheimer, R; Nguyen, S E

    1998-10-01

    The human figure drawings of 200 adolescent boys were collected at a residential treatment center in a midsized, midwestern city. The drawings were scored for cognitive ability according to the systems of Buck (1966) and Goodenough and Harris (1963). Both scoring systems showed acceptable interrater reliability and both were positively and significantly related to IQ scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Buck's system, however, had less of a tendency to underestimate IQ scores. Buck's system may therefore hold greater promise for the intellectual assessment of adolescents with human figure drawings.

  17. What Influences Adolescent Girls’ Decision-Making Regarding Contraceptive Methods Use and Childbearing? A Qualitative Exploratory Study in Rangpur District, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, A. S. M.; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Delvaux, Thérèse; Sarker, Malabika; Bardají, Azucena; Brouwere, Vincent De; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bangladesh has the highest rate of adolescent pregnancy in South Asia. Child marriage is one of the leading causes of pregnancies among adolescent girls. Although the country’s contraceptive prevalence rate is quite satisfactory, only 52% of married adolescent girls use contraceptive methods. This qualitative study is aimed at exploring the factors that influence adolescent girls’ decision-making process in relation to contraceptive methods use and childbearing. Methods and Results We collected qualitative data from study participants living in Rangpur district, Bangladesh. We conducted 35 in-depth interviews with married adolescent girls, 4 key informant interviews, and one focus group discussion with community health workers. Adolescent girls showed very low decision-making autonomy towards contraceptive methods use and childbearing. Decisions were mainly made by either their husbands or mothers-in-law. When husbands were unemployed and financially dependent on their parents, then the mothers-in-law played most important role for contraceptive use and childbearing decisions. Lack of reproductive health knowledge, lack of negotiation and communication ability with husbands and family members, and mistrust towards contraceptive methods also appeared as influential factors against using contraception resulting in early childbearing among married adolescent girls. Conclusions Husbands and mothers-in-law of newly married adolescent girls need to be actively involved in health interventions so that they make more informed decisions regarding contraceptive use to delay pregnancies until 20 years of age. Misunderstanding and distrust regarding contraceptives can be diminished by engaging the wider societal actors in health intervention including neighbours, and other family members. PMID:27336673

  18. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  19. Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: promises and pitfalls of new methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, P.B.; Arthur, A.D.; Bailey, L.L.; Singleton, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of animal abundance is fundamental to many ecological studies. Frequently, researchers cannot determine true abundance, and so must estimate it using a method such as mark-recapture or distance sampling. Recent advances in abundance estimation allow one to model heterogeneity with individual covariates or mixture distributions and to derive multimodel abundance estimators that explicitly address uncertainty about which model parameterization best represents truth. Further, it is possible to borrow information on detection probability across several populations when data are sparse. While promising, these methods have not been evaluated using mark?recapture data from populations of known abundance, and thus far have largely been overlooked by ecologists. In this paper, we explored the utility of newly developed mark?recapture methods for estimating the abundance of 12 captive populations of wild house mice (Mus musculus). We found that mark?recapture methods employing individual covariates yielded satisfactory abundance estimates for most populations. In contrast, model sets with heterogeneity formulations consisting solely of mixture distributions did not perform well for several of the populations. We show through simulation that a higher number of trapping occasions would have been necessary to achieve good estimator performance in this case. Finally, we show that simultaneous analysis of data from low abundance populations can yield viable abundance estimates.

  20. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance.

  1. Searching for Rigour in the Reporting of Mixed Methods Population Health Research: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. M.; Elliott, S. J.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Robertson-Wilson, J.

    2015-01-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing…

  2. Variational iteration method for solving the population dynamics model of two species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Yuliyanto, Benedictus; Mungkasi, Sudi

    2017-01-01

    This paper applies the variational iteration method for solving systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model under consideration in this work is the population dynamics model of two species. Our results show that the variational iteration method provides formulas to approximate the exact solution at every time value with a very cheap computation.

  3. Applying Research Methods to a Gerontological Population: Matching Data Collection to Characteristics of Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    As Baby Boomers reach 65 years of age and methods of studying older populations are becoming increasingly varied (e.g., including mixed methods designs, on-line surveys, and video-based environments), there is renewed interest in evaluating methodologies used to collect data with older persons. The goal of this article is to examine…

  4. Comparison of Three Plot Selection Methods for Estimating Change in Temporally Variable, Spatially Clustered Populations.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.

    2001-07-01

    Monitoring population numbers is important for assessing trends and meeting various legislative mandates. However, sampling across time introduces a temporal aspect to survey design in addition to the spatial one. For instance, a sample that is initially representative may lose this attribute if there is a shift in numbers and/or spatial distribution in the underlying population that is not reflected in later sampled plots. Plot selection methods that account for this temporal variability will produce the best trend estimates. Consequently, I used simulation to compare bias and relative precision of estimates of population change among stratified and unstratified sampling designs based on permanent, temporary, and partial replacement plots under varying levels of spatial clustering, density, and temporal shifting of populations. Permanent plots produced more precise estimates of change than temporary plots across all factors. Further, permanent plots performed better than partial replacement plots except for high density (5 and 10 individuals per plot) and 25% - 50% shifts in the population. Stratified designs always produced less precise estimates of population change for all three plot selection methods, and often produced biased change estimates and greatly inflated variance estimates under sampling with partial replacement. Hence, stratification that remains fixed across time should be avoided when monitoring populations that are likely to exhibit large changes in numbers and/or spatial distribution during the study period. Key words: bias; change estimation; monitoring; permanent plots; relative precision; sampling with partial replacement; temporary plots.

  5. A Scaling Study by Pair-Wise Comparison Method: Friend Choosing in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özmercan, Esra Eminoglu; Kumandas, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the perception levels of characteristics considered important to choose friends by adolescents from secondary education and to scale them with pair-wise comparison judgements. In this respect, this study was conducted with 100 10th grade students from a state vocational high school located in Marmara region in Turkey.…

  6. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be…

  7. A Meaningful Method: Research with Adolescent Girls Who Use Crystal Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, Janet; Hoskins, Marie L.

    2008-01-01

    Embarking on a study in which we hope to gain a contextualized understanding of the experiences of adolescent girls who use crystal methamphetamines, it is crucial for us to select a research methodology congruent with our aims. In the current article, we share the theoretical basis and decision making process that has lead us to a multi-modal…

  8. Repeated Reading as a Method to Improve Reading Fluency for Struggling Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Anne; Murphy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of a seven-week programme of repeated readings on the fluency levels of three struggling adolescent readers. The study focused from a broad conceptualization of fluency which recognizes that practice and assessment should address all components of fluency, i.e., prosody and comprehension, as well as rate and…

  9. A Rationale and Method for Examining Reasons for Linkages among Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather

    2007-01-01

    A large volume of research has investigated interrelations among adolescent risk behaviors. Although several theoretical accounts have been proposed, researchers have not directly examined hypotheses for "why" risk behaviors are linked. In the present paper, a distinction is drawn between predictive factors that explain variance in risk behaviors…

  10. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  11. Assessment of Smartphone Addiction in Indian Adolescents: A Mixed Method Study by Systematic-review and Meta-analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha

    2014-12-01

    There is a considerable debate on addiction and abuse to Smartphone among adolescents and its consequent impact on their health; not only in a global context, but also specifically in the Indian population; considering that Smartphone's, globally occupy more than 50% of mobile phones market and more precise quantification of the associated problems is important to facilitate understanding in this field. As per PRISMA (2009) guidelines, extensive search of various studies in any form from a global scale to the more narrow Indian context using two key search words: "Smartphone's addiction" and "Indian adolescents" was done using websites of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Global Health, Psyc-INFO, Biomed-Central, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, world library - World-Cat, Indian libraries such as National Medical Library of India from 1 January, 1995 to March 31, 2014 first for systematic-review. Finally, meta-analysis on only Indian studies was done using Med-Calc online software capable of doing meta-analysis of proportions. A total of 45 articles were considered in systematic-review from whole world; later on 6 studies out of these 45 related to Smartphone's addiction in India were extracted to perform meta-analysis, in which total 1304 participants (range: 165-335) were enrolled. The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents.

  12. A probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations.

    PubMed

    He, Yungang; Wang, Minxian; Huang, Xin; Li, Ran; Xu, Hongyang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    Human populations around the world encounter various environmental challenges and, consequently, develop genetic adaptations to different selection forces. Identifying the differences in natural selection between populations is critical for understanding the roles of specific genetic variants in evolutionary adaptation. Although numerous methods have been developed to detect genetic loci under recent directional selection, a probabilistic solution for testing and quantifying selection differences between populations is lacking. Here we report the development of a probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations. By use of a probabilistic model of genetic drift and selection, we showed that logarithm odds ratios of allele frequencies provide estimates of the differences in selection coefficients between populations. The estimates approximate a normal distribution, and variance can be estimated using genome-wide variants. This allows us to quantify differences in selection coefficients and to determine the confidence intervals of the estimate. Our work also revealed the link between genetic association testing and hypothesis testing of selection differences. It therefore supplies a solution for hypothesis testing of selection differences. This method was applied to a genome-wide data analysis of Han and Tibetan populations. The results confirmed that both the EPAS1 and EGLN1 genes are under statistically different selection in Han and Tibetan populations. We further estimated differences in the selection coefficients for genetic variants involved in melanin formation and determined their confidence intervals between continental population groups. Application of the method to empirical data demonstrated the outstanding capability of this novel approach for testing and quantifying differences in natural selection.

  13. A method of studying wild bird populations by mist-netting and banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, D.D.; Davis, D.E.; Robbins, C.S.

    1960-01-01

    1. Progress is reported toward development of a method of bird-population study based on mist-netting and banding. A definite pattern of arrangement and schedule of operation are presented. 2. Nets were operated for a total of 4200 net-hours during which 966 captures were made (23.0 birds per 100 net-hours). A total of 431 adult breeding birds were banded and 38 per cent of them were recaptured. 3. A breeding bird census was made simultaneously in the same area by the Williams spot-mapping technique. 4. Estimates of population by recapture agreed closely with the spot-mappmg census. 5. Some birds are demonstrated to have overlapping home-ranges much larger than their singing territories. 6. Recruitment and net-shyness distort recapture estimates of population .but the method allows detection and assessment of their influence in the population dealt with here. 7. The method produced integrated information on population density and dynamics, movement and behavior. 8. The procedure is especially well adapted to studies of disease agents in bird populations. 9. A simple scheme for description of the habitat in terms of relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of tree species was used.

  14. Population Estimation Methods for Free-Ranging Dogs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Belo, Vinícius Silva; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; da Silva, Eduardo Sérgio; Barbosa, David Soeiro; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the structure of free-roaming dog populations is of extreme importance for the planning and monitoring of populational control strategies and animal welfare. The methods used to estimate the abundance of this group of dogs are more complex than the ones used with domiciled owned dogs. In this systematic review, we analyze the techniques and the results obtained in studies that seek to estimate the size of free-ranging dog populations. Twenty-six studies were reviewed regarding the quality of execution and their capacity to generate valid estimates. Seven of the eight publications that take a simple count of the animal population did not consider the different probabilities of animal detection; only one study used methods based on distances; twelve relied on capture-recapture models for closed populations without considering heterogeneities in capture probabilities; six studies applied their own methods with different potential and limitations. Potential sources of bias in the studies were related to the inadequate description or implementation of animal capturing or viewing procedures and to inadequacies in the identification and registration of dogs. Thus, there was a predominance of estimates with low validity. Abundance and density estimates carried high variability, and all studies identified a greater number of male dogs. We point to enhancements necessary for the implementation of future studies and to potential updates and revisions to the recommendations of the World Health Organization with respect to the estimation of free-ranging dog populations. PMID:26673165

  15. [Respondent-Driven Sampling: a new sampling method to study visible and hidden populations].

    PubMed

    Mantecón, Alejandro; Juan, Montse; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Román, Encarna

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a variant of chain-referral sampling: respondent-driven sampling (RDS). This sampling method shows that methods based on network analysis can be combined with the statistical validity of standard probability sampling methods. In this sense, RDS appears to be a mathematical improvement of snowball sampling oriented to the study of hidden populations. However, we try to prove its validity with populations that are not within a sampling frame but can nonetheless be contacted without difficulty. The basics of RDS are explained through our research on young people (aged 14 to 25) who go clubbing, consume alcohol and other drugs, and have sex. Fieldwork was carried out between May and July 2007 in three Spanish regions: Baleares, Galicia and Comunidad Valenciana. The presentation of the study shows the utility of this type of sampling when the population is accessible but there is a difficulty deriving from the lack of a sampling frame. However, the sample obtained is not a random representative one in statistical terms of the target population. It must be acknowledged that the final sample is representative of a 'pseudo-population' that approximates to the target population but is not identical to it.

  16. Pursuit of performance excellence: a population study of Norwegian adolescent female cross-country skiers and biathletes with disordered eating

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Ingvild; Hernæs, Erik; Skårderud, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) among the total population of Norwegian female cross-country skiers and biathletes at the junior level, and to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics predict DE among athletes. Methods A cross-sectional population study of Norwegian female junior cross-country skiers and biathletes (n=262), with a response rate of 86%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses explored the prevalence of DE and its relation to sports, competitive age groups, competitive status and education. DE was defined as meeting at least 1 of the following criteria from 2 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: the Drive for Thinness score ≥15 and/or the Body Dissatisfaction score ≥14. Results 18.7% of the athletes had DE. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of DE between the sports or the competitive age groups. Athletes who had dropped out of sports had a significantly higher occurrence of DE, while athletes who attended upper secondary schools of elite sports or general studies had a significantly higher occurrence of DE based on Drive for Thinness. Conclusions The number of female cross-country skiers and biathletes with DE is higher than that found in previous similar studies using the same screening instruments. Type of education and competitive status are significant predictors of DE, indicating that DE in addition to having adverse effects on an athlete's health, may also lead to early dropout of sport. This indicates that health and achievement are not always compatible within sports. PMID:27900180

  17. Methods used to estimate the size of the owned cat and dog population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of different methods that can be used when estimating the size of the owned cat and dog population in a region, leading to varying population estimates. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the methods that have been used for estimating the sizes of owned cat and dog populations and to assess the biases associated with those methods. A comprehensive, systematic search of seven electronic bibliographic databases and the Google search engine was carried out using a range of different search terms for cats, dogs and population. The inclusion criteria were that the studies had involved owned or pet domestic dogs and/or cats, provided an estimate of the size of the owned dog or cat population, collected raw data on dog and cat ownership, and analysed primary data. Data relating to study methodology were extracted and assessed for biases. Results Seven papers were included in the final analysis. Collection methods used to select participants in the included studies were: mailed surveys using a commercial list of contacts, door to door surveys, random digit dialled telephone surveys, and randomised telephone surveys using a commercial list of numbers. Analytical and statistical methods used to estimate the pet population size were: mean number of dogs/cats per household multiplied by the number of households in an area, human density multiplied by number of dogs per human, and calculations using predictors of pet ownership. Conclusion The main biases of the studies included selection bias, non-response bias, measurement bias and biases associated with length of sampling time. Careful design and planning of studies is a necessity before executing a study to estimate pet populations. PMID:23777563

  18. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  19. New method of estimating inbreeding in large semi-isolated populations with application to historic Britain.

    PubMed

    Pattison, J E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of estimating inbreeding in large, relatively isolated, populations over historic times, to demonstrate its application, and indicate some of its limitations and future developments. The method is based on the "paradox" of genealogy, and requires only that the variation of the population size be known, at least reasonably well, over an extended historic period. In this study a method has been developed to model this "paradox" which allows an estimation of the minimum level of inbreeding necessary for a given population curve in terms of values of Pearl's coefficients for each generation. As an example, the method is applied to the population of Britain. It is found that the frequency of siblings occurring in the same generation of a pedigree varies with the population size according to the Fermi-Dirac equation of statistical physics. The effect of introducing a single known estimate of inbreeding into the model is to make the otherwise diverse results for both the actual numbers of ancestors in a generation and the corresponding coefficients of inbreeding to converge.

