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Sample records for adolescent postnatal day

  1. Validation of Edinburgh postnatal depression scale for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne M; Nering, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has widespread use internationally with adult women, but few psychometric properties have been described for samples of adolescent mothers. The purpose of this paper is to validate the psychometric properties of the EPDS in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 149) in a southern, urban area of the United States. Internal consistency reliability was .88. Principal components analysis supported a two factor structure accounting for 60% of variance. Results of item response theory analysis suggest that the EPDS and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale have similar psychometric properties. This data can be used to provide evidence of construct validity of the EPDS. The study provides a foundation for further psychometric testing of the instrument. PMID:19639384

  2. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood. PMID:26037264

  3. Idiopathic neonatal giant cell hepatitis presenting with acute hepatic failure on postnatal day one.

    PubMed

    Correa, Kimberley K; Nanjundiah, Prathiba; Wirtschafter, David D; Alshak, Najeeb S

    2002-01-01

    We report a term male infant presenting on postnatal day 1 with fulminant hepatic failure. Described congenital infection, metabolic disorders, and cardiovascular etiologies of acute neonatal liver failure were assessed and eliminated. A liver biopsy on postnatal day 10 showed neonatal giant cell hepatitis (NGCH) with an unusual degree of fibrosis for this early postnatal age. NGCH is a clinical diagnosis of cholestatic disorders of unknown etiology in the newborn, and, to our knowledge, has not been previously associated with immediate neonatal hepatic failure. The giant cell transformation is a common response to a variety of insults and only rarely occurs beyond the neonatal period. Most cases present with cholestatic jaundice and varying degrees of coagulopathy, and, many, as in this case, show progressive resolution. PMID:11948391

  4. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  5. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  6. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J.; Abdulla, Zuhair I.; Lee, Ryan J.; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1–21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as persistent increases in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1–21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., “autoreceptor” doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  7. Postnatal Isoflurane Exposure Induces Cognitive Impairment and Abnormal Histone Acetylation of Glutamatergic Systems in the Hippocampus of Adolescent Rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Fang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Isoflurane can elicit cognitive impairment. However, the pathogenesis in the brain remains inconclusive. The present study investigated the mechanism of glutamate neurotoxicity in adolescent male rats that underwent postnatal isoflurane exposure and the role of sodium butyrate (NaB) in cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure. Seven-day-old rats were exposed to 1.7 % isoflurane for 35 min every day for four consecutive days, and then glutamate neurotoxicity was examined in the hippocampus. Morris water maze analysis showed cognitive impairments in isoflurane-exposed rats. High-performance liquid chromatography found higher hippocampal glutamate concentrations following in vitro and in vivo isoflurane exposure. The percentage of early apoptotic hippocampal neurons was markedly increased after isoflurane exposure. Decreased acetylation and increased HDAC2 activity were observed in the hippocampus of isoflurane-exposed rats and hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, postnatal isoflurane exposure decreased histone acetylation of hippocampal neurons in the promoter regions of GLT-1 and mGLuR1/5, but not mGLuR2/3. Treatment with NaB not only restored the histone acetylation of the GLT-1 and mGLuR1/5 promoter regions and glutamate excitatory neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons, but also improved cognitive impairment in vivo. Moreover, NaB may be a potential therapeutic drug for cognitive impairment caused by isoflurane exposure. These results suggest that postnatal isoflurane exposure contributes to cognitive impairment via decreasing histone acetylation of glutamatergic systems in the hippocampus of adolescent rats. PMID:27307148

  8. Toxicity Evaluation of Bisphenol A Administered by Gavage to Sprague Dawley Rats From Gestation Day 6 Through Postnatal Day 90

    PubMed Central

    Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Latendresse, John R.; Olson, Greg R.; Davis, Kelly J.; Patton, Ralph E.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Woodling, Kellie A.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Chidambaram, Mani; Trbojevich, Raul; Juliar, Beth E.; Felton, Robert P.; Thorn, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume industrial chemical to which there is widespread human oral exposure. Guideline studies used to set regulatory limits detected adverse effects only at doses well above human exposures and established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. However, many reported animal studies link BPA to potentially adverse effects on multiple organ systems at doses below the NOAEL. The primary goals of the subchronic study reported here were to identify adverse effects induced by orally (gavage) administered BPA below the NOAEL, to characterize the dose response for such effects and to determine doses for a subsequent chronic study. Sprague Dawley rat dams were dosed daily from gestation day 6 until the start of labor, and their pups were directly dosed from day 1 after birth to termination. The primary focus was on seven equally spaced BPA doses (2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day). Also included were a naïve control, two doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to demonstrate the estrogen responsiveness of the animal model, and two high BPA doses (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg bw/day) expected from guideline studies to produce adverse effects. Clear adverse effects of BPA, including depressed gestational and postnatal body weight gain, effects on the ovary (increased cystic follicles, depleted corpora lutea, and antral follicles), and serum hormones (increased serum estradiol and prolactin and decreased progesterone), were observed only at the two high doses of BPA. BPA-induced effects partially overlapped those induced by EE2, consistent with the known weak estrogenic activity of BPA. PMID:24496637

  9. Differential Effects of Ethanol on Bid, tBid and Bax:tBid Interactions in Postnatal Day 4 and Postnatal Day 7 Rat Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Paiva, Michael; Kubovec, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ethanol during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to a wide array of neuroanatomical, behavioral and cognitive abnormalities, broadly subsumed under the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) classification. One mode of ethanol-induced interference in the normal developmental program appears to be through induction of apoptotic processes mediated by the Bcl-2 family of survival-regulatory proteins. The present series of studies investigated the role of the Bcl-2-related, pro-apoptotic Bid protein, and its truncated, apoptotically active fragment, tBid, in developmental ethanol neurotoxicity. Methods Protein analyses were made via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in neonatal rat cerebellum, of basal Bid, and of Bid and tBid, following ethanol exposure via vapor inhalation, at an age of peak ethanol sensitivity in this region (postnatal day 4 [P4]) and a later age of relative resistance (P7). ELISA analyses were also made of Bax:tBid heterodimers, a process which activates Bax, essential for its apoptotic functioning. Finally, in vitro assessments of the importance of tBid to ethanol neurotoxicity were made in cultured cerebellar granule cells, using a specific tBid inhibitor. Results Basal levels of Bid were higher at P4 compared to P7, possibly contributing to the differential sensitivity. Ethanol exposure elicited further increases in cytosolic Bid and mitochondrial tBid when administration was at P4, but not at P7. Bax:tBid heterodimers were markedly increased by ethanol exposure on P4, an increase which persisted even two-hours after termination of treatment. Similar effects were not seen at P7. The in vitro analyses revealed that tBid inhibition provided complete protection against ethanol-induced cell death, and depressed ethanol-mediated cytochrome-c release. Conclusions These results suggest that Bid/tBid may be important elements in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity during CNS development. The molecular processes

  10. Adolescent experience affects postnatal ultrasonic vocalizations and gene expression in future offspring.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Caroline M; Vassoler, Fair M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    The present study measured postnatal ultrasonic vocalization (USV) and gene expression to examine potential changes in communication and/or attachment in the offspring of mothers exposed to morphine during adolescence. Offspring of morphine-exposed (Mor-F1), saline-exposed (Sal-F1), or non-handled control (Con-F1) female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested for separation-induced distress calls and maternal potentiation of distress calls during early postnatal development. We also examined relative expression of dopamine D2 receptor and mu opioid receptor (oprm1) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus in these offspring, as their activity has been implicated in the regulation of postnatal USV in response to maternal separation. The findings indicate that adolescent experiences of future mothers, including their 10 daily saline or morphine injections, can result in significant region-specific differences in gene expression. In addition, these experiences resulted in fewer numbers of separation-induced distress calls produced by offspring. In contrast, augmented maternal potentiation was only observed in Mor-F1 offspring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:714-723, 2016. PMID:26999300

  11. Association between Postnatal Dexamethasone for Treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Brain Volumes at Adolescence in Infants Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jeanie L.Y.; Burnett, Alice C.; Lee, Katherine J.; Roberts, Gehan; Thompson, Deanne K.; Wood, Stephen J.; Connelly, Alan; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare brain volumes in adolescents who were born extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation) who had received postnatal dexamethasone, and to determine if there was a postnatal dexamethasone dose–response effect on brain volumes. Study design Geographical cohort study of extremely preterm adolescents born in 1991-1992 in Victoria, Australia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 18 years of age. Segmented and parcellated brain volumes were calculated using an automated segmentation method (FreeSurfer) and compared between groups, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. The relationships between total postnatal dexamethasone dose and brain volumes were explored using linear regression. Results Of the 148 extremely preterm participants, 55 (37%) had received postnatal dexamethasone, with a cumulative mean dose of 7.7 mg/kg. Compared with participants who did not receive postnatal dexamethasone, those who did had smaller total brain tissue volumes (mean difference −3.6%, 95% CI [−7.0%, −0.3%], P value = .04) and smaller white matter, thalami, and basal ganglia volumes (all P < .05). There was a trend of smaller total brain and white matter volumes with increasing dose of postnatal dexamethasone (regression coefficient −7.7 [95% CI −16.2, 0.8] and −3.2 [−6.6, 0.2], respectively). Conclusions Extremely preterm adolescents who received postnatal dexamethasone in the newborn period had smaller total brain tissue volumes than those who did not receive postnatal dexamethasone, particularly white matter, thalami, and basal ganglia. Vulnerability of brain tissues or structures associated with postnatal dexamethasone varies by structure and persists into adolescence. PMID:24332820

  12. Lack of behavioral sensitization to repeated cocaine administration from postnatal days 1 to 10.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J S; Yacht, A C

    1993-09-01

    This research determined whether sensitization (or tolerance) to the behavioral effects of cocaine in rat pups would occur following repeated cocaine administration. Rats were injected daily with 20 mg/kg of cocaine HCl s.c. from postnatal day 1 to day 10, injected with saline vehicle only, or left untreated during this period. On day 11, animals from each group were challenged with either 0, .625, 1.25, or 2.50 mg/kg of cocaine and their behavioral responses were recorded. Prior cocaine treatment did not influence the acute effects of cocaine on ultrasonic vocalizations or on any observed motor responses. In contrast, the cocaine- and saline-treated pups differed in a similar manner from the untreated control group on several behavioral measures. These results indicate that the sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration are not manifested during the neonatal period. However, the stimulation (stress) of handling and injection may alter the subsequent responsivity of infant rats to a cocaine challenge. PMID:8225794

  13. Effects of overfeeding naturally-mated adolescent ewes on maternal, fetal, and postnatal lamb growth.

    PubMed

    Peel, R K; Eckerle, G J; Anthony, R V

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of overfeeding naturally-mated adolescent ewes (Ovis aries) on maternal, fetal, and postnatal lamb growth, hormone concentrations, and lamb carcass characteristics. Two experiments were conducted in which singleton-bearing adolescent ewes were fed a diet containing 2.72 Mcal/kg ME at a rate which met NRC gestational age requirements (MN; n = 10 in Exp. 1, n = 7 in Exp. 2) or were fed the same diet ad libitum (15% refusal rate) throughout gestation (HN; n = 7 in Exp. 1, n = 6 in Exp. 2). Ewe BW was greater (P < 0.05) for HN than MN ewes beginning on 75 d and 52 d of gestation for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Final BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for HN than MN ewes in both experiments; 3.5 vs. 3.0, respectively, for Exp. 1, and 4.8 vs. 2.9, respectively, for Exp. 2. Fasting maternal blood insulin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in HN ewes near term (135 d of gestation), whereas fasting maternal glucose concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) during most of the second half of gestation in HN ewes, for both experiments. Gestation length did not differ (P = 0.69) between treatments in Exp. 1, but in Exp. 2, HN ewes had shorter (P = 0.01) gestation lengths (144 vs. 149 d) and had increased (P = 0.002) dystocia scores. Fetal abdominal circumference was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs from MN than HN ewes at 97 d of gestation in Exp. 1 (20.8 vs. 17.4 cm) but did not differ (P = 0.94) between treatments at 95 d of gestation in Exp. 2 (averaging 20.5 cm). There were no differences (P ≥ 0.15) in lamb BW, abdominal circumference, crown-rump length, and biparietal distance at birth; or in postnatal BW and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and lactate in either experiment. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.18) in HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, fat thickness, or KPH between treatments in Exp. 2. Although there was no difference (P ≥ 0.31) between treatments in concentrations of IGF1 or IGF2 mRNA in liver

  14. Fetal chlorpyrifos exposure: adverse effects on brain cell development and cholinergic biomarkers emerge postnatally and continue into adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dan; Seidler, Frederic J; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2003-01-01

    Fetal and childhood exposures to widely used organophosphate pesticides, especially chlorpyrifos (CPF), have raised concerns about developmental neurotoxicity. Previously, biomarkers for brain cell number, cell packing density, and cell size indicated that neonatal rats were more sensitive to CPF than were fetal rats, yet animals exposed prenatally still developed behavioral deficits in adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we administered CPF to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-20, using regimens devoid of overt fetal toxicity. We then examined subsequent development of acetylcholine systems in forebrain regions involved in cognitive function and compared the effects with those on general biomarkers of cell development. Choline acetyltransferase, a constitutive marker for cholinergic nerve terminals, showed only minor CPF-induced changes during the period of rapid synaptogenesis. In contrast, hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter, which is responsive to nerve impulse activity, displayed marked suppression in the animals exposed to CPF; despite a return to nearly normal values by weaning, deficits were again apparent in adolescence and adulthood. There was no compensatory up-regulation of cholinergic receptors, as m2-muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding was unchanged. CPF also elicited delayed-onset alterations in biomarkers for general aspects of cell integrity, with reductions in cell packing density, increases in relative cell size, and contraction of neuritic extensions; however, neither the magnitude nor timing of these changes was predictive of the cholinergic defects. The present findings indicate a wide window of vulnerability of cholinergic systems to CPF, extending from prenatal through postnatal periods, occurring independently of adverse effects on general cellular neurotoxicity. PMID:12676612

  15. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    PubMed

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss. PMID:6516934

  16. Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Moderate Levels of Ethanol Can Have Long-Lasting Effects on Hippocampal Glutamate Uptake in Adolescent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Daniela F.; Lopes, Fernanda M.; Leite, Marina C.; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to the effects of ethanol. Glutamate is the main mediator of excitatory signals in the brain and is probably involved in most aspects of normal brain function during development. The aim of this study was to investigate vulnerability to and the impact of ethanol toxicity on glutamate uptake signaling in adolescent rats after moderate pre and postnatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups and treated only with water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (v/v) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure—MPAE). Thirty days after birth, adolescent male offspring were submitted to hippocampal acute slice procedure. We assayed glutamate uptake and measured glutathione content and also quantified glial glutamate transporters (EAAT 1 and EAAT 2). The glutamate system vulnerability was tested with different acute ethanol doses in naïve rats and compared with the MPAE group. We also performed a (lipopolysaccharide-challenge (LPS-challenge) with all groups to test the glutamate uptake response after an insult. The MPAE group presented a decrease in glutamate uptake corroborating a decrease in glutathione (GSH) content. The reduction in GSH content suggests oxidative damage after acute ethanol exposure. The glial glutamate transporters were also altered after prenatal ethanol treatment, suggesting a disturbance in glutamate signaling. This study indicates that impairment of glutamate uptake can be dose-dependent and the glutamate system has a higher vulnerability to ethanol toxicity after moderate ethanol exposure In utero. The effects of pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure can have long-lasting impacts on the glutamate system in adolescence and potentially into adulthood. PMID:25978644

  17. Range of motion (ROM) restriction influences quipazine-induced stepping behavior in postnatal day one and day ten rats.

    PubMed

    Strain, Misty M; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal rats can adapt their stepping behavior in response to sensory feedback in real-time. The current study examined real-time and persistent effects of ROM (range of motion) restriction on stepping in P1 and P10 rats. On the day of testing, rat pups were suspended in a sling. After a 5-min baseline, they were treated with the serotonergic receptor agonist quipazine (3.0mg/kg) or saline (vehicle control). Half of the pups had a Plexiglas plate placed beneath them at 50% of limb length to induce a period of ROM restriction during stepping. The entire test session included a 5-min baseline, 15-min ROM restriction, and 15-min post-ROM restriction periods. Following treatment with quipazine, there was an increase in both fore- and hindlimb total movement and alternated steps in P1 and P10 pups. P10 pups also showed more synchronized steps than P1 pups. During the ROM restriction period, there was a suppression of forelimb movement and synchronized steps. We did not find evidence of persistent effects of ROM restriction on the amount of stepping. However, real-time and persistent changes in intralimb coordination occurred. Developmental differences also were seen in the time course of stepping between P1 and P10 pups, with P10 subjects showing show less stepping than younger pups. These results suggest that sensory feedback modulates locomotor activity during the period of development in which the neural mechanisms of locomotion are undergoing rapid development. PMID:25151623

  18. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  19. Sexually dimorphic effects of postnatal treatment on the development of activity-based anorexia in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Stephanie D; Grant, Virginia L

    2009-12-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a marked feature of anorexia nervosa. Using a modified version of the activity-based animal model of anorexia nervosa, we examine whether factors known to affect HPA axis activity influence the development of activity-based anorexia (ABA). Male and female rats were subjected to maternal separation or handling procedures during the first two postnatal weeks and tested in a mild version of the ABA paradigm, comprised of 2-hr daily running wheel access followed by 1-hr food access, either in adolescence or adulthood. Compared to handled females, maternally separated females demonstrated greater increases in wheel running and a more pronounced running-induced suppression of food intake during adolescence, but not in adulthood. In contrast, it was only in adulthood that wheel running produced more prolonged anorexic effects in maternally separated than in handled males. These findings highlight the interplay between early postnatal treatment, sex of the animal, and developmental age on running, food intake, and rate of body weight loss in a mild version of the ABA paradigm. PMID:19757457

  20. Methamphetamine exposure from postnatal day 11 to 20 causes impairments in both behavioral strategies and spatial learning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Boon, Francis; Saber, Andrea J; Cain, Donald P

    2002-12-27

    Spatial learning and memory deficits in a water maze have been observed in adult animals exposed to a regimen of 4 daily doses of d-methamphetamine (MA) at 2 h intervals from postnatal day 11 to 20. An interpretational issue for these long-term effects of MA is whether they are truly spatial deficits or are secondary to alterations in sensorimotor systems. In this experiment, we evaluated the effects of a pretraining procedure shown to minimize the influence of drug-induced sensorimotor deficits. Animals within a litter were treated with MA or saline. Animals were either pretrained for nonspatial task requirements in the water maze (i.e., swimming and platform climbing) or were nai;ve to the task. Animals that received the pretraining did better than the nai;ve animals. The nai;ve MA animals performed worse than the nai;ve control animals as previously observed. By contrast, no difference in search time was noted between pretrained MA- and SAL-treated animals during the acquisition phase of testing. When the platform was relocated in a novel position, spatial learning was impaired for MA animals, regardless of pretraining. No increase in the number of platform nonrecognition events (swimovers, deflections, or jump-offs) occurred among pretrained or nai;ve groups compared to controls. These data suggest that sensorimotor deficits do not account for the spatial learning and memory deficits in animals exposed neonatally to MA. PMID:12470867

  1. Postnatal day 2 to 11 constitutes a 5-HT-sensitive period impacting adult mPFC function.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Tahilia J; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Lambe, Evelyn K; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2014-09-10

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2-P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2-P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  2. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  3. Postnatal Growth Velocity and Overweight in Early Adolescents: A Comparison of Rural and Urban African Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chirwa, ED; Griffiths, P; Maleta, K; Ashorn, P; Pettifor, JM; Norris, SA

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare growth velocity of two African child cohorts and examine the relationship between postnatal growth velocity in infancy/early childhood and the risk of overweight/stunting in early adolescence. Methods The study used data from two child cohorts from urban (Birth to Twenty Cohort, South Africa) and rural (Lungwena Child Survival Study, Malawi) African settings. Mixed effect modelling was used to derive growth and peak growth velocities. T-tests were used to compare growth parameters and velocities between the two cohorts. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between growth velocity and early adolescent (ages 9–11 years) body mass index and odds of being overweight. Results Children in the BH cohort were significantly taller and heavier than those in the Lungwena cohort, and exhibited faster weight and height growth velocity especially in the first year of life (P < 0.05). No significant association was shown between baseline weight (αw) and overweight in early adolescence (OR = 1.25, CI = 0.67, 2.34). The weight growth velocity parameter βw was highly associated with odds of being overweight. Association between overweight in adolescence and weight velocity was stronger in infancy than in early childhood (OR at 3 months = 4.80, CI = 2.49, 9.26; OR at 5 years = 2.39, CI = 1.65, 3.47). Conclusion High weight and height growth velocity in infancy, independent of size at birth, is highly associated with overweight in early adolescence. However, the long term effects of rapid growth in infancy may be dependent on a particular population's socio-economic status and level of urbanization. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:643–651, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24948025

  4. Adolescent Initiation of Licit and Illicit Substance Use: Impact of Intrauterine Exposures and Post-natal Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J.; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A.; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Heeren, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents recruited at term birth until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “any” summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and postnatal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. PMID:20600847

  5. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  6. A Day in the Life of American Adolescents: Substance Use Facts Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... uality The CBHSQ Report August 29, 2013 A Day in the Life of American Adolescents: Substance Use ... for substance use “on an average or typical day. ” 10 Data in this report from NSDUH, TEDS, ...

  7. Matching Time of Day and Preference for Adolescent Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Leisha Moree

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that adolescents enter a circadian-phase delay as they approach and enter high school. On or about age 14, teens become less of a morning learner due to biological factors. Researchers have determined consequences to the adolescent's circadian shift as related to learning; therefore, morning time may have a negative influence on the…

  8. A Summer Day Camp Approach to Adolescent Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Mary A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stanford Adolescent Weight Loss Camp, which taught eating and exercise skills to 25 overweight adolescents. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, with improved habits and weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp was very positive. (JAC)

  9. Effects of one- and three-day binge alcohol exposure in neonatal C57BL/6 mice on spatial learning and memory in adolescence and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Feng C.; Goodlett, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Binge-like alcohol exposure during the early postnatal period in rats and mice causes deficits in spatial learning and memory that persist into adulthood. Wozniak et al. (2004) reported that heavy binge alcohol exposure on postnatal day 7 (PD 7) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice produced profound spatial learning deficits in the Morris water maze when tested in adolescence (P30–39); when tested in adulthood, however, the deficits were greatly attenuated. Using a similar PD 7 binge alcohol exposure paradigm in B6 mice, we tested whether a single-day (PD 7 only) alcohol treatment produced place learning deficits in both adolescence and in adulthood, and further tested whether a more extended (3-day, PD 7–9) alcohol exposure would induce more severe and enduring deficits. B6 mice were given either 2 subcutaneous injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg each) 2 h apart on PD 7 or on PD 7–9, and compared with controls that received saline vehicle injections and controls that received no injections. The alcohol injections on PD 7 produced average peak blood alcohol concentrations of 472 mg/dL and evoked typical patterns of activated caspase-3-positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampal formation, and striatum 6 h after the last injection. Mice were given standard place training or random location training in the Morris water maze either as adolescents (PD 30–39) or adults (PD 70–79). The adolescents acquired the place learning more slowly than adults, and the alcohol treatments produced only modest place acquisition deficits. In contrast, both the PD7 and the PD 7–9 alcohol treatments resulted in large and significant spatial learning impairments in adults. In contrast to the previous findings of Wozniak et al. (2004), these results indicate that binge alcohol exposure in the 3rd trimester equivalent produces significant and enduring deficits in spatial learning in B6 mice. PMID:24507877

  10. Early postnatal nicotine exposure causes hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adolescent mice: association with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP

    PubMed Central

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Malvaez, Melissa; Su, Hailing; Kleeman, Elise; Dang, Richard; Wood, Marcelo A.; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2014-01-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure from smoking during pregnancy causes long-lasting cognitive impairments in offspring, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. Here we demonstrate that early postnatal exposure of mouse pups to nicotine via maternal milk impairs long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory during adolescence. At the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, the most widely studied synapses for a cellular correlate of hippocampus-dependent memory, the induction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent transient long-term potentiation (LTP) and protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting LTP are not diminished by nicotine exposure, but rather unexpectedly the threshold for LTP induction becomes lower after nicotine treatment. Using voltage sensitive dye to visualize hippocampal activity, we found that early postnatal nicotine exposure also results in enhanced CA1 depolarization and hyperpolarization after SC stimulation. Furthermore, we show that postnatal nicotine exposure induces pervasive changes to the nicotinic modulation of CA1 activity: activation of nicotinic receptors no longer increases CA1 network depolarization, acute nicotine inhibits rather than facilitates the induction of LTP at the SC pathway by recruiting an additional nicotinic receptor subtype, and acute nicotine no longer blocks LTP induction at the temporoammonic pathway. These findings reflect the pervasive impact of nicotine exposure during hippocampal development, and demonstrate an association of hippocampal memory impairments with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP. The implication of our results is that nicotinic cholinergic-dependent plasticity is required for long-term memory formation and that postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts this form of plasticity. PMID:25545599

  11. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adolescent Students' Academic Achievement in Kenyan Day Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odongo, Alice Atieno; Aloka, Peter J. O.; Raburu, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to establish the influence of parenting styles on adolescent academic achievement in day secondary schools in North Rachuonyo Sub-County, Kenya. Baumrind's theory of parenting style informed the study. The Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. The target population comprised 2409 day secondary students registered for…

  12. Effect of Gestational Diabetes on Purkinje and Granule Cells Distribution of the Rat Cerebellum in 21 and 28 days of Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Elahe Mirarab; Ghafari, Soraya; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is associated with nervous system alterations in both human and animal models. This study was done to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on the Purkinje and granular cells in the cerebellum of rat offspring. Methods: 10 Wistar rats Dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic group. The experimental group received 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) at the first day of gestation and control groups received saline injection intraperitoneally (IP). Six male offsprings of gestational diabetic mothers and control dams, at the 21, 28 postnatal days were randomly scarified and coronal sections of cerebellum (6 micrometer) serially collected. The neurons were stained with cresyl violet. Results: The Purkinje cells density in the apex and depth of cerebellum in P21, in the experimental group was reduced 23% and 15% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). The granular cells density in the experimental group was reduced 19.58% and 18.3% in comparison with the controls (P<0.001). The Purkinje cells density of cerebellum in P28, in the diabetic group reduced to 22.12% and 12.62% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). The granular cells density in the diabetic group reduced 17.14% and 16.12% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Discussion: The Purkinje and granular cells significantly reduced in gestational diabetes rat offspring.

  13. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Swartley, Olivia M; Foley, Julie F; Livingston, David P; Cullen, John M; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-07-01

    A critical event in embryo development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has led researchers to use transgenic mice to identify the critical steps involved in developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Vascular development is dependent upon normal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and the transformation of vessels into their adult counterparts. Any alteration in vascular development has the potential to cause deformities or embryonic death. Numerous publications describe specific stages of vascular development relating to various organs, but a single resource detailing the stage-by-stage development of the vasculature pertaining to the hepatobiliary system has not been available. This comprehensive histology atlas provides hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical-stained sections of the developing mouse blood and lymphatic vasculature with emphasis on the hepatobiliary system between embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5 and the early postnatal period. Additionally, this atlas includes a 3-dimensional video representation of the E18.5 mouse venous vasculature. One of the most noteworthy findings of this atlas is the identification of the portal sinus within the mouse, which has been erroneously misinterpreted as the ductus venosus in previous publications. Although the primary purpose of this atlas is to identify normal hepatobiliary vascular development, potential embryonic abnormalities are also described. PMID:26961180

  14. (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dose-dependently impairs spatial learning in the morris water maze after exposure of rats to different five-day intervals from birth to postnatal day twenty.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Grace, Curtis E; Herring, Nicole R; Williams, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    During postnatal days (PD) 11-20, (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) treatment impairs egocentric and allocentric learning, and reduces spontaneous locomotor activity; however, it does not have these effects during PD 1-10. How the learning impairments relate to the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP) is unknown. To test this association, the preweaning period was subdivided into 5-day periods from PD 1-20. Separate pups within each litter were injected subcutaneously with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg/kg MDMA x4/day on PD 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, or 16-20, and tested as adults. The 3 highest MDMA dose groups showed reduced locomotor activity during the first 10 min (of 60 min), especially in the PD 1-5 and 6-10 dosing regimens. MDMA groups in all dosing regimens showed impaired allocentric learning in the Morris water maze (on acquisition and reversal, all MDMA groups were affected; on the small platform phase, the 2 high-dose groups were affected). No effects of MDMA were found on anxiety (elevated zero maze), novel object recognition, or egocentric learning (although a nonsignificant trend was observed). The Morris maze results did not support the idea that the SHRP is critical to the effects of MDMA on allocentric learning. However, since no effects on egocentric learning were found, but were apparent after PD 11-20 treatment, the results show that these 2 forms of learning have different exposure-duration sensitivities. PMID:19372692

  15. Impact of AT2 Receptor Deficiency on Postnatal Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Biermann, Daniel; Heilmann, Andreas; Didié, Michael; Schlossarek, Saskia; Wahab, Azadeh; Grimm, Michael; Römer, Maria; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Sultan, Karim R.; Steenpass, Anna; Ergün, Süleyman; Donzelli, Sonia; Carrier, Lucie; Ehmke, Heimo; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Hein, Lutz; Böger, Rainer H.; Benndorf, Ralf A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 (AT2 receptor) is ubiquitously and highly expressed in early postnatal life. However, its role in postnatal cardiac development remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearts from 1, 7, 14 and 56 days old wild-type (WT) and AT2 receptor-deficient (KO) mice were extracted for histomorphometrical analysis as well as analysis of cardiac signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, heart and body weights of examined animals were recorded and echocardiographic analysis of cardiac function as well as telemetric blood pressure measurements were performed. Moreover, gene expression, sarcomere shortening and calcium transients were examined in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from both genotypes. KO mice exhibited an accelerated body weight gain and a reduced heart to body weight ratio as compared to WT mice in the postnatal period. However, in adult KO mice the heart to body weight ratio was significantly increased most likely due to elevated systemic blood pressure. At postnatal day 7 ventricular capillarization index and the density of α-smooth muscle cell actin-positive blood vessels were higher in KO mice as compared to WT mice but normalized during adolescence. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac systolic function at postnatal day 7 revealed decreased contractility of KO hearts in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, cardiomyocytes from KO mice showed a decreased sarcomere shortening and an increased peak Ca2+ transient in response to isoprenaline when stimulated concomitantly with angiotensin II. Conclusion The AT2 receptor affects postnatal cardiac growth possibly via reducing body weight gain and systemic blood pressure. Moreover, it moderately attenuates postnatal vascularization of the heart and modulates the beta adrenergic response of the neonatal heart. These AT2 receptor-mediated effects may be implicated in the physiological maturation process of the heart. PMID:23144713

  16. Long-Term (Postnatal Day 70) Outcome and Safety of Intratracheal Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neonatal Hyperoxic Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Soo Yoon; Sung, Dong Kyung; Kim, Eun Sun; Rime, So Yub; Yu, Wook Joon; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Won Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects and safety of intratracheal (IT) transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury at postnatal day (P)70 in a rat model. Materials and Methods Newborn Sprague Dawley rat pups were subjected to 14 days of hyperoxia (90% oxygen) within 10 hours after birth and allowed to recover at room air until sacrificed at P70. In the transplantation groups, hUCB-MSCs (5×105) were administered intratracheally at P5. At P70, various organs including the heart, lung, liver, and spleen were histologically examined, and the harvested lungs were assessed for morphometric analyses of alveolarization. ED-1, von Willebrand factor, and human-specific nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) staining in the lungs and the hematologic profile of blood were evaluated. Results Impaired alveolar and vascular growth, which evidenced by an increased mean linear intercept and decreased amount of von Willebrand factor, respectively, and the hyperoxia-induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by inflammatory foci and ED-1 positive alveolar macrophages, were attenuated in the P70 rat lungs by IT transplantation of hUCB-MSCs. Although rare, donor cells with human specific NuMA staining were persistently present in the P70 rat lungs. There were no gross or microscopic abnormal findings in the heart, liver, or spleen, related to the MSCs transplantation. Conclusion The protective and beneficial effects of IT transplantation of hUCB-MSCs in neonatal hyperoxic lung injuries were sustained for a prolonged recovery period without any long-term adverse effects up to P70. PMID:23364976

  17. DAY-CARE REHABILITATION CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED ADOLESCENTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, HUGH A.; VAN DUYNE, WILLIAM V.