  20. Inequality and adolescent violence: an exploration of community, family, and individual factors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study seeks to examine whether the relationships among community, family, individual factors, and violent behavior are parallel across race- and gender-specific segments of the adolescent population. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are analyzed to highlight the complex relationships between inequality, community, family, individual behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The results from robust regression analysis provide evidence that social environmental factors can influence adolescent violence in race- and gender-specific ways. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study establish the plausibility of multidimensional models that specify a complex relationship between inequality and adolescent violence. PMID:15101669

  1. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  2. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Wiley, Michael R; Nagle, Elyse R; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P; Kuhn, Jens H; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5) of all compared methods.

  3. Bayesian Analysis of Two Stellar Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Statistical and Computational Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenning, D. C.; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Robinson, E.; van Dyk, D. A.; von Hippel, T.; Sarajedini, A.; Stein, N.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a Bayesian model for globular clusters composed of multiple stellar populations, extending earlier statistical models for open clusters composed of simple (single) stellar populations. Specifically, we model globular clusters with two populations that differ in helium abundance. Our model assumes a hierarchical structuring of the parameters in which physical properties—age, metallicity, helium abundance, distance, absorption, and initial mass—are common to (i) the cluster as a whole or to (ii) individual populations within a cluster, or are unique to (iii) individual stars. An adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is devised for model fitting that greatly improves convergence relative to its precursor non-adaptive MCMC algorithm. Our model and computational tools are incorporated into an open-source software suite known as BASE-9. We use numerical studies to demonstrate that our method can recover parameters of two-population clusters, and also show how model misspecification can potentially be identified. As a proof of concept, we analyze the two stellar populations of globular cluster NGC 5272 using our model and methods. (BASE-9 is available from GitHub: https://github.com/argiopetech/base/releases).

  4. Outpatient physical therapy utilization for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan: a population-based nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Lin, Jin-Ding; Tung, Ho-Jui; Chiang, Po-Huang; Hsu, Shang-Wei

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzed the utilization and utilization determinants of outpatient physical therapy (PT) among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze 2007 national health insurance (NHI) claim data from 35,802 eighteen-year-old and younger persons with intellectual disabilities. A total of 3944 (11.02%) claimants received outpatient physical therapy. Variables that affected PT utilization included age, residence urbanization level, ID level, copayment status and major co-morbidity. The average annual PT visit frequency was 25.4 ± 33.0; pre-school children, claimants suffering from catastrophic disease and ID co-occurring with cerebral palsy had a higher mean cost per visit. Age, ID level, copayment status and co-morbidity were factors that influenced expenditure. Pre-school children, males, individuals who resided in the lowest urbanization areas and individuals with a catastrophic disease tended to use hospital services. The point prevalence of epilepsy and cerebral palsy were 12.10% and 19.80%, respectively. Despite the NHI program and government regulations to provide special services, the use of physical therapy for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities was low, and the utilization decreased as the subjects aged.

  5. Approaches in the Treatment of Adolescents with Emotional and Substance Abuse Problems. Technical Assistance Publication Series Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm

    This report reviews the impact of substance abuse and mental health problems among the adolescent population, examines the research issues and treatment delivery system, identifies model modalities and programs to address the needs of adolescents, and makes practical recommendations on the implementation of effective treatment methods for youths.…

  6. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.

  7. A comprehensive population dataset for Afghanistan constructed using GIS-based dasymetric mapping methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Allyson L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the application of dasymetric methods for mapping the distribution of population throughout Afghanistan. Because Afghanistan's population has constantly changed through decades of war and conflict, existing vector and raster GIS datasets (such as point settlement densities and intensities of lights at night) do not adequately reflect the changes. The purposes of this report are (1) to provide historic population data at the provincial and district levels that can be used to chart population growth and migration trends within the country and (2) to provide baseline information that can be used for other types of spatial analyses of Afghanistan, such as resource and hazard assessments; infrastructure and capacity rebuilding; and assisting with international, regional, and local planning.

  8. A method for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clement, Matthew; O'Keefe, Joy M; Walters, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    While numerous methods exist for estimating abundance when detection is imperfect, these methods may not be appropriate due to logistical difficulties or unrealistic assumptions. In particular, if highly mobile taxa are frequently absent from survey locations, methods that estimate a probability of detection conditional on presence will generate biased abundance estimates. Here, we propose a new estimator for estimating abundance of mobile populations using telemetry and counts of unmarked animals. The estimator assumes that the target population conforms to a fission-fusion grouping pattern, in which the population is divided into groups that frequently change in size and composition. If assumptions are met, it is not necessary to locate all groups in the population to estimate abundance. We derive an estimator, perform a simulation study, conduct a power analysis, and apply the method to field data. The simulation study confirmed that our estimator is asymptotically unbiased with low bias, narrow confidence intervals, and good coverage, given a modest survey effort. The power analysis provided initial guidance on survey effort. When applied to small data sets obtained by radio-tracking Indiana bats, abundance estimates were reasonable, although imprecise. The proposed method has the potential to improve abundance estimates for mobile species that have a fission-fusion social structure, such as Indiana bats, because it does not condition detection on presence at survey locations and because it avoids certain restrictive assumptions.

  9. A Probabilistic Method for Estimating the Sharing of Identity by Descent for Populations with Migration.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xumin; Guo, Wei; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Xiong; Ma, Zhiming; Xu, Shuhua; Zhang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The inference of demographic history of populations is an important undertaking in population genetics. A few recent studies have developed identity-by-descent (IBD) based methods to reveal the signature of the relatively recent historical events. Notably, Pe'er and his colleagues have introduced a novel method (named PIBD here) by employing IBD sharing to infer effective population size and migration rate. However, under island model, PIBD neglects the coalescent information before the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) which leads to apparent deviations in certain situations. In this paper, we propose a new method, MIBD, by adopting a Markov process to describe the island model and develop a new formula for estimating IBD sharing. The new formula considers the coalescent information before tMRCA and the joint effect of the coalescent and migration events. We apply both MIBD and PIBD to the genome-wide data of two human populations (Palestinian and Bedouin) obtained from the HGDP-CEPH database, and demonstrate that MIBD is competitive to PIBD. Our simulation analyses also show that the results of MIBD are more accurate than those of PIBD especially in the case of small effective population size.

  10. Geographic Information System Software to Remodel Population Data Using Dasymetric Mapping Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel; Gould, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau provides decadal demographic data collected at the household level and aggregated to larger enumeration units for anonymity purposes. Although this system is appropriate for the dissemination of large amounts of national demographic data, often the boundaries of the enumeration units do not reflect the distribution of the underlying statistical phenomena. Conventional mapping methods such as choropleth mapping, are primarily employed due to their ease of use. However, the analytical drawbacks of choropleth methods are well known ranging from (1) the artificial transition of population at the boundaries of mapping units to (2) the assumption that the phenomena is evenly distributed across the enumeration unit (when in actuality there can be significant variation). Many methods to map population distribution have been practiced in geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing fields. Many cartographers prefer dasymetric mapping to map population because of its ability to more accurately distribute data over geographic space. Similar to ?choropleth maps?, a dasymetric map utilizes standardized data (for example, census data). However, rather than using arbitrary enumeration zones to symbolize population distribution, a dasymetric approach introduces ancillary information to redistribute the standardized data into zones relative to land use and land cover (LULC), taking into consideration actual changing densities within the boundaries of the enumeration unit. Thus, new zones are created that correlate to the function of the map, capturing spatial variations in population density. The transfer of data from census enumeration units to ancillary-driven homogenous zones is performed by a process called areal interpolation.

  11. Disregarding population specificity: its influence on the sex assessment methods from the tibia.

    PubMed

    Kotěrová, Anežka; Velemínská, Jana; Dupej, Ján; Brzobohatá, Hana; Pilný, Aleš; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Forensic anthropology has developed classification techniques for sex estimation of unknown skeletal remains, for example population-specific discriminant function analyses. These methods were designed for populations that lived mostly in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Their level of reliability or misclassification is important for practical use in today's forensic practice; it is, however, unknown. We addressed the question of what the likelihood of errors would be if population specificity of discriminant functions of the tibia were disregarded. Moreover, five classification functions in a Czech sample were proposed (accuracies 82.1-87.5 %, sex bias ranged from -1.3 to -5.4 %). We measured ten variables traditionally used for sex assessment of the tibia on a sample of 30 male and 26 female models from recent Czech population. To estimate the classification accuracy and error (misclassification) rates ignoring population specificity, we selected published classification functions of tibia for the Portuguese, south European, and the North American populations. These functions were applied on the dimensions of the Czech population. Comparing the classification success of the reference and the tested Czech sample showed that females from Czech population were significantly overestimated and mostly misclassified as males. Overall accuracy of sex assessment significantly decreased (53.6-69.7 %), sex bias -29.4-100 %, which is most probably caused by secular trend and the generally high variability of body size. Results indicate that the discriminant functions, developed for skeletal series representing geographically and chronologically diverse populations, are not applicable in current forensic investigations. Finally, implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior.

  13. A new method of projecting populations based on trends in life expectancy and survival.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Les; Smith, David

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing concern about the lack of accuracy in population projections at national levels. A common problem has been the systematic underestimation of improvements in mortality, especially at older ages, resulting in projections that are too low. In this paper, we present a method that is based on projecting survivorship rather than mortality, which uses the same data but differs technically. In particular, rather than extrapolating trends in mortality, we use trends in life expectancy to establish a robust statistical relation between changes in life expectancy and survivorship using period life tables. We test the approach on data for England and Wales for the population aged 50 and over, and show that it gives more accurate projections than official projections using the same base data. Using the model to project the population aged 50 and over to 2020, our method suggests nearly 0.6 million more people in this age group than official projections.

  14. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  15. Adolescent Images of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…

  16. Searching for rigour in the reporting of mixed methods population health research: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Elliott, S J; Leatherdale, S T; Robertson-Wilson, J

    2015-12-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing rigour in quantitative and qualitative research, there is poor consensus regarding rigour in mixed methods. Using the empirical example of school-based obesity interventions, this methodological review examined how mixed methods have been used and reported, and how rigour has been addressed. Twenty-three peer-reviewed mixed methods studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases and appraised using the guidelines for Good Reporting of a Mixed Methods Study. In general, more detailed description of data collection and analysis, integration, inferences and justifying the use of mixed methods is needed. Additionally, improved reporting of methodological rigour is required. This review calls for increased discussion of practical techniques for establishing rigour in mixed methods research, beyond those for quantitative and qualitative criteria individually. A guide for reporting mixed methods research in population health should be developed to improve the reporting quality of mixed methods studies. Through improved reporting, mixed methods can provide strong evidence to inform policy and practice.

  17. Self-Injury among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas much attention has been focused on adolescent risk behaviors such as substance use, much less has been devoted to self-injury in the general adolescent population. Purpose: This study had two purposes: (1) describe the prevalence of self-injury among early adolescents in the general middle school population, and (2) identify…

  18. Meaning in the Method: Pretesting Methods for a Diverse Population. Issue Brief. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprachman, Susan; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Aikens, Nikki; Caspe, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    A child's ability to develop relationships and connections with others, a sense of who he or she is in the world, and an ability to control impulses and emotions are at the core of social-emotional development. In early childhood, parent reports are one of the most common methods for assessing this type of development. However, parents from…

  19. Qualitative methods to ensure acceptability of behavioral and social interventions to the target population

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958

  20. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  1. Methods and Resources for the Construction and Maintenance of a Navajo Population Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William H.

    The most feasible method for constructing a Navajo population register was to produce a preliminary register from data contained in existing records and to perfect and extend this register either through subsequent clerical and record-accumulating operations, the existing school census operation, a special program of field enumeration, or a…

  2. Improving glycaemic control and life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A randomised, controlled intervention study using the Guided Self-Determination-Young method in triads of adolescents, parents and health care providers integrated into routine paediatric outpatient clinics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord between adolescents and parents. Adolescent-parent conflicts are thus a barrier for health care providers (HCPs) to overcome in their attempts to involve both adolescents and parents in improvement of glycaemic control. Evidence-based interventions that involve all three parties (i.e., adolescents, parents and HCPs) and are integrated into routine outpatient clinic visits are lacking. The Guided Self-Determination method is proven effective in adult care and has been adapted to adolescents and parents (Guided Self-Determination-Young (GSD-Y)) for use in paediatric diabetes outpatient clinics. Our objective is to test whether GSD-Y used in routine paediatric outpatient clinic visits will reduce haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations and improve adolescents' life skills compared with a control group. Methods/Design Using a mixed methods design comprising a randomised controlled trial and a nested qualitative evaluation, we will recruit 68 adolescents age 13 - 18 years with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c > 8.0%) and their parents from 2 Danish hospitals and randomise into GSD-Y or control groups. During an 8-12 month period, the GSD-Y group will complete 8 outpatient GSD-Y visits, and the control group will completes an equal number of standard visits. The primary outcome is HbA1c. Secondary outcomes include the following: number of self-monitored blood glucose values and levels of autonomous motivation, involvement and autonomy support from parents, autonomy support from HCPs, perceived competence in managing diabetes, well-being, and diabetes-related problems. Primary and secondary outcomes will be evaluated within and between groups by comparing data from baseline, after completion of the visits, and again after a 6-month follow-up. To illustrate how GSD

  3. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain related functional impairment. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study; a school-based survey responded by 4,881 10th grade students (RR: 83%) in North Norway, in 2003–2005. 10% were indigenous Sami. Musculoskeletal pain was based on reported pain in the head, shoulder/neck, back and/or arm/knee/leg, measured by the number of pain sites. Linear multiple regression was used for the multivariable analyses. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high, and significantly higher in females. In total, 22.4% reported 3–4 pain sites. We found a strong association between musculoskeletal pain sites and psychosocial problems, with a higher explained variance in those reporting pain related functional impairment and in females. There were no major differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Sami and non-Sami, however the associating factors differed somewhat between the indigenous and non-indigenous group. The final multivariable model, for the total sample, explained 21.2% of the variance of musculoskeletal pain. Anxiety/depression symptoms was the dominant factor associated with musculoskeletal pain followed by negative life events and school-related stress. Conclusions Anxiety/depression, negative life events, and school-related stress were the most important factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, especially in those reporting pain related functional impairment. The most important sociocultural aspect

  4. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  5. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  6. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  7. America's Adolescents: How Healthy Are They? Volume 1. Profiles of Adolescent Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Janet E.; And Others

    Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…

  8. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  9. A qualitative exploration of attitudes towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers of two alcohol-attitude-based segments of the adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier study using social marketing and audience segmentation distinguished five segments of Dutch adolescents aged 12–18 years based on their attitudes towards alcohol. The present, qualitative study focuses on two of these five segments (‘ordinaries’ and ‘ordinary sobers’) and explores the attitudes of these two segments towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers in their alcohol use in more detail. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. With a 28-item questionnaire, segments of adolescents were identified. From the ordinaries and ordinary sobers who were willing to participate in a focus group, 55 adolescents (30 ordinaries and 25 ordinary sobers) were selected and invited to participate. Finally, six focus groups were conducted with 12–17 year olds, i.e., three interviews with 17 ordinaries and three interviews with 20 ordinary sobers at three different high schools. Results The ordinaries thought that drinking alcohol was fun and relaxing. Curiosity was an important factor in starting to drink alcohol. Peer pressure played a role, e.g., it was difficult not to drink when peers were drinking. Most parents advised their child to drink a small amount only. The attitude of ordinary sobers towards alcohol was that drinking alcohol was stupid; moreover, they did not feel the need to drink. Most parents set strict rules and prohibited the use of alcohol before the age of 16. Conclusions Qualitative insight into the attitudes towards alcohol and the role played by parents and peers, revealed differences between ordinaries and ordinary sobers. Based on these differences and on health education theories, starting points for the development of interventions, for both parents and adolescents, are formulated. Important starting points for interventions targeting ordinaries are reducing perceived peer pressure and learning to make one’s own choices. For the ordinary sobers, an

  10. Contraceptive care of adolescents: overview, tips, strategies, and implications for school nurses.

    PubMed

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth Mary

    2010-08-01

    The United States has one of the highest unintended pregnancy rates of all industrialized nations in the world, with 13% of those occurring among the adolescent population. In 2005, the adolescent birthrate in the United States was 40.5 per 1,000 women and increased 3% in 2006 (Martin et al., 2009). Unintended pregnancy and motherhood can have a tremendous impact and lifelong implications for adolescents and their children as well as financial and societal costs. Helping make contraception accessible to adolescents is one area where school nurses are able to have an impact. Various contraceptive methods are described. Advantages and disadvantages are summarized along with considerations relative to adolescents. General strategies for counseling and caring for adolescents to encourage successful initiation, use, and continuation of contraception also reviewed.

  11. Validity of Self-reported Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adolescents consuming alcohol and using drugs have markedly greater HIV/STI risk and are a priority population for intervention. Accurate measurement of sexual risk behavior is critical for understanding individual's risk for HIV/STI, transmission dynamics of HIV/STI, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions designed reduce HIV/STI risk. However, significant challenges to accurately measuring adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are well-documented. Recent advances in microbiology, such as the use of less invasive specimen collection for DNA assays, can assist researchers in more accurately measuring adolescents' sexual risk behavior. However, the majority of studies of adolescents' sexual risk rely solely on self-reported behavior; therefore, methods to improve the validity of adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are needed. In addition, integrating biologic measures to complement self-reported measures are recommended, when appropriate and feasible.

  12. A moment projection method for population balance dynamics with a shrinkage term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaohua; Yapp, Edward K. Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian; Xu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Kraft, Markus

    2017-02-01

    A new method of moments for solving the population balance equation is developed and presented. The moment projection method (MPM) is numerically simple and easy to implement and attempts to address the challenge of particle shrinkage due to processes such as oxidation, evaporation or dissolution. It directly solves the moment transport equation for the moments and tracks the number of the smallest particles using the algorithm by Blumstein and Wheeler (1973) [41]. The performance of the new method is measured against the method of moments (MOM) and the hybrid method of moments (HMOM). The results suggest that MPM performs much better than MOM and HMOM where shrinkage is dominant. The new method predicts mean quantities which are almost as accurate as a high-precision stochastic method calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA).

  13. Socioeconomic differences in obesity among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    ULLMANN, S. HEIDI; BUTTENHEIM, ALISON M.; GOLDMAN, NOREEN; PEBLEY, ANNE R.; WONG, REBECA

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigate socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity in Mexico. Three questions are addressed. First, what is the social patterning of obesity among Mexican adolescents? Second, what are the separate and joint associations of maternal and paternal education with adolescent obesity net of household wealth? Third, are there differences in socioeconomic status (SES) gradients among Mexican boys and girls, rural residents and non-rural residents? Methods Using data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 we examined the slope and direction of the association between SES and adolescent obesity. We also estimated models for sub-populations to examine differences in the social gradients in obesity by sex and non-rural residence. Results We find that household economic status (asset ownership and housing quality) is positively associated with adolescent obesity. High paternal education is related to lower obesity risk, whereas the association between maternal education and obesity is positive, but not always significant. Conclusion The household wealth components of SES appear to predispose Mexican adolescents to higher obesity risk. The effects of parental education are more complex. These findings have important policy implications in Mexico and the United States. PMID:20883181

  14. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of <10% in four sites and 10–30% in three sites, but severely over-estimated the population in an Ethiopian camp with implausible occupancy data and two post-earthquake Haiti sites featuring dense and complex residential layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2–5 working person-days. Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable

  15. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    PubMed Central

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  16. Methods of defining best practice for population health approaches with obesity prevention as an example.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Deborah A; Flynn, Mary A T

    2006-11-01

    Childhood obesity has reached a crisis stage and has become a population health issue. The few traditional systematic reviews that have been done to identify best practice provide little direction for action. The concept of evidence-based practice has been adopted in health care, and in medicine in particular, to determine best practice. Evidence-based medicine has its origins in the scientific method and for many researchers this concept means strict adherence to standards determining internal validity in order to justify a practice as evidence based. Practitioners addressing population health face challenges in identifying criteria for determining evidence, in part because of the nature of population health with its goal of shifting the health of whole populations. As well, the type of evidence provided by more traditional critical appraisal schema is limiting. Expanded approaches in finding and defining evidence have been proposed that use: expert panels; broad and inclusive search and selection strategies; appraisal criteria that incorporate context and generalizability. A recent synthesis of 147 programmes addressing childhood overweight and obesity provides a concrete example of using a broader approach to identify evidence for best practice (Flynn et al. 2006). Incorporating evaluation and population health frameworks as criterion components in addition to traditional methodological rigour criteria, this synthesis has identified programmes that provide contextual information that can be used to populate what Swinburn et al. (2005) have described as the 'promise table'. Using this approach a range in 'certainty of effectiveness' and a range in 'potential for population impact' are integrated to identify promising strategies. The exercise can provide direction for agencies and practitioners in taking action to address obesity.

  17. Comparison of statistical methods for assessment of population genetic diversity by DNA fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.; Roth, A.; Gordon, D.; Wessendarp, T.; Smith, M.K.; Silbiger, R.; Torsella, J.

    1995-12-31

    The advent of newer techniques for genomic characterization, e.g., Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting, has motivated development of a number of statistical approaches for creating hypothesis tests using this genetic information. The authors specific interest is methods for deriving relative genetic diversity measures of feral populations subjected to varying degrees of environmental impacts. Decreased polymorphism and loss of alleles have been documented in stressed populations of some species as assayed by allozyme analysis and, more recently, by DNA fingerprinting. Multilocus fingerprinting techniques (such as RAPDS) differ from allozyme analysis in that they do not explicitly yield information of allelism and heterozygosity. Therefore, in order to infer these parameters, assumptions must be made concerning the relationship of observed data to the underlying DNA architecture. In particular, assessments of population genetic diversity from DNA fingerprint data have employed at least three approaches based on different assumptions about the data. The authors compare different statistics, using a previously presented set of RAPD fingerprints of three populations of brown bullhead catfish. Furthermore, the behavior of these statistics is examined--as the sample sizes of fish/population and polymorphisms/fish are varied. Sample sizes are reduced either randomly or, in the case of polymorphisms (which are electrophoretic bands), systematically pruned using the criteria of high reproducibility between duplicate samples for inclusion of data. Implications for sampling individuals and loci in assessments of population genetic diversities are discussed. Concern about population N value and statistical power is very relevant to field situations where individuals available for sampling may be limited in number.

  18. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.

  19. Assessment of Smartphone Addiction in Indian Adolescents: A Mixed Method Study by Systematic-review and Meta-analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    There is a considerable debate on addiction and abuse to Smartphone among adolescents and its consequent impact on their health; not only in a global context, but also specifically in the Indian population; considering that Smartphone's, globally occupy more than 50% of mobile phones market and more precise quantification of the associated problems is important to facilitate understanding in this field. As per PRISMA (2009) guidelines, extensive search of various studies in any form from a global scale to the more narrow Indian context using two key search words: “Smartphone's addiction” and “Indian adolescents” was done using websites of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Global Health, Psyc-INFO, Biomed-Central, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, world library - World-Cat, Indian libraries such as National Medical Library of India from 1 January, 1995 to March 31, 2014 first for systematic-review. Finally, meta-analysis on only Indian studies was done using Med-Calc online software capable of doing meta-analysis of proportions. A total of 45 articles were considered in systematic-review from whole world; later on 6 studies out of these 45 related to Smartphone's addiction in India were extracted to perform meta-analysis, in which total 1304 participants (range: 165-335) were enrolled. The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents. PMID:25709785

  20. The relationship between reading beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Steven R; Weber, Michelle M; Brown, Lora Beth

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading women's beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods (laxatives, appetite suppressants/diet pills, skipping two meals a day, intentional vomiting, and restricting calories to 1,200 or less each day) among 502 high school females. Weak to moderate positive associations were found between reading frequency and each of these unhealthful practices except the use of laxatives. When controlling for anxiety about weight and frequency of regular exercise, however, the original bivariate relations between reading frequency and skipping two meals a day, and reading and intentional vomiting, disappeared. Replication and weak specification effects were found when examining the relationships between reading and taking appetite suppressant/weight control pills, and reading and restricting calories, under the control conditions. These findings suggest that two of the most common adolescent dieting methods--restricting calories and taking diet pills--appear to be influenced by the reading of women's beauty and fashion magazines.

  1. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents’ brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion–attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  2. Making Friends With Yourself: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study of a Mindful Self-Compassion Program for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bluth, Karen; Gaylord, Susan A.; Campo, Rebecca A.; Mullarkey, Michael C.; Hobbs, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this mixed-method pilot study were to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary psychosocial outcomes of “Making Friends with Yourself: A Mindful Self-Compassion Program for Teens” (MFY), an adaptation of the adult Mindful Self-Compassion program. Thirty-four students age 14–17 enrolled in this waitlist controlled crossover study. Participants were randomized to either the waitlist or intervention group and administered online surveys at baseline, after the first cohort participated in the intervention, and after the waitlist crossovers participated in the intervention. Attendance and retention data were collected to determine feasibility, and audiorecordings of the 6-week class were analyzed to determine acceptability of the program. Findings indicated that MFY is a feasible and acceptable program for adolescents. Compared to the waitlist control, the intervention group had significantly greater self-compassion and life satisfaction and significantly lower depression than the waitlist control, with trends for greater mindfulness, greater social connectedness and lower anxiety. When waitlist crossovers results were combined with that of the first intervention group, findings indicated significantly greater mindfulness and self-compassion, and significantly less anxiety, depression, perceived stress and negative affect post-intervention. Additionally, regression results demonstrated that self-compassion and mindfulness predicted decreases in anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and increases in life satisfaction post-intervention. MFY shows promise as a program to increase psychosocial wellbeing in adolescents through increasing mindfulness and self-compassion. Further testing is needed to substantiate the findings. PMID:27110301

  3. Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha G S; Clovis, Joanne B; McNally, Mary E; Filiaggi, Mark J; Kotzer, Robert D; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation Objectives To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey. Methods An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45–64 and ≥65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted. Results The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45–64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits. Conclusion Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies. PMID:21916953

  4. Using Electronic Health Records for Population Health Research: A Review of Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Schwartz, Brian S; Stewart, Walter F; Adler, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    The use and functionality of electronic health records (EHRs) have increased rapidly in the past decade. Although the primary purpose of EHRs is clinical, researchers have used them to conduct epidemiologic investigations, ranging from cross-sectional studies within a given hospital to longitudinal studies on geographically distributed patients. Herein, we describe EHRs, examine their use in population health research, and compare them with traditional epidemiologic methods. We describe diverse research applications that benefit from the large sample sizes and generalizable patient populations afforded by EHRs. These have included reevaluation of prior findings, a range of diseases and subgroups, environmental and social epidemiology, stigmatized conditions, predictive modeling, and evaluation of natural experiments. Although studies using primary data collection methods may have more reliable data and better population retention, EHR-based studies are less expensive and require less time to complete. Future EHR epidemiology with enhanced collection of social/behavior measures, linkage with vital records, and integration of emerging technologies such as personal sensing could improve clinical care and population health.

  5. A systematic method to document population-level nursing interventions in an electronic health system.

    PubMed

    Baisch, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many public health electronic health systems lack the specificity to distinguish between individual- and population-based levels of care provided by public health nurses. Data that describe the broad scope of the everyday practice of public health nurses are critical to providing evidence of their effectiveness in promoting community health, which may not be fully appreciated in an arena of scarce resources. This article describes a method to document population-based nursing practice by adding population-based interventions to the nursing taxonomy underlying an electronic health information system. These interventions, derived from the Intervention Wheel, were incorporated into the Omaha System taxonomy, the conceptual framework for the Automated Community Health Information System (ACHIS), which is a longstanding data system used to capture nursing practice in community nursing centers. This article includes a description of the development and testing of the system's ability to capture the practice of the district public health nurse model. This method of adapting an existing data system to capture population-based interventions could be replicated by public health administrators interested in better evaluating the processes and outcomes of public health nursing and other public health professionals.

  6. Adolescent brain development and underage drinking in the United States: identifying risks of alcohol use in college populations.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, a period that coincides with critical structural and functional maturation of the brain. Brain maturation and associated improvements in decision making continue into the third decade of life, reaching a plateau within the period referred to as emerging adulthood (18-24 years). This particular period covers that of traditionally aged college students, and includes the age (21 years) when alcohol consumption becomes legal in the United States. This review highlights neurobiological evidence indicating the vulnerabilities of the emerging-adult brain to the effects of alcohol. Factors increasing the risks associated with underage alcohol use include the age group's reduced sensitivity to alcohol sedation and increased sensitivity to alcohol-related disruptions in memory. On the individual level, factors increasing those risks are a positive family history of alcoholism, which has a demonstrated effect on brain structure and function, and emerging comorbid psychiatric conditions. These vulnerabilities-of the age group, in general, as well as of particular individuals-likely contribute to excessive and unsupervised drinking in college students. Discouraging alcohol consumption until neurobiological adulthood is reached is important for minimizing alcohol-related disruptions in brain development and decision-making capacity, and for reducing the negative behavioral consequences associated with underage alcohol use.

  7. Predictors of overweight and overfatness in a multiethnic pediatric population. Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J T; Stone, E J; Yang, M; Feldman, H; Webber, L S; Must, A; Perry, C L; Nader, P R; Parcel, G S

    1998-04-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether overweight or overfatness were predicted from sex, race or ethnicity, school site, and intervention or control status for children who were 9 y old at the outset of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). In this ethnically and geographically diverse group of 5106 students, height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured at 9 (baseline) and 11 y (follow-up) of age. The strongest predictors of status at follow-up were baseline overweight (odds ratio: 69.0; 95% CI: 54.9, 96.3) and overfatness (odds ratio: 27.4; 95% CI: 22.4, 33.4); site, African American race or ethnicity, and male sex were also significant independent associations. Children in the overweight (> 85th percentile for body mass index) group had significantly higher adjusted means for total blood cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein B concentrations, lower mean HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and lower performance on the 9-min run than those in other groups (< 15th, 15-49th, or 50-85th body mass index percentiles). Similar results were found for these factors for those subjects with greater triceps skinfold-thickness measurements. Groups of children who were overweight and overfat at baseline were more likely to be overweight and overfat at follow-up and to have more cardiovascular risk factors than their peers.