    IN THIS FIVE YEAR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT, EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS RECEIVED TREATMENT AT A DAY CARE REHABILITATION CENTER SPONSORED BY THE RHODE ISLAND DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION (DVR) LOCATED IN A PRIVATE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL (BUTLER HOSPITAL). THE MAJOR TREATMENT GOALS WERE PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF…

  18. LACK OF FUNCTIONAL GABAB RECEPTORS ALTERS Kiss1, Gnrh1 AND Gad1 mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS AT POSTNATAL DAY 4

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Catalano, Paolo N.; López, Paula V.; González, Betina; Semaan, Sheila J.; López, Gabriela C.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Rulli, Susana B.; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adult mice lacking functional GABAB receptors (GABAB1KO) show altered Gnrh1 and Gad1 expressions in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and females display disruption of cyclicity and fertility. Here we addressed whether sexual differentiation of the brain and the proper wiring of the GnRH and kisspeptin systems were already disturbed in postnatal day 4 (PND4) GABAB1KO mice. Methods PND4 wild type (WT) and GABAB1KO mice of both sexes were sacrificed; tissues were collected to determine mRNA expression (qPCR), amino acids (HPLC), and hormones (RIA and/or IHC). Results GnRH neuron number (IHC) did not differ among groups in olfactory bulbs or OVLT-POA. Gnrh1 mRNA (qPCR) in POA-AH was similar among groups. Gnrh1 mRNA in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was similar in WTs but was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Hypothalamic GnRH (RIA) was sexually different in WTs (males > females) but this sex difference was lost in GABAB1KOs; the same pattern was observed when analyzing only the MBH, but not in the POA-AH. Arcuate nucleus Kiss1 mRNA (micropunch-qPCR) was higher in WT females than in WT males and GABAB1KO females. Gad1 mRNA in MBH was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Serum LH and gonadal estradiol content were also increased in GABAB1KOs. Conclusion We demonstrate that GABABRs participate in the sexual differentiation of the ARC/MBH, because sex differences in several reproductive genes, such as Gad1, Kiss1 and Gnrh1, are critically disturbed in GABAB1KO mice at PND4, probably altering the organization and development of neural circuits governing the reproductive axis. PMID:24080944

  19. Central myelin gene expression during postnatal development in rats exposed to nicotine gestationally.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junran; Dwyer, Jennifer B; Gautier, Nicole M; Leslie, Frances M; Li, Ming D

    2013-10-11

    Abnormal myelin gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with many mental illnesses, including psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to nicotine, the major psychoactive component in cigarette smoke, alters myelin gene expression in the CNS of adolescent rats. To examine whether this effect is specific for adolescents, we examined myelin gene expression in the CNS of juveniles and adults. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day; GN) or saline (GS) via osmotic mini pumps from gestational days 4-18. Both male and female offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day P20-21 (juveniles), P35-36 (adolescents), or P59-60 (adults). Three limbic brain regions, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CPu), and nucleus accumbens (NAc), were dissected. The expression of genes encoding major myelin components was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. We found that GN altered myelin gene expression in juveniles with brain region and sex differences. The pattern of alteration was different from that observed in adolescents. Although these genes were expressed normally in male adults, we observed decreased expression in GN-treated female adults, especially in the CPu. Thus, GN altered myelin gene expression throughout postnatal development and adulthood. The effect on adolescents was quite different from that at other ages, which correlated with the unique symptoms of many psychiatric disorders during adolescence. PMID:23962570

  20. Sick Day Management in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Abha

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) has high morbidity and mortality and can be prevented. It is extremely important to give clear guidance to patients and families on how to manage diabetes during intercurrent illnesses to avoid complications of ketoacidosis, dehydration,uncontrolled or symptomatic hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. This descriptive review of clinical cases and management guidelines for sick days in children and adolescents with diabetes is provided as a resource for physicians who may take calls from parents of sick children with diabetes or manage these children in a clinic, emergency room or hospital setting. PMID:27434984

  1. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  2. Does the adolescent patellar tendon respond to 5 days of cumulative load during a volleyball tournament?

    PubMed

    van Ark, M; Docking, S I; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Rudavsky, A; Rio, E; Zwerver, J; Cook, J L

    2016-02-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament. PMID:25694241

  3. Time of day, Intellectual Performance, and Behavioral Problems in Morning Versus Evening type Adolescents: Is there a Synchrony Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David; Hahn, Constanze S.; Hasher, Lynn; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Zelazo, Philip David

    2006-01-01

    We administered measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence to Morning- and Evening-type adolescents who were tested either during a morning session or an afternoon session, at times chosen to reflect the limits of the average school day schedule. For the fluid intelligence measures, there was a synchrony effect, with better performance at times that matched individuals’ preferences. A composite measure of the subtests used (block design, digit span, and vocabulary) computed to a 6 point difference in IQ estimates. We also assessed the behavioral adjustment of these participants and found heightened levels of maladaptive behavior for Evening-type adolescents. Adolescents tested at their nonoptimal times of day and adolescents who are Evening-types appear to be at risk for poor academic performance and Evening-types appear to be at risk for behavioral adjustment problems. PMID:17268574

  4. Postnatal development and neoplastic disease pattern in NMRI mice after combined treatment with ethylnitrosourea and X-irradiation on different days of the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, A; Schmahl, W

    1987-06-01

    Mice were X-irradiated on day 14, 15 or 16 of gestation with 1.0 Gy. This did not result in an increased tumour frequency in the offspring until 12 months. Mice treated with ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (45 mg/kg) on these gestation days developed a significantly increased tumour frequency in the lungs and liver, and in the ovaries after treatment on day 15 of gestation. Additionally this experiment was the first to show that ENU treatment on gestation day 14, 15 or 16 results in haemangiosarcomas of the subcutis at a low incidence (2.0, 2.4, 2.6 per cent). After combined treatment with these two agents in the sequence X+ENU and an interval of 4 h, a significantly increased incidence rate of animals with tumours was observed in the offspring treated on gestation day 14 or 16. Moreover, the treatment on gestation day 16 exhibited the highest tumour frequency per examined animal (5.7) of all treatment groups. This result is due to a relatively uniform increase of all tumor types. Within this pattern, the frequency of liver tumours was most marked. The diagnosed liver tumours were significantly augmented after X+ENU treatment on day 16. In the reverse sequence (ENU+X), the total tumour outcome was not significantly altered compared with the effects of ENU alone. However, detailed analysis also showed a significant augmentation of the liver tumour frequency with treatment on day 15. PMID:3496295

  5. Night/day ratios of ambulatory blood pressure among healthy adolescents: Roles of race, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Burford, Tanisha I.; Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) predicts hypertension and its complications in adulthood. Purpose To assess the independent effects of race and family income on night/day BP among adolescents and to examine whether negative emotions, low positive resources, and unpleasant interactions during the day are also related. Methods Healthy African American and Caucasian high school students (N=239) wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 48 hours, recorded quality of ongoing interpersonal interactions, and completed questionnaires. Results African Americans and those with lower family income had higher night/day BP ratios. African Americans reporting greater negative emotions, lower positive resources, and more unpleasant interactions had higher night/day BP ratios. Conclusions Racial differences in night BP emerge by adolescence, independent of family income. African Americans, especially those high in negative emotions and low in positive resources, may be at higher relative risk for hypertension later in life in part due to elevated night BP. PMID:23549997

  6. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Methods Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. Result A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother’s chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to

  7. Geographical distribution of adolescent body height with respect to effective day length in Japan: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, Masana; Shimizu, Hideyasu; Higuchi, Yukito

    2012-01-01

    The height of Japanese youth raised in the northern region tends to be greater than that of youth raised in the southern region; therefore, a geographical gradient in youth body height exists. Although this gradient has existed for about 100 years, the reasons for it remain unclear. Consideration of the nutritional improvement, economic growth, and intense migration that has occurred in this period indicates that it is probably the result of environmental rather than nutritional or genetic factors. To identify possible environmental factors, ecological analysis of prefecture-level data on the body size of 8- to 17-year-old youth averaged over a 13-year period (1996 to 2008) and Japanese mesh climatic data on the climatic variables of temperature, solar radiation, and effective day length (duration of photoperiod exceeding the threshold of light intensity) was performed. The geographical distribution of the standardized height of Japanese adolescents was found to be inversely correlated to a great extent with the distribution of effective day length at a light intensity greater than 4000 lx. The results of multiple regression analysis of effective day length, temperature, and weight (as an index of food intake) indicated that a combination of effective day length and weight was statistically significant as predictors of height in early adolescence; however, only effective day length was statistically significant as a predictor of height in late adolescence. Day length may affect height by affecting the secretion of melatonin, a hormone that inhibits sexual and skeletal maturation, which in turn induces increases in height. By affecting melatonin production, regional differences in the duration of the photoperiod may lead to regional differences in height. Exposure to light intensity greater than 4000 lx appears to be the threshold at which light intensity begins to affect the melatonin secretion of humans who spend much of their time indoors. PMID:23227226

  8. Daily stress and emotional well-being among Asian American adolescents: same-day, lagged, and chronic associations.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M

    2014-02-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; M age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when considering same-day reports. More daily stress was associated with lower same-day happiness and higher distress and anxiety. At the same time, well-being was associated with same-day stress, although the specific patterns were not as consistent and varied somewhat by stress domain. With a 1-day lag between daily experiences, stress was not associated with next-day well-being, but daily distress was associated with more next-day family stress. Females and first-generation adolescents were particularly vulnerable to daily stress and well-being processes. Sustained effects were also found in that chronic experiences of school stress over the 14-day period were associated with higher reports of depression and anxiety. PMID:23815704

  9. Exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on postnatal days 11-20 induces reference but not working memory deficits in the Morris water maze in rats: implications of prior learning.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Reed, Tracy M; Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in previous experiments has been shown to induce long-term spatial and sequential learning and memory deficits in adult offspring after exposure to the drug on postnatal (P) days 11-20, but not after exposure on P1-10. Herein we further tested for the effects of MDMA (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg x 2/day) after exposure on P11-20 on reference and working memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), on reference memory in the Barnes maze, and on cued learning in the visible platform version of the MWM. The MWM and Barnes mazes were counterbalanced such that half the litters received the MWM-first and the other half received the Barnes maze first. Effects on MWM performance as a function of test order were observed. For animals that received the Barnes maze first, spatial MWM learning and memory trends were seen but they were not significantly different between MDMA groups and saline controls. For those receiving the MWM-first, there are consistent impairments on all measures in the MDMA groups compared to controls on MWM performance (latency, path length, and cumulative distance from the goal). On probe trials, MDMA animals receiving the MWM-first showed increased distance from the target site compared to controls. There were no MDMA effects seen on cued trials in the MWM or on straight channel swimming trials regardless of test order, indicating that MDMA had no effects on swimming ability or on the skills needed to learn the MWM. Similarly, there were no effects of MDMA on MWM working memory regardless of test order. No MDMA effects on the Barnes maze were found regardless of test order, however, the interpretation of this finding was compromised by the poor performance of the animals on this task. PMID:15380825

  10. Postnatal weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and 5 y and body composition in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara; Maccario, Jean; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2008-01-01

    Background Rapid weight gain in the first years of life is associated with adult obesity. Whether there are critical windows for this long term effect is unclear. Objective To study anthropometry in adolescence by gender according to weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and five years. Design Anthropometric parameters, including fat and fat-free mass by bipodal impedancemetry, were measured in 468 8–17 year old adolescents. We retrospectively collected early infancy data and individually estimated weight and height growth velocities in 69.4% of them using a mathematical model. Associations between birth parameters, growth velocities and anthropometric parameters in adolescence were studied. Results Weight growth velocity at three months was associated with overweight (OR for a 1 SD increase [95% CI]=1.52[1.04–2.22]), fat mass and waist circumference in adolescence in both genders, and with fat-free mass only in boys (r=0.29, P<0.001 versus r=−0.01, ns in girls). Weight growth velocities after 2 years were associated with all anthropometric parameters in adolescence, in both genders. Between 6 months and 2 years, weight growth velocities were significantly associated only with adolescent height in boys; in girls, associations with fat mass in adolescence were weaker. Discussion Our results support the hypothesis of two critical windows in early childhood associated with the later risk of obesity: up to 6 months and from 2 years onwards. The study of the determinants of growth during these two periods is of major importance for the prevention of obesity in adolescence. PMID:18541566

  11. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  12. The Causal Effect of the School Day Schedule on Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Teny M.; Williams, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at the causal impact of the school day schedule on student achievement. How a student's classes are scheduled throughout the day is often determined by necessity, but can have a meaningful impact on academic performance. Acknowledging students' internal clocks and making small changes to scheduling patters could be a relatively…

  13. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  14. Relative validity of adolescent dietary patterns: comparison of a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Gina L; O’Sullivan, Therese A; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-01-01

    Interest in empirically derived dietary patterns has increased over the past decade. However, relatively few studies have evaluated dietary patterns using different dietary methods, or in young populations. We quantitatively compared dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with those from a 3-day food record (FR) in a cohort of adolescents. Subjects from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and a 3-day FR at 14 y of age (n=783). Major dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis on 38 food groups. Dietary pattern z-scores were compared using 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and Spearman’s r. Two major dietary patterns were identified in the FFQ and FR. A ‘Healthy’ pattern was high in fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and grilled or canned fish. A ‘Western’ pattern was high in takeaway foods, confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and fried potato. The nutrient profiles of these dietary patterns were similar when estimated by the FFQ and FR. The LOA between dietary pattern scores from the FFQ and FR were -1.69 to 1.75 (‘Healthy’) and -1.89 to 1.82 (‘Western’). Minor differences in agreement were observed when boys and girls were analysed separately. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and FR were r=0.45 (‘Healthy’) and r=0.36 (‘Western’). Comparable dietary patterns may be obtained from a FFQ and FR using exploratory factor analysis. This supports the use of major dietary patterns identified using a FFQ in this adolescent cohort. PMID:21269548

  15. Effect of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes (CHRN) on Longitudinal Cigarettes per Day in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have sought to identify specific genetic markers associated with cigarettes per day (CPD) during adolescence and young adulthood, the period of greatest vulnerability for the development of nicotine dependence. Methods: We used a longitudinal design to investigate the effect of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRN) subunit genes on CPD from 15 to 21 years of age in young smokers of European descent (N = 439, 59% female). The number of CPD typically smoked during the previous 30 days was self-reported. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CHRN genes were genotyped using DNA extracted from saliva samples collected at the 5-year assessment. Mixed-model analyses of SNP effects were computed across age at the time of assessment using log-transformed CPD as the phenotype. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project were used to clarify the architecture of CHRN genes to inform SNP selection and interpretation of results. Results: CPD was associated with a CHRNB3A6 region tagged by rs2304297, with CHRNA5A3B4 haplotype C (tagged by rs569207), and with the CHRNA2 SNP rs2271920, ps < .004. The reliability of single-SNP associations was supported by the correspondence between a more extensive set of SNP signals and the underlying genetic architecture. The 3 signals identified in this study appear to make independent contributions to CPD, and their combined effect accounts for 5.5% of the variance in log-transformed CPD. Conclusions: Level of CPD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with CHRNB3A6, CHRNA5A3B4, and CHRNA2. PMID:23943838

  16. Screen Time on School Days and Risks for Psychiatric Symptoms and Self-Harm in Mainland Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingli; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU) exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm), in mainland Chinese adolescents. Methods: Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89) from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the following four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/day, >0 to ≤1 h/day, >1 to ≤2 h/day, and >2 h/day. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated. Results: More than 2 h per school day television watching was associated with higher risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73) and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19–2.21), of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95), of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs; OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39), and of oppositional defiant problems (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50) in girls, compared with no television exposure. Conversely, television exposure of no more than 1 h per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99) compared with no television exposure. High school day VG/CU time (>2 h) compared with no VG/CU were associated with higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86) and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs; OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38) in boys. And any school day VG/CU exposure was associated with higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems in boys and all psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs) in girls (ORs, 1.44–3.69), compared to no VG/CU exposure. Conclusion: For secondary school

  17. Recovery from sports-related concussion: Days to return to neurocognitive baseline in adolescents versus young adults

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Scott L.; Lee, Young M.; Odom, Mitchell J.; Solomon, Gary S.; Forbes, Jonathan A.; Sills, Allen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sports-related concussions (SRC) among high school and collegiate athletes represent a significant public health concern. The Concussion in Sport Group (CIS) recommended greater caution regarding return to play with children and adolescents. We hypothesized that younger athletes would take longer to return to neurocognitive baseline than older athletes after a SRC. Methods: Two hundred adolescent and young adult athletes who suffered a SRC were included in our clinical research cohort. Of the total participants, 100 were assigned to the 13-16 year age group and 100 to the 18-22 year age group and were matched on the number of prior concussions. Each participant completed baseline and postconcussion neurocognitive testing using the Immediate Post-Concussion assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery. Return to baseline was defined operationally as post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores being equivalent to baseline using reliable change index (RCI) criteria. For each group, the average number of days to return to cognitive and symptom baseline were calculated. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the mean number of days to return to baseline. Results: Significant differences were found for days to return to baseline between 13-16 year olds and 18-22 year olds in three out of four neurocognitive measures and on the total symptom score. The average number of days to return to baseline was greater for 13-16 year olds than for 18-22 year olds on the following variables: Verbal memory (7.2 vs. 4.7, P = 0.001), visual memory (7.1 vs. 4.7, P = 0.002), reaction time (7.2 vs. 5.1 P = 0.01), and postconcussion symptom scale (8.1 vs. 6.1, P = 0.026). In both groups, greater than 90% of athletes returned to neurocognitive and symptom baseline within 1 month. Conclusions: Our results in this clinical research study show that in SRC, athletes 13-16 years old take longer to return to their neurocognitive and symptom baselines than

  18. High ethanol dose during early adolescence induces locomotor activation and increases subsequent ethanol intake during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescent rats were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor activation on postnatal Day 28. These animals were then evaluated for ethanol-mediated conditioned taste aversion and underwent a 16-day-long ethanol intake protocol. Ethanol-mediated aversive effects were unrelated to ethanol locomotor stimulation or subsequent ethanol consumption patterns. Ethanol intake during late adolescence was greatest in animals initiated to ethanol earliest at postnatal Day 28. Females that were more sensitive to ethanol's locomotor-activating effects showed a transient increase in ethanol self-administration. Blood ethanol concentrations during initiation were not related to ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Adolescent rats appeared sensitive to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of ethanol. Even brief ethanol exposure during adolescence may promote later ethanol intake. PMID:20373327

  19. Screen Media Time Usage of 12-16 Year-Old Spanish School Adolescents: Effects of Personal and Socioeconomic Factors, Season and Type of Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used.…

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period induces impairment in brain myelination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Larissa H; Annoni, Raquel; Balestrin, Natalia T; Coleto, Priscila L; Duro, Stephanie O; Garcia, Raphael C T; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Camarini, Rosana; Britto, Luiz R G; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in children. However, few studies focus on the brain development effects of ETS exposure. Myelination mainly occurs in the early years of life in humans and the first three postnatal weeks in rodents and is sensitive to xenobiotics exposure. This study investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on myelination. BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes from the third to the fourteenth days of life. The myelination of nerve fibers in the optic nerve by morphometric analysis and the levels of Olig1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) were evaluated in the cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon, and brainstem in infancy, adolescence, and adulthood. Infant mice exposed to ETS showed a decrease in the percentage of myelinated fibers in the optic nerve, compared with controls. ETS induced a decrease in Olig1 protein levels in the cerebellum and brainstem and an increase in MBP levels in the cerebellum at infant. It was also found a decrease in MBP levels in the telencephalon and brainstem at adolescence and in the cerebellum and diencephalon at adulthood. The present study demonstrates that exposure to ETS, in a critical phase of development, affects the percentage of myelinated fibers and myelin-specific proteins in infant mice. Although we did not observe differences in the morphological analysis in adolescence and adulthood, there was a decrease in MBP levels in distinctive brain regions suggesting a delayed effect in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:25182420

  1. SMOKING DURING PREGNANCY: POSTNATAL EFFECTS ON AROUSAL AND ATTENTIONAL BRAIN SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Buchanan, R.; McKeon, K.; Skinner, R.D.; Wallace, T.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is known to produce lasting arousal, attentional and cognitive deficits in humans. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate arousal, waking and REM sleep. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreases between 10 and 30 days postnatally in the rat, with the greatest decrease occurring at 12–21 days. Pregnant dams were exposed to 150 ml of cigarette smoke for 15 min, 3 times per day, from day E14 until parturition, and the pups allowed to mature. We analyzed a) intrinsic membrane properties of PPN neurons in slices from pups aged 12–21 days, and b) the sleep state-dependent P13 auditory evoked potential, which is generated by PPN outputs, in animals allowed to age to adolescence. We found significant changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of PPN cells in prenatally exposed animals compared to intact ones, rendering these cells more excitable. In addition, we found disturbances in the habituation to repetitive stimulation in adolescent, freely moving animals, suggestive of a deficit in the process of sensory gating. These findings could explain some of the differences seen in individuals whose parents smoked during pregnancy, especially in terms of their hypervigilance and increased propensity for attentional deficits and cognitive/behavioral disorders. PMID:17368773

  2. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period. PMID:27103444

  3. Sex, but not repeated maternal separation during the first postnatal week, influences novel object exploration and amphetamine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Smedley, L; Pritchard, L M

    2011-03-01

    Sensation seeking and early life stress are both risk factors for developing substance use disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness, and, in turn, contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Animal models also demonstrate associations between novelty responsiveness or early life stress and increased sensitivity to psychostimulants. We investigated whether repeated maternal separation affects responses to novelty during adolescence and to amphetamine during adulthood, and whether maternal separation alters the relationship between these behavioral variables. Rat pups underwent separation (180 min/day) or control procedures (15 min/day) on postnatal days (PND) 2-8. Novel object exploration and amphetamine response were tested at PND 38 and 60, respectively. Adolescent males were less active in a novel environment and approached novel objects more frequently than females, but adult females showed greater amphetamine-induced locomotion. Maternal separation did not affect novelty responsiveness or amphetamine sensitivity. Locomotor activity in an inescapable, novel environment during adolescence predicted amphetamine-induced locomotor activity during adulthood in maternally separated rats, but not in controls. The results of this study suggest that adolescent responses to novelty may be particularly predictive of future substance abuse among survivors of early life trauma. Furthermore, sex differences in novelty and amphetamine responsiveness may complicate the relationship between these behavioral variables. PMID:20886535

  4. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  5. Retardation in somatosensory cortex development induced by postnatal BrdU treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Béldi, Melinda; Takács, József; Bárdos, György; Világi, Ildikó

    2008-11-01

    Cerebral dysgeneses are in the background of several neurological and mental disturbances. The aim of the present study was to investigate structural and activity changes following disturbed postnatal neuronal development in mice. Newborn C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU: daily 50 microg/g body weight) during a period between postnatal days P0-P5 or P0-P11, respectively, and neuronal malformation and malfunctioning of somatosensory (barrel field) cortex was analyzed in adolescent animals. Alterations in histological architecture of interneuronal and glial elements were studied and correlated with electrophysiological modifications. Between P30 and P35 days litters underwent ex vivo electrophysiological experiments to examine the changes in basic excitability and in synaptic efficacy. Parallel immunohistochemistry was performed to detect BrdU, GABA and GFAP. There were no BrdU immunopositive cell nuclei in control animals, but marked staining was observed in both BrdU treated groups. Lessening in the number of GABAergic neurons was observed in the treated groups. GFAP immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased number of activated astroglial cells in treated animals. Reduction of the number of GABAergic neurons was observed in the treated groups. Electrophysiological recordings on cortical slices showed increased excitability in the treated groups. PMID:18678240

  6. Brief report: Association between socio-demographic factors, screen media usage and physical activity by type of day in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models indicated that male and younger adolescents spent more time on vigorous activities at the weekend, while females and older adolescents showed a greater involvement in light activities both on weekdays and weekends. State school students reported engaging in light and vigorous activities for longer periods than private school students on weekends. TV viewing was negatively linked to vigorous activities during weekdays and to light and moderate activities on weekends. The amount of mobile phone usage, however, was positively linked to light activities during weekdays, but negatively on weekends. The negative relationship between adolescents' use of screen media (TV and mobile phone) and physical activity and its possible displacement, depending on the type of day, added useful comparable knowledge for policies promoting an active lifestyle. Further research is required to provide evidence of the causality in the observed relationships. PMID:21145102

  7. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure reversibly alters parasympathetic regulation of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-08-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation and with their pups after birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and after delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. ECGs were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus on sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6 and returned to basal levels by day 7. ECGs showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. On activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2 to 3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  8. Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2–3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  9. Circadian Rhythms in Executive Function during the Transition to Adolescence: The Effect of Synchrony between Chronotype and Time of Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Constanze; Cowell, Jason M.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Goldstein, David; Ralph, Martin; Hasher, Lynn; Zelazo, Philip David

    2012-01-01

    To explore the influence of circadian rhythms on executive function during early adolescence, we administered a battery of executive function measures (including a Go-Nogo task, the Iowa Gambling Task, a Self-ordered Pointing task, and an Intra/Extradimensional Shift task) to Morning-preference and Evening-preference participants (N = 80) between…

  10. Prenatal stimulation and postnatal testosterone affects infanticide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M; Blustein, J; Kennedy, K

    1982-04-01

    Prenatal handling, prenatal stress, and early postnatal exogeneous testosterone were examined in female rats for their effects on rat pup-killing and pup retrieval. During each of the last 5 days of pregnancy. Long-Evans rats received either 3 minutes of handling, 45 minutes of restraint and intense illumination or remained untouched. Half of the offspring of each group received testosterone from Day 1 after birth to Day 30. In adulthood, animals that received handling prenatally and testosterone postnatally killed pups more rapidly than any other group and a larger proportion did so than in the control groups. Animals not manipulated at any time retrieved pups more rapidly and a larger proportion did so than the combined other groups. The study suggests that prenatal handling interacts with testosterone presented immediately postnatally to increase infanticide in female rats. A variety of perinatal manipulations seem to suppress pup retrieval. PMID:7200619

  11. Intermittent (every-other-day) drinking induces rapid escalation of ethanol intake and preference in adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Roberto I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Using adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice, we previously developed a procedure that causes a progressive increase in ethanol intake and preference (i.e., alcohol escalation effect) following weekly (intermittent) access to ethanol (Melendez et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30, 2006). A limitation of this procedure is that it requires many weeks of testing, which limits its use to study ethanol escalation (i.e., binge-like drinking) during adolescence. Previous studies have shown that intermittent every-other-day (EOD) access to ethanol is sufficient to induce ethanol escalation in rats. The objective of this study was to verify if EOD access is sufficient to induce escalated levels of ethanol intake and preference in adult and adolescent B6 mice. Methods Male B6 mice received free-choice 24 hr access to 15% ethanol and water on an EOD or daily basis for 2 weeks. Food and water was available at all times. Using adult mice, Experiment 1 characterized the induction of ethanol escalation following EOD access at 6 (i.e., drinking in the dark) and 24 hr intervals, whereas Experiment 2 determined if daily drinking reverses escalation induced by EOD drinking. Experiment 3 compared ethanol-drinking capacity following daily versus EOD drinking in adolescent (P30–45) and adult (P70–85) mice. Results Experiment 1 revealed that EOD drinking leads to a significant (nearly two-fold) increase in ethanol intake and preference over mice given daily access. Experiment 2 demonstrated that EOD-elicited escalation is blocked and subsequently reversed following daily drinking. Experiment 3 revealed that ethanol drinking was greater in adolescent mice compared to adults following daily drinking and EOD (escalated) drinking. Although the escalated levels of ethanol intake were greater in adolescent mice, the rate or onset of escalation was comparable between both age groups. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that EOD drinking leads to escalation of ethanol intake and

  12. Postnatal glucocorticoid exposure alters the adult phenotype.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Varma, Amit; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2004-07-01

    We examined the effect of six doses of dexamethasone (Dex) administered daily (2-7 days of age) to postnatal rats on body weight gain, food and water intake, peripheral hormonal/metabolic milieu, and hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate food intake. We observed a Dex-induced acute (3 days of age) suppression of endogenous corticosterone and an increase in circulating leptin concentrations that were associated with a decrease in body weight in males and females. Followup during the suckling, postsuckling, and adult stages (7-120 days of age) revealed hypoleptinemia in males and females, and hypoinsulinemia, a relative increase in the glucose-to-insulin ratio, and a larger increase in skeletal muscle glucose transporter (GLUT 4) concentrations predominantly in the males, reflective of a catabolic state associated with a persistent decrease in body weight gain. The increase in the glucose-to-insulin ratio and hyperglycemia was associated with an increase in water intake. In addition, the changes in the hormonal/metabolic milieu were associated with an increase in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y content in males and females during the suckling phase, which persisted only in the 120-day-old female with a transient postnatal decline in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin-releasing factor. This increase in neuropeptide Y (NPY) during the suckling phase in males and females was associated with a subsequent increase in adult food intake that outweighed the demands of body weight gain. In contrast to the adult hypothalamic findings, cerebral ventricular dilatation was more prominent in adult males. We conclude that postnatal Dex treatment causes permanent sex-specific changes in the adult phenotype, setting the stage for future development of diabetes (increased glucose:insulin ratio), obesity (increased NPY and food intake), and neurological impairment (loss of cerebral volume). PMID:15001431

  13. Effect of energy repletion on dynamic aspects of protein metabolism of malnourished adolescent and young adult patients with cystic fibrosis during the first 12 days of treatment.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P; Hill, R; Archibald, E

    1986-01-01

    The short-term effect of nutritional rehabilitation on whole body protein metabolism of six malnourished (energy depleted) adolescent and young adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was examined during the first 12 days of treatment. Refeeding was accomplished using continuous nasogastric administration of an elemental diet. Intakes were 1.65 SD 0.3 g protein/kg/day and 85.3 SD 19.2 kcal/kg/day. Turnover measurements were carried out on four occasions, during the control period on a normal diet and days 4, 8, and 12 on the elemental diet. In response to refeeding, whole body amino nitrogen flux (Q) fell consistently over the study (p less than 0.05). Protein synthesis (S) and breakdown (B) also fell but their values did not reach statistical significance. On the other hand, there was a prompt increase in ratios S/Q and B/Q in response to tube feeding discernible on days 4 and 8 (p less than 0.05), but which returned to baseline by day 12. We conclude that malnourished CF patients who are still eating well have increased rates of protein turnover. There is a prompt response of protein metabolism to energy repletion with a progressive decline in rates during the first 12 days of treatment. PMID:3755167