  8. Developing a Tablet-Based Self-Persuasion Intervention Promoting Adolescent HPV Vaccination: Protocol for a Three-Stage Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L; Wiebe, Deborah J; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a significant burden on the US health care system that can be prevented through adolescent HPV vaccination. Despite guidelines recommending vaccination, coverage among US adolescents is suboptimal particularly among underserved patients (uninsured, low income, racial, and ethnic minorities) seen in safety-net health care settings. Many parents are ambivalent about the vaccine and delay making a decision or talking with a provider about it. Self-persuasion—generating one’s own arguments for a health behavior—may be particularly effective for parents who are undecided or not motivated to make a vaccine decision. Objective Through a 3-stage mixed-methods protocol, we will identify an optimal and feasible self-persuasion intervention strategy to promote adolescent HPV vaccination in safety-net clinics. Methods In Stage 1, we will define content for a tablet-based self-persuasion app by characterizing (1) parents’ self-generated arguments through cognitive interviews conducted with parents (n=50) of patients and (2) parent-provider HPV vaccine discussions through audio recordings of clinic visits (n=50). In Stage 2, we will compare the effects of the four self-persuasion intervention conditions that vary by cognitive processing level (parents verbalize vs listen to arguments) and choice of argument topics (parents choose vs are assigned topics) on parental vaccine intentions in a 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial (n=160). This proof-of-concept trial design will identify which intervention condition is optimal by quantitatively examining basic self-persuasion mechanisms (cognitive processing and choice) and qualitatively exploring parent experiences with intervention tasks. In Stage 3, we will conduct a pilot trial (n=90) in the safety-net clinics to assess feasibility of the optimal intervention condition identified in Stage 2. We will also assess its impact on parent

  9. Bayesian methods of confidence interval construction for the population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Pirikahu, Sarah; Jones, Geoffrey; Hazelton, Martin L; Heuer, Cord

    2016-08-15

    Population attributable risk measures the public health impact of the removal of a risk factor. To apply this concept to epidemiological data, the calculation of a confidence interval to quantify the uncertainty in the estimate is desirable. However, because perhaps of the confusion surrounding the attributable risk measures, there is no standard confidence interval or variance formula given in the literature. In this paper, we implement a fully Bayesian approach to confidence interval construction of the population attributable risk for cross-sectional studies. We show that, in comparison with a number of standard Frequentist methods for constructing confidence intervals (i.e. delta, jackknife and bootstrap methods), the Bayesian approach is superior in terms of percent coverage in all except a few cases. This paper also explores the effect of the chosen prior on the coverage and provides alternatives for particular situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  11. The Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised with a Latino Population of Adolescents and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandy; Smith, Leann E.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that Latinos are less likely to be diagnosed with autism than their non-Latino counterparts. One factor that may contribute to these differences is that autism diagnostic instruments have not been adapted for the Latino population. The present study compared scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised for two groups: 48…

  12. Validation de la traduction française de la SURPS pour une population d’adolescents québécois

    PubMed Central

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectif La Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) est un instrument de dépistage des caractéristiques de personnalité qui représentent un risque pour le développement d’une consommation problématique de substances. La SURPS comporte 23 items évaluant 4 dimensions et permet aux intervenants en santé mentale de mieux cibler la prévention. La SURPS a été validée au Canada anglais, au Royaume-Uni, en Chine et au Sri Lanka; l’objectif de cette étude est de valider une traduction française de la SURPS pour des adolescents francophones québécois, en plus d’en tester la sensibilité dans une population clinique. Méthode Deux cent deux jeunes de 15 ans d’un échantillon communautaire ont répondu à la SURPS et à des mesures de la personnalité et de l’utilisation de substances. La cohérence interne, la solution factorielle et la validité concomitante de l’échelle ont été évaluées. Quarante adolescents (âge moyen de 15,7 ans) présentant un diagnostic psychiatrique ont également répondu à la SURPS et les scores ont été comparés aux normes de l’échantillon communautaire. Résultats La traduction française de la SURPS démontre une bonne cohérence interne ainsi qu’une solution factorielle à 4 facteurs semblable à la version originale. Ses 4 souséchelles ont une bonne validité concomitante. De plus, 3 de ses souséchelles sont corrélées avec des mesures relatives à la consommation de substances psychoactives. Finalement, 95 % des participants de l’échantillon clinique ont été identifiés à risque selon les scores limites de la SURPS. Conclusion La version française de la SURPS paraît être une mesure valide et sensible pouvant être utilisée auprès d’une population adolescente, québécoise et francophone. PMID:24099502

  13. Global self-esteem and method effects: competing factor structures, longitudinal invariance, and response styles in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Urbán, Róbert; Szigeti, Réka; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is a widely used measure for assessing self-esteem, but its factor structure is debated. Our goals were to compare 10 alternative models for the RSES and to quantify and predict the method effects. This sample involves two waves (N =2,513 9th-grade and 2,370 10th-grade students) from five waves of a school-based longitudinal study. The RSES was administered in each wave. The global self-esteem factor with two latent method factors yielded the best fit to the data. The global factor explained a large amount of the common variance (61% and 46%); however, a relatively large proportion of the common variance was attributed to the negative method factor (34 % and 41%), and a small proportion of the common variance was explained by the positive method factor (5% and 13%). We conceptualized the method effect as a response style and found that being a girl and having a higher number of depressive symptoms were associated with both low self-esteem and negative response style, as measured by the negative method factor. Our study supported the one global self-esteem construct and quantified the method effects in adolescents.

  14. Validation of population-based disease simulation models: a review of concepts and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computer simulation models are used increasingly to support public health research and policy, but questions about their quality persist. The purpose of this article is to review the principles and methods for validation of population-based disease simulation models. Methods We developed a comprehensive framework for validating population-based chronic disease simulation models and used this framework in a review of published model validation guidelines. Based on the review, we formulated a set of recommendations for gathering evidence of model credibility. Results Evidence of model credibility derives from examining: 1) the process of model development, 2) the performance of a model, and 3) the quality of decisions based on the model. Many important issues in model validation are insufficiently addressed by current guidelines. These issues include a detailed evaluation of different data sources, graphical representation of models, computer programming, model calibration, between-model comparisons, sensitivity analysis, and predictive validity. The role of external data in model validation depends on the purpose of the model (e.g., decision analysis versus prediction). More research is needed on the methods of comparing the quality of decisions based on different models. Conclusion As the role of simulation modeling in population health is increasing and models are becoming more complex, there is a need for further improvements in model validation methodology and common standards for evaluating model credibility. PMID:21087466

  15. Using photovoice in adolescent health research: a case-study of the Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) Study in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adebayo, Emmanuel S; Ojengbede, Oladosu A

    2016-10-14

    Photovoice is a participatory action research method in which people are given cameras and asked to take pictures of specific issues within their community. It is often used among marginalised populations. This method helps people capture specific issues within their community using photographs, critically discuss these issues within a group and present their findings to inform policies within their community. Photovoice has been used in developed countries and among adult participants; however, the extent to which it has been used in developing countries and among adolescent participants is yet to be extensively reported. In this paper, we describe the use of photovoice among male and female adolescents aged 15-19 years who participated in the qualitative phase (phase I) of the Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study in Ibadan, Nigeria. The main study was conducted among adolescents residing in disadvantaged communities within five global cities (Baltimore, USA; Ibadan, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; New Delhi, India and Shanghai, China). Our findings revealed that adolescents in Ibadan were very eager to participate, remained fully engaged throughout the process and the data obtained were rich and detailed. Some challenges encountered with using this method were that younger adolescents had a tendency to attain saturation when taking pictures much earlier than older adolescents; however, they equally discussed the pictures taken enthusiastically. Overall, our findings affirm that photovoice as a data collection method can be successfully used in research among adolescents in developing countries like Nigeria.

  16. Understanding bullying and victimization during childhood and adolescence: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Nancy G; Williams, Kirk R; Sadek, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, quantitative and qualitative data are presented to examine individual and contextual predictors of bullying and victimization and how they vary by age and gender. Two waves of survey data were collected from 2,678 elementary, middle, and high school youth attending 59 schools. In addition, 14 focus groups were conducted with 115 youth who did not participate in the survey. Changes in both bullying and victimization were predicted across gender and age by low self-esteem and negative school climate, with normative beliefs supporting bullying predicting increases in bullying only. Focus group comments provided insights into the dynamics of bullying, highlighting its connection to emergent sexuality and social identity during adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive antibullying interventions in schools.

  17. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population

    PubMed Central

    Van De Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-Van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R.; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Van Den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner’s Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24022983

  18. A method for estimating population sex ratio for sage-grouse using noninvasive genetic samples.

    PubMed

    Baumgardt, J A; Goldberg, C S; Reese, K P; Connelly, J W; Musil, D D; Garton, E O; Waits, L P

    2013-05-01

    Population sex ratio is an important metric for wildlife management and conservation, but estimates can be difficult to obtain, particularly for sexually monomorphic species or for species that differ in detection probability between the sexes. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common method for identifying sex from sources such as hair, feathers or faeces, and is a potential source for estimating sex ratio. If, however, PCR success is sex-biased, naively using NGS could lead to a biased sex ratio estimator. We measured PCR success rates and error rates for amplifying the W and Z chromosomes from greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) faecal samples, examined how success and error rates for sex identification changed in response to faecal sample exposure time, and used simulation models to evaluate precision and bias of three sex assignment criteria for estimating population sex ratio with variable sample sizes and levels of PCR replication. We found PCR success rates were higher for females than males and that choice of sex assignment criteria influenced the bias and precision of corresponding sex ratio estimates. Our simulations demonstrate the importance of considering the interplay between the sex bias of PCR success, number of genotyping replicates, sample size, true population sex ratio and accuracy of assignment rules for designing future studies. Our results suggest that using faecal DNA for estimating the sex ratio of sage-grouse populations has great potential and, with minor adaptations and similar marker evaluations, should be applicable to numerous species.

  19. Advances in statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci in outbred populations.

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, I; Uimari, P; Grignola, F E; Zhang, Q; Gage, K M

    1997-11-01

    Statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in outbred populations are reviewed, extensions and applications to human and plant genetic data are indicated, and areas for further research are identified. Simple and computationally inexpensive methods include (multiple) linear regression of phenotype on marker genotypes and regression of squared phenotypic differences among relative pairs on estimated proportions of identity-by-descent at a locus. These methods are less suited for genetic parameter estimation in outbred populations but allow the determination of test statistic distributions via simulation or data permutation; however, further inferences including confidence intervals of QTL location require the use of Monte Carlo or bootstrap sampling techniques. A method which is intermediate in computational requirements is residual maximum likelihood (REML) with a covariance matrix of random QTL effects conditional on information from multiple linked markers. Testing for the number of QTLs on a chromosome is difficult in a classical framework. The computationally most demanding methods are maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, which take account of the distribution of multilocus marker-QTL genotypes on a pedigree and permit investigators to fit different models of variation at the QTL. The Bayesian analysis includes the number of QTLs on a chromosome as an unknown.

  20. Advances in Statistical Methods to Map Quantitative Trait Loci in Outbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hoeschele, I.; Uimari, P.; Grignola, F. E.; Zhang, Q.; Gage, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in outbred populations are reviewed, extensions and applications to human and plant genetic data are indicated, and areas for further research are identified. Simple and computationally inexpensive methods include (multiple) linear regression of phenotype on marker genotypes and regression of squared phenotypic differences among relative pairs on estimated proportions of identity-by-descent at a locus. These methods are less suited for genetic parameter estimation in outbred populations but allow the determination of test statistic distributions via simulation or data permutation; however, further inferences including confidence intervals of QTL location require the use of Monte Carlo or bootstrap sampling techniques. A method which is intermediate in computational requirements is residual maximum likelihood (REML) with a covariance matrix of random QTL effects conditional on information from multiple linked markers. Testing for the number of QTLs on a chromosome is difficult in a classical framework. The computationally most demanding methods are maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, which take account of the distribution of multilocus marker-QTL genotypes on a pedigree and permit investigators to fit different models of variation at the QTL. The Bayesian analysis includes the number of QTLs on a chromosome as an unknown. PMID:9383084

  1. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of early onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of a multiethnic adolescent population in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases.

  3. [Do vitamins from foods fortified exceed the allowed limits? Study carried out in population young adolescent and young adult of the metropolitan region of Chile].

    PubMed

    Freixas Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gaete Verdugo, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the usual consumption of vitamins in an adolescent population and young adult in the Metropolitan Region, were 213 food fortified with vitamins of the Chilean market. A survey of consumption and nutrient intake was calculated. The result added vitamins added to food. The normality of the variables of the intake was assessed and data were subjected to analysis of descriptive statisticians and percentiles are determined. Estimated percentages of subjects whose values exceed those fixed for DDR and UL listed for each vitamin and percentage of excess for each case. Discriminant analysis was performed using the M Box test. The correlation canonical and the Statisticians Wilks were estimated. Finally it was estimated the percentage of correctly classified data. Data were processed by the program SPSS 20.0 with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that you for all the studied vitamins, the percentage of subjects who more than the DDR is for total folate (96.4%) and the lowest percentage is given for the vitamin E and B12 in young adult women. The percentage of subjects who exceed the UL values is greatest for the vitamin B3 (91.9%). According to the canonical correlation, there are differences in behavior between the groups. It is recommended to monitor the behavior and consumption of food fortified with vitamins, especially of the complex B and A.

  4. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations with coagulation, fragmentation and spatial inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kok Foong; Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Problems concerning multi-compartment population balance equations are studied. •A class of fragmentation weight transfer functions is presented. •Three stochastic weighted algorithms are compared against the direct simulation algorithm. •The numerical errors of the stochastic solutions are assessed as a function of fragmentation rate. •The algorithms are applied to a multi-dimensional granulation model. -- Abstract: This paper introduces stochastic weighted particle algorithms for the solution of multi-compartment population balance equations. In particular, it presents a class of fragmentation weight transfer functions which are constructed such that the number of computational particles stays constant during fragmentation events. The weight transfer functions are constructed based on systems of weighted computational particles and each of it leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. Besides fragmentation, the algorithms also consider physical processes such as coagulation and the exchange of mass with the surroundings. The numerical properties of the algorithms are compared to the direct simulation algorithm and an existing method for the fragmentation of weighted particles. It is found that the new algorithms show better numerical performance over the two existing methods especially for systems with significant amount of large particles and high fragmentation rates.

  5. Evaluation of methods accounting for population structure with pedigree data and continuous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Peloso, Gina M; Dupuis, Josée; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2011-09-01

    Methods to account for population structure (PS) in genome-wide association studies have been well developed in samples of unrelated individuals, but when a sample is composed of families, the task of finding and accounting for PS is not as straight forward. Family-based tests that condition on parental genotypes or their sufficient statistics are immune to biases due to PS, but are known to have low power, particularly for unselected samples. Population-based approaches that use all available data are an attractive alternative, but the methods have not been evaluated for continuous outcomes when a sample has both family and PS. Therefore, we compare through simulation the performance of population-based regression models that account for family and PS with continuous outcomes using a range of family sizes and structures, including two and three generational families with admixed and discrete PS. We find that when computation time is a concern, the Dupuis et al. efficient score test performs very well. When computational time is not an issue, a linear mixed effects model adjusting for genetic principal components tends to have slightly better power than the score test and may be preferred.

  6. Efficient and Accurate Multiple-Phenotype Regression Method for High Dimensional Data Considering Population Structure.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jong Wha J; Kang, Eun Yong; Org, Elin; Furlotte, Nick; Parks, Brian; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Lusis, Aldons J; Eskin, Eleazar

    2016-12-01

    A typical genome-wide association study tests correlation between a single phenotype and each genotype one at a time. However, single-phenotype analysis might miss unmeasured aspects of complex biological networks. Analyzing many phenotypes simultaneously may increase the power to capture these unmeasured aspects and detect more variants. Several multivariate approaches aim to detect variants related to more than one phenotype, but these current approaches do not consider the effects of population structure. As a result, these approaches may result in a significant amount of false positive identifications. Here, we introduce a new methodology, referred to as GAMMA for generalized analysis of molecular variance for mixed-model analysis, which is capable of simultaneously analyzing many phenotypes and correcting for population structure. In a simulated study using data implanted with true genetic effects, GAMMA accurately identifies these true effects without producing false positives induced by population structure. In simulations with this data, GAMMA is an improvement over other methods which either fail to detect true effects or produce many false positive identifications. We further apply our method to genetic studies of yeast and gut microbiome from mice and show that GAMMA identifies several variants that are likely to have true biological mechanisms.

  7. Partitioning of genetic variation across the genome using multimarker methods in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Santure, Anna W; Decauwer, Isabelle; Sheldon, Ben C; Slate, Jon

    2013-08-01

    The underlying basis of genetic variation in quantitative traits, in terms of the number of causal variants and the size of their effects, is largely unknown in natural populations. The expectation is that complex quantitative trait variation is attributable to many, possibly interacting, causal variants, whose effects may depend upon the sex, age and the environment in which they are expressed. A recently developed methodology in animal breeding derives a value of relatedness among individuals from high-density genomic marker data, to estimate additive genetic variance within livestock populations. Here, we adapt and test the effectiveness of these methods to partition genetic variation for complex traits across genomic regions within ecological study populations where individuals have varying degrees of relatedness. We then apply this approach for the first time to a natural population and demonstrate that genetic variation in wing length in the great tit (Parus major) reflects contributions from multiple genomic regions. We show that a polygenic additive mode of gene action best describes the patterns observed, and we find no evidence of dosage compensation for the sex chromosome. Our results suggest that most of the genomic regions that influence wing length have the same effects in both sexes. We found a limited amount of genetic variance in males that is attributed to regions that have no effects in females, which could facilitate the sexual dimorphism observed for this trait. Although this exploratory work focuses on one complex trait, the methodology is generally applicable to any trait for any laboratory or wild population, paving the way for investigating sex-, age- and environment-specific genetic effects and thus the underlying genetic architecture of phenotype in biological study systems.

  8. Evaluating the performance of methods for estimating the abundance of rapidly declining coastal shark populations.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Douglas J; McLean, Kevin A; Bauer, John; Young, Hillary S; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-03-01

    Accurately surveying shark populations is critical to monitoring precipitous ongoing declines in shark abundance and interpreting the effects that these reductions are having on ecosystems. To evaluate the effectiveness of existing survey tools, we used field trials and computer simulations to critically examine the operation of four common methods for counting coastal sharks: stationary point counts, belt transects, video surveys, and mark and recapture abundance estimators. Empirical and theoretical results suggest that (1) survey method selection has a strong impact on the estimates of shark density that are produced, (2) standardizations by survey duration are needed to properly interpret and compare survey outputs, (3) increasing survey size does not necessarily increase survey precision, and (4) methods that yield the highest density estimates are not always the most accurate. These findings challenge some of the assumptions traditionally associated with surveying mobile marine animals. Of the methods we trialed, 8 x 50 m belt transects and a 20 m radius point count produced the most accurate estimates of shark density. These findings can help to improve the ways we monitor, manage, and understand the ecology of globally imperiled coastal shark populations.

  9. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  10. Supporting adolescent emotional health in schools: a mixed methods study of student and staff views in England

    PubMed Central

    Kidger, Judi; Donovan, Jenny L; Biddle, Lucy; Campbell, Rona; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Schools have been identified as an important place in which to support adolescent emotional health, although evidence as to which interventions are effective remains limited. Relatively little is known about student and staff views regarding current school-based emotional health provision and what they would like to see in the future, and this is what this study explored. Methods A random sample of 296 English secondary schools were surveyed to quantify current level of emotional health provision. Qualitative student focus groups (27 groups, 154 students aged 12-14) and staff interviews (12 interviews, 15 individuals) were conducted in eight schools, purposively sampled from the survey respondents to ensure a range of emotional health activity, free school meal eligibility and location. Data were analysed thematically, following a constant comparison approach. Results Emergent themes were grouped into three areas in which participants felt schools did or could intervene: emotional health in the curriculum, support for those in distress, and the physical and psychosocial environment. Little time was spent teaching about emotional health in the curriculum, and most staff and students wanted more. Opportunities to explore emotions in other curriculum subjects were valued. All schools provided some support for students experiencing emotional distress, but the type and quality varied a great deal. Students wanted an increase in school-based help sources that were confidential, available to all and sympathetic, and were concerned that accessing support should not lead to stigma. Finally, staff and students emphasised the need to consider the whole school environment in order to address sources of distress such as bullying and teacher-student relationships, but also to increase activities that enhanced emotional health. Conclusion Staff and students identified several ways in which schools can improve their support of adolescent emotional health, both within

  11. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  12. Phenomenology and Correlates of Complicated Grief in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Moritz, Grace; Walker, Monica; Shear, M. Katherine; Brent, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenology of complicated grief (CG) in parentally bereaved children and adolescents and to examine its correlates. Method: This is a preliminary report from an ongoing 5-year, population-based, longitudinal study of the impact of parental loss on family members. Analyses of cross-sectional data at intake are…

  13. Assessment of Health Decision Making Skills of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gary D.

    Although the development of rational decision making skills among school age populations has been identified as a goal of school health education programs, few measurement tools or methods exist to assess such skills. In order to develop an instrument for assessing adolescent health decision-making skills, a preliminary health decision making…

  14. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS) to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings. PMID:22540266

  15. Transitioning issues in adolescent to young adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors: an approach for a growing population.

    PubMed

    Young, Guy

    2010-09-01

    The major adverse effect of factor replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia is the development of neutralizing antibodies termed inhibitors. This complication renders standard factor replacement therapy ineffective resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the population of adults with inhibitors was relatively small due to the death of many of the patients from HIV that they contracted from contaminated factor in the early 1980s. With the advent of factor products with reduced risks for deadly infections in the mid-1980s to early 1990s, a cohort of inhibitor patients is now beginning to enter adulthood thus raising the issues regarding the transition of these patients into adulthood. It is, therefore, expected that adult hematologists will be seeing more inhibitor patients and that pediatric hematologists will be faced with managing this transition process, which may not necessarily include transition to an adult facility or adult hematologist. This review will discuss the various issues ranging from choice of medical provider to a discussion of psychosocial and financial issues facing this specific patient population.

  16. Mixed Dentition Space Analysis in Kodava Population: A Comparison of Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami; Palukunnu, Biswas; Shetty, Balakrishna; Puthalath, Ushass

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the reliability of Tanaka and Johnston and Moyer’s (75th percentile) mixed dentition prediction methods in Kodava population sample, to formulate regression equations for predicting the mesiodistal widths of unerupted canines and premolars and to construct probability tables for the Kodava population. Settings and Design: Data was obtained from Kodava subjects visiting the clinics for routine dental check up. Materials and Methods: Dental models of 30 male and 30 female Kodava subjects (age range is 16 - 23 yr) were used. Teeth measured included mandibular permanent incisors, maxillary and mandibular permanent canines, first and second premolars. Digital caliper calibrated to 0.01mm was used to record mesiodistal dimensions. The actual teeth measurements were then statistically compared with the predicted values derived from the Tanaka and Johnston’s equations and Moyers probability tables at the 75th percentile. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations were calculated for the actual and predicted tooth sizes. Student’s t-tests were performed to compare the differences between the measured mesiodistal widths of canine, first and second premolars and the predicted values derived from Moyers. Correlation and regression analysis were performed to formulate standard regression equations. Results: Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations overestimated the mesiodistal widths of permanent canines and premolars in both the arches. Moyers 75th percentile also overestimated the actual measurements except for the maxillary arch in female subjects. The percentage of overestimation was more for Tanaka – Johnston prediction method than that of Moyers (75th percentile). Correlation and regression analysis were performed between the predicted and actual tooth size and standard regression equations were developed for the Kodava population. Probability tables were also constructed from the data obtained

  17. Sources of Prescriptions for Misuse by Adolescents: Differences in Sex, Ethnicity, and Severity of Misuse in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Ty S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2009-01-01

    A study found that adolescents who recently acquired medication by buying it had the worst risk profile among all medications classes in terms of concurrent substance use and the severity of prescription misuse. It is hoped that the findings could help identify subgroups of adolescents prescription misusers who are most vulnerable to consequences…

  18. Is poor self-rated health associated with low-grade inflammation in 43 110 late adolescent men of the general population? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Warnoff, Carin; Lekander, Mats; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Melin, Bo; Andreasson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a powerful predictor of long-term health and mortality, hence the importance of a better understanding of its biological determinants. Previous studies have shown that low-grade inflammation is associated with poor self-rated health in clinical and healthy populations, but the evidence is sparse in men and completely lacking for men in late adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation and self-rated health among conscripts. It was hypothesised that high levels of inflammatory factors would be associated with poor self-rated health. Design Data from 49 321 men (18–21 years) conscripted for military service in 1969 and 1970 were used. Inflammation had been measured through erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Self-rated health had been assessed on a five-point scale, and was dichotomised into Good (‘Very good’/‘Good’/‘Fair’) versus Poor (‘Poor’/‘Very poor’). Data from 43 110 conscripts with normal levels of ESR, and who reported self-rated health remained after exclusion of those with ESR <1 and >11 mm/h. Associations were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Adjustments were made for body mass index, socioeconomic position, inflammatory disease, emotion regulation, smoking, risky use of alcohol and physical activity. Results High levels of ESR were associated with higher odds for poor self-rated health (OR: 1.077 for each unit mm/h increase in ESR, 95% CI 1.049 to 1.105). Conclusions The present study shows for the first time a significant association between a marker of inflammation and self-rated health in late adolescent men, adding to evidence of an association between low-grade inflammation and subjective health perception also in men, as previously demonstrated in women. Further support for inflammation as part of a general psychobiological process that underpins subjective health perception is hereby provided. PMID:27113233

  19. Transfer of sampling methods for studies on most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Júnior, Aristides; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Kendall, Carl; McFarland, Willi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the process of transferring two methods for sampling most-at-risk populations: respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-space sampling (TSS). The article describes steps in the process, the methods used in the 10 pilot studies, and lessons learned. The process was conducted in six steps, from a state-of-the-art seminar to a workshop on writing articles with the results of the pilot studies. The principal investigators reported difficulties in the fieldwork and data analysis, independently of the pilot sampling method. One of the most important results of the transfer process is that Brazil now has more than 100 researchers able to sample MARPs using RDS or TSS. The process also enabled the construction of baselines for MARPS, thus providing a broader understanding of the dynamics of HIV infection in the country and the use of evidence to plan the national response to the epidemic in these groups.

  20. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population.

  1. BrdsNBz: A mixed methods study exploring adolescents' use of a sexual health text message service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    Sexual health text message services are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about who uses such services and why. This project details the implementation of a campaign promoting a state-wide sexual health text message service that allows teens to text directly with a health educator and uses a mixed method design to assess who uses the service, what motivates use, and potential barriers to using the service. A theory of information seeking through text messaging is posited based on previous information seeking and communication theory and tested with adolescents. A social marketing campaign was created promoting a North Carolina sexual health text message service and conducted in six middle and high schools in the North Carolina Piedmont region in Fall 2012. More than 2000 students in four schools completed online questionnaires that assessed awareness of the service, perceptions, and use. Focus groups and in depth interviews were then conducted with middle and high school students. Results indicate teens who are sexually active and in relationships are more likely to use the service. A teens' level of uncertainty about sexual health influences affect, which in turn leads adolescents to assess various information options. Positive attitudes toward the service and credibility perceptions are direct predictors of intentions to use. Efficacy was found to be an indirect predictor, working through credibility perceptions to influence intentions to use. Although teens may have an interest in using the service, there are barriers associated with use. Survey findings and qualitative results indicate that teens are interested in using a sexual health text message service, but perceived costs, fear of parents finding out about service use, and a lack of understanding of how to use the service were barriers for some teens. This study has implications for sexual health text message services, especially those that allow teens to connect directly with a health

  2. Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, Juan P; Mesana, Maria I; Poortvliet, Eric; Ortega, Francisco B; Polito, Angela; Nagy, Eniko; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P < 0.001). The same result was observed in Stockholm (P < 0.001), except that DXA was not measured. Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.

  3. A NEW METHOD FOR DERIVING THE STELLAR BIRTH FUNCTION OF RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gennaro, M.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, K.

    2015-07-20

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color–magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge.

  4. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  5. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  6. [Contraception and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  7. Adolescent bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population.

  8. A New Experimental Method Assessing Attitudes toward Adolescent Dating and Sibling Violence Using Observations of Violent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides experimental data comparing emerging adults' attitudes toward dating and sibling violence in adolescence using a new methodology in which participants observe a violent interaction between adolescents. The reported amount of violence experienced in dating and sibling relationships among emerging adults is also compared.…

  9. The Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skill Training (IPT-AST) in Preventing Depression: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Sarah Shankman

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder that is associated with social and academic impairment, suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high-risk behaviors (Horowitz, Garber, Ciesla, Young, & Mufson, 2007). Yet many adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms do not receive adequate services, and those that do…

  10. The Role of Future Work Goal Motives in Adolescent Identity Development: A Longitudinal Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David Scott; Bundick, Matthew J.; Johnson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Theories of adolescent identity development often emphasize the importance of adolescents' future work goals, yet these theories rarely distinguish the "self-oriented" motives (enjoying or being a good fit for one's work) from the "beyond-the-self-oriented" motives (having a positive impact on the world beyond the self) that underlie them. The…

  11. Autism after Adolescence: Population-Based 13- to 22-Year Follow-Up Study of 120 Individuals with Autism Diagnosed in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism followed from childhood to adulthood. Methods: Individuals with autism, diagnosed in childhood, were followed prospectively for a period of 13-22 years and re-evaluated at ages 17-40 years. The instruments used at follow-up were the DISCO, WAIS-R, WISC-III,…

  12. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  13. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  14. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  15. Reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method for a French contemporary population.

    PubMed

    Savall, Frédéric; Rérolle, Camille; Hérin, Fabrice; Dédouit, Fabrice; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    The Suchey-Brooks method is commonly used for pubic symphyseal aging in forensic cases. However, inter-population variability is a problem affected by several factors such as geographical location and secular trends. The aim of our study was to test the reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method on a virtual sample of contemporary French males. We carried out a retrospective study of 680 pubic symphysis from adult males undergoing clinical Multislice Computed Tomography in two hospitals between January 2013 and July 2014 (Toulouse and Tours, France). The reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method was tested by the calculation of inaccuracy and bias between real and estimated ages, and the mean age for each stage and the mean stage for each 10-years age interval were compared. The degree of inaccuracy and bias increased with age and inaccuracy exceeded 20 years for individuals over 65 years of age. The results are consistent with an overestimation of the real age for stages I and II and an underestimation of the real age for stages IV, V and VI. Furthermore, the mean stages of the reference sample were significantly lower for the 14-25 age group and significantly higher for individuals over 35 years old. Age estimation is potentially limited by differential inter-population error rates between geographical locations. Furthermore, the effects of secular trends are also supported by research in European countries showing a reduction in the age of attainment of indicators of biological maturity during the past few decades. The results suggest that the Suchey-Brooks method should be used with caution in France. Our study supports previous findings and in the future, the Suchey-Brooks method could benefit from re-evaluation of the aging standards by the establishment of new virtual reference samples.

  16. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  18. Preferences for ARV-based HIV prevention methods among men and women, adolescent girls and female sex workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Eakle, Robyn; Cabrera, Maria; Vickerman, Peter; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Cianci, Fiona; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For the past few decades, condoms have been the main method of HIV prevention. Recent advances in antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products have substantially changed the prevention landscape, yet little is known about how popular these products will be among potential users, or whether new methods might be used in conjunction with, or instead of, condoms. This study will use a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to (1) explore potential users' preferences regarding HIV prevention products, (2) quantify the importance of product attributes and (3) predict the uptake of products to inform estimates of their potential impact on the HIV epidemic in South Africa. We consider preferences for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis; a vaginal microbicide gel; a long-acting vaginal ring; a SILCS diaphragm used in concert with gel; and a long-acting ARV-based injectable. Methods and analysis This study will gather data from 4 populations: 200 women, 200 men, 200 adolescent girls (aged 16–17 years) and 200 female sex workers. The DCE attributes and design will be developed through a literature review, supplemented by a thematic analysis of qualitative focus group discussions. Extensive piloting will be carried out in each population through semistructured interviews. The final survey will be conducted using computer tablets via a household sample (for women, men and adolescents) and respondent-driven sampling (for female sex workers), and DCE data analysed using a range of multinomial logit models. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee and the Research Ethics Committee at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Findings will be presented to international conferences and peer-reviewed journals. Meetings will be held with opinion leaders in South Africa, while results will be disseminated to participants in Ekurhuleni through a public meeting or newsletter. PMID:27354071

  19. Using Photography as a Method to Explore Adolescent Challenges and Resilience in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cathryn; Schatz, Desmond A.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Lyles, Shannon; Rohrs, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered approaches to disease management are consistently recognized as valuable tools for improving health outcomes, yet studies are rarely designed to elicit adolescent perspectives. This study sought to better understand the perspectives of youths with type 1 diabetes according to key demographic variables. We conducted an exploratory study through which 40 youths were provided with disposable cameras and prompted to take five photographs each that captured what diabetes meant to them and to provide narratives to accompany their photo choices. Demographic variables examined included sex, age, disease duration, socioeconomic status (SES), race, and glycemic control (A1C). Content analysis was used for photos and open-ended responses to assign photo index scores, which were then analyzed by demographic variables using Mann-Whitney U tests for statistical significance. Analysis of photos/narratives (n = 202) revealed five main types of representations depicted by at least 50% of the young people. “Challenge” photos included diabetes supplies as tethering, food as a source of frustration, and the body as a territory for disease encroachment. “Resilience” photos included coping mechanisms and symbols of resistance. Overall, these representations were consistent across demographic categories with two exceptions. Males took more food depictions than females (P <0.005) and had fewer coping depictions (P <0.05). Youths from more affluent households were more likely to take photos of resistance (P <0.05). The use of photo index scores expands previous studies using photography by comparing demographic variation within a sample. Our findings provide insight into coping strategies and indicate that SES may provide an advantage for affluent youths in meeting diabetes-specific challenges. PMID:25987807

  20. A simple method of removing the effect of a bottleneck and unequal population sizes on pairwise genetic distances.

    PubMed Central

    Gaggiotti, O E; Excoffier, L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the expectation of two popular genetic distances under a model of pure population fission allowing for unequal population sizes. Under the model, we show that conventional genetic distances are not proportional to the divergence time and generally overestimate it due to unequal genetic drift and to a bottleneck effect at the divergence time. This bias cannot be totally removed even if the present population sizes are known. Instead, we present a method to estimate the divergence times between populations which is based on the average number of nucleotide differences within and between populations. The method simultaneously estimates the divergence time, the ancestral population size and the relative sizes of the derived populations. A simulation study revealed that this method is essentially unbiased and that it leads to better estimates than traditional approaches for a very wide range of parameter values. Simulations also indicated that moderate population growth after divergence has little effect on the estimates of all three estimated parameters. An application of our method to a comparison of humans and chimpanzee mitochondrial DNA diversity revealed that common chimpanzees have a significantly larger female population size than humans. PMID:10670957

  1. A novel method of reduction for first-time acute lateral patellar dislocations in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang

    2016-03-01

    Five pediatric patients with acute traumatic "first-time" lateral patellar dislocations were successfully reduced using a novel, atraumatic, and simple technique. Uniquely, unlike the traditional method of patellar reduction, the patellar dislocations were reduced without any direct manipulation of the patella. In co-operative patients, no analgesia was required. Further validation of the reproducibility of the effectiveness of this method for successful patellar reduction in pediatric and adult populations are required.