  14. DNA methylation markers in the postnatal developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K.; Stringfellow, Sara A.; Glover, Matthew E.; Wagle, Anjali A.; Clinton, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intense interest in how altered epigenetic processes including DNA methylation may contribute to psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, there is a limited understanding of how methylation processes change during early postnatal brain development. The present study used in situ hybridization to assess mRNA expression for the three major DNA methyltranserases (DNMTs) – DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b – in the developing rat brain at seven developmental timepoints: postnatal days (P) 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 75. We also assessed 5-methylcytosine levels (an indicator of global DNA methylation) in selected brain regions during the first three postnatal weeks. DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b mRNAs are widely expressed throughout the adult and postnatal developing rat brain. Overall, DNMT mRNA levels reached their highest point in the first week of life and gradually decreased over the first three postnatal weeks within the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cingulate and lateral septum. Global DNA methylation levels did not follow this developmental pattern; methylation levels gradually increased over the first three postnatal weeks in the hippocampus, and remained stable in the developing amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our results contribute to a growing understanding of how DNA methylation markers unfold in the developing brain, and highlight how these developmental processes may differ within distinct brain regions. PMID:23954679

  15. Sedentary Behaviors by Type of Day and Physical Activity in Spanish Adolescents: A Socio-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Sos, Alberto; Bois, Julien E; Aibar, Alberto; Antonio Julián, José; Generelo, Eduardo; Zaragoza, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between TV and computer use, study time, and physical activity, with regard to gender, school, and weekday/weekend. Adolescents (N = 1,609; M age = 14.5 yr., SD = 1.3) reported on physical activity, sedentary behavior, their parents' employment, and environmental factors. The relationship between PA and screen media behaviors was negative on weekdays, while no relationship was found at weekends. Only 30.7% of adolescents met the screen media guidelines on weekdays and 14.6% at weekends. Girls spent more time on study, only showing a positive relationship with physical activity on weekdays. Each type of sedentary behavior has different correlates for weekdays and weekends. PMID:27420322

  16. Gestational naltrexone ameliorates fetal ethanol exposures enhancing effect on the postnatal behavioral and neural response to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Youngentob, Steven L; Kent, Paul F; Youngentob, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    The association between gestational exposure to ethanol and adolescent ethanol abuse is well established. Recent animal studies support the role of fetal ethanol experience-induced chemosensory plasticity as contributing to this observation. Previously, we established that fetal ethanol exposure, delivered through a dam’s diet throughout gestation, tuned the neural response of the peripheral olfactory system of early postnatal rats to the odor of ethanol. This occurred in conjunction with a loss of responsiveness to other odorants. The instinctive behavioral response to the odor of ethanol was also enhanced. Importantly, there was a significant contributory link between the altered response to the odor of ethanol and increased ethanol avidity when assessed in the same animals. Here, we tested whether the neural and behavioral olfactory plasticity, and their relationship to enhanced ethanol intake, is a result of the mere exposure to ethanol or whether it requires the animal to associate ethanol’s reinforcing properties with its odor attributes. In this later respect, the opioid system is important in the mediation (or modulation) of the reinforcing aspects of ethanol. To block endogenous opiates during prenatal life, pregnant rats received daily intraperitoneal administration of the opiate antagonist naltrexone from gestational day 6–21 jointly with ethanol delivered via diet. Relative to control progeny, we found that gestational exposure to naltrexone ameliorated the enhanced postnatal behavioral response to the odor of ethanol and postnatal drug avidity. Our findings support the proposition that in utero ethanol-induced olfactory plasticity (and its relationship to postnatal intake) requires, at least in part, the associative pairing between ethanol’s odor quality and its reinforcing aspects. We also found suggestive evidence that fetal naltrexone ameliorated the untoward effects of gestational ethanol exposure on the neural response to non

  17. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  18. The nuclear receptor Tlx regulates motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders. PMID:26970576

  19. The yield of early postnatal ultrasound scan in neonates with documented antenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Lotan, Danny; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Raviv-Zilka, Lisa; Ben-Shlush, Aviva; Kuint, Jacob; Mor, Yoram

    2011-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed the yield of early postnatal ultrasound scans in neonates with documented antenatal hydronephrosis. We reviewed recording data of prenatal renal ultrasound for 178 newborn infants and the results of renal ultrasound performed during the first days of life. Of 119 infants with prenatal diagnosis of mild hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter <10 mm), 116 (97.5%) had postnatal ultrasound results showing normal or mild hydronephrosis. Prenatal diagnosis of severe hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter >20 mm; 10 infants) was correlated with high incidence (90%) of moderate and severe postnatal hydronephrosis. Prenatal diagnosis of moderate hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter 10 to 20 mm) resulted in moderate postnatal hydronephrosis in 20% and improvement in 80% of the newborn infants. Our evidence supports the option of delaying postnatal renal ultrasound in infants with prenatal diagnosis of mild hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter <10 mm). This strategy can safely reduce the number of early postnatal studies and consequently significantly decrease hospitals' inpatient workload. PMID:21494995

  20. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  1. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

  2. Daily Stress and Emotional Well-Being among Asian American Adolescents: Same-Day, Lagged, and Chronic Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…

  3. Efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate throughout the day in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David R; Banaschewski, Tobias; Lecendreux, Michel; Zuddas, Alessandro; Dittmann, Ralf W; Otero, Isabel Hernández; Civil, Richard; Bloomfield, Ralph; Squires, Liza A

    2014-02-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting, prodrug stimulant therapy for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This randomized placebo-controlled trial of an optimized daily dose of LDX (30, 50 or 70 mg) was conducted in children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with ADHD. To evaluate the efficacy of LDX throughout the day, symptoms and behaviors of ADHD were evaluated using an abbreviated version of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) at 1000, 1400 and 1800 hours following early morning dosing (0700 hours). Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was included as a reference treatment, but the study was not designed to support a statistical comparison between LDX and OROS-MPH. The full analysis set comprised 317 patients (LDX, n = 104; placebo, n = 106; OROS-MPH, n = 107). At baseline, CPRS-R total scores were similar across treatment groups. At endpoint, differences (active treatment - placebo) in least squares (LS) mean change from baseline CPRS-R total scores were statistically significant (P < 0.001) throughout the day for LDX (effect sizes: 1000 hours, 1.42; 1400 hours, 1.41; 1800 hours, 1.30) and OROS-MPH (effect sizes: 1000 hours, 1.04; 1400 hours, 0.98; 1800 hours, 0.92). Differences in LS mean change from baseline to endpoint were statistically significant (P < 0.001) for both active treatments in all four subscales of the CPRS-R (ADHD index, oppositional, hyperactivity and cognitive). In conclusion, improvements relative to placebo in ADHD-related symptoms and behaviors in children and adolescents receiving a single morning dose of LDX or OROS-MPH were maintained throughout the day and were ongoing at the last measurement in the evening (1800 hours). PMID:23708466

  4. Effects of Voluntary Alcohol Intake on Risk Preference and Behavioral Flexibility during Rat Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338

  5. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  6. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to Simulated High Altitude Does Not Modify Postnatal Body Mass Growth Trajectory in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Champin, Graciela M.; Bozzini, Clarisa; Alippi, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bozzini, Carlos E, Graciela M. Champin, Clarisa Bozzini, and Rosa M. Alippi. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to Simulated High Altitude Does Not Modify Postnatal Body Mass Growth Trajectory in the Rat. High Alt Med Biol 15:418–421, 2014.—Postnatal hypoxia blunts body mass growth. It is also known that the quality of the fetal environment can influence the subsequent adult phenotype. The main purpose of the study was to determine whether gestational hypoxia and early postnatal hypoxia are able to blunt growth when the offspring is raised under normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia was induced in simulated high altitude (SHA) chambers in which air was maintained at 380 mmHg (5450 m). Mature Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were divided in normoxic (NX) and hypoxic (HX) groups and, in the case of the HX group, maintained for 1 month at 5450 m. Mating was then allowed under NX or HX conditions. Offspring were NX-NX, NX-HX, HX-HX, or HX-NX: the first term indicates NX or HX during both gestation and the first 30 days of life; the second term indicates NX or HX during postnatal life between days 30 and 133. Body mass (g) was measured periodically and body mass growth rate (BMGR, g/d) was estimated between days 33 and 65 of postnatal life. Results can be summarized as follows: 1) BM was significantly higher in NX than in HX rats at weaning; 2) BMGR was not significantly different between NX-NX and HX-NX rats, and between HX-HX and NX-HX animals; and 3) BMGR was significantly higher in rats living under NX conditions than in those living under HX conditions during postnatal life. Data suggest that that hypobaric hypoxia during gestational and early postnatal development of rats does not alter the regulation of body mass growth in rats when compared to that seen under sea-level conditions. PMID:25184739

  7. Effects of adolescent nicotine and SR 147778 (Surinabant) administration on food intake, somatic growth and metabolic parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Lamota, Laura; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Marco, Eva-María; Llorente, Ricardo; Gallego, Araceli; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Viveros, María-Paz

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and obesity are worldwide important health problems with a growing impact in adolescent and young adults. One of the consequences of nicotine withdrawal is an increase in body weight that can act as a risk factor to relapse. Experimental therapies with a cannabinoid receptor antagonist have been recently proposed for both cigarette smoking and complicated overweight. In the present study, we aimed to investigate metabolic and hormonal effects of chronic nicotine treatment (during treatment and in abstinence) in an animal model of adolescence as well as to address the pharmacological effects of the novel selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 147778 (Surinabant). Adolescence (postnatal days 37-44) and/or post-adolescence (postnatal days 45-59) administration of Surinabant reduced body weight gain, as well as plasma glucose levels and triglycerides. The drug also reduced insulin and leptin secretion, and increased adiponectin and corticosterone levels. The effects showed sexual dimorphisms and, in general, were more pronounced in females. Chronic exposure to nicotine (0.8 mg/kg), from postnatal days 30-44 did not result in overt effects on food intake or body weight gain. However, it altered certain responses to the administration of Surinabant, both when the two drugs were given simultaneously and when Surinabant was administered during the post-adolescence period, along nicotine withdrawal. The present results indicate that the endogenous cannabinoid system is active as a metabolic modulator during adolescence and that nicotine exposure can induce long-lasting effects on metabolic regulation, altering cannabinoid modulation of energy expenditure and metabolism. PMID:17720206

  8. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL EXPOSURE: ARE THERE SEPARABLE VULNERABLE PERIODS WITHIN ADOLESCENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-01-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  9. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  10. Coverage, quality of and barriers to postnatal care in rural Hebei, China: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal care is an important link in the continuum of care for maternal and child health. However, coverage and quality of postnatal care are poor in low- and middle-income countries. In 2009, the Chinese government set a policy providing free postnatal care services to all mothers and their newborns in China. Our study aimed at exploring coverage, quality of care, reasons for not receiving and barriers to providing postnatal care after introduction of this new policy. Methods We carried out a mixed method study in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China from July to August 2011. To quantify the coverage, quality of care and reasons for not using postnatal care, we conducted a household survey with 1601 caregivers of children younger than two years of age. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 township maternal and child healthcare workers to evaluate their views on workload, in-service training and barriers to postnatal home visits. Results Of 1442 (90% of surveyed caregivers) women who completed the postnatal care survey module, 8% received a timely postnatal home visit (within one week after delivery) and 24% of women received postnatal care within 42 days after delivery. Among women who received postnatal care, 37% received counseling or guidance on infant feeding and 32% on cord care. 24% of women reported that the service provider checked jaundice of their newborns and 18% were consulted on danger signs and thermal care of their newborns. Of 991 mothers who did not seek postnatal care within 42 days after birth, 65% of them said that they did not knew about postnatal care and 24% of them thought it was unnecessary. Qualitative findings revealed that staff shortages and inconvenient transportation limited maternal and child healthcare workers in reaching out to women at home. In addition, maternal and child healthcare workers said that in-service training was inadequate and more training on postnatal care, hands-on practice, and

  11. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28–55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63–83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood. PMID:23478858

  12. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood. PMID:26215918

  13. Postnatal changes in the distribution and morphology of rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tepper, J M; Damlama, M; Trent, F

    1994-05-01

    Significant changes in the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of nigral dopaminergic neurons take place in the first postnatal month. In order to correlate these changes with the postnatal development of dopaminergic neuron morphology and substantia nigra cytoarchitecture, brains from Sprague-Dawley rat pups of age postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and adult rats were sectioned and processed for tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. At postnatal day 1, pars compacta and pars reticulata were not clearly delineated; tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons and a dense plexus of fibers were scattered throughout the substantia nigra. By day 7 the density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons decreased markedly in ventral substantia nigra, and a dopaminergic pars compacta and a non-dopaminergic pars reticulata could be more clearly distinguished. By day 14 the substantia nigra appeared essentially as it does in the adult. Cell counts during development revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons/section in both pars compacta and pars reticulata decreased significantly from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 14, while those in pars lateralis did not change. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive somatic size increased modestly but significantly from postnatal day 1 to day 14 as did the diameter of the proximal and distal dendrites. However, even at day 1, the morphology of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons appeared essentially the same as in adults. Dendritic arborizations were well developed. The dendrites were non-varicose and modestly branched, with some of the longer ventrally directed dendrites passing through pars reticulata into the crus cerebri.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915412

  14. Long-lasting deficits in hedonic and nucleus accumbens reactivity to sweet rewards by sugar overconsumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Naneix, Fabien; Darlot, Florence; Coutureau, Etienne; Cador, Martine

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a critical period characterized by major neurobiological changes. Chronic stimulation of the reward system might constitute an important factor in vulnerability to pathological development. In spite of the dramatic increase in the consumption of sweet palatable foods during adolescence in our modern societies, the long-term consequences of such exposure on brain reward processing remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated in rats the long-lasting effects of sugar overconsumption during their adolescence on their adult reactivity to the hedonic properties of sweet rewards. Adolescent rats with continuous access to 5% sucrose solution (from postnatal day 30-46) showed escalating intake. At adulthood (post-natal day 70), using two-bottle free choice tests, sucrose-exposed rats showed lower intake than non-exposed rats suggesting decreased sensitivity to the rewarding properties of sucrose. In Experiment 1, we tested their hedonic-related orofacial reactions to intraoral infusion of tasty solutions. We showed that sucrose-exposed rats presented less hedonic reactions in response to sweet tastes leaving the reactivity to water or quinine unaltered. Hence, in Experiment 2, we observed that this hedonic deficit is associated with lower c-Fos expression levels in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region known to play a central role in hedonic processing. These findings demonstrate that a history of high sucrose intake during the critical period of adolescence induces long-lasting deficits in hedonic treatment that may contribute to reward-related disorders. PMID:26762310

  15. Behavioral effects of bovine lactoferrin administration during postnatal development of rats.

    PubMed

    Shumake, Jason; Barrett, Douglas W; Lane, Michelle A; Wittke, Anja J

    2014-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that rats consuming bovine lactoferrin (bLf) during postnatal development would show better performance of stressful tasks during adolescence. In the first study, we orally administered bLf (750 mg/kg) once daily between postnatal days 16-34. Rats then underwent a battery of behavioral tests: open field (forced exploration of risky environment), light-dark emergence (voluntary exploration of risky environment), baited holeboard (working and reference memory), food neophobia (preference for familiar versus novel food), forced swim (test for antidepressant efficacy), and shuttle-box escape (learning to escape footshock). bLf-supplemented rats showed less exploration of the risky environment, greater preference for the familiar food odor, and faster escape responses. The effect of bLf on forced-swim behavior depended on sex: immobility increased for males and decreased for females. In the next study, we replaced the forced-swim test with an escape-swim test in which rats learned to use a visual cue to locate an escape platform, and we tested the dose response of bLf on this and the shuttle-box escape test, with subjects receiving vehicle or bLf at 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg. Under this modified testing battery, improvement of escape from footshock was not observed at any dose. However, males, but not females, showed a significant dose-dependent effect of bLf on acquisition of the water-escape task. On average, males receiving a higher dose mastered the task 20-25 % sooner than rats receiving a lower dose or vehicle. These results offer preliminary evidence that bLf supplementation during development can improve subsequent cognitive performance during stress. PMID:24752859

  16. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  17. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    PubMed

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  18. Longitudinal 1H MR spectroscopy of rat forebrain from infancy to adulthood reveals adolescence as a distinctive phase of neurometabolite development

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jonathan J.; Kleven, Gale A.; Tulbert, Christina D.; Olson, John; Horita, David A.; Ronca, April E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study represents the first longitudinal, within-subject 1H MRS investigation of the developing rat brain spanning infancy, adolescence, and early adulthood. We obtained neurometabolite profiles from a voxel located in a central location of the forebrain, centered on the striatum, with smaller contributions for cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus, on postnatal days 7, 35, and 60. Water-scaled metabolite signals were corrected for T1 effects and quantified using the automated processing software LCModel, yielding molal concentrations. Our findings indicate age-related concentration changes in N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, myo-inositol, glutamate + glutamine, taurine, creatine + phosphocreatine, and glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine. Using a repeated measures design and analysis, we identified significant neurodevelopment change across all three developmental ages and identified adolescence as a distinctive phase in normative neurometabolic brain development. Between postnatal days 35 and 60, changes were observed in concentrations of N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glutamate + glutamine, and glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine observed between postnatal days 35 and 60. Our data replicate past studies of early neurometabolite development and, for the first time, link maturational profiles in the same subjects across infancy, adolescence, and adulthood. PMID:23322706

  19. Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

    2013-01-01

    We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

  20. Systematic Evaluation of Key L-Carnitine Homeostasis Mechanisms during Postnatal Development in Rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The conditionally essential nutrient, L-carnitine, plays a critical role in a number of physiological processes vital to normal neonatal growth and development. We conducted a systematic evaluation of the developmental changes in key L-carnitine homeostasis mechanisms in the postnatal rat to better understand the interrelationship between these pathways and their correlation to ontogenic changes in L-carnitine levels during postnatal development. Methods mRNA expression of heart, kidney and intestinal L-carnitine transporters, liver γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (Bbh) and trimethyllysine hydroxylase (Tmlh), and heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt) were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. L-Carnitine levels were determined by HPLC-UV. Cpt and Bbh activity were measured by a spectrophotometric method and HPLC, respectively. Results Serum and heart L-carnitine levels increased with postnatal development. Increases in serum L-carnitine correlated significantly with postnatal increases in renal organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (Octn2) expression, and was further matched by postnatal increases in intestinal Octn1 expression and hepatic γ-Bbh activity. Postnatal increases in heart L-carnitine levels were significantly correlated to postnatal increases in heart Octn2 expression. Although cardiac high energy phosphate substrate levels remained constant through postnatal development, creatine showed developmental increases with advancing neonatal age. mRNA levels of Cpt1b and Cpt2 significantly increased at postnatal day 20, which was not accompanied by a similar increase in activity. Conclusions Several L-carnitine homeostasis pathways underwent significant ontogenesis during postnatal development in the rat. This information will facilitate future studies on factors affecting the developmental maturation of L-carnitine homeostasis mechanisms and how such factors might affect growth and development. PMID:22805277

  1. Dynamic changes of the endogenous cannabinoid and opioid mesocorticolimbic systems during adolescence: THC effects

    PubMed Central

    Ellgren, M.; Artmann, A.; Tkalych, O.; Gupta, A.; Hansen, H.S.; Hansen, S.H.; Devi, L.A.; Hurd, Y.L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical phase of active brain development often characterized by the initiation of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) use. Limited information is known regarding the endogenous cannabinoid system of the adolescent brain as well as related neurotransmitters that appear sensitive to cannabis exposure. We recently observed that adult rats pre-exposed to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence self-administered higher amounts of heroin and had selective impairments of the enkephalin opioid system within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) implicated in reward-related behavior. To explore the ontogeny of the cannabinoid and opioid neuronal systems in association with adolescence THC exposure, rats were examined at different adolescent stages during an intermittent THC paradigm (1.5 mg/kg i.p. every third day) from postnatal days (PNDs) 28–49. Rat brains were examined 24 hours after injection at PND 29 (early adolescence), PND 38 (mid adolescence) and PND 50 (late adolescence) and analyzed for endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), Met-enkephalin, cannabinoid CB1 receptors and µ opioid receptors (µOR) in the NAc, caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Of the markers studied, the endocannabinoid levels had the most robust alterations throughout adolescence and were specific to the PFC and NAc. Normal correlations between anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations in the NAc (positive) and PFC (negative) were reversed by THC. Other significant THC-induced effects were confined to the NAc — increased anandamide, decreased Met-enkephalin and decreased µORs. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of the mesocorticolimbic endocannabinoid system during adolescence and the selective mesocorticolimbic disturbance as a consequence of adolescent cannabis exposure. PMID:18674887

  2. Pre- and neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide or the enteric metabolite, propionic acid, alters development and behavior in adolescent rats in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kelly A; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin; Macfabe, Derrick F

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA), a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg) on gestation days G12-16, LPS (50 µg/kg) on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg) or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P) 10-18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40-42) in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal) displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24466331

  3. Pre- and Neonatal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide or the Enteric Metabolite, Propionic Acid, Alters Development and Behavior in Adolescent Rats in a Sexually Dimorphic Manner

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Kelly A.; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin; MacFabe, Derrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome and/or immune system function may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study examined the effects of prenatal and early life administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic, and the short chain fatty acid, propionic acid (PPA), a metabolic fermentation product of enteric bacteria, on developmental milestones, locomotor activity, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent male and female offspring. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected once a day with PPA (500 mg/kg) on gestation days G12–16, LPS (50 µg/kg) on G15–16, or vehicle control on G12–16 or G15–16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500 mg/kg) or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days (P) 10–18. Physical milestones and reflexes were monitored in early life with prenatal PPA and LPS inducing delays in eye opening. Locomotor activity and anxiety were assessed in adolescence (P40–42) in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal PPA decreased time spent in the centre of the open-field in males and females while prenatal and postnatal PPA increased anxiety behavior on the EPM in female rats. Prenatal LPS did not significantly influence those behaviors. Evidence for the double hit hypothesis was seen as females receiving a double hit of PPA (prenatal and postnatal) displayed increased repetitive behavior in the open-field. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that by-products of enteric bacteria metabolism such as PPA may contribute to ASD, altering development and behavior in adolescent rats similar to that observed in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24466331

  4. Oligodendrogenesis and myelinogenesis during postnatal development effect of glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    From, Renana; Eilam, Raya; Bar-Lev, Dekel D; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Tsoory, Michael; LoPresti, Patrizia; Sela, Michael; Arnon, Ruth; Aharoni, Rina

    2014-04-01

    Myelinogenesis in the mammal nervous system occurs predominantly postnatally. Glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug for the treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been shown to induce immunomodulation and neuroprotection in the inflamed CNS in MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we investigated whether GA can affect myelinogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the developing nervous system under nonpathological conditions. Towards this end we studied myelination in mice injected daily by GA, at postnatal Days 7-21. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed significant elevation in the number of myelinated axons as well as in the thickness of the myelin encircling them and their resulting g-ratios, in spinal cords of GA-injected mice compared with their PBS-injected littermates, at postnatal Day 14. Elevation in myelinated axons was detected also in the peripheral ventral roots of the motor nerves. GA induced also an increase in axonal diameter, implying an effect on the overall development of the nervous system. A prominent elevation in the amount of progenitor oligodendrocytes and their BrdU incorporation, as well as in mature oligodendrocytes indicated that the effect of GA is linked to increased proliferation and differentiation along the oligodendroglial maturation cascade. In addition, elevation in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was found in the white matter of the GA-injected mice. Furthermore, a functional advantage in rotating rod test was exhibited by GA-injected mice over their littermates at postnatal Day 21. These cumulative findings corroborate the beneficial effect of GA on oligodendrogenesis and myelination. PMID:24481644

  5. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Robert A.; Guinto, Cristina D.; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L.; Fuentealba, Luis C.; Tate, Matthew C.; Rowitch, David H.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0–4 (P0–P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2+Olig2+, but by P8 a Sox2− subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2+ ‘early' to Sox2− ‘late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2–P3 Sox2+ progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2+Olig2+ progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  6. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Robert A; Guinto, Cristina D; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L; Fuentealba, Luis C; Tate, Matthew C; Rowitch, David H; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0-4 (P0-P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2(+)Olig2(+), but by P8 a Sox2(-) subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2(+) 'early' to Sox2(-) 'late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2-P3 Sox2(+) progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2(+)Olig2(+) progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  7. Fluoxetine exposure during adolescence increases preference for cocaine in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Riggs, Lace M.; Nieto, Steven J.; Wright, Katherine N.; Zamora, Norma N.; Cruz, Bryan; Zavala, Arturo R.; Robison, Alfred J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a high prevalence of antidepressant prescription rates within juvenile populations, yet little is known about the potential long-lasting consequences of such treatments, particularly on subsequent responses to drugs of abuse. To address this issue at the preclinical level, we examined whether adolescent exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in changes to the sensitivity of the rewarding properties of cocaine in adulthood. Separate groups of male c57bl/6 mice were exposed to FLX (0 or 20 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days either during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 35–49) or adulthood (PD 65–79). Twenty-one days after FLX treatment, behavioral responsivity to cocaine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference was assessed. Our data shows that mice pretreated with FLX during adolescence, but not during adulthood, display an enhanced dose-dependent preference to the environment paired with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) when compared to age-matched saline pretreated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that adolescent exposure to FLX increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of cocaine, later in life. PMID:26449406

  8. Prenatal and postnatal factors increase risk of severe ROP.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Alaminos, Roberto; García-Serrano, José Luis; Cantero-Hinojosa, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    To determine that slower weight premature twins have more risk to develop severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) than the higher weight twins. We know that the lower weight twins had less optimal intra-uterine environments than their higher weight twins. We screened 94 consecutive premature twins for ROP. We compared the lower weight twins (n = 47) against their higher weight twins (n = 47). The risk of severe ROP (ROP stage 3 or greater) was significantly higher in the lower weight twin group (p < 0.006). In the same way, in the lower weight twin group the non-perfused area of the temporal retinal artery was higher than that of the other group (an average of 1.2 diameters of the optic nerve head), in the 4-6 postnatal weeks (p < 0.004). The lower weight twin group have an increased risk of severe ROP associated with bacteremia (p = 0.045), or a weight gain less than 7 g per day in the 4-6 postnatal weeks (p = 0.013) or a supplementary postnatal oxygen >4 days (p = 0.007) compared to the higher weight twin group. We confirm Dr. Lee's work that less optimal prenatal factors, in preterm twins, increase the risk of severe ROP. PMID:23796013

  9. Prenatal and early postnatal lead exposure in mice: neuroimaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Diana M.; Beckwith, Travis; Sánchez-Martín, Francisco Javier; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure has been linked to adult gray matter loss accompanied by changes in myelination and neurochemistry noninvasively revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. However, the extent, duration and timing of lead exposure required to produce such imaging changes in humans are difficult to ascertain. Methods To determine if such changes are related to early exposure to low levels of lead, we treated mouse dams with 0, 3, or 30 ppm of lead acetate in drinking water for 2 months prior to mating through gestation until weaning of the offspring at post-natal day 21. Two male and two female pups from each litter were imaged at post-natal day 60. Volumetric, diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements were obtained using a seven Tesla Bruker animal MRI scanner. Results Postnatal blood lead levels were identical between groups at the time of imaging. No effects of lead exposure were detected in the volumetric or MRS data. Mean diffusivity in the hippocampus showed significant effects of lead exposure and gender. Conclusions These data suggest that low-level, gestational lead exposure in a mouse model produces minimal changes observed by MRI. PMID:26435914

  10. Adaptive Immune Regulation of Mammary Postnatal Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Vicki; Boldajipour, Bijan; Linnemann, Jelena R; Nguyen, Nguyen H; Kersten, Kelly; Wolf, Yochai; Casbon, Amy-Jo; Kong, Niwen; van den Bijgaart, Renske J E; Sheppard, Dean; Melton, Andrew C; Krummel, Matthew F; Werb, Zena

    2015-09-14

    Postnatal organogenesis occurs in an immune competent environment and is tightly controlled by interplay between positive and negative regulators. Innate immune cells have beneficial roles in postnatal tissue remodeling, but roles for the adaptive immune system are currently unexplored. Here we show that adaptive immune responses participate in the normal postnatal development of a non-lymphoid epithelial tissue. Since the mammary gland (MG) is the only organ developing predominantly after birth, we utilized it as a powerful system to study adaptive immune regulation of organogenesis. We found that antigen-mediated interactions between mammary antigen-presenting cells and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-producing CD4+ T helper 1 cells participate in MG postnatal organogenesis as negative regulators, locally orchestrating epithelial rearrangement. IFNγ then affects luminal lineage differentiation. This function of adaptive immune responses, regulating normal development, changes the paradigm for studying players of postnatal organogenesis and provides insights into immune surveillance and cancer transformation. PMID:26321127

  11. Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Alexander, Suzanne; Cui, Xiaoying; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of dynamic remodeling and maturation in the brain. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during adolescence can potentially alter neural maturation in the adolescent brain subsequently altering neural function at maturity. In this regard, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are important given a notable global increase in prescription of these APDs to adolescents for a variety of behavioural symptoms and conditions over the past twenty years. However, there is a paucity of data on the long-term consequences of APDs on the adolescent brain. In this preclinical study, we have examined whether the adolescent brain is more susceptible than the adult brain to long-term neural changes induced by risperidone, which is the APD most frequently prescribed to adolescents. Rats were chronically treated (21 days) with 1.3 mg/kg/day risperidone or vehicle either as adolescents (postnatal day (PND) 36-56)) or adults (PND80-100). Behaviour was assessed using the well-described suppression of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) by APDs. We examined CAR after all animals had reached maturity (PND127). We show that mature rats treated with risperidone as adolescents had increased CAR suppression compared to adults when rechallenged with this same drug. In the nucleus accumbens, significant downregulation of serotonergic 5HT2A receptors and catechol-o-methyl transferase mRNA levels was observed only in the adolescent treated animals. Impaired 5HT2A receptor signaling may explain the increased CAR suppression observed in rats treated with risperidone as adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, did not detect any risperidone-induced long-term brain structural change at maturity. These findings confirm that APD administration during adolescence may produce long-term behavioural and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27130903

  12. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina

    2016-09-15

    Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. PMID:27217101

  13. Postnatal genome editing partially restores dystrophin expression in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Mireault, Alex A; McAnally, John R; Li, Hui; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Bhattacharyya, Samadrita; Shelton, John M; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-01-22

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth. PMID:26721683

  14. Chronic Adolescent Exposure to Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in COMT Mutant Mice: Impact on Psychosis-Related and Other Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm MP; Hryniewiecka, Magdalena; Behan, Aine; Tighe, Orna; Coughlan, Catherine; Desbonnet, Lieve; Cannon, Mary; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Cotter, David R; Waddington, John L

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis use confers a two-fold increase in the risk for psychosis, with adolescent use conferring even greater risk. A high–low activity catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism may modulate the effects of adolescent Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure on the risk for adult psychosis. Mice with knockout of the COMT gene were treated chronically with THC (4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg over 20 days) during either adolescence (postnatal days (PDs) 32–52) or adulthood (PDs 70–90). The effects of THC exposure were then assessed in adulthood across behavioral phenotypes relevant for psychosis: exploratory activity, spatial working memory (spontaneous and delayed alternation), object recognition memory, social interaction (sociability and social novelty preference), and anxiety (elevated plus maze). Adolescent THC administration induced a larger increase in exploratory activity, greater impairment in spatial working memory, and a stronger anti-anxiety effect in COMT knockouts than in wild types, primarily among males. No such effects of selective adolescent THC administration were evident for other behaviors. Both object recognition memory and social novelty preference were disrupted by either adolescent or adult THC administration, independent of genotype. The COMT genotype exerts specific modulation of responsivity to chronic THC administration during adolescence in terms of exploratory activity, spatial working memory, and anxiety. These findings illuminate the interaction between genes and adverse environmental exposures over a particular stage of development in the expression of the psychosis phenotype. PMID:20631688

  15. Chronic adolescent exposure to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in COMT mutant mice: impact on psychosis-related and other phenotypes.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Hryniewiecka, Magdalena; Behan, Aine; Tighe, Orna; Coughlan, Catherine; Desbonnet, Lieve; Cannon, Mary; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Cotter, David R; Waddington, John L

    2010-10-01

    Cannabis use confers a two-fold increase in the risk for psychosis, with adolescent use conferring even greater risk. A high-low activity catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism may modulate the effects of adolescent Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure on the risk for adult psychosis. Mice with knockout of the COMT gene were treated chronically with THC (4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg over 20 days) during either adolescence (postnatal days (PDs) 32-52) or adulthood (PDs 70-90). The effects of THC exposure were then assessed in adulthood across behavioral phenotypes relevant for psychosis: exploratory activity, spatial working memory (spontaneous and delayed alternation), object recognition memory, social interaction (sociability and social novelty preference), and anxiety (elevated plus maze). Adolescent THC administration induced a larger increase in exploratory activity, greater impairment in spatial working memory, and a stronger anti-anxiety effect in COMT knockouts than in wild types, primarily among males. No such effects of selective adolescent THC administration were evident for other behaviors. Both object recognition memory and social novelty preference were disrupted by either adolescent or adult THC administration, independent of genotype. The COMT genotype exerts specific modulation of responsivity to chronic THC administration during adolescence in terms of exploratory activity, spatial working memory, and anxiety. These findings illuminate the interaction between genes and adverse environmental exposures over a particular stage of development in the expression of the psychosis phenotype. PMID:20631688

  16. Adolescent binge ethanol treatment alters adult brain regional volumes, cortical extracellular matrix protein and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185

  17. Stimulation of 5-HT7 receptor during adolescence determines its persistent upregulation in adult rat forebrain areas.

    PubMed

    Nativio, Paola; Zoratto, Francesca; Romano, Emilia; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Pascale, Esterina; Passarelli, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Adriani, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Brain serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptors play an important functional role in learning and memory, in regulation of mood and motivation, and for circadian rhythms. Recently, we have studied the modulatory effects of a developmental exposure (under subchronic regimen) in rats with LP-211, a brain-penetrant and selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist. We aimed at further deciphering long-term sequelae into adulthood. LP-211 (0.250 mg/kg i.p., once/day) was administered for 5 days during the adolescent phase (postnatal days 43-45 to 47-49). When adult (postnatal days >70), forebrain areas were obtained for ex vivo immunohistochemistry, whose results prompted us to reconsider the brain connectivity maps presented in our previous study (Canese et al., Psycho-Pharmacol 2015;232:75-89.) Significant elevation in levels of 5-HT7 receptors were evidenced due to adolescent LP-211 exposure, in dorsal striatum (which also shows an increase of dopaminergic D2 auto-receptors) and-unexpectedly-in piriform cortex, with no changes in ventral striatum. We observed that functional connectivity from a seed on the right hippocampus was more extended than reported, also including the piriform cortex. As a whole, the cortical loop rearranged by adolescent LP-211 exposure consisted in a hippocampus receiving connections from piriform cortex and dorsal striatum, the latter both directly and through functional control over the 'extended amygdala'. Such results represent a starting point to explore neurophysiology of 5-HT7 receptors. Further investigation is warranted to develop therapies for sleep disorders, for impaired emotional and motivational regulation, for attentive and executive deficit. The 5-HT7 agonist LP-211 (0.250 mg/kg i.p., once/day) was administered for 5 days during adolescence (postnatal days 43-45 to 47-49) in rats. When adult (postnatal days >70), a significant elevation in levels of 5-HT7 receptors were evidenced in dorsal striatum and-unexpectedly-in piriform cortex. PMID:26364910

  18. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  19. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  20. Postnatal Organic Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, G. G.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 1137 retarded children from Western Ontario revealed 129 (11.3%) in whom retardation was first noted after a specific postnatal event. Eighty-three of these were boys. The most common cause of postnatal cerebral injury in this series was a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the sudden onset of fever, convulsions and coma which occurred in 45 patients. The nature of this syndrome is discussed and the necessity for early treatment emphasized. Other postnatal causes of retardation are classified according to frequency, as encephalitis, accidents, meningitis and a miscellaneous group consisting of epilepsy and tumours. PMID:13907577

  1. Long-term effects of adolescent exposure to bisphenol A on neuron and glia number in the rat prefrontal cortex: Differences between the sexes and cell type.

    PubMed

    Wise, Leslie M; Sadowski, Renee N; Kim, Taehyeon; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in a variety of consumer products, has been found to alter the number of neurons in multiple brain areas in rats following exposure in perinatal development. Both the number of neurons and glia also change in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during adolescence, and this process is known to be influenced by gonadal hormones which could be altered by BPA. In the current study, we examined Long-Evans male and female rats that were administered BPA (0, 4, 40, or 400μg/kg/day) during adolescent development (postnatal days 27-46). In adulthood (postnatal day 150), the number of neurons and glia in the mPFC were stereologically assessed in methylene blue/azure II stained sections. There were no changes in the number of neurons, but there was a significant dose by sex interaction in number of glia in the mPFC. Pairwise comparisons between controls and each dose showed a significant increase in the number of glia between 0 and 40μg/kg/day in females, and a significant decrease in the number of glia between 0 and 4μg/kg/day in males. In order to determine the type of glial cells that were changing in these groups in response to adolescent BPA administration, adjacent sections were labelled with S100β (astrocytes) and IBA-1 (microglia) in the mPFC of the groups that differed. The number of microglia was significantly higher in females exposed to 40μg/kg/day than controls and lower in males exposed to 4μg/kg/day than controls. There were no significant effects of adolescent exposure to BPA on the number of astrocytes in male or females. Thus, adolescent exposure to BPA produced long-term alterations in the number of microglia in the mPFC of rats, the functional implications of which need to be explored. PMID:26828634

  2. Postnatal growth and age estimation in Scotophilus kuhlii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiang-Fan; Huang, Shang-Shang; Lu, Dau-Jye; Shen, Tsung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Adequate postnatal growth is important for young bats to develop skilled sensory and locomotor abilities, which are highly associated with their survival once independent. This study investigated the postnatal growth and development of Scotophilus kuhlii in captivity. An empirical growth curve was established, and the postnatal growth rate was quantified to derive an age-predictive equation. By further controlling the fostering conditions of twins, the differences in the development patterns between pups that received maternal care or were hand-reared were analyzed to determine whether the latter developed in the same manner as their maternally reared counterparts. Our results indicate that both forearm length and body mass increased rapidly and linearly during the first 4 weeks, after which the growth rate gradually decreased to reach a stable level. The first flight occurred at an average age of 39 days with a mean forearm length and body mass of 92.07% and 70.52% of maternal size, respectively. The developmental pattern of hand-reared pups, although similar to that of their maternally reared twin siblings, displayed a slightly faster growth rate in the 4th and 5th weeks. The heavier body mass of hand-reared pups during the pre-fledging period may cause higher wing loading, potentially influencing the flight performance and survival of the bats once independent. PMID:26600428

  3. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered. PMID:24448102

  4. Disrupting effect of androgens in postnatal female domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Demaldé, Lucía; Lopez Merlo, Mariana; Vercellini, Rosario; Barbeito, Claudio G; Fernandez, Patricia; Gobello, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that in domestic cats, postnatal androgens induce sterility, the aims of this study were to describe the reproductive effects and the clinical safety of a postnatal administration of a long term release androgen in this species. Thirteen newborn littermate female kittens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups within the first 24h of birth: testosterone enanthate 12.5mg sc (TE; n=8) or Placebo (PL; n=5). The animals were subsequently assessed for fecal sexual hormones until puberty was attained and subsequently when matings occurred. After 21 days, ovulation and gestation were diagnosed. All queens were subsequently ovario-hysterectomized. Fecal testosterone concentrations differed between the treatment groups throughout the study period (P<0.05) being greater during the first 2 postnatal weeks in those of the TE group (P<0.01). Fecal estradiol was not affected by treatment (P>0.1). While all the females were receptive during the pubertal estrus (P>0.1), two TE (2/8) compared with all (5/5) females of the PL group had ovulations (P<0.05). Only one (1/2) compared with three (3/5) of the queens of the TE and PL groups, respectively became pregnant. All kittens of the TE group had transient clitoral enlargement. Anovulatory TE-treated cats had no corpus luteum, and a significant diminution of the endometrial glands as well as of the height of the uterine epithelium. It is concluded that, in domestic cats, a single postnatal supra-physiological dose of testosterone caused a large proportion of queens to be anovulatory and there were also histological endometrial abnormalities that also occurred with this treatment that were accompanied by mild and transient side effects. PMID:27305841

  5. Cholinergic Circuit Control of Postnatal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Erb, Joshua; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    New neuron addition via continued neurogenesis in the postnatal/adult mammalian brain presents a distinct form of nervous system plasticity. During embryonic development, precise temporal and spatial patterns of neurogenesis are necessary to create the nervous system architecture. Similar between embryonic and postnatal stages, neurogenic proliferation is regulated by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms layered upon cues from their local microenvironmental niche. Following developmental assembly, it remains relatively unclear what may be the key driving forces that sustain continued production of neurons in the postnatal/adult brain. Recent experimental evidence suggests that patterned activity from specific neural circuits can also directly govern postnatal/adult neurogenesis. Here, we review experimental findings that revealed cholinergic modulation, and how patterns of neuronal activity and acetylcholine release may differentially or synergistically activate downstream signaling in NSCs. Higher-order excitatory and inhibitory inputs regulating cholinergic neuron firing, and their implications in neurogenesis control are also considered. PMID:27468423

  6. Differential expression of neurotrophins in postnatal C57BL/6 mice striatum

    PubMed Central

    Zermeño, V.; Espindola, S.; Mendoza, E.; Hernández-Echeagaray, E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurotrophin expression in early stages of development is crucial for brain assembly and function. In particular, postnatal expression of neurotrophins has not been well documented in the neostriatum and in general neurotrophins or their receptor mRNA's are normally reported, but not protein expression. In the present study, immunocytochemical expression of BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4/5 was characterized in striatal tissue of C57BL/6 mice at postnatal days 10th (P10), 21st (P21), 42nd (P42) and 80th (P80). We found that the expression of BDNF diminished along the postnatal time course we evaluated, while staining for NT-4 increased up to age P42 and remained constant, thereafter in the cell's soma. In contrast, NT-3 was first expressed in the neostriatal bundles and later on, in neostriatal cell somas. These results provide information about differences in the spatial and temporal expression of each neurotrophin in the neostriatum during the first 80th postnatal days. RT-PCR procedures were also carried out to further determine whether protein levels of neurotrophins observed in the neostriatum were under control of gene expression. All neurotrophin mRNAs were expressed and only mRNABDNF was reduced during the postnatal evaluated days. Differences in temporal expression of neurotrophins may be related to the heterochronic development of neostriatal cell populations, but also with the specificity of each neurotrophin modulating different neuronal targets. PMID:19173033

  7. Adrenal response of male rats exposed to prenatal stress and early postnatal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liaudat, A C; Rodríguez, N; Chen, S; Romanini, M C; Vivas, A; Rolando, A; Gauna, H; Mayer, N

    2015-01-01

    Stress in pregnant rats caused by chronic immobilization alters the pattern of secretion of corticosterone and modifies the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) of the fetus. Early postnatal handling, however, may reverse the effects of increased secretion of corticosterone. We investigated the effects of prenatal stress and postnatal handling on the activity of the HPA axis of male offspring of stressed female rats. Male 90-day-old rats from four groups were investigated: prenatally stressed animals without postnatal handling, prenatally stressed animals with postnatal handling, unstressed control animals with postnatal handling, and unstressed control animals without postnatal handling. After sacrifice, the adrenal glands were weighed to determine the adrenal-somatic index. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 expression. We found that the adrenal gland cortex:medulla ratio increased in animals with prenatal stress and that eventually the stress caused apoptosis. Handling newborns to simulate maternal activity ameliorated some of the negative effects of prenatal stress. PMID:25867787

  8. Early postnatal development of rat brain is accompanied by generation of lipofuscin-like pigments.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Ivica, Joško; Kagan, Dmytro; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The increased generation of free radicals results in the formation of fluorescent end-products of lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs). The authors observed that LFPs are generated in rat brain after a normal birth during 5 postnatal days. The experimental design of the study comprised 10 groups of animals. The authors measured prenatal values 1 day and 7 days before birth, and then the animals were sampled on postnatal day 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, and 90. Maximum LFP concentration is achieved on the postnatal day 2. Starting from postnatal day 10, LFP concentration returns to prenatal values. A new rise in LFP concentration is observed at 3 months of age. This is associated with the beginning of the aging process. LFPs were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using tridimensional excitation spectra, synchronous spectra and their derivatives, and HPLC with fluorescence detection. It was possible to discern several tens of fluorescent compounds of unknown structure that are generated and metabolized during early development. The authors suggest that LFPs are formed after respiratory burst of microglia phagocytosing apoptotic cells. PMID:20957411

  9. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  10. Brief Report: Association between Socio-Demographic Factors, Screen Media Usage and Physical Activity by Type of Day in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models…

  11. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Human adolescents consume alcohol largely to enhance social interactions. Adolescent, but not adult rats likewise exhibit ethanol-induced social facilitation under low-stress circumstances. Since the relationship between stress and ethanol sensitivity across ontogeny still has yet to be well explored, the present study sought to characterize possible age-associated differences in the influence of stressor exposure on ethanol-induced changes in social behavior in adolescent [postnatal days (P) 30–36] and adult (P65-71) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Results revealed typical age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol among controls, with adolescents being uniquely sensitive to low-dose ethanol stimulation of social investigation and play fighting, but less sensitive than adults to the social suppression emerging at higher doses. At both ages, stressor exposure decreased sensitivity to social inhibitory effects of ethanol, while augmenting expression of ethanol’s social facilitatory effects. Ethanol also attenuated the stress-related suppression of social motivation at both ages. These results suggest that repeated stressor exposure diminishes age-related differences in the social consequences of ethanol, with stress enhancing ethanol-induced social facilitation across age. PMID:20478326

  12. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25–45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45–65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later in

  13. Spaceflight affects postnatal development of the aortic wall in rats.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; O-ishi, Hirotaka; Katahira, Kiyoaki; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  14. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  15. Adolescent exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate cross-sensitizes adults to methamphetamine with drug- and sex-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Ryan A; Ross, Jordan M; Doyle, Hillary H; Helton, Amanda K; Picou, Brittany N; Schulz, Jordyn; Tavares, Chris; Bryant, Sarah; Dawson, Bryan L; Lloyd, Steven A

    2015-03-15

    The increasing availability, over-prescription, and misuse and abuse of ADHD psychostimulant medications in adolescent populations necessitates studies investigating the long-term effects of these drugs persisting into adulthood. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), methylphenidate (MPD) (1.0 and 10 mg/kg), or cocaine (COC) (5.0 mg/kg) from postnatal day 22 to 31, which represents an early adolescent period. After an extended period of drug abstinence, adult mice were challenged with a subacute methamphetamine (METH) dose (0.5 mg/kg), to test the long-term effects of adolescent drug exposures on behavioral cross-sensitization using an open field chamber. There were no sex- or dose-specific effects on motor activity in adolescent, saline-treated controls. However, AMPH, MPD, and COC adolescent exposures induced cross-sensitization to a subacute METH dose in adulthood, which is a hallmark of addiction and a marker of long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. Of additional clinical importance, AMPH-exposed male mice demonstrated increased cross-sensitization to METH in contrast to the female-specific response observed in MPD-treated animals. There were no sex-specific effects after adolescent COC exposures. This study demonstrates differential drug, dose, and sex-specific alterations induced by early adolescent psychostimulant exposure, which leads to behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. PMID:25496784

  16. Histochemical study of retinal photoreceptors development during pre- and postnatal period and their association with retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Vojoudi, Elham; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and changes of glycoconjugates of retinal photoreceptors during both pre- and postnatal development. Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from days 15 to 20 of Wistar rat embryos and 1 to 12 postnatal days of rat newborns including developing eye were prepared for lectinhistochemistry technique. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lectins including Vicia villosa (VVA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-ІІ) were used. Alcian blue (pH 2.5) was used for counterstaining. Results: Interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) plays a crucial role in photoreceptors differentiation and acts as a mediator in interactions between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Specific cell surface glycoconjugates secreted from cone cells could help us to distinguish these cells from rod photoreceptors. Our results for the first time revealed the strong reaction of cone photoreceptors with the cone-specific lectin (PNA) at postnatal day 12 (P12). Postnatal day 12 can be determined as the final differentiation of cone photoreceptors. Conclusion: According to our findings, we suggest that the generation of the eye photoreceptors begins from pre- natal period and their final differentiations will continue to postnatal period. Glycoconjugates including (β-D-Gal [1-3]-D-GalNac) and (β-D-Gal) terminal sugars play a critical role in the pre- and postnatal development and differentiation of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:25429338

  17. Age-dependent morphine intake and cue-induced reinstatement, but not escalation in intake, by adolescent and adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James; Ogbomnwan, Yvonne; Williams, Bonnie; Frantz, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of opioid abuse by human adolescents, few laboratory experiments address adolescent vulnerability to opiates. We examined intravenous morphine self-administration after adolescent- vs. adult-onset, followed by extinction and cue-induced reinstatement. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (P) 35 at start] and adults (P91) acquired lever pressing maintained by 0.375 mg/kg/infusion morphine on a fixed ratio one schedule of reinforcement. Subjects were subsequently divided into short or long daily access conditions (ShAcc, 1-hr vs. LgAcc, 8-hr; 18 sessions). After extinction, cue-induced reinstatement was recorded over 1 hr. During the first six 1-hr acquisition sessions and continuing throughout ShAcc conditions, adolescent-onset rats self-administered less morphine than adults, an effect commonly interpreted as higher drug sensitivity. In contrast under LgAcc conditions, escalation of morphine intake was similar across ages. Extinction of drug-seeking was similar across ages, although rats from LgAcc conditions pressed more than ShAcc conditions. Notably, cue-induced reinstatement was less robust in rats that began morphine self-administration during adolescence vs. adulthood. Although increased sensitivity of younger rats to morphine reinforcement under ShAcc conditions might help explain opioid abuse by human adolescents, lower rates of reinstatement in younger rats might suggest that adolescent development includes some protective factors that dampen the long-term impact of early drug intake. PMID:19091300

  18. Increased vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescent maternal separated mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Aracil, Auxiliadora; Bartoll, Adrián; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Lanciego, José L; Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early life stress on the vulnerability to ethanol consumption in adolescence. To this aim, mice were separated from their mothers for 12 hours/day on postnatal days 8 and 12. Emotional behavior (light-dark box, elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests) and pre-attentional deficit (pre-pulse inhibition) were evaluated in adolescent maternal separated (MS) mice. Alterations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu-opioid receptor (MOr), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy (NF200)-immunoreactive fibers were studied in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) or hippocampus (HIP). The effects of maternal separation (alone or in combination with additional stressful stimuli) on ethanol consumption during adolescence were evaluated using the oral ethanol self-administration paradigm. MS mice presented mood-related alterations and pre-attentional deficit. Increased CRF, MOr and TH, and reduced BDNF, NR3C1, NeuN, MAP2 and NF200-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the PVN, NAc and HIP of adolescent MS mice. In the oral ethanol self-administration test, adolescent MS mice presented higher ethanol consumption and motivation. Exposure to additional new stressful stimuli during adolescence significantly increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption induced by maternal separation. These results clearly demonstrated that exposure to early life stress increased the vulnerability to ethanol consumption, potentiated the effects of stressful stimuli exposure during adolescence on ethanol consumption and modified the expression of key targets involved in the response to stress, ethanol reinforcing properties and cognitive processes. PMID:25988842

  19. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex. PMID:26428091

  20. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  1. Neurotoxic Effect of Benzo[a]pyrene and Its Possible Association with 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Neurobehavioral Changes during Early Adolescence Period in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saroj Kumar; Patel, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to persistent genotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) during postnatal days causes neurobehavioral changes in animal models. However, neurotoxic potential of B[a]P and its association with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurobehavioral changes are yet to be explored. The growth of rat brain peaks at the first week of birth and continues up to one month with the attainment of adolescence. Hence, the present study was conducted on male Wistar rats at postnatal day 5 (PND 5) following single intracisternal administration of B[a]P to compare with neurobehavioral and neurotransmitter changes induced by 6-OHDA at PND 30. Spontaneous motor activity was significantly increased by 6-OHDA showing similar trend following B[a]P administration. Total distance travelled in novel open field arena and elevated plus maze was significantly increased following B[a]P and 6-OHDA administration. Neurotransmitter estimation showed significant alleviation of dopamine in striatum following B[a]P and 6-OHDA administration. Histopathological studies of striatum by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed the neurodegenerative potential of B[a]P and 6-OHDA. Our results indicate that B[a]P-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity in rats showed symptomatic similarities with 6-OHDA. In conclusion, early postnatal exposure to B[a]P in rats causing neurobehavioral changes may lead to serious neurodegenerative consequences during adolescence. PMID:27034665

  2. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The postnatal effects of in utero exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg PFOS daily by gavage from gestation day (GD) 2 to GD 21; pregnant CD-1 mice were treated ...

  3. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. PMID:23376694

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the expression of estrogen receptors in the postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, N; Andersson, S; Lathe, R; Fan, X; Alonso-Magdalena, P; Schwend, T; Nalvarte, I; Warner, M; Gustafsson, J-A

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) during the early postnatal and the peripubertal period. At postnatal day 7 (P7), neurons with strong nuclear immunostaining for both ERalpha and ERbeta1 were widely distributed throughout the brain. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation followed by western blotting supported the histochemical evidence for high levels of both ERs at P7. Over the following 2 days, there was a rapid downregulation of ERs. At P9, ERalpha expression was visible only in the hypothalamic area. Decline in ERbeta1 expression was slower than that of ERalpha, and ERalpha-negative, ERbeta1-positive cells were observed in the dentate gyrus and walls of third ventricle. Between P14 and P35, ERs were undetectable except for the hypothalamic area. As before P7, the ovary does not produce estrogen but does produce 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol), an estrogenic metabolite of dihydrotestosterone, we examined the effects of high levels of 3betaAdiol in the postnatal period. We used CYP7B1 knockout mice which cannot hydroxylate and inactivate 3betaAdiol. The brains of these mice are abnormally large with reduced apoptosis. In the early postnatal period, there was 1-week delay in the timing of the reduction in ER expression in the brain. These data reveal that the time when ERs might be activated in the brain is limited to the first 8 postnatal days. In addition, the importance of aromatase has to be reconsidered as the alternative estrogen, 3betaAdiol, is important in neuronal function in the postnatal brain. PMID:18982005

  5. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  6. Toward postnatal reversal of ocular congenital malformations

    PubMed Central

    Sahel, José-Alain; Marazova, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Aniridia is a panocular disorder that severely affects vision in early life. Most cases are caused by dominantly inherited mutations or deletions of the PAX6 gene, which encodes a transcription factor that is essential for the development of the eye and the central nervous system. In this issue of the JCI, Gregory-Evans and colleagues demonstrate that early postnatal topical administration of an ataluren-based formulation reverses congenital malformations in the postnatal mouse eye, providing evidence that manipulation of PAX6 after birth may lead to corrective tissue remodeling. These findings offer hope that ataluren administration could be a therapeutic paradigm applicable to some major congenital eye defects. PMID:24355915

  7. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  8. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  9. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  10. Controlled targeting of tyrosine hydroxylase protein toward processes of locus coeruleus neurons during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bezin, L; Diaz, J J; Marcel, D; Le Cavorsin, M; Madjar, J J; Pujol, J F; Weissmann, D

    1997-10-15

    Dendrites of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons laying within the pericoerulean neuropil (PCA) organize the major site where tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is present throughout postnatal development. Those dendrites constitute the neuronal compartment in which TH levels increase beyond postnatal day (P) 21 or after RU24722-induced TH expression. Distal LC dendrites are present in the PCA by at least P20 but are devoid of TH and can rapidly accumulate TH protein when gene induction is triggered. Contrasting with the increase in TH levels within LC perikarya and dendrites, TH-mRNA concentration remains constant in LC perikarya from P4 to P42. Thus, supposing TH synthesis and degradation are also constant, any change in TH levels targeted toward axons might be balanced by a shift in the TH deposition within LC dendrites. This mechanism may be crucial in functions that the different processes of LC neurons have at critical steps of postnatal ontogeny. PMID:9406914

  11. Postnatal development of the myenteric glial network and its modulation by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Cossais, François; Durand, Tony; Chevalier, Julien; Boudaud, Marie; Kermarrec, Laetitia; Aubert, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions, and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons affect the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. We thus characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the effect of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and S100β during the first postnatal week. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a structured myenteric glial network was observed at 36 days in the rat colons. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors such as butyrate endogenously produced in the colon may affect this development. PMID:27056724

  12. Relation of nitrite to structural and mechanical adaptation of arteries during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Guo, Xiaomei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian arteries undergo rapid remodeling during postnatal growth and development. The high wall shear stress at birth is an important mediator of postnatal endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and consequently of growth and remodeling. The objective of this study was to quantify the NO production in relation to geometric and mechanical remodeling of aorta and pulmonary artery during postnatal development. Fifty-one C57BL/6 mice aged from 1 to 33 days were divided into 8 age groups for measurements of nitrite (NO(x)). Systematic measurements of NO(x) in each rings were made in the main pulmonary artery and primary branch as well as along the length of aorta using the combination of a diazo coupling method and high-performance liquid chromatography. The NO(x) data on the aorta were correlated with data on the geometry (diameter, wall thickness) and mechanical properties (stress, strain, elastic modulus) in the same strain of mice under the same conditions. Our findings show postnatal age and vessel size affects the NO production; i.e., the NO(x) decreased with age and diameter. Furthermore, there is a significant positive correlation between strain and NO(x) but negative correlation between both wall thickness and elastic modulus and NO(x) levels. These findings suggest an important interplay between NO(x) and geometric and mechanical remodeling during postnatal growth and development. PMID:18807188

  13. Early Adolescent Emergence of Reversal Learning Impairments in Isolation-Reared Rats

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Susan B.; Khan, Asma; Young, Jared W.; Scott, Christine N.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Caldwell, Sorana; Tsan, Elisa; de Jong, Loek A.W.; Acheson, Dean T.; Lucero, Jacinta; Geyer, Mark A.; Behrens, M. Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments appear early in the progression of schizophrenia, often preceding the symptoms of psychosis. Thus, the systems subserving these functions may be more vulnerable to, and mechanistically linked with, the initial pathology. Understanding the trajectory of behavioral and anatomical abnormalities relevant to the schizophrenia prodrome and their sensitivity to interventions in relevant models will be critical to identifying early therapeutic strategies. Isolation rearing of rats is an environmental perturbation that deprives rodents of social contact from weaning through adulthood and produces behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that mirror some pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia, e.g. frontal cortex abnormalities and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle deficits. Previously, we showed that PPI deficits in isolation-reared rats emerge in mid-adolescence (4 weeks after weaning; approx. postnatal day 52) but are not present when tested at 2 weeks after weaning (approx. postnatal day 38). Because cognitive deficits are reported during early adolescence, are relevant to the prodrome, and are linked to functional outcome, we examined the putative time course of reversal learning deficits in isolation-reared rats. Separate groups of male Sprague Dawley rats were tested in a two-choice discrimination task at 2 and 8 weeks after weaning, on postnatal day 38 and 80, respectively. The isolation-reared rats displayed impaired reversal learning at both time points. Isolation rearing was also associated with deficits in PPI at 4 and 10 weeks after weaning. The reversal learning deficits in the isolated rats were accompanied by reductions in parvalbumin immunoreactivity, a marker for specific subpopulations of GABAergic neurons, in the hippocampus. Hence, isolation rearing of rats may offer a unique model to examine the ontogeny of behavioral and neurobiological alterations that may be relevant to preclinical models of prodromal psychosis. PMID

  14. 26Al incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses through the placental barrier and subsequent metabolism in postnatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Kakimi, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain. We used 26Al as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into rat fetuses through the placental barrier by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). From day 15 to day 18 of gestation, 26AlCl 3 was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats. Considerable amounts of 26Al were measured in the tissues of newborn rats immediately after birth. The amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased rapidly during postnatal development. However, approximately 15% of 26Al incorporated into the brain of fetuses remained in the brain of adult rats 730 days after birth.