  2. A Community-Based Hip Fracture Registry: Population, Methods, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Inacio, Maria C S; Weiss, Jennifer M; Miric, Alex; Hunt, Jessica J; Zohman, Gary L; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hip fracture is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. A large integrated health care system developed a registry to characterize its current patient population with hip fractures. This report describes the population, methods used, and outcomes of patients registered during the initial three years (2009–2011). Methods: Cases of hip fracture recorded from January 2009 through December 2011 were ascertained using the Kaiser Permanente Hip Fracture Registry. The registry collects information on patient, procedure, surgeon, facility, and surgical outcomes. Outcomes monitored included length of stay, readmissions, mortality, revisions, surgical site infections, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pressure ulcers, dislocations, and myocardial infarction. Results: The population (N = 12,562) was predominantly white (77.8%), women (68.6%), and older (71.6% aged ≥ 75 years), and 32% had at least 5 comorbidities. The average length of follow-up was 1.1 years (standard deviation = 0.9). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (70.8%) and anemia (29.4%). Femoral neck fractures (54.6%) were the most common fracture type. Hemiarthroplasty was the most common procedure (33.1%). Most fractures were treated by medium-volume (10 to 29 cases per year) surgeons (68.4%) at high-volume (≥ 130 cases per year) facilities (63.0%). The 90-day readmission rate was 22.1%, and the mortality rate was 12.3%. The most common postoperative complications were pneumonia (11.4%) and pressure ulcers (2.9%). There were 2.2 revisions per 100 observation years. Conclusion: A hip fracture registry provides important information regarding patient characteristics, intraoperative practices, and postoperative outcomes, which can be analyzed, interpreted, and used to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26057682

  3. Use of Opportunistic Clinical Data and a Population Pharmacokinetic Model to Support Dosing of Clindamycin for Premature Infants to Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Melloni, Chiara; Yogev, Ram; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Mendley, Susan R.; Delmore, Paula; Sullivan, Janice E.; Autmizguine, Julie; Lewandowski, Andrew; Harper, Barrie; Watt, Kevin M.; Lewis, Kenneth C.; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Clindamycin is commonly prescribed to treat children with skin and skin structure infections (including those caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA]), yet little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK) across pediatric age groups. A population PK analysis was performed in NONMEM using samples collected in an opportunistic study from children receiving intravenous clindamycin per standard of care. The final model was used to optimize pediatric dosing to match adult exposure proven effective against CA-MRSA. A total of 194 plasma PK samples collected from 125 children were included in the analysis. Median age (range) was 3.3 years (0–20). Median dosing was 9.9 mg/kg/dose (3.8–15.1). A 1-compartment model described the data well. The final model included body weight and a sigmoidal maturation relationship between postmenstrual age (PMA) and clearance (CL): CL (L/h)=13.7*(weight/70)0.75*(PMA3.1/(43.63.1+PMA3.1)); V (L)=61.8*(weight/70). Maturation reached 50% adult CL values at ~44 weeks PMA. Our findings support age-based dosing. PMID:24949994

  4. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Populations.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Matsuura, Yukiko; Kaji, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR) methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered.

  5. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Matsuura, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR) methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered. PMID:27711181

  6. Indirect methods to control population distribution in a large spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingfei; Goryachev, Maxim; Bourhill, Jeremy; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate how a large spin system (S=7/2) with the ground and first excited state separated by a seven-photon transition exhibits nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties and how the population distribution may be manipulated using coupling between energy levels. The first method involves non-adiabatic passage through an avoided level crossing controlled with an external DC magnetic field and the resulting Landau–Zener transition. The second method is based on external cavity pumping to a higher energy state hybridised with another state that is two single-photon transitions away from the ground state. The results are confirmed experimentally with a Gd3+ impurity ion ensemble in a YVO4 crystal cooled to 20 mK, which also acts as a microwave photonic whispering gallery mode resonator. Extremely long lifetimes are observed due to the large number of photons required for the transition between the ground and first excited states.

  7. New parsimonious simulation methods and tools to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations

    PubMed Central

    Antle, John M.; Stoorvogel, Jetse J.; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical foundations for new parsimonious simulation models that are being used to assess future food and environmental security of farm populations. The conceptual framework integrates key features of the biophysical and economic processes on which the farming systems are based. The approach represents a methodological advance by coupling important behavioural processes, for example, self-selection in adaptive responses to technological and environmental change, with aggregate processes, such as changes in market supply and demand conditions or environmental conditions as climate. Suitable biophysical and economic data are a critical limiting factor in modelling these complex systems, particularly for the characterization of out-of-sample counterfactuals in ex ante analyses. Parsimonious, population-based simulation methods are described that exploit available observational, experimental, modelled and expert data. The analysis makes use of a new scenario design concept called representative agricultural pathways. A case study illustrates how these methods can be used to assess food and environmental security. The concluding section addresses generalizations of parametric forms and linkages of regional models to global models. PMID:24535388

  8. The establishment of tocopherol reference intervals for Hungarian adult population using a validated HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Veres, Gábor; Szpisjak, László; Bajtai, Attila; Siska, Andrea; Klivényi, Péter; Ilisz, István; Földesi, Imre; Vécsei, László; Zádori, Dénes

    2017-02-09

    Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size, recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were determined as well for data normalization. The calculated 2.5-97.5% reference intervals for α-, β/γ- and δ-tocopherols were 24.62-54.67, 0.81-3.69 and 0.29-1.07 μm, respectively, whereas the tocopherol/cholesterol ratios were 5.11-11.27, 0.14-0.72 and 0.06-0.22 μmol/mmol, respectively. The establishment of these reference intervals may improve the diagnostic accuracy of tocopherol measurements in certain neurological conditions with decreased tocopherol levels. Moreover, the current study draws special attention to the possible pitfalls in the complex process of the determination of reference intervals as well, including the selection of study population, the application of internal standard and method validation and the calculation of tocopherol/cholesterol ratios.

  9. A Mixed Methods Analysis of Beverage Choices in Adolescents and Their Parents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Riebl, Shaun K; MacDougall, Carly; Hill, Catelyn; Estabrooks, Paul A; Dunsmore, Julie C; Savla, Jyoti; Frisard, Madlyn I; Dietrich, Andrea M; Davy, Brenda M

    2015-01-01

    Background Added sugar intake in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been considered a contributor to weight gain and cardiometabolic dysfunction in adults and youth. Adolescents are some of the highest consumers of added sugars, taking in ~16% of their total calories from added sugars with ~40% of these calories coming from SSB. Youth’s food preferences and self-regulation of dietary intake can be influenced by parents. Objective To evaluate the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) effectiveness in understanding and predicting adolescents' SSB consumption, identify which constructs are the most important when evaluating SSB consumption in adolescents, and determine if and how adolescents' beverage choices are influenced by parents' reactions to their beverage choices. Design Measurements for this cross-sectional study included four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls and responses to a SSB-specific TPB questionnaire from 100 adolescents. Consenting parents completed a beverage intake questionnaire, a TPB questionnaire, and Parent Response to Beverage Choice Questionnaire. Results The TPB explained 34% of the variance in adolescents' and parents' intention to limit SSB to less than one cup per day. Parents' perceived behavioral control (b=1.35, p=0.002) and adolescents' subjective norms (b=0.57, p=0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of SSB consumption in both adolescents and parents (b=−37, p=0.026, b=−49, p=0.003). The TPB explained more variance in parent SSB consumption (R2=0.38) than adolescents (R2=0.22). Parents did more discouraging of SSB and encouraging of non-SSB. Adolescents' intention to limit SSB moderated the relationship between parents' reactions encouraging SSB and adolescents' predicted SSB consumption (p=0.021). Conclusions The TPB explained a small, but significant amount of variance in adolescents' SSB consumption. When addressing adolescent SSB intake, people in

  10. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  11. Prognostic factors of childhood and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival: evidence from four decades of US population data.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Jobayer; Xie, Li; Caywood, Emi H

    2015-10-01

    Growing insight into prognosis of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival has led to improved outcome over time and could be further enhanced through investigation using a large number of patients. To characterize the extent of the association of pediatric AML survival with its identified prognostic factors, we analyzed the United States population-based Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) large dataset of 3442 pediatric AML patients diagnosed and followed between 1973 and 2011 using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified by year of diagnosis. Patients diagnosed between 10 and 19 years of age were at a higher risk of death compared to those diagnosed before age 10 (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.44). African Americans (1.27, 1.09-1.48) and Hispanics (1.15, 1.00-1.32) had an elevated risk of mortality than Caucasians. Compared to the subtype acute promyelocytic leukemia, AML with minimal differentiation (2.44, 1.78-3.35); acute erythroid leukemia (2.34, 1.60-3.40); AML without maturation (1.87, 1.35-2.59); and most other AML subtypes had a higher risk of mortality, whereas AML with inv(16) had a substantially lower risk. Age at diagnosis, race-ethnicity, AML subtype, county level poverty and geographic region appeared as significant prognostic factors of pediatric AML survival in the US. Contrary to previous findings, the subtypes of AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23)MLLT3-MLL, AML without maturation and acute myelomonocytic leukemia emerged to be indicative of poor outcome.

  12. Adolescent Alienation: Assessment and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetro, Joyce V.

    Adolescents struggle to establish their own identities and become independent in making the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent alienation can result from changes in family structure from traditional two-parent families to one-parent families, decreased family stability, increased mobility of society, population increases,…

  13. Best Practices for Adolescent ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rance-Roney, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent English language learners present particular challenges for schools. The population of adolescent ELLs is diverse, and their educational needs are affected by differences in immigration status, quality of educational background, native language, cultural distance from U.S. culture, future plans, and economic status. The article offers…

  14. Rationalising College English Methodology: A Student-Activated, Study-Learning Method for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bikram K.

    1974-01-01

    This new method for teaching college English in India is based on prior assumptions but is given a justification and a methodological framework previously lacking. The method, which lies somewhere between the manipulative control and regimentation employed at the school level and the total freedom of the existing college method, is described in…

  15. Preface of the "Symposium on Mathematical Models and Methods to investigate Heterogeneity in Cell and Cell Population Biology"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairambault, Jean

    2016-06-01

    This session investigates hot topics related to mathematical representations of cell and cell population dynamics in biology and medicine, in particular, but not only, with applications to cancer. Methods in mathematical modelling and analysis, and in statistical inference using single-cell and cell population data, should contribute to focus this session on heterogeneity in cell populations. Among other methods are proposed: a) Intracellular protein dynamics and gene regulatory networks using ordinary/partial/delay differential equations (ODEs, PDEs, DDEs); b) Representation of cell population dynamics using agent-based models (ABMs) and/or PDEs; c) Hybrid models and multiscale models to integrate single-cell dynamics into cell population behaviour; d) Structured cell population dynamics and asymptotic evolution w.r.t. relevant traits; e) Heterogeneity in cancer cell populations: origin, evolution, phylogeny and methods of reconstruction; f) Drug resistance as an evolutionary phenotype: predicting and overcoming it in therapeutics; g) Theoretical therapeutic optimisation of combined drug treatments in cancer cell populations and in populations of other organisms, such as bacteria.

  16. Attachment, Parenting, and Separation-Individuation in Adolescence: A Comparison of Hospitalized Adolescents, Institutionalized Delinquents, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…

  17. Men's perception of the experience of parenting in adolescence: a bioecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Cândida Lopes; Meincke, Sonia Maria Könzgen; Schwartz, Eda; Oliveira, Adriane Maria Netto de; Soares, Marilu Corrêa; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Objective to know the perception of men of the experience of parenting during adolescence. Method a qualitative study conducted with five men who experienced paternity during adolescence. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews at the homes of the subjects in August 2013, in a city of southern Brazil. The data were analysed with the theoretical model of Urie Bronfenbrenner. Results paternity in adolescence was a coming of age experience that triggered reflection on the role of the father and his duties. The referenced microsystem was the family and it influenced the development of parenthood. Paternity has implications during adolescence and repercussions throughout the lives of the subjects. Conclusion it is important to introduce the topic of fatherhood in the health and education systems in order for adolescents to exercise parenting in a healthy manner. Nursing plays an important role because it can assist this population and target attention toward the singularities of parenthood.

  18. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Markus G.; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  19. A New Method for Deriving the Stellar Birth Function of Resolved Stellar Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, M.; Tchernyshyov, K.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color-magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  20. A Composite-Likelihood Method for Detecting Incomplete Selective Sweep from Population Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Vy, Ha My T; Kim, Yuseob

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs as beneficial mutations arise and then increase in frequency by positive natural selection. How, when, and where in the genome such evolutionary events occur is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. It is possible to detect ongoing positive selection or an incomplete selective sweep in species with sexual reproduction because, when a beneficial mutation is on the way to fixation, homologous chromosomes in the population are divided into two groups: one carrying the beneficial allele with very low polymorphism at nearby linked loci and the other carrying the ancestral allele with a normal pattern of sequence variation. Previous studies developed long-range haplotype tests to capture this difference between two groups as the signal of an incomplete selective sweep. In this study, we propose a composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test for detecting incomplete selective sweeps based on the joint sampling probabilities for allele frequencies of two groups as a function of strength of selection and recombination rate. Tested against simulated data, this method yielded statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation that are higher than the iHS test and comparable to the more recently developed nSL test. This procedure was also applied to African Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data to detect candidate genes under ongoing positive selection. Upon visual inspection of sequence polymorphism, candidates detected by our CLR method exhibited clear haplotype structures predicted under incomplete selective sweeps. Our results suggest that different methods capture different aspects of genetic information regarding incomplete sweeps and thus are partially complementary to each other.

  1. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Kalda, R; Sarapuu, H; Pikk, A; Lember, M

    1998-06-01

    A survey on sex education and contraceptive methods was carried out within a monthly EMOR Omnibus Survey. By using a questionnaire, knowledge and attitudes, as well as the main sources of information on contraceptive methods and sex education, among the Estonian adult population (n = 618) was investigated. Of the respondents, 68% were female and 32% were males: the mean age was 34 years. Almost all respondents expressed the opinion that sex education should start at school and that education on contraceptive methods would reduce the number of abortions. The majority of the respondents believed that it would be more convenient to visit a family doctor than a gynecologist for family planning. Main sources of information on contraception were: literature, doctors and journals, as rated by females; and literature, partners and television, as rated by males. The roles of the school nurse, father and siblings were rated as comparatively small. The level of respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not too high. It is concluded that the prerequisites for changing sexual behavior and knowledge over a short time are wider use of mass media and better sex education at schools. Also, it is necessary to prepare family doctors to offer family planning services to their patients.