  15. Neuronal Expression of Muscle LIM Protein in Postnatal Retinae of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Evgeny; Leibinger, Marco; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Fischer, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a member of the cysteine rich protein family and has so far been regarded as a muscle-specific protein that is mainly involved in myogenesis and the organization of cytoskeletal structure in myocytes, respectively. The current study demonstrates for the first time that MLP expression is not restricted to muscle tissue, but is also found in the rat naive central nervous system. Using quantitative PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses we detected MLP in the postnatal rat retina, specifically in the somas and dendritic arbors of cholinergic amacrine cells (AC) of the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer (displaced AC). Induction of MLP expression started at embryonic day 20 and peaked between postnatal days 7 and 14. It subsequently decreased again to non-detectable protein levels after postnatal day 28. MLP was identified in the cytoplasm and dendrites but not in the nucleus of AC. Thus, retinal MLP expression correlates with the morphologic and functional development of cholinergic AC, suggesting a potential role of this protein in postnatal maturation and making MLP a suitable marker for these neurons. PMID:24945278

  16. Leukemia inhibitory factor regulates the timing of oligodendrocyte development and myelination in the postnatal optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Tomoko; Lee, Philip R.; Baba, Hiroko; Fields, R. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes the survival of oligodendrocytes both in vitro and in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, but the possible role of LIF signaling in myelination during normal development has not been investigated. We find that LIF-/- mice have a pronounced myelination defect in optic nerve at postnatal day 10. Myelin basic protein (MBP)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-positive myelin was evident throughout the optic nerve in the wild-type mice, but staining was present only at the chiasmal region in LIF-/- mice of the same age. Further experiments suggest that the myelination defect was a consequence of a delay in maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) population. The number of Olig2-positive cells was dramatically decreased in optic nerve of LIF-/- mice, and the distribution of Olig2-positive cells was restricted to the chiasmal region of the nerve in a steep gradient toward the retina. Gene expression profiling and cell culture experiments revealed that OPCs from P10 optic nerve of LIF-/- mice remained in a highly proliferative immature stage compared with littermate controls. Interestingly, by postnatal day 14, MBP immunostaining in the LIF-/- optic nerve was comparable to that of LIF+/+ mice. These results suggest that, during normal development of mouse optic nerve, there is a defined developmental time window when LIF is required for correct myelination. Myelination seems to recover by postnatal day 14, so LIF is not necessary for the completion of myelination during postnatal development. PMID:19598242

  17. Post-natal imprinting: evidence from marsupials.

    PubMed

    Stringer, J M; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2014-08-01

    Genomic imprinting has been identified in therian (eutherian and marsupial) mammals but not in prototherian (monotreme) mammals. Imprinting has an important role in optimising pre-natal nutrition and growth, and most imprinted genes are expressed and imprinted in the placenta and developing fetus. In marsupials, however, the placental attachment is short-lived, and most growth and development occurs post-natally, supported by a changing milk composition tailor-made for each stage of development. Therefore there is a much greater demand on marsupial females during post-natal lactation than during pre-natal placentation, so there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the mammary gland than in the short-lived placenta. Recent studies in the tammar wallaby confirm the presence of genomic imprinting in nutrient-regulatory genes in the adult mammary gland. This suggests that imprinting may influence infant post-natal growth via the mammary gland as it does pre-natally via the placenta. Similarly, an increasing number of imprinted genes have been implicated in regulating feeding and nurturing behaviour in both the adult and the developing neonate/offspring in mice. Together these studies provide evidence that genomic imprinting is critical for regulating growth and subsequently the survival of offspring not only pre-natally but also post-natally. PMID:24595366

  18. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  19. Stressors during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Some infants experience unusual stress from pregnancy through the postnatal period and are especially called upon to exercise coping responses. Discusses unusual stressors, how the infant naturally copes with them, and how caregivers can provide assistance. Reviews studies on stress-relieving intervention techniques. (NH)

  20. Sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity following prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Šlamberová, R

    2012-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on behavior and anxiety in adult male and female rats. Mothers were daily exposed to injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (S): prior to impregnation and throughout gestation and lactation periods. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 6 saline-exposed pups and 6 MA-exposed pups. Based on the prenatal and postnatal exposure 4 experimental groups (S/S, S/MA, MA/S, MA/MA) were tested in the Open field (OF) and in the Elevated plus maze (EPM) in adulthood. Locomotion, exploration, immobility and comforting behavior were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety was assessed in the EPM. While prenatal MA exposure did not affect behavior and anxiety in adulthood, postnatal MA exposure (i.e. MA administration to lactating mothers) induced long-term changes. Specifically, adult female rats in diestrus and adult males postnatally exposed to MA via breast milk (S/MA and MA/MA) had decreased locomotion and exploratory behavior in the OF and showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM when compared to female rats in diestrus or males postnatally exposed to saline (S/S and MA/S). In adult females in proestrus, postnatal exposure to MA affected only exploratory behavior in the OF when compared to rats in proestrus postnatally exposed to saline. Thus, the present study shows that postnatal exposure to MA via breast milk impairs behavior in unfamiliar environment and anxiety-like behavior of adult male and female rats more than prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21884713

  1. Longitudinal measurements of postnatal rat brain mechanical properties in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Cheng, Shaokoon; Bilston, Lynne E

    2016-06-14

    Information on pediatric brain tissue mechanical properties and, more pertinently, how they change during postnatal development remains scarce despite its importance to investigate mechanisms of neural injury. The aim of this study is to determine whether brain mechanical properties change in-vivo during early postnatal development in a rat model. Rat brain viscoelastic properties were measured longitudinally in ten healthy Sprague Dawley rats at five different time points from postnatal week one to week six using magnetic resonance elastography at 800Hz. Myelination and cell density were assessed histologically at the same time points to understand how the underlying tissue microstructure may be associated with changes in mechanical properties at different brain regions. Longitudinal changes in each variable were assessed using a generalized linear model with pairwise comparisons of means between weeks. The brain shear modulus in the cortical gray matter at postnatal week one was 6.3±0.4kPa, and increased significantly from week one to week two (pairwise comparison, p<0.01), remained stable from week two to week four and decreased significantly by week six (pairwise comparison, p<0.001). In the deep gray matter, brain tissue stiffness at postnatal week one was 6.1±2.0kPa, and increased significantly from one to week four (pairwise comparison, p<0.05) before decreasing significantly by week six (pairwise comparison, p<0.001). Stiffness changes were not directly correlated to histological observations. These data suggest that brain tissue shear modulus initially increases during a period equivalent to early childhood, and then decreases during a period equivalent to adolescence. PMID:27126986

  2. Prenatal ethanol increases ethanol intake throughout adolescence, alters ethanol-mediated aversive learning, and affects μ but not δ or κ opioid receptor mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-06-01

    Animal models of prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) have indicated a facilitatory effect of PEE on adolescent ethanol intake, but few studies have assessed the effects of moderate PEE throughout adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this facilitatory effect remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats with or without PEE (2.0 g/kg, gestational days 17-20) from postnatal days 37 to 62. The results revealed greater ethanol consumption in PEE rats than in controls, which persisted throughout adolescence. By the end of testing, ethanol ingestion in PEE rats was nearly 6.0 g/kg. PEE was associated with insensitivity to ethanol-induced aversion. PEE and control rats were further analysed for levels of μ, δ and κ opioid receptor mRNA in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and ventral tegmental area. Similar levels of mRNA were observed across most areas and opioid receptors, but μ receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area was significantly increased by PEE. Unlike previous studies that assessed the effects of PEE on ethanol intake close to birth, or in only a few sessions during adolescence, the present study observed a facilitatory effect of PEE that lasted throughout adolescence. PEE was associated with insensitivity to the aversive effect of ethanol, and increased levels of μ opioid receptor transcripts. PEE is a prominent vulnerability factor that probably favors the engagement of adolescents in risky trajectories of ethanol use. PMID:25865037

  3. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  4. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  5. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25854319

  6. Cerebral radiofrequency exposures during adolescence: Impact on astrocytes and brain functions in healthy and pathologic rat models.

    PubMed

    Petitdant, Nicolas; Lecomte, Anthony; Robidel, Franck; Gamez, Christelle; Blazy, Kelly; Villégier, Anne-Sophie

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones by adolescents raises concerns about possible health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF 900 MHz) on the immature brain. Neuro-development is a period of particular sensitivity to repeated environmental challenges such as pro-inflammatory insults. Here, we used rats to assess whether astrocyte reactivity, perception, and emotionality were affected by RF EMF exposures during adolescence. We also investigated if adolescent brains were more sensitive to RF EMF exposures after neurodevelopmental inflammation. To do so, we either performed 80 μg/kg intra-peritoneal injections of lipopolysaccharides during gestation or 1.25 μg/h intra-cerebro-ventricular infusions during adolescence. From postnatal day (P)32 to 62, rats were subjected to 45 min RF EMF exposures to the brain (specific absorption rates: 0, 1.5, or 6 W/kg, 5 days/week). From P56, they were tested for perception of novelty, anxiety-like behaviors, and emotional memory. To assess astrocytic reactivity, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein was measured at P64. Our results did not show any neurobiological impairment in healthy and vulnerable RF EMF-exposed rats compared to their sham-exposed controls. These data did not support the hypothesis of a specific cerebral sensitivity to RF EMF of adolescents, even after a neurodevelopmental inflammation. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:338-350, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272062

  7. The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies. PMID:24508235

  8. Postnatal development of the exocrine pancreas in suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Lopez, V; Martínez-Victoria, E; Yago, M D; Lupiani, M J; Mañas, M

    1997-04-01

    A total of 25 preruminant Granadina breed goats were used. They were bottle-fed goat milk ad libitum from postnatal day 3 to 28. Until the age of 3 d, kids were fed colostrum. Body weight, pancreas weight, total protein concentration, enzyme activities in pancreatic tissue and hormone concentrations (cortisol, gastrin, T3 and T4) were determined at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d of age. Our results show that the rates of pancreatic synthesis and secretion of chymotrypsin are well developed at birth in the kid, and may compensate for possible deficiencies in gastric and/or enterocytes intracellular proteolysis. In week 4, there was a marked increase in amylase activity, change that can be attributed to the beginning of the transitional period known as weaning. The significant increase in circulating concentration of cortisol during week 4 suggests the involvement of corticosteroid as a mediator of pancreatic development at weaning. Changes in blood levels of this hormone are believed to be important in the expression of amylase in the neonatal period. However, T3-T4 blood levels remained unchanged from d 3 to 28, suggesting that, in the kid, these hormones appear to have no clear influence upon the postnatal development of the exocrine pancreas. PMID:9255407

  9. Effects of postnatal estrogen manipulations on juvenile alloparental behavior.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Sue Carter, C; Cushing, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  10. The septal organ of the rat during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Elke; Farbman, Albert I

    2003-09-01

    The septal organ of Masera (SO) is a small, isolated patch of olfactory epithelium, located in the ventral part of the nasal septum. We investigated in this systematic study the postnatal development of the SO in histological sections of rats at various ages from the day of birth (P1) to P666. The SO-area increases to a maximum at P66-P105, just as the animals reach sexual maturity, and decreases thereafter, significantly however only in males, indicating a limited neurogenetic capacity for regeneration. In contrast, the main olfactory epithelium area continues to expand beyond P300. The modified respiratory epithelium ('zwischen epithelium') separating the SO and the main olfactory epithelium contains a few olfactory neurons up to age P66. Its length increases postnatally so that the SO becomes more ventral to the OE. Although the position of the SO relative to other anatomical landmarks changes with development it is consistently located just posterior to the opening of the nasopalatine duct (NPAL). Thus, a possible function of the SO is in sensing chemicals in fluids entering the mouth by licking and then delivered to the nasal cavity via the NPAL; therefore the SO may be involved in social/sexual behavior as is the vomeronasal organ (VNO). We suggest that the SO is a separate accessory olfactory organ with properties somewhat different from both OE and VNO and may exist only in species where the NPAL does not open into the VNO. PMID:14578120

  11. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  12. Expression studies of neuronatin in prenatal and postnatal rat pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Naoko; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Yako, Hideji; Chen, Mo; Ueharu, Hiroki; Nishimura, Naoto; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The pituitary gland, an indispensable endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes pituitary hormones, develops with the support of many factors. Among them, neuronatin (NNAT), which was discovered in the neonatal mouse brain as a factor involved in neural development, has subsequently been revealed to be coded by an abundantly expressing gene in the pituitary gland but its role remains elusive. We analyze the expression profile of Nnat and the localization of its product during rat pituitary development. The level of Nnat expression was high during the embryonic period but remarkably decreased after birth. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NNAT appeared in the SOX2-positive stem/progenitor cells in the developing pituitary primordium on rat embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) and later in the majority of SOX2/PROP1 double-positive cells on E13.5. Thereafter, during pituitary embryonic development, Nnat expression was observed in some stem/progenitor cells, proliferating cells and terminally differentiating cells. In postnatal pituitaries, NNAT-positive cells decreased in number, with most coexpressing Sox2 or Pit1, suggesting a similar role for NNAT to that during the embryonic period. NNAT was widely localized in mitochondria, peroxisomes and lysosomes, in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum but not in the Golgi. The present study thus demonstrated the variability in expression of NNAT-positive cells in rat embryonic and postnatal pituitaries and the intracellular localization of NNAT. Further investigations to obtain functional evidence for NNAT are a prerequisite. PMID:26613603

  13. Protective effects of chronic mild stress during adolescence in the low-novelty responder rat.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Nam, Hyungwoo; Glover, Matthew E; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-01-01

    Stress-elicited behavioral and physiologic responses vary widely across individuals and depend on a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Adolescence is an important developmental period when neural circuits that guide emotional behavior and stress reactivity are still maturing. A critical question is whether stress exposure elicits contrasting effects when it occurs during adolescence versus adulthood. We previously found that Sprague-Dawley rats selectively bred for low-behavioral response to novelty (bred Low Responders; bLRs) are particularly sensitive to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) exposure in adulthood, which exacerbates their typically high levels of spontaneous depressive- and anxiety-like behavior. Given developmental processes known to occur during adolescence, we sought to determine whether the impact of CMS on bLR rats is equivalent when they are exposed to it during adolescence as compared with adulthood. Young bLR rats were either exposed to CMS or control condition from postnatal days 35-60. As adults, we found that CMS-exposed bLRs maintained high levels of sucrose preference and exhibited increased social exploration along with decreased immobility on the forced swim test compared with bLR controls. These data indicate a protective effect of CMS exposure during adolescence in bLR rats. PMID:26473581

  14. Protective Effects of Chronic Mild Stress during Adolescence in the Low Novelty Responder Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Samir; Nam, Hyungwoo; Glover, Matthew E.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.; M.Clinton, Sarah; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress-elicited behavioral and physiologic responses vary widely across individuals and depend on a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Adolescence is an important developmental period when neural circuits that guide emotional behavior and stress reactivity are still maturing. A critical question is whether stress exposure elicits contrasting effects when it occurs during adolescence versus adulthood. We previously found that Sprague Dawley rats selectively-bred for low behavioral response to novelty (bred Low Responders; bLRs) are particularly sensitive to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) exposure in adulthood, which exacerbates their typically high levels of spontaneous depressive- and anxiety- like behavior. Given developmental processes known to occur during adolescence, we sought to determine whether the impact of CMS on bLR rats is equivalent when they are exposed to it during adolescence as compared to adulthood. Young bLR rats were either exposed to CMS or control condition from postnatal day 35-60. As adults we found that CMS-exposed bLRs maintained high levels of sucrose preference and exhibited increased social exploration along with decreased immobility on the forced swim test compared to bLR controls. These data indicate a protective effect of CMS exposure during adolescence in bLR rats. PMID:26473581

  15. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity. PMID:26568443

  16. Kindergarten: All Day Every Day?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelerich, Marjorie L.

    This paper reports findings that all-day every-day educational programs have positive effects on kindergarten children. Also included is a Minnesota Association for Childhood Education (MACE) position paper which advocates the provision of full-day kindergarten programs and details seven criteria that a quality full-day program must meet. Efforts…

  17. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  18. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  19. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang; Xiao, Jinglei; Yu, Buwei

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  1. Tickling during adolescence alters fear-related and cognitive behaviors in rats after prolonged isolation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Miyo; Yamada, Kazuo; Ohnishi, Junji; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Furuie, Hiroki; Murakami, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2014-05-28

    Social interactions during adolescence are important especially for neuronal development and behavior. We recently showed that positive emotions induced by repeated tickling could modulate fear-related behaviors and sympatho-adrenal stress responses. In the present study, we examined whether tickling during early to late adolescence stage could reverse stress vulnerability induced by socially isolated rearing. Ninety-five male Fischer rats were reared under different conditions from postnatal day (PND) 21 to 53: group-housed (three rats/cage), isolated-nontickled (one rat/cage) and isolated-tickled (received tickling stimulation for 5min a day). Auditory fear conditioning was then performed on the rats at PND 54. Isolated-tickled rats exhibited significantly lower freezing compared with group-housed rats in the first retention test performed 48h after conditioning and compared with isolated-nontickled rats in the second retention test performed 96h after conditioning. Moreover, group-housed and isolated-tickled rats tended to show a significant decrease in freezing responses in the second retention test; however, isolated-nontickled rats did not. In the Morris water maze task that was trained in adulthood (PND 88), but not in adolescence (PND 56), isolated-nontickled rats showed slower decrease of escape latency compared to group-housed rats; however, tickling treatment significantly improved this deficit. These results suggest that tickling stimulation can alleviate the detrimental effects of isolated rearing during adolescence on fear responses and spatial learning. PMID:24727339

  2. [Novel calretinin-positive cells with polymorphous spines in the mouse forebrain during early postnatal ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Revishchin, A V; Okhotin, V E; Pavlova, G V

    2009-01-01

    Using an immunocytochemical method for calretinin (CR) detection, we have earlier described (Morfologiya, 2009 v. 135. No. 3, p. 7-19) the population of previously unknown mono- and bipolar cells with polymorphous spines (PS) covering their cell bodies and processes, in adult mice forebrain structures adjacent to anterior horn of lateral ventricle. CR-positive spiny (CR+PS) cells were negative to GAD67 and were detected in the white matter and in layers V and VI of frontal area of dorsomedial cortex close to the cingulum, in in rostro-dorsal part of the caudate nucleus-putamen complex, anterior olfactory nucleus and in subependymal layer of the dorso-lateral angle of the lateral ventricle. In this work, the distribution of these cells in 7-day-old mice was studied. Comparative topographical analysis of definitive and early CR+PS cells demonstrated that in 7-day-old mice CR+PS cells were absent from the areas of their localization in adult animals - anterior olfactory nucleus, cortical plate and inner portion of neostriatum. Meanwhile, some CR+PS-like cells were detected in 7-day-old mice inside the rostral migratory route, close to neostriatum anterior boundary, along the dorsal border between neostriatum and corpus callosum, subependymal layer of lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, and in the cingulum area. These findings are indicative of the possible postnatal appearance of CR+PS cells. To test this hypothesis, the experiments were conducted in which bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to the mice on their postnatal days 2-4 with the subsequent study of the brain sections of these animals sacrificed on their postnatal day 20. Double immunolabeling of these sections for CR and BrdU has detected the presence of CR+PS cells that contained postnatally administered BrdU. These results strongly suggest that, at least, some portion of CR+PS cells have their mitosis postnatally. It may be assumed, that CR+PS cells migrate to the sites of their distribution in

  3. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. PMID:26562657

  4. Utilization of maternal healthcare among adolescent mothers in urban India: evidence from DLHS-3.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Abhishek; Pranjali, Pragya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low use of maternal healthcare services is one of the reasons why maternal mortality is still considerably high among adolescents mothers in India. To increase the utilization of these services, it is necessary to identify factors that affect service utilization. To our knowledge, no national level study in India has yet examined the issue in the context urban adolescent mothers. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap. Data and Methods. Using information from the third wave of District Level Household Survey (2007-08), we have examined factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among urban Indian married adolescent women (aged 13-19 years) who have given live/still births during last three years preceding the survey. The three outcome variables included in the analyses are 'full antenatal care (ANC)', 'safe delivery' and 'postnatal care within 42 days of delivery'. We have used Chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion and the binary logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on the utilization of maternity care. Results. About 22.9% of mothers have received full ANC, 65.1% of mothers have had at least one postnatal check-up within 42 days of pregnancy. The proportion of mother having a safe delivery, i.e., assisted by skilled personnel, is about 70.5%. Findings indicate that there is considerable amount of variation in use of maternity care by educational attainment, household wealth, religion, parity and region of residence. Receiving full antenatal care is significantly associated with mother's education, religion, caste, household wealth, parity, exposure to healthcare messages and region of residence. Mother's education, full antenatal care, parity, household wealth, religion and region of residence are also statistically significant in case of safe delivery. The use of postnatal care is associated with household wealth, woman's education, full antenatal care, safe

  5. Utilization of maternal healthcare among adolescent mothers in urban India: evidence from DLHS-3

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Pranjali, Pragya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low use of maternal healthcare services is one of the reasons why maternal mortality is still considerably high among adolescents mothers in India. To increase the utilization of these services, it is necessary to identify factors that affect service utilization. To our knowledge, no national level study in India has yet examined the issue in the context urban adolescent mothers. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap. Data and Methods. Using information from the third wave of District Level Household Survey (2007–08), we have examined factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among urban Indian married adolescent women (aged 13–19 years) who have given live/still births during last three years preceding the survey. The three outcome variables included in the analyses are ‘full antenatal care (ANC)’, ‘safe delivery’ and ‘postnatal care within 42 days of delivery’. We have used Chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion and the binary logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on the utilization of maternity care. Results. About 22.9% of mothers have received full ANC, 65.1% of mothers have had at least one postnatal check-up within 42 days of pregnancy. The proportion of mother having a safe delivery, i.e., assisted by skilled personnel, is about 70.5%. Findings indicate that there is considerable amount of variation in use of maternity care by educational attainment, household wealth, religion, parity and region of residence. Receiving full antenatal care is significantly associated with mother’s education, religion, caste, household wealth, parity, exposure to healthcare messages and region of residence. Mother’s education, full antenatal care, parity, household wealth, religion and region of residence are also statistically significant in case of safe delivery. The use of postnatal care is associated with household wealth, woman’s education, full

  6. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  7. Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse of the Newborn.

    PubMed

    Ferrarello, Debi; Carmichael, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Sudden unexpected postnatal collapse is a rare but devastating neonatal event. A well-appearing, full-term newborn with Agpar scores of eight or more suddenly crashes, often with full respiratory and cardiac arrest. Up to half of newborns with sudden unexpected postnatal collapse die, with many survivors suffering serious neurological damage. The first 2 hours of life are the hours of greatest risk, coinciding with the time frame when nurses encourage breastfeeding and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact between women and newborns. Nursing assessments and measures to promote neonates' optimal transition to extrauterine life through skin-to-skin contact and early breastfeeding while decreasing the risk of this catastrophic event are described. Nursing surveillance to promote optimal transition in a safe environment is essential, and birth facilities should allocate staffing resources accordingly. PMID:27287353

  8. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. PMID:26713828

  9. A Multicultural Glimpse of Rural and Urban Adolescence in Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die" and Paul Zindel's "The Pigman."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary Frances Linden

    "A Day No Pigs Would Die" by Robert Newton Peck and "The Pigman" by Paul Zindel are 2 short novels that offer treasures in the form of many lessons in life to share in the language arts classroom. These two rich novels can serve as sources for multicultural understanding of rural and urban life, as well as for interpreting the protagonists' growth…

  10. Opposite regulation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of rats treated with cocaine during adolescence.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2016-02-26

    The endocannabinoid system is implicated in the neurobiology of cocaine addiction, although it is not clear how cocaine regulates brain CB1 and CB2 receptors, especially during adolescence, a critical moment for shaping adult response to drug use. This study evaluated CB1 and CB2 protein levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) by western blot analysis with specific and validated antibodies: (1) basally during adolescence (post-natal day PND 40, PND 47, PND 54), (2) by a sensitizing regimen of cocaine (15mg/kg, 7 days, i.p.) during different windows of adolescence vulnerability (PND 33-39, PND 40-46, PND 47-53), and (3) following repeated cocaine administration during adolescence (PND 33-39) in adulthood (PND 64). The results demonstrated a dynamic and opposite basal modulation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in PFC and HC during adolescence. CB1 receptor levels were increased while CB2 receptors were decreased as compared to adulthood with asymptotes values around mid adolescence (PND 47) both in PFC (CB1: +45±22, p<0.05; CB2: -24±6%, p<0.05) and HC (CB1: +53±23, p<0.05; CB2: -20±8%, p<0.05). Interestingly, cocaine only altered CB1 (+55±10%, p<0.05) and CB2 (-25±10%, p<0.05) receptors when administered during early adolescence and only in PFC. However, the changes observed in PFC by repeated cocaine administration in adolescence were transient and did not endure into adulthood. These results identified a period of vulnerability during adolescence at which cocaine dysregulated the content of CB receptors in PFC, suggesting an opposite role for these receptors in the effects mediated by cocaine. PMID:26797579

  11. Alterations in central monoamine systems after postnatal lead acetate treatment in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Luthman, J. Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO ); Lindqvist, E.; Olson, L. ); Gerhardt, G.A.; Hoffer, B.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of postnatal lead exposure on central monoamine systems. Newborn male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1 or 8 mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally for 20 days postnatally. Two groups of control rats received sodium acetate, or sodium acetate in oversized litters to compensate for lead-induced malnutrition in the high lead dose group, while nontreated animals also served as controls. At Day 21 or 51 regional tissue levels of monoamines were determined using HPLC techniques. No major changes were seen after the lead exposures in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, or metabolites of dopamine and serotonin, when compared to respective control groups. On the other hand, in the control group given sodium acetate in oversized litters some alterations of the monoamine levels were observed in frontal cortex and striatum at Day 21 compared to controls. At Day 51, the striatal homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were higher in the low lead dose group compared to those in the controls, No other changes in the monoamine levels were seen at Day 51. At 50-70 days postnatally, potassium-stimulated dopamine overflow was studied in striatum with in vivo chronoamperometry. In the high lead dose group the amplitudes of signals were lower in both the dorsal and ventral striatum compared to the controls, while no difference was seen in the clearance time of dopamine. The capacity of the dopamine terminals to respond to repeated stimulation was not affected by the lead exposure. Thus, the steady-state levels of monoamines were essentially unaltered after postnatal lead exposure in rats, while functional aspects of striatal dopamine transmission were affected after exposure to the higher dose of lead. These findings support the hypothesis that lead-induced changes in motor skills and exploratory behavior may be related to altered dopamine neurotransmission. 77 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Alterations in nuclear envelope invaginations in axotomized fetal and early postnatal hamster facial motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Clark, P; Jones, K J; LaVelle, A

    1992-07-24

    In this study, changes in the amount of nuclear envelope invaginations (NEI) were morphometrically assessed after axotomy during late fetal and early postnatal developmental stages in hamster facial motoneurons. These changes were expressed as boundary density or BA (length of nuclear envelope per unit area of nucleus). Axotomy-induced changes in nuclear area and perimeter were also quantitatively determined. At 17 h after axotomy in the fetal operative series, no changes in any of the parameters were seen. At 1 day postoperative (dpo) in newborn, 2 and 4 postnatal day animals, the boundary densities of the total and invaginated portion of the nuclear envelope increased significantly. No corresponding qualitative changes were observed. At 2 dpo in 4 and 7 postnatal day animals, there were significant increases in the boundary densities of both invaginated and total nuclear envelope and a decrease in nuclear area. These changes were not seen at 2 dpo in the 9-day operative series. At 4 dpo in 7 and 9 postnatal day animals, scalloping of the normally smooth nuclear profile, as well as a flattening and elongation in nuclear shape, occurred. These qualitative changes in the 7 and 9 day operated groups were also accompanied by significant changes in all the measured parameters. The boundary density of the invaginated, non-invaginated and total nuclear envelope increased; whereas, nuclear area and perimeter decreased. These results argue against the generally held hypothesis that an increase in nuclear envelope invaginations is indicative of an allied increase in cellular metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1521315

  13. Haematopoiesis in snakes (Ophidia) in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Z; Sano Martins, I S; Tabarowski, Z; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Spadacci Morena, D D; Spodaryk, K; Podkowa, D

    2007-05-01

    The occurrence of haematopoiesis has been studied in various parts of the spine and in the ribs in four species of snakes (Boa constrictor L., Elaphe guttata L., Lamprophis fulaginosus Boie., Bothrops jararaca Wied.) from hatching until 150 days of postnatal development. Marrow spaces are formed by chondrolysis with various time frames depending on the studied species. Marrow cells egress to the general circulation in two ways: via migration through the endothelial cells lining the venous sinuses or by the rupture of protrusions. Erythroblasts are present in the lumen of marrow sinuses suggesting their final maturation there. Various relationships of the spleen to the pancreas have been found. No myelopoietic foci occur in the spleen, liver or kidney of any of the studied species. However, erythropoiesis (sparse islets) has been observed in Bothrops jararaca spleen. PMID:17225172

  14. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  15. Genetic disorders associated with postnatal microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Laurie E; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Several genetic disorders are characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by deceleration in head growth resulting in postnatal microcephaly. Among these are classic disorders such as Angelman syndrome and MECP2-related disorder (formerly Rett syndrome), as well as more recently described clinical entities associated with mutations in CASK, CDKL5, CREBBP, and EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome), FOXG1, SLC9A6 (Christianson syndrome), and TCF4 (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome). These disorders can be identified clinically by phenotyping across multiple neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral realms, and enough data are available to recognize these postnatal microcephaly disorders as separate diagnostic entities in their own right. A second diagnostic grouping, comprised of Warburg MICRO syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Cerebral-oculo-facial skeletal syndrome, share similar features of somatic growth failure, ophthalmologic, and dysmorphologic features. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes important in the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain and hindbrain, although important synaptic structural genes also play a role. This is an emerging group of disorders with a fascinating combination of brain malformations, specific epilepsies, movement disorders, and other complex neurobehavioral abnormalities. PMID:24839169

  16. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Amy E; Fadel, Jim R; Kelly, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by damage to multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system provides major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intubation to male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2-10; ethanol-treated [ET]). Controls received a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). Acetylcholine efflux was measured using in vivo microdialysis (PD 32-35). ET animals were not different at baseline, but had decreased K(+)/Ca(2+)-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to NC animals and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; 2.0 mg/kg) compared to both control groups. A separate cohort of animals was tested in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect task (CPFE; PD 30-32) following postnatal alcohol exposure and administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11-30). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter or alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the ventral hippocampus (CA1). In the medial septum, the average number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT+) cells was increased in ET animals that displayed the context-shock association; there were no changes in IC and NC animals that learned the context-shock association or in any animals that were in the control task that entailed no learning. Taken together, these results indicate that the hippocampal acetylcholine system is significantly disrupted under conditions of pharmacological manipulations (e.g., galantamine) in alcohol-exposed animals. Furthermore, ChAT was up‑regulated in ET animals that learned the CPFE, which may account for their ability

  17. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  18. Repeated Ketamine Exposure Induces an Enduring Resilient Phenotype in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Eric M.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Warren, Brandon L.; Wright, Katherine N.; Hadad, Roey; Sial, Omar K.; Kroeck, Kyle G.; Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) afflicts up to 10% of adolescents. However, nearly 50% of those afflicted are considered non-responsive to available treatments. Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist has shown potential as a rapid-acting and long-lasting treatment for MDD in adults. Thus, the effectiveness and functional consequences of ketamine exposure during adolescence were explored. Methods Adolescent male rats (postnatal day [PD] 35) received two ketamine (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) injections, 4 hours apart, after exposure to day 1 of the forced swim test (FST). The next day, rats were re-exposed to the FST to assess ketamine-induced antidepressant-like responses. Separate groups were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to confirm findings from the FST. After these initial experiments, adolescent naïve rats were exposed to either 1 or 15 consecutive days (PD35–49) of ketamine (20 mg/kg) twice/daily. Ketamine's influence on behavioral reactivity to rewarding (i.e., sucrose preference) and aversive (i.e., elevated plus-maze, FST) circumstances was then assessed 2 months after treatment. To control for age-dependent effects, adult rats (PD75–89) were exposed to identical experimental conditions. Results Ketamine (20 mg/kg) reversed the CUS-induced depression-like behaviors in the FST. Repeated ketamine exposure resulted in anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses 2 months after drug exposure. None of the ketamine doses used were capable of inducing drug-seeking behaviors as measured by place preference conditioning. Conclusions Repeated ketamine exposure induces enduring resilient-like responses regardless of age of exposure. These findings point to ketamine, and its repeated exposure, as a potentially useful antidepressant during adolescence. PMID:23790225

  19. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  20. Effects of chronic stress in adolescence on learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the rat prelimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Terreros, Gonzalo; Muñoz, Pablo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2014-02-01

    The prelimbic cortex and amygdala regulate the extinction of conditioned fear and anxiety, respectively. In adult rats, chronic stress affects the dendritic morphology of these brain areas, slowing extinction of learned fear and enhancing anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine whether rats subjected to chronic stress in adolescence show changes in learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex during adulthood. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to seven days of restraint stress on postnatal day forty-two (PND 42, adolescence). Afterward, the fear-conditioning paradigm was used to study conditioned fear extinction. Anxiety-like behavior was measured one day (PND 50) and twenty-one days (PND 70, adulthood) after stress using the elevated-plus maze and dark-light box tests, respectively. With another set of rats, excitatory synaptic transmission was analyzed with slices of the prelimbic cortex. Rats that had been stressed during adolescence and adulthood had higher anxiety-like behavior levels than did controls, while stress-induced slowing of learned fear extinction in adolescence was reversed during adulthood. As well, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials of stressed adolescent rats had significantly lower amplitudes than those of controls, although the amplitudes were higher in adulthood. Our results demonstrate that short-term stress in adolescence induces strong effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex and extinction of learned fear, where the effect of stress on anxiety is more persistent than on the extinction of learned fear. These data contribute to the understanding of stress neurobiology. PMID:24216268

  1. Adolescent, but Not Adult, Binge Ethanol Exposure Leads to Persistent Global Reductions of Choline Acetyltransferase Expressing Neurons in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret; Liu, Wen; Spear, Linda P.; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55) treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70) produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28–P48) and adult (P70–P90) binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity. PMID:25405505

  2. Postnatal depression and socio-cultural practices among postnatal mothers in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A K; Shaiful, B I; Rusli, N; Jamil, M Y

    2006-03-01

    This is a cross sectional study to determine the relationship of postnatal depression (PND) and socio-cultural practices post-delivery among women in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Four hundred and twenty one pregnant women were screened for depression between 36 - 42 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 - 6 weeks postpartum using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The women also completed questionnaires on socio-demography, psychosocial support and traditional postnatal care. The prevalence of PND at 4-6 weeks postpartum was 20.7%. Depressive symptoms at the end of pregnancy (p<0.05) and one week postpartum (p<0.05), worry about the baby (p<0.05), use of traditional medication (p<0.05) and traditional massage (p<0.05) were significantly associated with PND. PMID:16708738

  3. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  4. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  5. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  6. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26923065

  7. Adolescent, but not adult, rats exhibit ethanol-mediated appetitive second-order conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent rats are less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than older animals. They also seem to perceive the reinforcing properties of ethanol. However, unlike neonates or infants, ethanol-mediated appetitive behavior has yet to be clearly shown in adolescents. Appetitive ethanol reinforcement was assessed in adolescent (postnatal day 33, P33) and adult rats (P71) through second-order conditioning (SOC). Methods On P32 or P70 animals were intragastrically administered ethanol (0.5 or 2.0 g/kg) paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (CS1, first-order conditioning phase). CS1 delivery took place either 5-20 (Early pairing) or 30-45 (Late pairing) min following ethanol. CS1 exposure and ethanol administration were separated by 240 min in unpaired controls. On P33 or P71, animals were presented the CS1 (second-order conditioning phase) while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). Then, they were tested for CS2 preference. Results Early and late paired adolescents, but not adults, had greater preference for the CS2 than controls, a result indicative of ontogenetic variation in ethanol-mediated reinforcement. During the CS1 - CS2 associative phase, paired adolescents given 2.0 g/kg ethanol wall-climbed more than controls. Blood and brain ethanol levels associated with the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg doses at the onset of each conditioning phase did not differ substantially across age, with mean BECs of 38 and 112 mg %. Conclusions These data indicate age-related differences between adolescent and adult rats in terms of sensitivity to ethanol’s motivational effects. Adolescents exhibit high sensitivity for ethanol’s appetitive effects. These animals also showed EtOH-mediated behavioral activation during the second-order conditioning phase. The SOC preparation provides a valuable conditioning model for assessing ethanol’s motivational effects across ontogeny. PMID:18782343

  8. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inobe, Manabu; Inobe, Ikuko; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Takeda, Shin'Ichi

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the role of gravity in the postnatal development of skeletal muscle, we exposed neonatal rats at 7 days of age to microgravity. After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4. For this purpose, we established a unique semiquantitative method, based on RT-PCR, using specific primers tagged with infrared fluorescence. The relative expression of MyoD in the tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles and that of myogenin in the plantaris and soleus muscles were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the flight animals. In contrast, MRF4 expression was not changed in any muscle. These results suggest that MyoD and myogenin, but not MRF4, are sensitive to gravity-related stimuli in some skeletal muscles during postnatal development.

  9. Loss of Matriptase Suppression Underlies Spint1 Mutation-Associated Ichthyosis and Postnatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Roman; Kosa, Peter; List, Karin; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI)-1 is an epithelial Kunitz-type transmembrane serine protease inhibitor that is encoded by the SPINT1 gene. HAI-1 displays potent inhibitory activity toward a large number of trypsin-like serine proteases. HAI-1 was recently shown to play an essential role in postnatal epithelial homeostasis. Thus, Spint1-deficient mice were found to display severe growth retardation and are unable to survive beyond postnatal day 16. The mice present histologically with overt hyperkeratosis of the forestomach, hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis, and hypotrichosis associated with abnormal cuticle development. In this study, we show that loss of inhibition of a proteolytic pathway that is dependent on the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase, underlies the detrimental effects of postnatal Spint1 deficiency. Matriptase and HAI-1 precisely co-localize in all tissues that are affected by the Spint1 disruption. Spint1-deficient mice that have low matriptase levels, caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the St14 gene that encodes matriptase, not only survived the neonatal period but were healthy and displayed normal long-term survival. Furthermore, a detailed histological analysis of neonatal, young adult, as well as aged mice did not reveal any abnormalities in Spint1-deficent mice that have low matriptase levels. This study identifies matriptase suppression as an essential function of HAI-1 in postnatal tissue homeostasis. PMID:19389929

  10. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life. PMID:23362088

  11. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. PMID:24345734

  12. Improved behavioral performance of rats after pre- and postnatal administration of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, A; Bigl, H; Koch, M; Barth, T; Sterba, G

    1987-08-01

    In two separate and independent experimental series it was studied, whether 8-arginine-vasopressin (AVP) or 8-lysine-vasopressin (LVP) administered daily in microgram amounts to pregnant rats, and/or to their offspring postnatally for 30 days, induce alterations that can be registered by a behavioral test. The realization of the test used, a foot-shock motivated brightness discrimination (BD) reaction, includes learning and memory processes. There is one general result of the two experimental series, which include 263 rats divided up in different combinations of pretreatment. Vasopressin (VP), AVP or LVP, pre- and postnatally administered, induces a significantly improved BD performance of approximately 40%, compared to the control groups. The improvement is detectable in different ages of the offspring, in females as well as in males. A smaller though also significant improvement was observed when AVP or LVP was injected only postnatally. The critical period in which the peptides are able to induce the alterations measured probably includes prenatal and postnatal periods in the lives of the rats. What molecular interactions actually underly the improved behavioral performance remain to be clarified. PMID:3666057

  13. Adolescent fluoxetine treatment decreases the effects of neonatal immune activation on anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Majidi-Zolbanin, Jafar; Azarfarin, Maryam; Samadi, Hanieh; Enayati, Mohsen; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown conflicting effects of neonatal infection on anxiety-like behaviors and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in adult rats. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with increased levels of anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Moreover, there have been several studies showing that adolescent fluoxetine (FLX) treatment can influence HPA axis development and prevent occurrence of psychiatric disorders induced by common early-life insults. In the present study, we also investigated the effects of adolescent FLX exposure following neonatal immune activation on anxiety-like behavior in mice. Neonatal mice were treated to LPS (50μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days (PND) 3 and 5, then male and female mice of both neonatal intervention groups received oral administration of FLX (5 and 10mg/kg/day) or water via regular drinking bottles during the adolescent period (PNDs 35-65). The results showed that postnatal immune challenge increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field, elevated plus-maze and light-dark box in adult mice (PND 90). Furthermore, the adolescent FLX treatment inhibited the anxiety-like behavior induced by neonatal infection in both sexes. However, this study indicates the negative effects of the FLX on normal behavioral symptoms in male control mice. Taken together, the current data provide experimental evidence that neonatal infection increases anxiety levels in male and female mice in adulthood. Additionally, the findings of this study support the hypothesis that an early pharmacological intervention with FLX may be an effective treatment for reducing the behavioral abnormalities induced by common early-life insults. PMID:23669137

  14. Adolescent mice are less sensitive to the effects of acute nicotine on context pre-exposure than adults.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Braak, David C; Tumolo, Jessica M; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with both increased vulnerability to substance abuse and maturation of certain brain regions important for learning and memory such as the hippocampus. In this study, we employed a hippocampus-dependent learning context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in order to test the effects of acute nicotine on contextual processing during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 38) and adulthood (PND 53). In Experiment 1, adolescent or adult C57BL6/J mice received either saline or one of three nicotine doses (0.09, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to contextual pre-exposure and testing. Our results demonstrated that both adolescent and adult mice showed CPFE in the saline groups. However, adolescent mice only showed acute nicotine enhancement of CPFE with the highest nicotine dose whereas adult mice showed the enhancing effects of acute nicotine with all three doses. In Experiment 2, to determine if the lack of nicotine's effects on CPFE shown by adolescent mice is specific to the age when they are tested, mice were either given contextual pre-exposure during adolescence or adulthood and received immediate shock and testing during adulthood after a 15day delay. We found that both adolescent and adult mice showed CPFE in the saline groups when tested during adulthood. However, like Experiment 1, mice that received contextual pre-exposure during adolescence did not show acute nicotine enhancement except at the highest dose (0.36mg/kg) whereas both low (0.09mg/kg) and high (0.36mg/kg) doses enhanced CPFE in adult mice. Finally, we showed that the enhanced freezing response found with 0.36mg/kg nicotine in the 15-day experiment may be a result of decreased locomotor activity as mice that received this dose of nicotine traveled shorter distances in an open field paradigm. Overall, our results indicate that while adolescent mice showed normal contextual processing when tested both during adolescence and adulthood, they

  15. Differential long-term effects of social stress during adolescence on anxiety in Wistar and wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jose; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2011-06-01

    Severe and chronic stress may interfere with adolescent neuronal plasticity that turns the juvenile brain into an adult brain increasing the vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders. It is well-known from adult stress research that there is a large individual differentiation in stress vulnerability. The current study is aimed at the individual resilience and vulnerability to adolescent social stress. Two strains of rats that differ in social behavioral skills were subjected to social stress during adolescence. In three experiments we studied short and long term effects of adolescent social stress using a water conflict test in different contexts. Wistar rats which had been socially defeated on postnatal days 45 and 46 showed, following water deprivation, a strong decrease in the total amount of water consumed and time spent drinking when tested 2 days and 3 weeks later in the context where they received the defeat experience. Also a strong increase in drinking latency was noticed in the context of the previous defeat. No differences in these parameters were found between defeated and non-defeated wild-type rats. The results of the water conflict test in an environment where no association with the previous defeat experience was present showed that the adolescent social stress did not induce a generalized anxiety. In conclusion, the water conflict test is a useful tool to measure the influence of social defeat on the motivation to obtain resources under conditions with different stimulus properties. In addition, our data suggest the importance of the strain used in adolescent stress experiments. The fact that Wistar rats showed a strong association with the context at adulthood whereas no effect was observed in the wild-type rats shows that victim characteristics are important determining factors for the long term effects of adolescent social stress. PMID:21443935

  16. Pre- and postnatal exposure to ambient levels of urban particulate matter (PM(2.5)) affects mice spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Adriana; de Melo, Elizabeth Neves; Mauad, Thais; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; de Siqueira Bueno, Heloisa Maria

    2011-03-01

    This work characterizes the effects of ambient levels of urban particulate matter (PM(2.5)) from the city of Sao Paulo on spermatogenesis using mice exposed during the embryo-fetal and/or postnatal phases of development. Parental generations (BALB/c mice) were exposed to air pollution in chambers with or without filtering PM(2.5) for 4 months. Animals were mated, and half of the 1-day-old offspring were moved between chambers, which yielded prenatal and postnatal groups. Remaining offspring comprised the non-exposed and pre+postnatal exposed groups. After 90 days, the animals were sacrificed for testis collection and weighing. Optical microscopy was used for the morphometric analyses of the cell counts, spermatogenic cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Prenatally exposed animals presented reduced body and testicular weight with an increased gonadosomatic index (GSI). Testicular volume also decreased, as well as the tubular diameter in testes of the same animals. Proliferation, apoptosis, and spermatogenic cycle analyses showed no significant differences among groups. However, the tubules at stage VII of pre- and postnatal animals presented a reduced number of elongated spermatids. Pre+postnatal group presented higher spermatid head retention at stages VIII-XII. These results show that ambient levels of PM(2.5) from Sao Paulo city affect spermatogenesis by damaging sperm production. PMID:21456956

  17. Prenatal exposure to maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy provides protection against mild chronic postnatal hypoxia in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Foroutan, Tahereh; Safari, Manouchehr; Sadighi-Moghaddam, Bizhan; Emami-Abarghoie, Mitra; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal hypoxia is a main cause of neuronal damage in newborn. However, our understanding of the possible preventive or therapeutic methods to reduce the harmful effects of hypoxia is still primary. Pregnant rats were provided with running wheels during their pregnancy. On PND4 (postnatal day 4)to PND8, the rat pups were exposed to postnatal chronic hypoxia (11% O(2), 89% N(2)) in an air-tight plastic chamber for a period of six hours per day. The number of neurons and also angiogenesis in hippocampus were studied. Postnatal exposure to mild hypoxia decreased the number of the neurons in all studied regions of the hippocampus CA1, CA3 (cornu ammonis), DG(dentate gyrus) and SUB(cubiculum) in rat pups. In other words the number of the neurons in rat pups born from voluntary exercise group was not significantly less than control group in CA1, CA3 and DG regions. So maternal Voluntary exercise during pregnancy increases the blood vessel density in the DG region of the hippocampus of the rat pups. In this study for the first time we provide evidences that show the protective effect of maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy on rat offspring against postnatal hypoxia. We revealed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases the hippocampal neuron number and angiogenesis in offspring. PMID:22186335

  18. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis: a case of hip disarticulation in a postnatal intravenous drug abuser

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, J; Smith, N A; Glass, K; Howarth, F

    2009-01-01

    An interesting case of necrotizing fasciitis of the leg following emergency caesarian section in a known intravenous drug user. Postnatal day two she developed pain and swelling in the left leg. In view of her previous history, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was the initial diagnosis. But, due to clinically worsening symptoms and no response to anticoagulation, further investigations were done which showed necrotizing fasciitis. Due to disease progression, a hip disarticulation was performed and the patient went on to full recovery.

  20. Dynamic changes of the neurogenic potential in the rat cochlear nucleus during post-natal development.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Frenz, Silke; Scherzed, Agmal; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Neuronal stem cells have been described in the post-natal cochlear nucleus recently. The aim of the study was to analyse the neurogenic potential in the cochlear nucleus from the early post-natal days until adulthood. Cochlear nuclei from Sprague-Dawley rats from post-natal day P3 up to P40 were examined. Neurosphere assays showed persistent neurosphere formation from the early post-natal days until adulthood. The numbers of generated neurospheres were fewer in older ages. Neurospheres were smaller, but displayed the same pattern of neuronal stem cell markers. The markers GFAP, MBP and ß-III Tubulin showed differentiation of dissociated cells from the neurospheres in all cells of the neuronal lineage. BrdU incorporation could be detected, in an age-dependent decrease, in whole-mount experiments of the cochlear nucleus on all examined days. BrdU co-labelled with Atoh1 and ß-III Tubulin. In addition, gene expression and cellular distribution studies of the neuronal stem cell markers displayed an age-dependent reduction in both quantity and numbers. The presented results display a possible neurogenic potential until adulthood in the cochlear nucleus by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The fact that this potential is highest at a critical period of development reveals possible functional importance for the development of the cochlear nucleus and the auditory function. The persistent neurogenic potential displayed until adulthood could be a neurogenic niche in the adult cochlear nucleus, which might be used for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:23455726

  1. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  2. CB1 cannabinoid receptor stimulation during adolescence impairs the maturation of GABA function in the adult rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cass, D K; Flores-Barrera, E; Thomases, D R; Vital, W F; Caballero, A; Tseng, K Y

    2014-05-01

    Converging epidemiological studies indicate that cannabis abuse during adolescence increases the risk of developing psychosis and prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive impairments later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying the adolescent susceptibility to chronic cannabis exposure are poorly understood. Given that the psychoactive constituent of cannabis binds to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the present study was designed to determine the impact of a CB1 receptor agonist (WIN) during specific windows of adolescence on the functional maturation of the rat PFC. By means of local field potential recordings and ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, we found that a history of WIN exposure during early (postnatal days - P35-40) or mid-(P40-45) adolescence, but not in late adolescence (P50-55) or adulthood (P75-80), is sufficient to yield a state of frequency-dependent prefrontal disinhibition in adulthood comparable to that seen in the juvenile PFC. Remarkably, this prefrontal disinhibition could be normalized following a single acute local infusion of the GABA-Aα1 positive allosteric modulator Indiplon, suggesting that adolescent exposure to WIN causes a functional downregulation of GABAergic transmission in the PFC. Accordingly, in vitro recordings from adult rats exposed to WIN during adolescence demonstrate that local prefrontal GABAergic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons is markedly reduced to the level seen in the P30-35 PFC. Together, these results indicate that early and mid-adolescence constitute a critical period during which repeated CB1 receptor stimulation is sufficient to elicit an enduring state of PFC network disinhibition resulting from a developmental impairment of local prefrontal GABAergic transmission. PMID:24589887

  3. Hydronephrosis: prenatal and postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dennis B; Armstrong, William R; Maizels, Max

    2014-09-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is one of the most frequently detected abnormalities found on routine prenatal ultrasounds, affecting 1% to 4.5% of all pregnancies. Despite its prevalence, there continues to be uncertainty regarding the clinical impact after birth. Prognosis depends on the severity of the dilation. Expectant prenatal management is the rule with fetal intervention rarely needed in a few select cases. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most common postnatal diagnoses. A renal and bladder ultrasound is essential in the follow-up of patients with ANH and helps dictate further investigation with voiding cystourethrography and/or diuretic renography. PMID:25155734

  4. Postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, David E; Ryan, Steven J; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Rainnie, Donald G

    2013-08-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and autism spectrum disorders, have early ages of onset and high incidence in juveniles. To better treat and prevent these disorders, it is important to first understand normal development of brain circuits that process emotion. Healthy and maladaptive emotional processing involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dysfunction of which has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. Normal function of the adult BLA relies on a fine balance of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition. Elsewhere in the brain GABAergic transmission changes throughout development, but little is known about the maturation of GABAergic transmission in the BLA. Here we used whole cell patch-clamp recording and single-cell RT-PCR to study GABAergic transmission in rat BLA principal neurons at postnatal day (P)7, P14, P21, P28, and P35. GABAA currents exhibited a significant twofold reduction in rise time and nearly 25% reduction in decay time constant between P7 and P28. This corresponded with a shift in expression of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA from the α2- to the α1-subunit. The reversal potential for GABAA receptors transitioned from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing with age, from around -55 mV at P7 to -70 mV by P21. There was a corresponding shift in expression of opposing chloride pumps that influence the reversal, from NKCC1 to KCC2. Finally, we observed short-term depression of GABAA postsynaptic currents in immature neurons that was significantly and gradually abolished by P28. These findings reveal that in the developing BLA GABAergic transmission is highly dynamic, reaching maturity at the end of the first postnatal month. PMID:23719209

  5. Antenatal hydronephrosis with postnatal resolution: how long are postnatal studies warranted?

    PubMed

    Gatti, J M; Broecker, B H; Scherz, H C; Perez-Brayfield, M R; Kirsch, A J

    2001-06-01

    We present 2 cases of antenatal hydronephrosis with initial normalization of postnatal studies. Both patients experienced late-onset (6 and 22 months) hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction, necessitating surgical intervention. These cases raise questions about the need for late follow-up imaging in patients with apparent resolution of hydronephrosis diagnosed antenatally. PMID:11377338

  6. Effects of adolescent nicotine exposure and withdrawal on intravenous cocaine self-administration during adulthood in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Price E; Miller, Mellessa M; Rogers, Tiffany D; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent drug use show (1) a pattern in which the use of tobacco precedes the use of other drugs and (2) a positive relationship between adolescent tobacco use and later drug use. These observations have led to the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between early exposure to nicotine and the later use of hard drugs such as cocaine. Using male C57BL/6J mice, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure in adolescence leads to increased intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of cocaine in adulthood. Using miniature osmotic pumps, we exposed mice and their littermate controls to nicotine (24 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, respectively, over the entire course of adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. Nicotine exposure was terminated on P56 and mice were not exposed to nicotine again during the experiment. On P73, mice were allowed to acquire cocaine IVSA (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and a dose-response curve was generated (0.18, 0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg/infusion). Lever pressing during extinction conditions was also evaluated. All mice rapidly learned to lever press for the combination of cocaine infusions and non-drug stimuli. Analysis of the dose-response curve revealed that adolescent nicotine-exposed mice self-administered significantly more (P < 0.05) cocaine than controls at all but the highest dose. No significant differences were observed between adolescent nicotine-exposed and control mice during the acquisition or extinction stages. These results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure can increase cocaine IVSA in mice, which suggests the possibility of a causal link between adolescent tobacco use and later cocaine use in humans. PMID:22978678

  7. Ontogeny of methamphetamine-induced and cocaine-induced one-trial behavioral sensitization in preweanling and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Kozanian, Olga O; Gutierrez, Arnold; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; McDougall, Sanders A

    2012-08-01

    The ontogenetic profile of psychostimulant-induced one-trial behavioral sensitization has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the ontogeny of methamphetamine-induced and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization across the preweanling and adolescent periods. To this end, rats were injected with methamphetamine, cocaine, or saline in either an activity chamber or home cage during the preweanling [postnatal day (PD) 12, PD 16, or PD 20], preadolescent (PD 24), or adolescent (PD 34) periods. One day later, rats were challenged with the same psychostimulant and locomotion was measured in an activity chamber. The results showed that methamphetamine produced one-trial locomotor sensitization on PD 13 and PD 17; whereas, cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization was only evident on PD 21. The sensitized responding of preweanling rats was not influenced by environmental context. Interestingly, preadolescent and adolescent rats did not exhibit locomotor sensitization. The latter result is generally consistent with past studies showing that rats from the middle and late adolescent periods do not exhibit cocaine-induced one-trial behavioral sensitization. The present results show that methamphetamine, as well as cocaine, can produce one-trial context-independent behavioral sensitization during early ontogeny, but sensitized responding is only apparent within a narrow developmental window. PMID:22732208

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46 mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23 mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23 mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

  9. Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g., socially facilitating) and a decreased sensitivity to adverse (e.g., socially inhibitory) effects of ethanol. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-pubertally GX, sham (SH)-operated, or non-manipulated (NM) at postnatal day (P) 25. During the late adolescent transition into adulthood (P48 - baseline day), rats were given a saline injection, placed alone into a familiar test apparatus for 30min and then exposed for 10min to an unfamiliar partner of the same age and sex. On the following day (P49), similar testing occurred after administration of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25g/kg ethanol. At baseline, GX males and females displayed higher levels of social activity (especially adolescent-typical play and contact behavior) than SH and NM animals, with GX females displaying greater social activity than GX males. Neither males nor females demonstrated social facilitation at lower ethanol doses, regardless of hormonal status. Whereas the social inhibitory effects of higher doses of ethanol were similar across groups among females, SH males were less sensitive than both GX and NM males to ethanol-induced social inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced ethanol intake in GX males is not related to alterations in sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects. GX, however, results in retention of adolescent-typical social behaviors, with older GX adolescent rats resembling early adolescents in exhibiting elevated social activity-particularly play and contact behavior. PMID:24816080

  10. The timing of neuronal loss across adolescence in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Willing, J; Juraska, J M

    2015-08-20

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain maturation characterized by the reorganization of interacting neural networks. In particular the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region involved in executive function, undergoes synaptic and neuronal pruning during this time in both humans and rats. Our laboratory has previously shown that rats lose neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and there is an increase in white matter under the frontal cortex between adolescence and adulthood. Female rats lose more neurons during this period, and ovarian hormones may play a role as ovariectomy before adolescence prevents neuronal loss. However, little is known regarding the timing of neuroanatomical changes that occur between early adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we quantified the number of neurons and glia in the male and female mPFC at multiple time points from preadolescence through adulthood (postnatal days 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). Females, but not males, lost a significant number of neurons in the mPFC between days 35 and 45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. Counts of GABA immunoreactive cell bodies indicated that the neurons lost were not primarily GABAergic. These results suggest that in females, pubertal hormones may exert temporally specific changes in PFC anatomy. As expected, both males and females gained white matter under the PFC throughout adolescence, though these gains in females were diminished after day 35, but not in males. The differences in cell loss in males and females may lead to differential vulnerability to external influences and dysfunctions of the PFC that manifest in adolescence. PMID:26047728

  11. Locomotor and Stress Responses to Nicotine Differ in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Junran; Belluzzi, James D.; Loughlin, Sandra E.; Dao, Jasmin M.; Chen, YiLing; Leslie, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Since adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of tobacco use, we have systematically compared behavioral and endocrine responses to nicotine in Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at early adolescence (postnatal day (P) 28), mid- adolescence (P38) and adulthood (P90). Locomotion and center time in a novel open field were evaluated for 30 min following intravenous injection of saline or nicotine (60 µg/kg), followed by measurement of plasma corticosterone. Complex age and sex differences in behavioral and endocrine response were observed, which were dependent on the functional endpoint examined. Whereas there were age differences in nicotine effects on all functional measures, sex differences were largely restricted to adult stress-related corticosterone and center-time responses. Although significant drug effects were detected at P28 and P90, there was no effect of nicotine at P38 on any measure examined. In saline-treated males, but not females, there were significant positive correlations across age between initial ambulatory counts and both initial vertical counts and total center time. Nicotine treatment increased correlations in both sexes, and yielded a significant negative interaction between initial ambulatory counts and plasma corticosterone. The unique responses of adolescents to nicotine are consistent with an immature function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at this age. PMID:20423718

  12. Sex differences in yohimbine-induced increases in the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Sophia; Zou, Sheng; Coen, Kathleen; Funk, Douglas; Shram, Megan J; Lê, A D

    2014-03-01

    Stress is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Women are more vulnerable to the development of addiction to smoking and have more difficulty quitting than men. Women also showe enhanced responses to stress. Despite these differences, no work has been done examining the effects of stress on the reinforcing efficacy of self-administered nicotine in adolescent rats, or if there are sex differences. Male and female adolescent Long Evans rats were trained to self-administer one of three different intravenous doses of nicotine (7.5, 15, 30 μg/kg/infusion) first on fixed ratio, and then on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule beginning on postnatal day 33. The effect of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.3, 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine was then determined using the PR schedule. Yohimbine stimulated nicotine intake and increased PR breakpoints and numbers of infusions received in both male and female adolescent rats. The infusion dose of nicotine was positively associated with yohimbine-induced increases in responding. Female rats showed significantly increased breakpoints at yohimbine doses and nicotine infusion doses at which males did not. The effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine are therefore linked to sex and nicotine infusion dose. Female rats are more sensitive to stress-induced potentiation of nicotine self-administration. PMID:22784103

  13. Nicotine alters limbic function in adolescent rat by a 5-HT1A receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dao, Jasmin M; McQuown, Susan C; Loughlin, Sandra E; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent smoking is associated with health risk behaviors, including high-risk sexual activity and illicit drug use. Using rat as an animal model, we evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of a 4-day, low-dose nicotine pretreatment (60 μg/kg; intravenous) during adolescence and adulthood. Nicotine pretreatment significantly increased initial acquisition of cocaine self-administration, quinpirole-induced locomotor activity, and penile erection in adolescent rats, aged postnatal day (P)32. These effects were long lasting, remaining evident 10 days after the last nicotine treatment, and were observed when nicotine pretreatment was administered during early adolescence (P28-31), but not late adolescence (P38-41) or adulthood (P86-89). Neurochemical analyses of c-fos mRNA expression, and of monoamine transmitter and transporter levels, showed that forebrain limbic systems are continuing to develop during early adolescence, and that this maturation is critically altered by brief nicotine exposure. Nicotine selectively increased c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and basolateral amygdala in adolescent, but not adult animals, and altered serotonin markers in these regions as well as the prefrontal cortex. Nicotine enhancement of cocaine self-administration and quinpirole-induced locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of WAY 100 635 (N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide), a selective serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist. Early adolescent pretreatment with the mixed autoreceptor/heteroceptor 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, but not the autoreceptor-selective agonist, S-15535, also enhanced quinpirole-induced locomotor activation. Nicotine enhancement of quinpirole-induced penile erection was not blocked by WAY 100 635 nor mimicked by 8-OH-DPAT. These findings indicate that early adolescent nicotine exposure uniquely alters limbic

  14. Binge Toluene Exposure Alters Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA in the Adolescent Rat Brain as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832

  15. Prenatal hydronephrosis: postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2014-08-01

    Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention. PMID:24927968

  16. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  17. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions. PMID:27222598

  18. Expression of Npas4 mRNA in Telencephalic Areas of Adult and Postnatal Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Slaton, G. Simona; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4) is an inducible immediate early gene which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses, and could have a significant regulatory role during cortical circuit formation. However, little is known about basal Npas4 mRNA expression during postnatal development. Here, postnatal and adult mouse brain sections were processed for isotopic in situ hybridization using an Npas4 specific cRNA antisense probe. In adults, Npas4 mRNA was found in the telencephalon with very restricted or no expression in diencephalon or mesencephalon. In most telencephalic areas, including the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, dorsal caudate putamen (CPu), septum and basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA), basal Npas4 expression was detected in scattered cells which exhibited strong hybridization signal. In embryonic and neonatal brain sections, Npas4 mRNA expression signals were very low. Starting at postnatal day 5 (P5), transcripts for Npas4 were detected in the AON, CPu and piriform cortex. At P8, additional Npas4 hybridization was found in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layer, and in primary motor cortex. By P13, robust mRNA expression was located in layers IV and VI of all sensory cortices, frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. After onset of expression, postnatal spatial mRNA distribution was similar to that in adults, with the exception of the CPu, where Npas4 transcripts became gradually restricted to the most dorsal part. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of Npas4 mRNA is mostly restricted to telencephalic areas, and the temporal expression increases with developmental age during postnatal development, which seem to correlate with the onset of activity-driven excitatory transmission. PMID:26633966

  19. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  20. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  1. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  2. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Yardimoglu, Melda; Celikozlu, Saadet D; Dolanbay, Elif Gelenli; Cimbiz, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy. PMID:23935717

  3. Effects of prenatal propofol exposure on postnatal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xiong, Ming; Alhashem, Hussain M; Zhang, Yong; Tilak, Vasanti; Patel, Anuradha; Siegel, Allan; Ye, Jiang Hong; Bekker, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause damage to immature neurons. However, the effect of maternal propofol exposure on the neuronal development of the offspring is largely unknown. In this study, pregnant rats were assigned to receive continuous infusion of saline (control) or propofol for 1 h (1HP) or 2 h (2HP) on gestational day 18. An additional group (lipid) was assigned to receive continuous infusion of intralipid fat emulsion (vehicle of propofol) for 2 h. Pups were then tested on the appearance and progression of sensory and physical motor abilities between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P28. The brain and body weights of pups from 2HP group on P10 were significantly lower than those from the saline control group, although they were the same in all four groups at birth (P0). Pups from 1HP and 2HP groups, but not lipid group, showed slower maturation of eyes (delayed opening) and several neurological reflexes (hindlimb reflex, righting reflex); they also showed delayed improvement in execution on gait reflex and inclined board tests. The forelimb reflex and negative geotaxis were also delayed in 2HP group. All parameters examined except body weight of 2HP pups recovered to normal levels by P28. We conclude that administration of propofol to pregnant rats leads to retardation in physical and neurological reflex development in their offspring. PMID:24726880

  4. Early life stress increases anxiety-like behavior in Balbc mice despite a compensatory increase in levels of postnatal maternal care

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; David, Aisha; Duman, Ron S.; Anisman, Hymie; Kaffman, Arie

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which early life stress (ELS) modifies brain development and adult behavior is necessary for diagnosing and treating psychopathology associated with exposure to ELS. For historical reasons most of the work in rodents has been done in rats and attempts to establish robust and reproducible paradigms in the mouse have proven to be challenging. Here we show that under normal rearing conditions, increased levels of postnatal maternal care are associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in BALB/cByj offspring. Brief daily pup-dam separation (BDS) during the postnatal period was associated with increased postnatal maternal care but was surprisingly associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in adult offspring, providing the first example in which offspring receiving higher levels of postnatal maternal care are more anxious in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated in BDS pups even three hours after the pups were reunited with the dam, suggesting that this paradigm represents a form of early life stress. We also show that levels of total RNA and DNA in the hippocampus reach a peak at postnatal day 14 and that exposure to BDS seems to inhibit this developmental growth spurt. We propose that exposure to stress during the postnatal period overrides the ability of high levels of postnatal maternal care to program anxiety-like behavior by inhibiting the normal growth spurt that characterizes this period. PMID:20096699

  5. New calretinin-positive cells with polymorphous spines in the mouse forebrain during early postnatal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Revishchin, A V; Okhotin, V E; Pavlova, G V