  2. Characterization of Carriage Isolates of Neisseria meningitidis in the Adolescents and Young Adults Population of Bogota (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jaime; Hidalgo, Melissa; Duarte, Carolina; Sanabria, Olga; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana Belén

    2015-01-01

    Background Meningococcal carriage studies are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of meningococcal carriage and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolates collected from a sample of students in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and Methods A total of 1459 oropharyngeal samples were collected from students aged 15–21 years attending secondary schools and universities. Swabs were plated on a Thayer Martin agar and N. meningitidis was identified by standard microbiology methods and PCR. Results The overall carriage prevalence was 6.85%. Carriage was associated with cohabitation with smokers, and oral sex practices. Non-groupable and serogroup Y isolates were the most common capsule types found. Isolates presented a high genetic diversity, and circulation of the hypervirulent clonal complexes ST-23, ST-32 and ST-41/44 were detected. Conclusion The meningococcal carriage rate was lower than those reported in Europe and Africa, but higher than in other Latin American countries. Our data also revealed antigenic and genetic diversity of the isolates and the circulation of strains belonging to clonal complexes commonly associated with meningococcal disease. PMID:26322796

  3. Adaptability of small brown planthopper to four rice cultivars using life table and population projection method

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Min; Tao, Yun-Li; Chi, Hsin; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the adaptability of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to four rice cultivars including Shengdao13 (SD13), Shengdao14 (SD14), Shengdao15 (SD15), and Zixiangnuo (ZXN) using the age-stage, two-sex life table with a simplified method for recording egg production (i.e., every five days vs. daily). The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the SBPH was the highest (0.1067 d−1) on cultivar SD15, which was similar to the rate on SD14 (0.1029 d−1), but was significantly higher than that occurring on ZXN (0.0897 d−1) and SD13 (0.0802 d−1). The differences of the finite rate of increase (λ) on the four rice cultivars were consistent with the r values. Population projection predicted an explosive population growth of the SBPH occurring in a relatively short time when reared on SD14 and SD15. These findings demonstrated that the SBPH can successfully survive on the four rice cultivars, although there were varying host adaptabilities. PMID:28205522

  4. Comparing two methods of univariate discriminant analysis for sex discrimination in an Iberian population.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Arenas, Juan Manuel; Esquivel, José Antonio

    2013-05-10

    This study assesses the performance of two analytical approaches to sex discrimination based on single linear variables: discriminant analysis and the Lubischew's test. Ninety individuals from an archaeological population (La Torrecilla-Arenas del Rey, Granada, southern Spain) and 17 craniometrical variables were included in the analyses. Most craniometrical variables were higher for men. The bizygomatic breadth enabled the highest level of discrimination: 87.5% and 88.5%, using discriminant analysis and Lubischew's test, respectively. Bizygomatic breadth proved highly dimorphic in comparison to other populations reported in the literature. Lubischew's test raised the discrimination percentage in specific craniometrical variables, while others showed a superior performance by means of the discriminant analysis. The inconsistent results across statistical methods resulted from the specific formulation of each procedure. Discriminant analysis accounts both for within-group and between-group variance, while Lubischew's test emphasizes between-group variation only. Therefore, both techniques are recommended, as they provide different means of achieving optimal discrimination percentages.

  5. Vertex cover problem studied by cavity method: Analytics and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haijun

    2003-03-01

    We study the vertex cover problem on finite connectivity random graphs by zero-temperature cavity method. The minimum vertex cover corresponds to the ground state(s) of a proposed Ising spin model. When the connectivity c > e = 2.718282, there is no state for this system as the reweighting parameter y, which takes a similar role as the inverse temperature β in conventional statistical physics, approaches infinity; consequently the ground state energy is obtained at a finite value of y when the free energy function attains its maximum value. The minimum vertex cover size at given c is estimated using population dynamics and compared with known rigorous bounds and numerical results. The backbone size is also calculated.

  6. An Unsupervised Rule-Based Method to Populate Ontologies from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Eduardo; Siqueira, Sean; Andreatta, Alexandre

    An increasing amount of information is available on the web and usually is expressed as text. Semantic information is implicit in these texts, since they are mainly intended for human consumption and interpretation. Because unstructured information is not easily handled automatically, an information extraction process has to be used to identify concepts and establish relations among them. Ontologies are an appropriate way to represent structured knowledge bases, enabling sharing, reuse and inference. In this paper, an information extraction process is used for populating a domain ontology. It targets Brazilian Portuguese texts from a biographical dictionary of music, which requires specific tools due to some language unique aspects. An unsupervised rule-based method is proposed. Through this process, latent concepts and relations expressed in natural language can be extracted and represented as an ontology, allowing new uses and visualizations of the content, such as semantically browsing and inferring new knowledge.

  7. Quality of Life in Epilepsy: A Study of Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Nathália F.; Oliveira, Fernando L. B. B.; Siqueira, Jorge A.; de Souza, Elisabete Abib Pedroso

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objectives were: to assess the QOL of Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy with a specific QOL assessment tool; to compare the adolescents with epilepsy and healthy adolescents using a generic QOL assessment tool; to correlate the 2 different QOL assessment tools (the generic and the epilepsy-specific); and to correlate QOL scores of the adolescents with epilepsy obtained by both tools with physical, psychological and social variables of the disease. Methods Fifty subjects (case group) attending the outpatient clinic of epilepsy of the Clinics Hospital of UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, answered the Brazilian version of the QOL inventory for adolescents with epilepsy - QOLIE-AD-48 and the QOL Questionnaire - WHOQOL – BREF – Portuguese version. Fifty-one subjects (control group) from public schools in Campinas-SP answered only the WHOQOL-BREF. Results The results showed that adolescents with epilepsy presented a good score of QOL in both tools; overall scores for both groups with WHOQOL-BREF were good, but a statistically significant difference was seen with regards to the Psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF favoring the control group. Significant correlations between QOLIE-AD-48 Total and WHOQOL domains were found. Adolescents that were considered seizure-free (P = 0.001), had good perception of seizure control (P = 0.012) and had not had occurrence of seizures in public places (P = 0.001) presented better QOL scores. Conclusions Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy may present good QOL scores when they themselves consider the disease as under control; physical, social and especially psychological variables associated to the disease may play an important role in these results. As a generic QOL tool, WHOQOL-BREF was sufficient to allow for a comparison between chronic disease bearers and healthy adolescents and showed that the gap in QOL between both populations is not as extensive as once was thought, probably due to better support and

  8. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Chaturvedi, V.; Jeemon, P.; Thankappan, K. R.; Ramakrishnan, L.; Mohan, B. V. M.; Pandav, C. S.; Ahmed, F. U.; Joshi, P. P.; Meera, R.; Amin, R. B.; Ahuja, R. C.; Das, M. S.; Jaison, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a surveillance network for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in industrial settings and estimate the risk factor burden using standardized tools. METHODS: We conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey (as part of a CVD surveillance programme) of industrial populations from 10 companies across India, situated in close proximity to medical colleges that served as study centres. The study subjects were employees (selected by age and sex stratified random sampling) and their family members. Information on behavioural, clinical and biochemical determinants was obtained through standardized methods (questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analysis). Data collation and analyses were done at the national coordinating centre. FINDINGS: We report the prevalence of CVD risk factors among individuals aged 20-69 years (n = 19 973 for the questionnaire survey, n = 10 442 for biochemical investigations); mean age was 40 years. The overall prevalence of most risk factors was high, with 50.9% of men and 51.9% of women being overweight, central obesity was observed among 30.9% of men and 32.8% of women, and 40.2% of men and 14.9% of women reported current tobacco use. Self-reported prevalence of diabetes (5.3%) and hypertension (10.9%) was lower than when measured clinically and biochemically (10.1% and 27.7%, respectively). There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors among the study centres. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of CVD risk factors among industrial populations across India. The surveillance system can be used as a model for replication in India as well as other developing countries. PMID:16799730

  9. High speed dynamic characterization of an E. coli population using advanced optical methods (DDM and DFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongjing; Wilson, Laurence

    2012-02-01

    The motility of microbes/bacteria in a complex environment, especially the average motility of the whole group of microorganisms, is directly related to behavior such as virulence, biofilm formation, etc. It is challenging to use traditional tracking methods to quantify the average motility of a large population. It is even more challenging when the environment is constantly changing. Two optical methods were developed to solve the problem: differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) and dark field flickering microscopy (DFM). The key features of bacteria motility were quantified automatically: average swimming speed, motile fraction, diffusion coefficient, cell body rotation speed and flagellar bundle rotation speed. This method is able to measure ˜10^4 cells simultaneously. With the help of a high speed camera, the timescale of the dynamic measurement can be in a wide range from 10-4 s to 10^5 s. Using this tool, temperature effects on E. coli motility were studied. Potential biomedically-relevant applications will also be discussed.

  10. Multiple genetic variant association testing by collapsing and kernel methods with pedigree or population structured data.

    PubMed

    Schaid, Daniel J; McDonnell, Shannon K; Sinnwell, Jason P; Thibodeau, Stephen N

    2013-07-01

    Searching for rare genetic variants associated with complex diseases can be facilitated by enriching for diseased carriers of rare variants by sampling cases from pedigrees enriched for disease, possibly with related or unrelated controls. This strategy, however, complicates analyses because of shared genetic ancestry, as well as linkage disequilibrium among genetic markers. To overcome these problems, we developed broad classes of "burden" statistics and kernel statistics, extending commonly used methods for unrelated case-control data to allow for known pedigree relationships, for autosomes and the X chromosome. Furthermore, by replacing pedigree-based genetic correlation matrices with estimates of genetic relationships based on large-scale genomic data, our methods can be used to account for population-structured data. By simulations, we show that the type I error rates of our developed methods are near the asymptotic nominal levels, allowing rapid computation of P-values. Our simulations also show that a linear weighted kernel statistic is generally more powerful than a weighted "burden" statistic. Because the proposed statistics are rapid to compute, they can be readily used for large-scale screening of the association of genomic sequence data with disease status.

  11. Inferring Population Decline and Expansion From Microsatellite Data: A Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Msvar Method

    PubMed Central

    Girod, Christophe; Vitalis, Renaud; Leblois, Raphaël; Fréville, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructing the demographic history of populations is a central issue in evolutionary biology. Using likelihood-based methods coupled with Monte Carlo simulations, it is now possible to reconstruct past changes in population size from genetic data. Using simulated data sets under various demographic scenarios, we evaluate the statistical performance of Msvar, a full-likelihood Bayesian method that infers past demographic change from microsatellite data. Our simulation tests show that Msvar is very efficient at detecting population declines and expansions, provided the event is neither too weak nor too recent. We further show that Msvar outperforms two moment-based methods (the M-ratio test and Bottleneck) for detecting population size changes, whatever the time and the severity of the event. The same trend emerges from a compilation of empirical studies. The latest version of Msvar provides estimates of the current and the ancestral population size and the time since the population started changing in size. We show that, in the absence of prior knowledge, Msvar provides little information on the mutation rate, which results in biased estimates and/or wide credibility intervals for each of the demographic parameters. However, scaling the population size parameters with the mutation rate and scaling the time with current population size, as coalescent theory requires, significantly improves the quality of the estimates for contraction but not for expansion scenarios. Finally, our results suggest that Msvar is robust to moderate departures from a strict stepwise mutation model. PMID:21385729

  12. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Bessega, Cecilia F; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2014-03-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other.

  13. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Pometti, Carolina L.; Bessega, Cecilia F.; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other. PMID:24688293

  14. Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Fathinejad, Sheida; Pakizeh, Zeinab; Shamsa, Mohammad; Golkari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Student’s t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence. PMID:26464606

  15. Sprint interval training (SIT) is an effective method to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis in Scottish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R; Baker, JS; Young, J; Sculthorpe, N; Grace, FM

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the physiological impact of a school based sprint interval training (SIT) intervention in replacement of standard physical education (SPE) class on cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis during the semester following summer vacation. Participants (n=49) were randomly allocated to either intervention (SIT; n=26, aged 16.9 ± 0.3 yrs) or control group who underwent standard physical education (SPE; n=23, aged 16.8 ± 0.6 yrs). CRF (VO2max) and glucose homeostasis were obtained prior-to and following 7 weeks of SIT exercise. Significant group x time interaction was observed for CRF (P < 0.01) with non-significant trends for fasting insulin (P= 0.08), and HOMA-IR (P=0.06). CRF decreased (P < 0.01) in SPE such that POST intervention CRF was significantly lower (P< 0.05) in SPE. Fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.01), insulin (P< 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P< 0.01) increased significantly amongst SPE. The main finding of the present study is that 7-weeks of SIT exercise is an effective method of maintaining (but not improving) CRF and fasting insulin homeostasis amongst school-going adolescents. SIT exercise demonstrates potential as a time efficient physiological adjunct to standard PE class in order to maintain CRF during the school term. PMID:26681833

  16. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-06-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed-methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs.

  17. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs. PMID:26999441

  18. Prevention of type 2 DM: implications for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karam, Jocelyne G; McFarlane, Samy I

    2008-08-01

    Type 2 Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions among adults in the USA and worldwide. With the rising epidemic of obesity among children and adolescents, a parallel epidemic of type 2 diabetes is also observed in this patient population. Control of diabetes and its complications, mainly cardiovascular disease has been sub-optimal at best. Therefore, effort trials have been conducted and others are ongoing to assess various modalities for diabetes prevention among adults, ranging from diet and exercise to pharmacological agents of various classes. Recently, concerted efforts have been made for prevention of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents. In this paper we discuss the diabetes prevention rationale and methods among adults and the implications of these efforts for children and adolescents. We also highlight the ongoing efforts for diabetes prevention in trials specifically designed to address the adolescent population.

  19. Methods for estimating population density in data-limited areas: evaluating regression and tree-based models in Peru.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Weston; Guikema, Seth; Zaitchik, Ben; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining accurate small area estimates of population is essential for policy and health planning but is often difficult in countries with limited data. In lieu of available population data, small area estimate models draw information from previous time periods or from similar areas. This study focuses on model-based methods for estimating population when no direct samples are available in the area of interest. To explore the efficacy of tree-based models for estimating population density, we compare six different model structures including Random Forest and Bayesian Additive Regression Trees. Results demonstrate that without information from prior time periods, non-parametric tree-based models produced more accurate predictions than did conventional regression methods. Improving estimates of population density in non-sampled areas is important for regions with incomplete census data and has implications for economic, health and development policies.

  20. Methods for Estimating Population Density in Data-Limited Areas: Evaluating Regression and Tree-Based Models in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Weston; Guikema, Seth; Zaitchik, Ben; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining accurate small area estimates of population is essential for policy and health planning but is often difficult in countries with limited data. In lieu of available population data, small area estimate models draw information from previous time periods or from similar areas. This study focuses on model-based methods for estimating population when no direct samples are available in the area of interest. To explore the efficacy of tree-based models for estimating population density, we compare six different model structures including Random Forest and Bayesian Additive Regression Trees. Results demonstrate that without information from prior time periods, non-parametric tree-based models produced more accurate predictions than did conventional regression methods. Improving estimates of population density in non-sampled areas is important for regions with incomplete census data and has implications for economic, health and development policies. PMID:24992657

  1. Graphical and Demographic Synopsis of the Captive Cohort Method for Estimating Population Age Structure in the Wild

    PubMed Central

    Carey, James R.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Diamantidis, Alexis; Kouloussis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to complement the literature concerned with the captive cohort method for estimating age structure including (1) graphic techniques to visualize and thus better understand the underlying life table identity in which the age structure of a stationary population equals the time-to-death distribution of the individuals within it; (2) re-derive the basic model for estimating age structure in non-stationary population in demographic rather than statistical notation; and (3) describe a simplified method for estimating changes in the mean age of a wild population. PMID:22776134

  2. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  3. Mapping Human Population Density in and Around New Hapmshire's Loon Lakes: A Comparison of Dasymetric Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems is directly related to the pattern of human population density across the landscape; thus, accurate information on the distribution of human populations is critical for associating the impact of human population and ecological r...