    2010-10-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of calretinin (CR) in forebrain structures adjacent to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle in adult mice allowed us to detect a population of previously unknown mono- and bipolar cells whose bodies and processes were coated with polymorphous spines (PS) (Morfologiya, 135, No. 3, 7-19 (2009)). CR-positive spiny (CR(+)PS) cells did not contain GAD67 and were located in the white matter and layers V-VI of the frontal area of the dorsomedial cortex close to the cingulum, the rostrodorsal part of the caudate-putamen, the anterior olfactory nucleus, and the subependyma of the dorsolateral angle of the lateral ventricle. We report here studies of the distribution of these cells in seven-day-old mice. Comparative topographic analysis of definitive and early CR(+)PS cells showed that in seven-day-old mice, CR(+)PS cells were absent from the sites at which they were seen in adults, i.e., the anterior olfactory cortex, the cortical plate, and the inner part of the neostriatum. In addition, small numbers of CR(+)PS-like cells were seen at this age within the dorsal migration pathway, at the anterior margin of the neostriatum, along the dorsal border of the neostriatum with the corpus callosum, in the subependymal layer of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, and in the cingulum area. These data demonstrate that CR(+)PS cells may have a postnatal origin. Experiments to verify this hypothesis were performed using postnatal administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mice aged 2-4 days, followed by assessment of brain sections fixed at age 20 days. Double immunolabeling of sections for CR and BrdU demonstrated the presence of CR(+)PS cells containing postnatally supplied BrdU. These data provide evidence that at least some CR(+)PS cells undergo mitosis at postnatal age. In all probability, during the period from 7 to 20 days of postnatal development, CR(+)PS cells migrate to the sites that they occupy in adult animals. PMID:20721693

  6. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Koss, W.A.; Sadowski, R.N.; Sherrill, L.K.; Gulley, J.M.; Juraska, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, neuron and glia number are changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3 g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35–45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2 days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163

  7. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Koss, W A; Sadowski, R N; Sherrill, L K; Gulley, J M; Juraska, J M

    2012-07-23

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, the number of neurons and glia is changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35-45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163

  8. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  9. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  10. [Effect of ladasten on antenatal and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Denisova, T D; Spasov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Positive effects of ladasten on both antenatal and postnatal development have been established in experiments on pregnant female rats. Under the action of this drug, the number of resorption events decreases and process of antenatal development of fetuses is activated. In the postnatal period, increased weight gain and accelerated physical development has been observed in the progeny of rats treated with ladasten. PMID:22702107

  11. Postnatal Support for Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skotko, Brian; Bedia, Ricardo Canal

    2005-01-01

    Delivering and receiving a postnatal diagnosis of Down syndrome is not an easy experience for most physicians or parents. In this study, 467 mothers of children with Down syndrome in Spain completed a survey about the postnatal support services they received immediately following the diagnosis of their child. Mothers reported feeling anxious,…

  12. Postnatal Depression. A Review. EUR/HFA Target 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document contains three reports on postnatal depression. The first, "The Maternity Blues," by Flemming Warborg Larsen, presents a literature review on the topic. It concludes that most women look back at the "blues" as an episode that was brief, unpleasant, and difficult to explain. The second report, "Postnatal Depressions," by Lene Lier,…

  13. In utero dimethadione exposure causes postnatal disruption in cardiac structure and function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Purssell, Elizabeth; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2014-12-01

    In utero exposure of rat embryos to dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated teratogenic metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, induces a high incidence of cardiac heart defects including ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The same exposure regimen also leads to in utero cardiac functional deficits, including bradycardia, dysrhythmia, and a reduction in cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction that persist until parturition (10 days after the final dose). Despite a high rate of spontaneous postnatal VSD closure, we hypothesize that functional sequelae will persist into adulthood. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were administered six 300 mg/kg doses of DMO, one every 12 h in mid-pregnancy beginning on the evening of gestation day 8. Postnatal cardiac function was assessed in control (CTL) and DMO-exposed offspring using radiotelemetry and ultrasound at 3 and 11 months of age, respectively. Adult rats exposed to DMO in utero had an increased incidence of arrhythmia, elevated blood pressure and CO, greater left ventricular volume and elevated locomotor activity versus CTL. The mean arterial pressure of DMO-exposed rats was more sensitive to changes in dietary salt load compared with CTL. Importantly, most treated rats had functional deficits in the absence of a persistent structural defect. It was concluded that in utero DMO exposure causes cardiovascular deficits that persist into postnatal life in the rat, despite absence of visible structural anomalies. We speculate this is not unique to DMO, suggesting possible health implications for infants with unrecognized gestational chemical exposures. PMID:25239635

  14. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs. PMID:26159607

  15. Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis: current postnatal management.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Michael T; Merguerian, Paul A; Koyle, Martin

    2013-03-01

    The issue of antenatal hydronephrosis has become a routine component for the care of a pregnant woman despite limited evidence of a clinical benefit. The genitourinary tract represents the most commonly detected organ system with identified abnormalities, with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), being the most notable and common finding. ANH represents a spectrum, with most cases being a trivial and inconsequential finding on maternal fetal ultrasound. However, there is a correlation with increased grades of ANH being associated with increased severity of urinary tract pathology. Most patients can be managed expectantly with appropriate evaluation commenced postnatally based on severity of ANH and proper parental counseling and education. The purpose of this review was to assess current literature and guidelines pertaining to ANH and incorporate our practical interpretations of their significance. PMID:23325322

  16. Time Course of Elevated Ethanol Intake in Adolescent Relative to Adult Rats Under Continuous, Voluntary-Access Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Courtney S.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Spear, Linda P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of elevated alcohol consumption in humans as well as in animal models. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that adolescent Sprague–Dawley rats consume approximately 2 times more ethanol on a gram per kilogram basis than adult animals in a 2-bottle choice free-access situation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the time course and pattern of elevated ethanol intake during adolescence and the adolescent-to-adult transition, contrast this intake with ontogenetic patterns of food and water intake, and determine whether adolescent access to ethanol elevates voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood. Methods Adolescent [postnatal day (P)27–28] and adult (P69–70) male Sprague–Dawley rats were singly housed with continuous access to both water and 1 of 3 experimental solutions in ball-bearing–containing sipper tubes: unsweetened ethanol (10% v/v), sweetened ethanol (10% v/v+0.1% w/v saccharin), and saccharin alone (0.1% w/v). Results Ethanol consumption plateaued at approximately 7.5 g/kg/d during the first 2 weeks of measurement (i.e., P28–39) in early adolescence, before declining sharply at approximately P40 to levels that were only modestly elevated compared with adult-typical consumption patterns that were reached by approximately P70. In contrast, intake of food and total calories showed a more gradual decline into adulthood with no distinguishable plateaus in early adolescence. When adolescent-initiated and adult-initiated animals were tested at the same chronological age in adulthood, animals drank similar amounts regardless of the age at which they were first given voluntary access to ethanol. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that the elevated ethanol intake characteristic of early-to-mid adolescence is not simply a function of adolescent-typical hyperphagia or hyperdipsia, but instead may reflect age-related differences in neural substrates contributing to the rewarding or

  17. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  18. [Morphological features of the rat stellate ganglion during early postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Korzina, M B; Korobkin, A A; Vasil'eva, O A; Masliukov, P M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the anatomical characteristics of the stellate ganglion (SG) and the morphometric characteristics of its neurons in rats of different age groups (newborn, 10-, 20-, 30-, 60- and 180-day-old) using anatomical and histological methods. The results obtained indicated that in rats since birth there were three variants of branch origin from the medial margin of SG. No differences were observed in these variants between right and left SG. The sizes of both SG and its neurons increased during the first two months of postnatal development. The density of neurons in SG sections decreased from the moment of birth until the six months of age. The number of SG neurons did not change significantly in the postnatal ontogenesis. Thus, SG in rats is anatomically formed by the moment of birth, while the sizes and morphometric characteristics of SG neurons become finally stabilized by the second month of age. PMID:20572389

  19. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Cox, J L; Chapman, G; Murray, D; Jones, P

    1996-07-29

    This paper reports the validation of the EPDS against a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of Major and Minor depression. The EPDS was administered to non-postnatal women with older children (mean age of youngest child 3 years 9 months) and to postnatal women (baby aged 6 months). All who scored 9 or above and one third of low scorers were interviewed, using Goldberg's Clinical Interview Schedule. The study confirmed good user acceptability of the EPDS when administered as a postal questionnaire (92% response rate). The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity (79%) and specificity (85%). Our findings suggest that the EPDS take a place alongside other screening scales for depression in Community samples. It is proposed that when used in these settings it is referred to as the Edinburgh Depression Scale. PMID:8856422

  20. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    PubMed

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  1. Identification of the hemangioblast in postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Elvira; Valtieri, Mauro; Coppola, Simona; Botta, Rosanna; Gabbianelli, Marco; Lulli, Valentina; Marziali, Giovanna; Masella, Barbara; Müller, Robert; Sgadari, Cecilia; Testa, Ugo; Bonanno, Giuseppina; Peschle, Cesare

    2002-11-01

    Postnatal CD34(+) cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) generate hematopoietic or endothelial progeny in different in vitro and in vivo assays. Hypothetically, CD34(+)KDR(+) cells may comprise hemangioblasts bipotent for both lineages. This hypothesis is consistent with 2 series of experiments. In the first series, in clonogenic culture permissive for hematopoietic and endothelial cell growth, CD34(+)KDR(+) cells generate large hemato-endothelial (Hem-End) colonies (5% of seeded cells), whereas CD34(+)KDR(-) cells do not. Limiting-dilution analysis indicates that Hem-End colonies are clonally generated by single hemangioblasts. Sibling cells generated by a hemangioblast, replated in unicellular culture, produce either hematopoietic or Hem-End colonies, depending on the specific culture conditions. Identification of endothelial cells was based on the expression of VE-cadherin and endothelial markers and with lack of CD45 and hematopoietic molecules, as evaluated by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, endothelial cells were functionally identified using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and tube-formation assays. In the second series, to evaluate the self-renewal capacity of hemangioblasts, single CD34(+)KDR(+) cells were grown in 3-month extended long-term culture (ELTC) through 3 serial culture rounds-that is, blast cells generated in unicellular ELTC were reseeded for a subsequent round of unicellular ELTC. After 9 months, 10% blasts from tertiary ELTC functioned as hemangioblasts and generated macroscopic Hem-End colonies in clonogenic culture. These studies identified postnatal hemangioblasts in a CD34(+)KDR(+) cell subset, endowed with long-term proliferative potential and bilineage differentiation capacity. Although exceedingly rare, hemangioblasts may represent the lifetime source/reservoir for primitive hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors. PMID

  2. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  3. SENSITIZATION TO SOCIAL ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS FOLLOWING REPEATED ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena; Spear, Linda Patia

    2009-01-01

    Ontogenetic studies using a social interaction paradigm have shown that adolescent rats are less sensitive to anxiolytic properties of acute ethanol than their adult counterparts. It is not known, however, whether adaptations to these anxiolytic effects upon repeated experiences with ethanol would be similar in adolescents and adults. The present study investigated sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats following 7 days of exposure [postnatal day (P) 27–33 for adolescents and P62–68 for adults] to 1 g/kg ethanol or saline (i.p.), as well as in animals left non-manipulated during this time. Anxiolytic effects of ethanol (0, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 g/kg for adolescents and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 g/kg for adults in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) were examined 48 hours after the last exposure using a modified social interaction test under unfamiliar test circumstances. At both ages, repeated ethanol exposure resulted in the development of apparent sensitization to anxiolytic effects of ethanol indexed via enhancement of social investigation and transformation of social avoidance into social indifference or preference, as well as expression of tolerance to the socially inhibiting effects induced by higher ethanol doses. Evidence for the emergence of sensitization in adults and tolerance at both ages was seen not only following chronic ethanol, but also after chronic saline exposure, suggesting that chronic manipulation per se may be sufficient to alter the sensitivity of both adolescents and adults to socially-relevant effects of ethanol. PMID:20113878

  4. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network. PMID:26506049

  5. Long-term oral methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats: differential effects on brain morphology and function.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, Kajo; Klomp, Anne; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Schipper, Pieter; Lucassen, Paul J; Homberg, Judith R; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a widely prescribed psychostimulant for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, which raises questions regarding its potential interference with the developing brain. In the present study, we investigated effects of 3 weeks oral methylphenidate (5 mg/kg) vs vehicle treatment on brain structure and function in adolescent (post-natal day [P]25) and adult (P65) rats. Following a 1-week washout period, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess effects of age and treatment on independent component analysis-based functional connectivity (resting-state functional MRI), D-amphetamine-induced neural activation responses (pharmacological MRI), gray and white matter tissue volumes and cortical thickness (postmortem structural MRI), and white matter structural integrity (postmortem diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)). Many age-related differences were found, including cortical thinning, white matter development, larger dopamine-mediated activation responses and increased striatal functional connectivity. Methylphenidate reduced anterior cingulate cortical network strength in both adolescents and adults. In contrast to clinical observations from ADHD patient studies, methylphenidate did not increase white matter tissue volume or cortical thickness in rat. Nevertheless, DTI-based fractional anisotropy was higher in the anterior part of the corpus callosum following adolescent treatment. Furthermore, methylphenidate differentially affected adolescents and adults as evidenced by reduced striatal volume and myelination upon adolescent treatment, although we did not observe adverse treatment effects on striatal functional activity. Our findings of small but significant age-dependent effects of psychostimulant treatment in the striatum of healthy rats highlights the importance of further research in children and adolescents that are exposed to methylphenidate. PMID:23851400

  6. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INDUCED MOTOR IMPAIRMENT FOLLOWING ACUTE ETHANOL: ASSESSMENT VIA THE NEGATIVE GEOTAXIS REFLEX IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Spear, Linda Patia

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent rats have been observed to be less sensitive than adults to a number of ethanol effects that may serve as feedback cues to reduce further ethanol intake. Among these findings are a few reports of attenuated sensitivities of adolescents to ethanol-induced motor impairment. The purpose of the present study was to further explore potential age-related differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment in both male and female adolescent (postnatal day [P]28–32), and adult (P68-72) Sprague-Dawley rats using an inclined plane assessment of the negative geotaxis reflex. Adult males displayed significant motor impairment at 1.5 g/kg, whereas adolescent males required higher doses, showing significant motor impairment only at doses of 2.25 g/kg ethanol or greater. Intoxicated practice did not significantly influence level of motor impairment at either age. When female rats of both ages were separately analyzed in terms of their response to ethanol, a dose of 1.5 g/kg ethanol was found to significantly impair adults, whereas adolescent females showed significant motor impairment when challenged with 2.25 g/kg but not 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Yet when the 1.5 g/kg data of females at the two ages were directly compared, no significant age difference was seen at this dose. These data document an attenuated sensitivity of adolescent relative to adult rats to the motor impairing effects of ethanol using a stationary inclined plane test, an effect particularly robust in male animals, and demonstrates the utility of this test for assessment of motor coordination in adolescent and adult rats. PMID:20138187

  7. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Adolescent exposure to cocaine increases anxiety-like behavior and induces morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Mao, Z; Zhu, C; Li, M; Cao, C; Guan, Y; Yuan, J; Xie, G; Guan, X

    2016-01-28

    Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence lead to alterations in morphology of pyramidal neurons, activities of astrocytes, and levels of proteins that involved in synaptic transmission, apoptosis, inflammation and addiction in both dHP and vHP of adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence in rats may elicit morphologic and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus when the animals reach adulthood. These changes may contribute to the increased susceptibility for psychiatric disorders and addiction seen in adults. PMID:26621120

  9. Acute exposure to ethanol on gestational day 15 affects social motivation of female offspring.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Mooney, Sandra M

    2014-03-15

    Alterations in social behavior are a hallmark of many neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. In rodents, social behavior is affected by prenatal insults. The outcomes are dependent on the timing of the insult as well as the sex and age of the animal tested. The limbic system is particularly important for social behavior, and a peak of neurogenesis within this system occurs on gestational day (G)15. Neurons appear particularly vulnerable to ethanol insult around the time they become post-mitotic. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to ethanol on G15 would result in significant social behavior deficits. Accordingly, Long Evans pregnant females were injected with ethanol (2.9 g/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline on G15. Offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction test on postnatal day (P) 28, P42, or P75, i.e., during early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Prenatal ethanol exposure decreased social investigation in P28 females and transformed social preference into social avoidance in 75-day-old females. Contact behavior, play fighting, and locomotor activity differed as a function of age, but were not significantly affected by ethanol exposure. Males demonstrated significantly more contact behavior and play fighting at P42 than at P28 or P70, whereas there were no age-related changes in females. Adult females showed more locomotor activity than adult males. Overall, prenatal ethanol exposure on G15 enhanced social anxiety in females, with these effects seen in adulthood only. PMID:24355753

  10. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  11. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  12. Role of thyroxine on postnatal development of ileal active bile salt transport

    SciTech Connect

    Heubi, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport uptake was measured by an in vitro incubation technique in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 16-day-old rats treated with pharmacological doses of L-thyroxine ileal active transport appeared precociously whose K/sub m/ was 1.60 +/- 0.48 mM and V/sub app/ was 8.09 +/- 1.14 nmol min mg dry wt , while age-matched shams had only passive diffusion of taurocholate. To determine whether enhanced endogenous secretion of thyroxine was capable of stimulating development of ileal active taurocholate transport, thyrotrophic stimulating hormone (TSH) was given on days 10-13, with uptake measured on day 16. Following TSH treatment, only passive transport for taurocholate was observed in the ileum; uptake rates were consistently higher than those for untreated controls at each study concentration. Thyroidectomy performed at age 14 days with uptake measured at age 21 days did not ablate development of ileal active transport but resulted in a significant reduction in the V/sub app/ and a significant increase in K/sub m/ compared with age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone does not appear to be obligatory for the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport.

  13. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  14. CONTINUOUS KYNURENINE ADMINISTRATION DURING THE PRENATAL PERIOD, BUT NOT DURING ADOLESCENCE, CAUSES LEARNING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Thomas, Marian A. R.; Elmer, Greg I.; Bruno, John P.; Schwarcz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Cognitive dysfunctions, including deficits in hippocampus-mediated learning and memory, are core features of the psychopathology of schizophrenia (SZ). Increased levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived tryptophan metabolite and antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, have been implicated in these cognitive impairments. Objectives Following recent suggestive evidence, the present study was designed to narrow the critical time period for KYNA elevation to induce subsequent cognitive deficits. Methods KYNA levels were experimentally increased in rats (1) prenatally (embryonic day [ED] 15 to ED 22) or (2) during adolescence (postnatal day [PD] 42 to PD 49). The KYNA precursor kynurenine was added daily to wet mash fed to (1) dams (100 mg/day; control: ECon; kynurenine-treated: EKyn) or (2) adolescent rats (300 mg/kg/day; control: AdCon; kynurenine-treated: AdKyn). Upon termination of the treatment, all animals were fed normal chow until biochemical analysis and behavioral testing in adulthood. Results On the last day of continuous kynurenine treatment, forebrain KYNA levels were significantly elevated (EKyn: +472%; AdKyn: +470%). KYNA levels remained increased in the hippocampus of adult EKyn animals (+54%), but were unchanged in adult AdKyn rats. Prenatal, but not adolescent, kynurenine treatment caused significant impairments in two hippocampus-mediated behavioral tasks, passive avoidance and Morris water maze. Conclusions Collectively, these studies provide evidence that a continuous increase in brain KYNA levels during the late prenatal period, but not during adolescence, induces hippocampus-related cognitive dysfunctions later in life. Such increases may play a significant role in illnesses with known hippocampal pathophysiology, including SZ. PMID:24590052

  15. Long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure in adolescent mice on the future ovarian reserve in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qu, Guoqiang; Dong, Xiyuan; Huang, Kai; Kumar, Molly; Ji, Licheng; Wang, Ya; Yao, Junning; Yang, Shulin; Wu, Ruxing; Zhang, Hanwang

    2016-02-01

    Currently, there is an increasing prevalence of adolescent exposure to methamphetamine (MA). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the long-term impact of early exposure to MA upon female fertility and ovarian reserve. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term MA exposure in adolescents on their ovarian reserve in adulthood. Adolescent mice received intraperitoneal injections of MA (5mg/kg, three times per week) or saline from the 21st postnatal day for an 8 week period. Morphological, histological, biochemical, hormonal and ethological parameters were evaluated. An impaired ovarian reserve and vitality was found in the group treated with MA, manifesting in morphological-apparent mitochondrial damage, an activated apoptosis pathway in the ovarian tissue, a downward expression of ovarian anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a decreased number of primordial and growing follicles, an increased number of atretic follicles, and a depressed secretion of AMH, estradiol and progesterone from granulosa cells. However, no significant difference was noticed regarding the estrous cycle, the mating ability and the fertility outcome in the reproductive age of the mice after a period of non-medication. The present results confirmed that a long term exposure to methamphetamine in adolescent mice does have an adverse impact on their ovarian reserve, which indicates that such an early abuse of MA might influence the fertility lifespan of the female mouse. PMID:26657179

  16. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Atrial natriuretic factor and postnatal diuresis in respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, H J; Baumgart, S

    1991-01-01

    To find out if atrial natriuretic factor plays a part in the control of urine output during the initiation alone or throughout postnatal diuresis in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, atrial natriuretic factor concentrations and clinical and renal variables were measured prospectively three times during the first three days of life in 13 premature infants. Atrial natriuretic factor concentrations rose significantly between the first and second sample times as did the urine output and output:input ratio. By the time that the third sample was taken, atrial natriuretic factor concentration had decreased significantly since the second sample had been taken, while urine flow was maintained. All subjects initiated a spontaneous diuresis that was related to the second concentration of atrial natriuretic factor. With partial correlation analysis a significant relationship was shown between the concentration of atrial natriuretic factor and the maintenance of urine output throughout the study period. Individual hormone concentrations did not, however, correlate with simultaneous renal variables. Changes in the concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor coincided with initiation of spontaneous diuresis in babies with respiratory distress syndrome, and may have a role in the complex mechanisms that maintain this diuresis. PMID:1825462

  18. Risk of Childhood Overweight after Exposure to Tobacco Smoking in Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Dalgård, Christine; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. Results Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15–1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58–1.97, respectively). Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram) revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09–1.50) compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. Conclusions Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of

  19. Mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis--grading systems and management.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Matthew D; Herndon, C D Anthony

    2013-11-01

    No universal guidelines exist for the management of patients with mild to moderate antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH). Unsurprisingly, practice patterns vary considerably with respect to recommendations for postnatal evaluation and follow-up imaging schedule. Although some clinical tools are available to specifically grade ANH and postnatal hydronephrosis, these are commonly used interchangeably with varying degrees of success. A universal classification system and nomenclature are needed to best identify patients at risk of renal deterioration, UTI and need for surgical intervention. We present our own approach to postnatal risk stratification and management, including recommendations regarding serial ultrasonography schedule, prophylactic antibiotics, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy. PMID:23958828

  20. Developing electrical properties of postnatal mouse lumbar motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jacques; Filipchuk, Anton; Pambo-Pambo, Arnaud; Amendola, Julien; Borisovna Kulagina, Iryna; Guéritaud, Jean-Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We studied the rapid changes in electrical properties of lumbar motoneurons between postnatal days 3 and 9 just before mice weight-bear and walk. The input conductance and rheobase significantly increased up to P8. A negative correlation exists between the input resistance (Rin) and rheobase. Both parameters are significantly correlated with the total dendritic surface area of motoneurons, the largest motoneurons having the lowest Rin and the highest rheobase. We classified the motoneurons into three groups according to their discharge firing patterns during current pulse injection (transient, delayed onset, sustained). The delayed onset firing type has the highest rheobase and the fastest action potential (AP) whereas the transient firing group has the lowest rheobase and the less mature AP. We found 32 and 10% of motoneurons with a transient firing at P3–P5 and P8, respectively. About 20% of motoneurons with delayed onset firing were detected at P8. At P9, all motoneurons exhibit a sustained firing. We defined five groups of motoneurons according to their discharge firing patterns in response to ascending and descending current ramps. In addition to the four classical types, we defined a fifth type called transient for the quasi-absence of discharge during the descending phase of the ramp. This transient type represents about 40% between P3–P5 and tends to disappear with age. Types 1 and 2 (linear and clockwise hysteresis) are the most preponderant at P6–P7. Types 3 and 4 (prolonged sustained and counter clockwise hysteresis) emerge at P8–P9. The emergence of types 3 and 4 probably depends on the maturation of L type calcium channels in the dendrites of motoneurons. No correlation was found between groups defined by step or triangular ramp of currents with the exception of transient firing patterns. Our data support the idea that a switch in the electrical properties of lumbar motoneurons might exist in the second postnatal week of life in mice. PMID

  1. A method for longitudinal, transcranial imaging of blood flow and remodeling of the cerebral vasculature in postnatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Letourneur, Annelise; Chen, Victoria; Waterman, Gar; Drew, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the weeks following birth, both the brain and the vascular network that supplies it undergo dramatic alteration. While studies of the postnatal evolution of the pial vasculature and blood flow through its vessels have been previously done histologically or acutely, here we describe a neonatal reinforced thin‐skull preparation for longitudinally imaging the development of the pial vasculature in mice using two‐photon laser scanning microscopy. Starting with mice as young as postnatal day 2 (P2), we are able to chronically image cortical areas >1 mm2, repeatedly for several consecutive days, allowing us to observe the remodeling of the pial arterial and venous networks. We used this method to measure blood velocity in individual vessels over multiple days, and show that blood flow through individual pial venules was correlated with subsequent diameter changes. This preparation allows the longitudinal imaging of the developing mammalian cerebral vascular network and its physiology. PMID:25524276

  2. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  3. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  4. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  5. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  6. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  7. Partial requirement of endothelin receptor B in spiral ganglion neurons for postnatal development of hearing.

    PubMed

    Ida-Eto, Michiru; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Takaiwa, Kazutaka; Kimitsuki, Takashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Komune, Shizuo; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Kato, Masashi

    2011-08-26

    Impairments of endothelin receptor B (Ednrb/EDNRB) cause the development of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome with congenital hearing loss, hypopigmentation, and megacolon disease in mice and humans. Hearing loss in Waardenburg-Shah syndrome has been thought to be caused by an Ednrb-mediated congenital defect of melanocytes in the stria vascularis (SV) of inner ears. Here we show that Ednrb expressed in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in inner ears is required for postnatal development of hearing in mice. Ednrb protein was expressed in SGNs from WT mice on postnatal day 19 (P19), whereas it was undetectable in SGNs from WT mice on P3. Correspondingly, Ednrb homozygously deleted mice (Ednrb(-/-) mice) with congenital hearing loss showed degeneration of SGNs on P19 but not on P3. The congenital hearing loss involving neurodegeneration of SGNs as well as megacolon disease in Ednrb(-/-) mice were markedly improved by introducing an Ednrb transgene under control of the dopamine β-hydroxylase promoter (Ednrb(-/-);DBH-Ednrb mice) on P19. Neither defects of melanocytes nor hypopigmentation in the SV and skin in Ednrb(-/-) mice was rescued in the Ednrb(-/-);DBH-Ednrb mice. Thus, the results of this study indicate a novel role of Ednrb expressed in SGNs distinct from that in melanocytes in the SV contributing partially to postnatal hearing development. PMID:21715336

  8. Postnatal behavioral and inflammatory alterations in female pups prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Campolongo, Marcos; Lucchina, Luciana; Zappala, Cecilia; Depino, Amaicha Mara

    2016-10-01

    In Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), a bias to a higher incidence in boys than in girls has been reported. With the aim to identify biological mechanisms acting in female animals that could underlie this bias, we used an extensively validated mouse model of ASD: the prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). We found postnatal behavioral alterations in female VPA pups: a longer latency in righting reflex at postnatal day (P) 3, and a delay in the acquisition of the acoustic startle response. We also analyzed the density of glial cells in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, in VPA and control animals. Female VPA pups showed alterations in the density of astrocytes and microglial cells between P21 and P42, with specific dynamics in each brain region. We also found a decrease in histone 3 acetylation in the cerebellum of female VPA pups at P14, suggesting that the changes in glial cell density could be due to alterations in the epigenetic developmental program. Finally, no differences in maternal behavior were found. Our results show that female VPA pups exhibit behavioral and inflammatory alterations postnatally, although they have been reported to have normal levels of sociability in adulthood. With our work, we contribute to the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying different effects of VPA on male and female rodents, and we hope to help elucidate whether there are factors increasing susceptibility to ASD in boys and/or resilience in girls. PMID:27337090

  9. Spatial and Age-Dependent Hair Cell Generation in the Postnatal Mammalian Utricle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Kelly, Michael C; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao; Lin, Xi; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Loss of vestibular hair cells is a common cause of balance disorders. Current treatment options for bilateral vestibular dysfunction are limited. During development, atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is sufficient and necessary for the formation of hair cells and provides a promising gene target to induce hair cell generation in the mammals. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse line to test the age and cell type specificity of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle in mice. We found that forced Atoh1 expression in vivo can induce hair cell formation in the utricle from postnatal days 1 to 21, while the efficacy of hair cell induction is progressively reduced as the animals become older. In the utricle, the induction of hair cells occurs both within the sensory region and in cells in the transitional epithelium next to the sensory region. Within the sensory epithelium, the central region, known as the striola, is most subjective to the induction of hair cell formation. Furthermore, forced Atoh1 expression can promote proliferation in an age-dependent manner that mirrors the progressively reduced efficacy of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle. These results suggest that targeting both cell proliferation and Atoh1 in the utricle striolar region may be explored to induce hair cell regeneration in mammals. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the animal model that provides an in vivo Atoh1 induction model for vestibular regeneration studies. PMID:25666161

  10. Postnatal alterations in GABAB receptor tone produce sensorimotor gating deficits and protein level differences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Monica M; Heaney, Chelcie F; Murtishaw, Andrew S; Sabbagh, Jonathan J; Magcalas, Christy M; Kinney, Jefferson W

    2015-04-01

    The GABA transmitter system plays a vital role in modulating synaptic formation and activity during development. The GABAB receptor subtype in particular has been implicated in cell migration, promotion of neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation but it's role in development is not well characterized. In order to investigate the effects of brief alterations in GABAB signaling in development, we administered to rats the GABAB agonist baclofen (2.0mg/kg) or antagonist phaclofen (0.3mg/kg) on postnatal days 7, 9, and 12, and evaluated sensorimotor gating in adulthood. We also examined tissue for changes in multiple proteins associated with GABAB receptor function and proteins associated with synapse formation. Our data indicate that early postnatal alterations to GABAB receptor-mediated signaling produced sex differences in sensorimotor gating in adulthood. Additionally, we found differences in GABAB receptor subunits and kalirin protein levels in the brain versus saline treated controls. Our data demonstrate that a subtle alteration in GABAB receptor function in early postnatal life induces changes that persist into adulthood. PMID:25314921

  11. Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Low Dose Glufosinate Ammonium Induces Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laugeray, Anthony; Herzine, Ameziane; Perche, Olivier; Hébert, Betty; Aguillon-Naury, Marine; Richard, Olivier; Menuet, Arnaud; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Lesné, Laurianne; Briault, Sylvain; Jegou, Bernard; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a wide range of lifelong effects on health and/or behavior. Here, we addressed the developmental impact of GLA by exposing female mice to low dose GLA during both pre- and postnatal periods and analyzed potential developmental and behavioral changes of the offspring during infancy and adulthood. A neurobehavioral test battery revealed significant effects of GLA maternal exposure on early reflex development, pup communication, affiliative behaviors, and preference for social olfactory cues, but emotional reactivity and emotional memory remained unaltered. These behavioral alterations showed a striking resemblance to changes seen in animal models of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. At the brain level, GLA maternal exposure caused some increase in relative brain weight of the offspring. In addition, reduced expression of Pten and Peg3 – two genes implicated in autism-like deficits – was observed in the brain of GLA-exposed pups at postnatal day 15. Our work thus provides new data on the link between pre- and postnatal exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of autism-like symptoms later in life. It also raises fundamental concerns about the ability of current safety testing to assess risks of pesticide exposure during critical developmental periods. PMID:25477793

  12. Long term effects of maternal protein restriction on postnatal lung alveoli development of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Farid, S A; Mahmoud, O M; Salem, N A; Abdel-Alrahman, G; Hafez, G A