  4. A Tractable Method for Describing Complex Couplings between Neurons and Population Rate

    PubMed Central

    Marre, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neurons within a population are strongly correlated, but how to simply capture these correlations is still a matter of debate. Recent studies have shown that the activity of each cell is influenced by the population rate, defined as the summed activity of all neurons in the population. However, an explicit, tractable model for these interactions is still lacking. Here we build a probabilistic model of population activity that reproduces the firing rate of each cell, the distribution of the population rate, and the linear coupling between them. This model is tractable, meaning that its parameters can be learned in a few seconds on a standard computer even for large population recordings. We inferred our model for a population of 160 neurons in the salamander retina. In this population, single-cell firing rates depended in unexpected ways on the population rate. In particular, some cells had a preferred population rate at which they were most likely to fire. These complex dependencies could not be explained by a linear coupling between the cell and the population rate. We designed a more general, still tractable model that could fully account for these nonlinear dependencies. We thus provide a simple and computationally tractable way to learn models that reproduce the dependence of each neuron on the population rate. PMID:27570827

  5. Development of the pediatric quality of life inventory neurofibromatosis type 1 module items for children, adolescents and young adults: qualitative methods.

    PubMed

    Nutakki, Kavitha; Varni, James W; Steinbrenner, Sheila; Draucker, Claire B; Swigonski, Nancy L

    2017-01-11

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is arguably one of the most important measures in evaluating effectiveness of clinical treatments. At present, there is no disease-specific outcome measure to assess the HRQOL of children, adolescents and young adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). This study aimed to develop the items and support the content validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) NF1 Module for children, adolescents and young adults. The iterative process included multiphase qualitative methods including a literature review, survey of expert opinions, semi-structured interviews, cognitive interviews and pilot testing. Fifteen domains were derived from the qualitative methods, with content saturation achieved, resulting in 115 items. The domains include skin, pain, pain impact, pain management, cognitive functioning, speech, fine motor, balance, vision, perceived physical appearance, communication, worry, treatment, medicines and gastrointestinal symptoms. This study is limited because all participants are recruited from a single-site. Qualitative methods support the content validity for the PedsQL™ NF1 Module for children, adolescents and young adults. The PedsQL™ NF1 Module is now undergoing national multisite field testing for the psychometric validation of the instrument development.

  6. Adolescents in Crisis: Children's Perception of Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihira, Kazuo; And Others

    Parents' behavior as perceived by an adolescent population admitted to the adolescent crisis Ward at USC Medical Center is analyzed. The sample consisted of 86 patients who were admitted to the adolescent crisis ward during 1969 and 1970. The population could be divided according to four distinct crisis groups: (1) the suicidal group; (2) the…

  7. Alcohol and Drug Use among "Street" Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina

    Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…

  8. Population Size Estimation of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tbilisi, Georgia; Multiple Methods and Triangulation of Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sulaberidze, Lela; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Chikovani, Ivdity; Shengelia, Natia; Tsereteli, Nino; Gotsadze, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An accurate estimation of the population size of men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical to the success of HIV program planning and to monitoring of the response to epidemic as a whole, but is quite often missing. In this study, our aim was to estimate the population size of MSM in Tbilisi, Georgia and compare it with other estimates in the region. Methods In the absence of a gold standard for estimating the population size of MSM, this study reports a range of methods, including network scale-up, mobile/web apps multiplier, service and unique object multiplier, network-based capture-recapture, Handcock RDS-based and Wisdom of Crowds methods. To apply all these methods, two surveys were conducted: first, a household survey among 1,015 adults from the general population, and second, a respondent driven sample of 210 MSM. We also conducted a literature review of MSM size estimation in Eastern European and Central Asian countries. Results The median population size of MSM generated from all previously mentioned methods was estimated to be 5,100 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3,243 ~ 9,088). This corresponds to 1.42% (95%CI: 0.9% ~ 2.53%) of the adult male population in Tbilisi. Conclusion Our size estimates of the MSM population (1.42% (95%CI: 0.9% ~ 2.53%) of the adult male population in Tbilisi) fall within ranges reported in other Eastern European and Central Asian countries. These estimates can provide valuable information for country level HIV prevention program planning and evaluation. Furthermore, we believe, that our results will narrow the gap in data availability on the estimates of the population size of MSM in the region. PMID:26828366

  9. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  10. Optimization of conditions for profiling bacterial populations in food by culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Cocolin, Luca; Diez, Ana; Urso, Rosalinda; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Comi, Giuseppe; Bergmaier, Ingrid; Beimfohr, Claudia

    2007-11-30

    In this study we used culture-independent methods to profile bacterial populations in food products. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were employed in order to identify bacterial species without the need of isolation and biochemical identification. The protocols used to extract the DNA, subsequently subjected to PCR amplification for DGGE, as well as the hybridization procedure for FISH, were optimised. Moreover, an extensive study on the primers and probes to be used for the direct detection and identification of microorganisms commonly found in food, was carried out. Meat and cheese samples, fresh or processed, were subjected to DGGE and FISH analysis and the results obtained highlighted how the processing in food industry is decreasing the bacterial biodiversity. Not only processed cheese or meat but also fermented products were dominated by only one or few species. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Brochothrix thermosphacta were the main species found in meat products, while in cheese(s) Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc spp. were repeatedly detected. The results obtained by the two culture-independent methods used always correlated well.

  11. Conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method to analyze case-parent trios with or without population controls.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Liang, Yun-Chieh

    2016-06-24

    Detection of rare causal variants can help uncover the etiology of complex diseases. Recruiting case-parent trios is a popular study design in family-based studies. If researchers can obtain data from population controls, utilizing them in trio analyses can improve the power of methods. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a well-known method to analyze case-parent trio data. It has been extended to rare-variant association testing (abbreviated as "rvTDT"), with the flexibility to incorporate population controls. The rvTDT method is robust to population stratification. However, power loss may occur in the conditioning process. Here we propose a "conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method" (abbreviated as "conADA"), to analyze trios with/without unrelated controls. By first truncating the variants with larger P-values, we decrease the vulnerability of conADA to the inclusion of neutral variants. Moreover, because the test statistic is developed by conditioning on parental genotypes, conADA generates valid statistical inference in the presence of population stratification. With regard to statistical methods for next-generation sequencing data analyses, validity may be hampered by population stratification, whereas power may be affected by the inclusion of neutral variants. We recommend conADA for its robustness to these two factors (population stratification and the inclusion of neutral variants).

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  14. [Analysis of genealogical structure of populations. I. A method of collecting genealogical data in numerical form].

    PubMed

    Pasekov, V P

    2000-02-01

    A method for collecting genealogical data with respect to an individual, a family, and members of the whole population is suggested. The essence of vertical pedigree construction consists of the same type of steps for filling in data (in the fixed order which excludes skips in the enumeration of lines of descent) about the father and the mother of the next ancestor. Each number in the received ordered list of ancestors uniquely determines a path (line of descent) to the given pedigree member. The path is explicitly described by a sequence of digits 0 and 1 (that corresponds to the sequence of fathers and mothers in the line of descent) at binary notation of this number. As a result, a pedigree is presented as a set of numbered rows that contain information, which uniquely identifies direct ancestors as individual persons. Results of joining separate pedigrees are recorded as a family list that contains lists of children for each parental pair. A pair of parents (more exactly, pointers of their families in the previous generation and numbers of pair members in their families) plays the role of the family "heading." Such a family list permits one to trace lines of descent and relationships for any population members presented in the list. It contains all genealogical information within the bounds of the study in a compact form. Here the process of collection requires considerably less time than traditional graphic representation of pedigrees. In addition, due to repeated checks of data during accumulation of material, error is minimized. Using pedigrees that have been collected, it is possible to calculate the coefficient of inbreeding manually. In connection with the wide prevalence of personal computers at present, it is also important that the data received are in fact ready to direct input to a computer for further automated data processing.

  15. Klapp method effect on idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents: blind randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Diego De Sousa; De Assis, Sanderson José Costa; Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta De Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Alves

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To estimate the effect of Klapp method on idiopathic scoliosis in school students. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 22 students randomly divided into intervention group (n=12) and inactive control group (n=10). Exercise protocol consisted of Klapp method, 20 sessions, three times a week for intervention group, and inactivity for control group. Dorsal muscle strength was measured by dynamometer; body asymmetries and gibbosity angles were measured by biophotogrammetry. Data were obtained by Generalized Estimated Equation, with 5% significance level. Clinical impact for dependent variables was estimated by “d” Cohen. [Results] There was no change in intragroup analysis and intergroup for all postural symmetry variables. However, it was detected intergroup difference in extensor muscle strength and intergroup difference with marginal significance of gibbosity angles. Regarding extensor muscle strength, intervention group produced average improvement of 7.0 kgf compared to control group. Gibbosity angles progressed less in intervention group, with 5.71° average delay compared to control group. [Conclusion] Klapp method was effective for gibbosity stabilization and it improves spine extensor muscle strength. PMID:28210027

  16. Klapp method effect on idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents: blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Diego De Sousa; De Assis, Sanderson José Costa; Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta De Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Alves

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To estimate the effect of Klapp method on idiopathic scoliosis in school students. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 22 students randomly divided into intervention group (n=12) and inactive control group (n=10). Exercise protocol consisted of Klapp method, 20 sessions, three times a week for intervention group, and inactivity for control group. Dorsal muscle strength was measured by dynamometer; body asymmetries and gibbosity angles were measured by biophotogrammetry. Data were obtained by Generalized Estimated Equation, with 5% significance level. Clinical impact for dependent variables was estimated by "d" Cohen. [Results] There was no change in intragroup analysis and intergroup for all postural symmetry variables. However, it was detected intergroup difference in extensor muscle strength and intergroup difference with marginal significance of gibbosity angles. Regarding extensor muscle strength, intervention group produced average improvement of 7.0 kgf compared to control group. Gibbosity angles progressed less in intervention group, with 5.71° average delay compared to control group. [Conclusion] Klapp method was effective for gibbosity stabilization and it improves spine extensor muscle strength.

  17. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  18. Physical Activity, Study Sitting Time, Leisure Sitting Time, and Sleep Time Are Differently Associated With Obesity in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-11-01

    Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity.We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders.Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84-1.04). Sleep time (<6 hours; ≥6 hours, <7 hours; ≥7 hours, <8 hours) was adversely associated with underweight (AORs = 0.67, 0.79, and 0.88) but positively associated with overweight (AORs = 1.19, 1.17, and 1.08) and obese (AORs = 1.33, 1.36, and 1.30) in a dose-response relationship.In adolescents, increasing physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese.

  19. The Adopted Adolescent. Selected Papers Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Anne

    This review of studies on clinical and nonclinical populations explores outcomes of adoption and developmental issues for adolescents, and in particular, developmental problems for adopted adolescents. Studies on nonclinical populations demonstrate that adoption is a highly successful form of substitute care. Prospective longitudinal studies show…

  20. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.

  1. Why missing data matter in the longitudinal study of adolescent development: using the 4-H Study to understand the uses of different missing data methods.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2010-07-01

    The study of adolescent development rests on methodologically appropriate collection and interpretation of longitudinal data. While all longitudinal studies of adolescent development involve missing data, the methods to treat missingness that have been recommended most often focus on missing data from cross-sectional studies. The problems of missing data in longitudinal studies are not described well, there are not many statistical software programs developed for researchers to use, and there are no longitudinal empirical examples involving adolescent development that show the extent to which different missing data procedures can yield different results. Data from the first three waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development were used to provide such an illustration. The sample contains 2,265 participants (56.7% females) who were in Grade 5 at Wave 1, in Grade 6 at Wave 2, and in Grade 7 at Wave 3, and varied in race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family structure, rural-urban location, and geographic region. The results showed that three missing data techniques, i.e., listwise deletion, direct maximum likelihood (DirML), and multiple imputation (MI), did not yield comparable results for research questions assessing different aspects of development (i.e., change over time or prediction effects). The results indicated also that listwise deletion should not be used. Instead, both DirML and MI methods should be used to determine if and how results change when these procedures are employed.

  2. Neighborhood Sociodemographic Predictors of Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED) in Schools: Demonstrating a Small Area Estimation Method in the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS-A) Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the precision of a model estimating school prevalence of SED using a small area estimation method based on readily-available predictors from area-level census block data and school principal questionnaires. Adolescents at 314 schools participated in the National Comorbidity Supplement, a national survey of DSM-IV disorders among adolescents. A multilevel model indicated that predictors accounted for under half of the variance in school-level SED and even less when considering block-group predictors or principal report alone. While Census measures and principal questionnaires are significant predictors of individual-level SED, associations are too weak to generate precise school-level predictions of SED prevalence. PMID:24740174

  3. Attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents concerning condom advertisements on television.

    PubMed

    Buchta, R M

    1989-05-01

    The major television networks have considered airing condom advertisements. A Louis-Harris poll entitled "Attitudes About Television, Sex and Contraceptive Advertising" conducted in early 1987 concluded that at least 60% of adult Americans were in favor of such advertisements. To better understand the attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents in a private practice setting toward contraceptive advertisement on television, the present study was performed. Between March and June 1987, 108 parents of adolescents, 100 adolescent females, and 90 adolescent males filled out a questionnaire asking their opinions of such advertisements. Eighty-three percent of the parents, 89% of adolescent females, and 92% of adolescent males approved of such advertisements. The data suggest that a majority of adults and adolescents approve of condom advertisements on television. The use of the media to take advantage of the present opportunity to educate and promote birth control and disease prevention to our adolescent population may be beneficial.

  4. Hypertension screening and follow-up in children and adolescents in a Canadian primary care population sample: a retrospective cohort studystudy

    PubMed Central

    Aliarzadeh, Babak; Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim; White, David; Birken, Catherine; Parkin, Patricia; Greiver, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty exists about the need to screen for hypertension in children and adolescents. Information on current screening and follow-up rates in Canadian community practices is not available. There are no Canadian guidelines on the subject. We sought to identify current rates of pediatric hypertension screening and follow-up in Canada. In addition, we examined patient and provider characteristics associated with rates of blood pressure screening. Methods: We used electronic medical record data extracted on Apr. 1, 2013, from 79 family practices in Toronto. We identified children seen at least twice between the ages of 3 and 18 years, with at least 6 months between first and last encounter. We used Multivariate Poisson regression analysis to analyze variation in blood pressure measurement rates and associations with patient and physician factors. Results: We identified 5996 children (62% of 9667 in total) who had at least 1 blood pressure measurement recorded. Of these children, 14% had at least 1 abnormal blood pressure measurement, and of those children, only 5% had a follow-up measurement recorded within 6 months. After adjustment, increases in rates of blood pressure measurements were associated with greater number of encounters (rate ratio [RR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.04, p < 0.001), older age at first encounter (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10, p = 0.002), and female sex (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.20, p = 0.006). Obesity or a recorded family history of hypertension were not associated with more blood pressure measurements. Female physicians recorded more blood pressure measurements than did male physicians (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.89, p = 0.02). Interpretation: This screening measure was frequently done and appeared to be incompletely followed up. Clear guidance is needed; guideline developers should consider reviewing this topic. PMID:27398368

  5. Service use among Mexico City adolescents with suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Familiar, Itziar; Nock, Matthew K.; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Background We report the lifetime and 12-month prevalence and associations of mental health treatment among Mexican adolescents with suicide-related outcomes (SROs; including ideation, plans, gestures and attempts). Methods A representative multistage probability household survey of 3005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area was carried out in 2005. Discrete time survival analyses were used to assess the relationships between SROs and receiving treatment for emotional, alcohol, or drug problems. Results The prevalence of lifetime service use among respondents with SROs was 35% for those with ideation only, 44% for those with ideation and plan, 49% for those with gesture and 50% for those with attempt; the prevalence of 12-month service use was 10%, 24%, 6% and 21%, respectively. Timing between onset of SRO and receiving treatment for emotional, alcohol, or drug problems showed that about 50% of adolescents will have contact with a service provider before developing any SRO. Healthcare professionals were the most likely to be consulted, followed by school-based programs. Limitations This survey was limited to adolescents living in one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the analyses used data on retrospectively reported ages of onset that are subject to recall errors. Conclusions Most suicidal adolescents do not receive treatment, and many adolescents develop their suicidality in spite of prior contacts with service providers. Interventions to increase treatment, prevention, and monitoring are sorely needed for this vulnerable population. PMID:19411113

  6. The Cognitive Psychopathology of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.