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition of women during pregnancy causes reduction in foetal growth and can adversely affect the development of the foetal lungs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal protein restriction on the postnatal lung development in neonatal period, and on lung structure in adult rat offspring. Female virgin Sprague-Dawley albino rats (more than 200 g) were used. One male rat was introduced into a cage with one female for matting. Once the pregnancy was confirmed, pregnant rats were divided into two main groups; each consists of 6 female as follow: 1 - normally nourished group; 2 - protein deficient group. After delivery, offspring were subdivided into three groups: 1 day after delivery, 2 weeks and 2 months postnatal. Rat body and lung weight were recorded and ratio of lung weight to body weight was assessed. Total plasma protein and serum albumin were assessed for all groups. Lung tissue stained with H&E for histological and morphometric analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the number of cells positive for pulmonary surfactant protein A. Our results showed that protein restriction interfere with neonatal and postnatal lung development resulting in morphological and morphometric changes of normal lung development. We concluded that protein deficiency lead to developmental retardation of lung. PMID:26620509

  13. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M’hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S.; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans. PMID:26079768

  14. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13925.001 PMID:27008178

  15. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  17. Changes in adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism in neonatal and adult rat brain after postnatal exposure to the antihypertensive labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Erdtsieck-Ernste, E. B.; Feenstra, M. G.; Botterblom, M. H.; De Barrios, J.; Boer, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute (single injection), direct (chronic treatment) and the long-lasting effects after exposure to the alpha 1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol during rat brain development on adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism. 2. In 10-day-old rat pups, subcutaneously administered labetalol (10 mg kg-1) passed the blood-brain barrier, reaching a level of 2.1 micrograms g-1 tissue in the brain 90 min after injection. 3. Chronic labetalol treatment (10 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily) during the first 10 days of life significantly increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding in the hypothalamus (+39%), but not in the occipital cortex. 4. This chronic postnatal labetalol treatment did not result in long-lasting changes in alpha 1- and beta-receptors measured on day 60. 5. A single labetalol injection (10 mg kg-1, s.c.) on postnatal day 10 significantly increased noradrenaline (NA) metabolism in all brain regions tested (+25 to 105%), but had no effects on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or dopamine metabolism. 6. Chronic labetalol treatment between postnatal (PN) days 1 and 10 also increased NA metabolism on PN 10 (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)/NA, +20 to 100%), suggesting that tolerance to the acute effect of labetalol did not occur. A slight increase in 5-HT metabolism (20%) was induced by the chronic labetalol treatment in the hippocampus and meso-limbic system. 7. In general, long-lasting effects on NA metabolism could not be detected on day 60 more than one month after the treatment. However, 5-HT metabolism was significantly increased in all four brain regions measured (+20 to 70%). 8. We conclude that chronic labetalol exposure during early postnatal rat brain development does not cause long-lasting changes in beta-receptor number or NA metabolism, but appears to be critical for the rate of 5-HT metabolism in later life. PMID:1596689

  18. Postnatal development of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes in the rat: a behavioural and electromyographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, H; Schouenborg, J

    1996-01-01

    1. The postnatal development of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes was studied. In awake intact rats, forelimb, hindlimb and tail reflexes were recorded on videotape. In decerebrate spinal rats, electromyography (EMG) was used to record nociceptive withdrawal reflexes in musculi extensor digitorum longus (EDL), peronei, gastrocnemius-soleus (G-S) and biceps posterior-semitendinosus (BP-ST). Thermal (short-lasting CO2 laser pulses) and mechanical stimulation were used. 2. In adults, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were typically well directed and reflex pathways to single hindlimb muscles had functionally adapted receptive fields. By contrast, at postnatal day (P) 1-7, the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were often inappropriate, sometimes producing movements towards the stimulation, and EMG recordings revealed unadapted variable receptive fields. With increasing age, the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes progressively became well directed, thus producing localized withdrawal. Both withdrawal movements and spatial organization of the receptive fields were adult-like at P20-25. 3. Up to P25, reflex thresholds were more or less constant in both intact awake rats and spinal decerebrate rats, except in G-S in which no nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked from P20 on. After P25, mechanical, but not thermal, thresholds increased dramatically. 4. EMG recordings revealed that during the first three postnatal weeks, the latency of the CO2 laser-evoked nociceptive withdrawal reflexes decreased significantly in peronei and BP-ST, but not in EDL, and thereafter increased significantly in peronei, BP-ST and EDL. The magnitude of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes in these muscles increased markedly between P7 and P20 and showed little change thereafter. 5. Possible mechanisms underlying the postnatal tuning of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are discussed. PMID:8735709

  19. Epileptic activity during early postnatal life in the AY-9944 model of atypical absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seungmoon; Jeong, Yong; Jeon, Daejong

    2015-05-01

    Atypical absence epilepsy (AAE) is an intractable disorder characterized by slow spike-and-wave discharges in electroencephalograms (EEGs) and accompanied by severe cognitive dysfunction and neurodevelopmental or neurological deficits in humans. Administration of the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor AY-9944 (AY) during the postnatal developmental period induces AAE in animals; however, the neural mechanism of seizure development remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the cellular manifestations of AY-induced AAE in the mouse. Treatment of brain slices with AY increased membrane excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons. AY treatment also increased input resistance of CA1 neurons during early postnatal days (PND) 5-10. However, these effects were not observed during late PND (14-21) or in adulthood (7-10 weeks). Notably, AY treatment elicited paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS)-like epileptiform discharges during the early postnatal period, but not during late PND or in adults. The PDS-like events were not compromised by application of glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. However, the PDS-like events were abolished by blockage of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Hippocampal neurons isolated from an in vivo AY model of AAE showed similar PDS-like epileptiform discharges. Further, AY-treated neurons from T-type Ca(2+) channel α1G knockout (Cav3.1(-/-)) mice, which do not exhibit typical absence seizures, showed similar PDS-like epileptiform discharges. These results demonstrate that PDS-like epileptiform discharges during the early postnatal period are dependent upon Na(+) channels and are involved in the generation of AY-induced AAE, which is distinct from typical absence epilepsy. Our findings may aid our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of clinical AAE in individuals, such as those with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. PMID:25890840

  20. Postnatal Persistent Infection with Classical Swine Fever Virus and Its Immunological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Rosa; Pérez, Lester Josué; Frías-Leuporeau, Maria Teresa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria; Cordoba, Lorena; Domingo, Mariano; Ehrensperger, Felix; Summerfield, Artur; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that trans-placental transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) during mid-gestation can lead to persistently infected offspring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of CSFV to induce viral persistence upon early postnatal infection. Two litters of 10 piglets each were infected intranasally on the day of birth with low and moderate virulence CSFV isolates, respectively. During six weeks after postnatal infection, most of the piglets remained clinically healthy, despite persistent high virus titres in the serum. Importantly, these animals were unable to mount any detectable humoral and cellular immune response. At necropsy, the most prominent gross pathological lesion was a severe thymus atrophy. Four weeks after infection, PBMCs from the persistently infected seronegative piglets were unresponsive to both, specific CSFV and non-specific PHA stimulation in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells. These results suggested the development of a state of immunosuppression in these postnatally persistently infected pigs. However, IL-10 was undetectable in the sera of the persistently infected animals. Interestingly, CSFV-stimulated PBMCs from the persistently infected piglets produced IL-10. Nevertheless, despite the addition of the anti-IL-10 antibody in the PBMC culture from persistently infected piglets, the response of the IFN-γ producing cells was not restored. Therefore, other factors than IL-10 may be involved in the general suppression of the T-cell responses upon CSFV and mitogen activation. Interestingly, bone marrow immature granulocytes were increased and targeted by the virus in persistently infected piglets. Taken together, we provided the first data demonstrating the feasibility of CSFV in generating a postnatal persistent disease, which has not been shown for other members of the Pestivirus genus yet. Since serological methods are routinely used in CSFV surveillance, persistently infected pigs might go unnoticed

  1. Postnatal evaluation of infants with an abnormal antenatal renal sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities. Recent findings There is a low rate of detectable renal abnormalities in infants with a normal postnatal sonogram at 4–6 weeks of age. Routine prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in infants with isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Infants with a multicystic dysplastic kidney and a normal contralateral kidney on renal ultrasound do not require further evaluation. Parents of these children should be counseled on symptoms of urinary tract infections to allow prompt diagnosis. Summary All infants with abnormalities on antenatal sonogram should undergo postnatal evaluation with a sonogram after birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. Further evaluation can be safely limited when the postnatal sonogram is normal at 6 weeks of age. PMID:19663038

  2. Mifepristone Treatment during Early Adolescence Fails to Restore Maternal Deprivation-Induced Deficits in Behavioral Inhibition of Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian; van der Veen, Rixt

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has a profound impact on brain development and later life health. Animal models have provided insight how early life stress programs stress responsiveness and might contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, the long-term effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on behavioral inhibition and attention were examined in adult male Wistar rats. To this end animals were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice SRTT). We also explored the potential of a 3-day treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone during early adolescence to normalize putative behavioral effects of early life stress. Deprivation of the mother for 24 h on postnatal day (PND) 3 led to a modest but significant increase in premature responses in the 5-choice SRTT, but did not affect measures of attention. Body weight was lower in deprived animals from weaning until the start of testing. Early adolescent mifepristone treatment (PND 26-28) did not influence performance on the 5-choice SRTT and did not mitigate the deprivation-related impairment in behavioral inhibition. Our results indicate that MD leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, and that mifepristone treatment during early adolescence does not normalize the behavioral changes caused by early life stress. PMID:27378873

  3. Mifepristone Treatment during Early Adolescence Fails to Restore Maternal Deprivation-Induced Deficits in Behavioral Inhibition of Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian; van der Veen, Rixt

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has a profound impact on brain development and later life health. Animal models have provided insight how early life stress programs stress responsiveness and might contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, the long-term effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on behavioral inhibition and attention were examined in adult male Wistar rats. To this end animals were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice SRTT). We also explored the potential of a 3-day treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone during early adolescence to normalize putative behavioral effects of early life stress. Deprivation of the mother for 24 h on postnatal day (PND) 3 led to a modest but significant increase in premature responses in the 5-choice SRTT, but did not affect measures of attention. Body weight was lower in deprived animals from weaning until the start of testing. Early adolescent mifepristone treatment (PND 26–28) did not influence performance on the 5-choice SRTT and did not mitigate the deprivation-related impairment in behavioral inhibition. Our results indicate that MD leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, and that mifepristone treatment during early adolescence does not normalize the behavioral changes caused by early life stress. PMID:27378873

  4. Postnatal management of infants with antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Nejat; Yavaşcan, Onder; Kangin, Murat; Kara, Orhan D; Aydin, Yahya; Erdoğan, Hakan; Tuncel, Tuba Cerçi; Cetinkaya, Ergün; Ozbay, Erkan; Sandikçioğlu, Tahir G

    2005-09-01

    With the increasing use of antenatal sonography, fetal hydronephrosis has been reported more frequently. Because of the lack of consensus regarding treatment of these infants, the postnatal approach toward fetal renal pelvis enlargement remains controversial. The aim of this prospective study is to demonstrate the postnatal investigation, treatment, and outcome of infants with prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis. Infants whose antenatal ultrasound scan showed a fetal renal pelvis of 5 mm or greater were investigated postnatally using ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography. When indicated, isotope studies and intravenous urograms were also performed. We followed prospectively neonates with antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis and recommended management guidelines on the basis of our findings. In 156 neonates (193 kidney units) that were found to have hydronephrosis, the average gestational age at which the diagnosis was made was 32.94+/-5.10 weeks. The mean duration of postnatal follow-up was 26.3+/-13.56 months (range 3-60 months). The mean APPD of the fetal renal pelvis was 10.35+/-3.24 mm (5-9 mm in 84 kidneys, 10-14 mm in 96 kidneys and > or =15 mm in 13 kidneys). Of the 193 kidney units, 145 units were found to be pathological. The most common detected underlying abnormalities were ureteropelvic junction obstruction (in 91 kidneys; 62.7%) and vesicoureteral reflux (in 24 kidneys; 16.6%). Postnatally, 23 (45%) of 51 patients whose first US was normal were diagnosed postnatally as having urinary tract abnormality. There was a negative correlation between APPD and the rate of spontaneous resolution and positive correlation between APPD and the rate of surgery (P<0.01). In conclusion, because it is not possible to determine an upper limit of normal for the antenatal renal pelvis, any baby with AH should not be considered clinically insignificant. Infants with antenatal renal pelvis measurements > or =5 mm should be investigated postnatally. A normal

  5. Pre-pubertal castration improves spatial learning during mid-adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Moradpour, Farshad; Naghdi, Nasser; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohamad; Choopani, Samira; Gharaylou, Zeinab

    2013-10-01

    Hippocampus functions, including spatial cognition and stress responses, mature during adolescence. In addition, hippocampus neuronal structures are modified by circulating sex steroids, which dramatically increase during adolescence. Therefore, the effects of castration and the circulating levels of the main sex steroid testosterone on spatial learning and memory were examined across postnatal ages to test whether pre-pubertal castration affected rats' spatial ability in the Morris Water maze (MWM). Male rats were either castrated or sham-castrated at 22d (days of age), or left gonadally intact. They were then trained and tested in the MWM beginning at 28d, 35d, 45d or 60d. We found that all of the intact rats learned the spatial task; however, the males at 22d and 28d required more trials to acquire the task than the males at older ages. The males castrated at 22d and tested at 35d had significantly lower escape latency and traveled distance during training than the sham-castrated males trained at the same age. No differences were observed in mean values of escape latency and traveled distance at 45d even though they had comparable levels of testosterone. We conclude that adult-typical performance for male spatial memory emerges during mid-adolescence and that pre-pubertal castration appears to improve spatial learning during this time. PMID:23871792

  6. Extracellular matrix structure and tissue stiffness control postnatal lung development through the lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/Tie2 signaling system.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Mammoto, Akiko

    2013-12-01

    Physical properties of the tissues and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) play an important role in organ development. Recently, we have reported that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 5/Tie2 signaling controls postnatal lung development by modulating angiogenesis. Here we show that tissue stiffness modulated by the ECM cross-linking enzyme, lysyl oxidase (LOX), regulates postnatal lung development through LRP5-Tie2 signaling. The expression of LRP5 and Tie2 is up-regulated twofold in lung microvascular endothelial cells when cultured on stiff matrix compared to those cultured on soft matrix in vitro. LOX inhibitor, β-aminopropionitrile, disrupts lung ECM (collagen I, III, and VI, and elastin) structures, softens neonatal mouse lung tissue by 20%, and down-regulates the expression of LRP5 and Tie2 by 20 and 60%, respectively, which leads to the inhibition of postnatal lung development (30% increase in mean linear intercept, 1.5-fold increase in air space area). Importantly, hyperoxia treatment (Postnatal Days 1-10) disrupts ECM structure and stiffens mouse lung tissue by up-regulating LOX activity, thereby increasing LRP5 and Tie2 expression and deregulating alveolar morphogenesis in neonatal mice, which is attenuated by inhibiting LOX activity. These findings suggest that appropriate physical properties of lung tissue are necessary for physiological postnatal lung development, and deregulation of this mechanism contributes to postnatal lung developmental disorders, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PMID:23841513

  7. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics. PMID:25210695

  8. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  9. The metabolic response to postnatal leptin in rats varies with age and may be litter dependent.

    PubMed

    Granado, M; Diaz, F; Fuente-Martín, E; García-Cáceres, C; Argente, J; Chowen, J A

    2014-06-01

    Hyperleptinemia during postnatal life induces long-term effects on metabolism. However, these effects are controversial as both increased and decreased propensity towards obesity has been reported. To further analyze the effects of chronic neonatal hyperleptinemia on the subsequent metabolic profile, male Wistar rats proceeding from 18 different litters (8 pups/litter) received a daily subcutaneous injection of either saline (10 ml/kg, n=36) or leptin (3 μg/g, n=36) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND9. Rats were sacrificed at 10, 40, or 150 days of age. At 10 days of age, leptin treated rats had decreased body weight (p<0.001) and body fat (p<0.05). Leptin levels and glycemia were increased (p<0.01), whereas insulin, total lipids, triglycerides and glycerol levels were decreased (p<0.05). At PND40 rats receiving leptin had increased glycemia (p<0.01) and plasma HDL and LDL levels, but decreased total lipids (p<0.05). At PND150 neonatal leptin treatment induced different effects in rats raised in different litters. Rats from litter 1 had increased body weight (p<0.05), body fat (p<0.01), and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), total lipid (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.05), and glycerol (p<0.001) levels. In rats from litter 2 these parameters did not differ from controls. Rats from litter 3 had decreased body weight (p<0.05), visceral fat (p<0.01) and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), glycerol (p<0.001), and HDL (p<0.001) levels. In conclusion, the metabolic response to postnatal leptin varies with age, with the response in adulthood being variable and most likely influenced by other factors, including the genetic make-up. PMID:24446159

  10. Changes in gravity influence rat postnatal motor system development: from simulation to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.; Heffernan, C.; Sulica, D.; Benavides, L.

    1997-01-01

    Our research examines the role of the environment in postnatal nervous system development. Recently we have been studying the effects of changes in gravity on the motor system of rats from postnatal day (P) 2 to 31 using kinematic analysis of swimming, walking, and righting reflexes. Using the tail suspension model of weightlessness we identified sensitive and critical periods of motor system development corresponding to the time during which a motor skill is first achieved. Motor performance in suspended animals was marked by slow swimming, walking, and air-righting, all of which were characterized by hindlimb extension. (Walton et al, Neurosci. 52,763,1992). The critical periods identified in these studies contributed to determining the age of animals for a small payload, NIH.R3. This 9-day mission (STS-72) included 2 litters at P5, P7, or P15 at launch. The P7-16 and P15-24 groups were studied post-flight. On the landing day (R+0) surface righting, swimming and walking were slower in flight compared to control animals. Differences were more marked in the younger animals and the hindlimbs were more affected than the forelimbs with marked, prolonged extension of, at least, the ankle joint angle. Readaptation to 1G was slower in the P7-16 group with righting reflexes adapting first, walking last. We have shown that gravity is an important factor in postnatal nervous system development and that its affect depends on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation, and the motor function studied.

  11. Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sirova, Jana; Kristofikova, Zdenka; Vrajova, Monika; Fujakova-Lipski, Michaela; Ripova, Daniela; Klaschka, Jan; Slamberova, Romana

    2016-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is the most commonly used psychostimulant drug, the chronic abuse of which leads to neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The global use of MA is increasing, including in pregnant women. Since MA can cross both placental and haematoencephalic barriers and is also present in maternal milk, children of chronically abused mothers are exposed prenatally as well as postnatally. Women seem to be more vulnerable to some aspects of MA abuse than men. MA is thought to exert its effects among others via direct interactions with dopamine transporters (DATs) in the brain tissue. Sexual dimorphism of the DAT system could be a base of sex-dependent actions of MA observed in behavioural and neurochemical studies. Possible sex differences in the DATs of preadolescent offspring exposed to MA prenatally and/or postnatally have not yet been evaluated. We examined the striatal synaptosomal DATs (the activity and density of surface expressed DATs and total DAT expression) in preadolescent male and female Wistar rats (31-35-day old animals) exposed prenatally and/or postnatally to MA (daily 5 mg/kg, s.c. to mothers during pregnancy and lactation). To distinguish between specific and nonspecific effects of MA on DATs, we also evaluated the in vitro effects of lipophilic MA on the fluidity of striatal membranes isolated from preadolescent and young adult rats of both sexes. We observed similar changes in the DATs of preadolescent rats exposed prenatally or postnatally (MA-mediated drop in the reserve pool but no alterations in surface-expressed DATs). However, prenatal exposure evoked significant changes in males and postnatal exposure in females. A significant decrease in the activity of surface-expressed DATs was found only in postnatally exposed females sensitized to MA via prenatal exposure. MA applied in vitro increased the fluidity of striatal membranes of preadolescent female but not male rats. In summary, DATs of preadolescent males are more sensitive to

  12. Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Is Associated with Increased Risky Choice and Decreased Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Neuron Markers in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence and may have effects on the adult brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure alters adult risky choice and prefrontal dopaminergic and forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker levels in male Wistar rats. Methods: Adolescent (postnatal day 28–53) rats were administered 5g/kg of 25% (vol/vol) ethanol 3 times/d in a 2-days–on/2-days–off exposure pattern. In adulthood, risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task with descending and ascending series of large reward probabilities and after acute ethanol challenge. Immunohistochemical analyses assessed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of dopamine and norepinephrine in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, and choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the basal forebrain. Results: All of the rats preferred the large reward when it was delivered with high probability. When the large reward became unlikely, control rats preferred the smaller, safe reward, whereas adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats continued to prefer the risky alternative. Acute ethanol had no effect on risky choice in either group of rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase (prelimbic cortex only) and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity levels were decreased in adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats compared with controls. Risky choice was negatively correlated with choline acetyltransferase, implicating decreased forebrain cholinergic activity in risky choice. Conclusions: The decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity suggest that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure has enduring neural effects that may lead to altered adult behaviors, such as increased risky decision making. In humans, increased risky decision making could lead to maladaptive, potentially harmful consequences. PMID:25612895

  13. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. PMID:22024161

  14. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability. PMID:26657171

  15. Developmental iodine deficiency delays the maturation of newborn granule neurons associated with downregulation of p35 in postnatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Dong, Jing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the role of p35 in the maturation of hippocampal granule neurons in offspring caused by developmental iodine deficiency. Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil-adulterated water (5 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day 28. The protein levels of p35, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, β-catenin, and N-cadherin were assessed on postnatal day 14, 21, and 28. Dendritic morphogenesis of newborn granule neurons in dentate gyrus was examined. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency and PTU treatment delayed the maturation of hippocampal granule neurons in the offspring and decreased the percentage of Dcx-positive neurons that expressed β-catenin on postnatal day 21 and 28. In addition, downregulation of p35 was observed in dentate gyrus of hypothyroid groups. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency and PTU treatment could delay the maturation of newborn granule neurons in dentate gyrus, and this deficit may be attributed to the downregulation of p35. PMID:22987596

  16. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the genital circulation, fetal growth and postnatal development in the Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Altoama, Kassem; Yassine Mallem, Mohamed; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nebivolol, a cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker of the third generation with vasodilatory properties, vs. bisoprolol on the genital circulation, uterine vasculature, fetal growth and postnatal development in pregnant Wistar rats. Non invasive measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR), and invasive measurement of genital blood flow (GBF) were taken in pregnant rats, by tail cuff and transonic probe methods respectively, after an oral treatment by gastric gavage with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy. Other morphometrical and histological measurements were performed on the ovarian and uterine arteries to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on the uterine vasculature. Furthermore, postnatal mortality and pup growth were recorded. The data demonstrated that nebivolol (compared with bisoprolol) induced a significant decrease in SBP, HR and GBF while DBP remained unchanged. Moreover, nebivolol increased the diameter and the length of ovarian and uterine arteries and the number of uterine artery segmental branches. The results also showed that the body weight gain of newborns in the nebivolol group was significantly lower vs. bisoprolol and vs. control with a higher mortality rate. The nebivolol action is not only limited to its favorable hemodynamic effects represented by a decrease in blood pressure, but it also produces adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development that may limit its therapeutic use in females during pregnancy. PMID:25863257

  17. Physeal reconstruction using tissue donated from early postnatal limbs in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, P.J.; Jofe, M.; Zaleske, D.J.; Ehrlich, M.G.; Mankin, H.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Physeal reconstruction was performed in a murine model by transplanting corresponding postnatal tissue from 4-day-old C57B mice to resection defects. The site of the reconstruction, the murine distal femoral epiphysis, is completely cartilaginous and avascular at this stage of development. The tissue transplanted into the defect was demonstrated to have high kinetic activity by its incorporation of tritiated thymidine. The physeal reconstruction as performed restored only 25% of normal growth. While transplanting cell populations is feasible, the method will require a great deal of work before clinical application.

  18. Postnatal manganese exposure alters dopamine transporter function in adult rats: Potential impact on nonassociative and associative processes.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S A; Reichel, C M; Farley, C M; Flesher, M M; Der-Ghazarian, T; Cortez, A M; Wacan, J J; Martinez, C E; Varela, F A; Butt, A E; Crawford, C A

    2008-06-23

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 microg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1-21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to measure dopamine efflux in the same brain regions. The effects of postnatal Mn exposure on nigrostriatal functioning were evaluated by assessing rotorod performance and amphetamine-induced stereotypy in adulthood. In terms of associative processes, both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and sucrose-reinforced operant responding were examined. Results showed that postnatal Mn exposure caused persistent declines in DAT protein expression and [3H]dopamine uptake in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, as well as long-term reductions in striatal dopamine efflux. Rotorod performance did not differ according to exposure condition, however Mn-exposed rats did exhibit substantially more amphetamine-induced stereotypy than vehicle controls. Mn exposure did not alter performance on any aspect of the CPP task (preference, extinction, or reinstatement testing), nor did Mn affect progressive ratio responding (a measure of motivation). Interestingly, acquisition of a fixed ratio task was impaired in Mn-exposed rats, suggesting a deficit in procedural learning. In sum, these results indicate that postnatal Mn exposure causes persistent declines in various indices of presynaptic dopaminergic functioning. Mn-induced alterations in striatal functioning may have long-term impact on associative and nonassociative behavior. PMID:18485605

  19. Effect of pre- and postnatal growth and post-weaning activity on glucose metabolism in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Dellschaft, Neele S; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cecile; Gardner, David S; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Sebert, Sylvain P

    2015-02-01

    Maternal caloric restriction during late gestation reduces birth weight, but whether long-term adverse metabolic outcomes of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) are dependent on either accelerated postnatal growth or exposure to an obesogenic environment after weaning is not established. We induced IUGR in twin-pregnant sheep using a 40% maternal caloric restriction commencing from 110 days of gestation until term (∼147 days), compared with mothers fed to 100% of requirements. Offspring were reared either as singletons to accelerate postnatal growth or as twins to achieve standard growth. To promote an adverse phenotype in young adulthood, after weaning, offspring were reared under a low-activity obesogenic environment with the exception of a subgroup of IUGR offspring, reared as twins, maintained in a standard activity environment. We assessed glucose tolerance together with leptin and cortisol responses to feeding in young adulthood when the hypothalamus was sampled for assessment of genes regulating appetite control, energy and endocrine sensitivity. Caloric restriction reduced maternal plasma glucose, raised non-esterified fatty acids, and changed the metabolomic profile, but had no effect on insulin, leptin, or cortisol. IUGR offspring whose postnatal growth was enhanced and were obese showed insulin and leptin resistance plus raised cortisol. This was accompanied by increased hypothalamic gene expression for energy and glucocorticoid sensitivity. These long-term adaptations were reduced but not normalized in IUGR offspring whose postnatal growth was not accelerated and remained lean in a standard post-weaning environment. IUGR results in an adverse metabolic phenotype, especially when postnatal growth is enhanced and offspring progress to juvenile-onset obesity. PMID:25416820

  20. Postnatal development of the bronchiolar club cells of distal airways in the mouse lung: stereological and molecular biological studies.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Srikanth; Graulich, Tilman; Oruqaj, Gani; Pfreimer, Susanne; Seimetz, Michael; Stamme, Cordula; Mariani, Thomas J; Weissmann, Norbert; Mühlfeld, Christian; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-06-01

    Club (Clara) cells are nonciliated secretory epithelial cells present in bronchioles of distal pulmonary airways. So far, no information is available on the postnatal differentiation of club cells by a combination of molecular biological, biochemical, and stereological approaches in the murine lung. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in the club cell secretory proteins (CC10, surfactant proteins A, B and D) and club cell abundance within the epithelium of bronchioles of distal airways during the postnatal development of the mouse lung. Perfusion-fixed murine lungs of three developmental stages (newborn, 15-day-old and adult) were used. Frozen, unfixed lungs were used for cryosectioning and subsequent laser-assisted microdissection of bronchiolar epithelial cells and RT-PCR analyses. High resolution analyses of the three-dimensional structures and composition of lung airways were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, using design-based stereology, the total and average club cell volume and the volume of secretory granules were quantified by light and transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that murine club cells are immature at birth and differentiate postnatally. Further, increase of the club cell volume and number of intracellular granules are closely correlated to the total lung volume enlargement. However, secretory granule density was only increased within the first 15 days of postnatal development. The differentiation is accompanied by a decrease in glycogen content, and a close positive relationship between CC10 expression and secretory granule abundance. Taken together, our data are consistent with the concept that the morphological and functional differentiation of club cells is a postnatal phenomenon. PMID:26796206

  1. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Alters GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, Samuel W.; Teppen, Tara; Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Moss, Julia L.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Chandler, L. Judson; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol abuse that persist into adulthood are poorly understood and have not been widely investigated. We have shown that intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in hippocampal dentate granule cells in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enduring effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure during adolescence or adulthood on the expression of hippocampal GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Methods We used a previously characterized tissue fractionation method to isolate detergent resistant membranes and soluble fractions, followed by western blots to measure GABAAR protein expression. We also measured mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Although the protein levels of α1-, α4- and δ-GABAAR subunits remained stable between postnatal day (PD) 30 (early adolescence) and PD71 (adulthood), the α5-GABAAR subunit was reduced across that period. In rats that were subjected to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure between PD30–46, there was a significant reduction in the protein levels of the δ-GABAAR, in the absence of any changes in mRNA levels, at 48 hours and 26 days after the last ethanol exposure. Protein levels of the α4-GABAAR subunit were significantly reduced, but mRNA levels were increased, 26 days (but not 48 hours) after the last AIE exposure. Protein levels of α5-GABAAR were not changed by AIE, but mRNA levels were reduced at 48hrs but normalized 26 days after AIE. In contrast to the effects of AIE, chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol during adulthood (CIE) had no effect on expression of any of the GABAAR subunits examined. Conclusions AIE produced both short- and long-term alterations of GABAAR subunits mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, whereas CIE produced no long lasting effects on those measures. The observed reduction of protein

  2. Long-term effects of chronic cocaine exposure throughout adolescence on anxiety and stress responsivity in a Wistar rat model.

    PubMed

    Alves, C J; Magalhães, A; Melo, P; de Sousa, L; Tavares, M A; Monteiro, P R R; Summavielle, T

    2014-09-26

    Adolescents display increased vulnerability to engage in drug experimentation. This is often considered a risk factor for later drug abuse. In this scenario, the permanent effects of cocaine exposure during adolescence on anxiety levels and stress responsivity, which may result in behavioral phenotypes prone to addiction, are now starting to be unveiled. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-lasting effects of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress response. Adolescent male Wistar rats were daily administered 45-mg cocaine/kg of body weight in three equal intraperitoneal doses with 1-h interval, from postnatal day (PND) 35 to 50. The effects of cocaine administration on anxiety levels, assessed in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and on social stress response, assessed in the resident-intruder paradigm (R/I), were evaluated 10 days after withdrawal, when rats were reaching the adulthood. The underlying dopaminergic activity, and the corticosterone and testosterone levels were determined. Our results showed that cocaine induced long-lasting alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis function and in testosterone levels. Such alterations resulted in significant and enduring changes in behavioral responses to environmental challenges, such as the EPM and R/I, including the evaluation of potential threats that may lead to high-risk behavior and low-benefit choices. This was further supported by an altered dopaminergic function in the amygdala and hippocampus. The present findings provide new insights into how the use of cocaine during adolescent development may modulate emotional behavior later in life. Compromised ability to recognize and deal with potential threats is an important risk factor to perpetuate compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility. PMID:25047999

  3. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; Lu, Julie; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27380261

  4. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Meridith T.; Lu, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations. PMID:27380261

  5. Adolescent and adult rats differ in the amnesic effects of acute ethanol in two hippocampus-dependent tasks: Trace and contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Pamela S; Barnet, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Experience-produced deficits in trace conditioning and context conditioning have been useful tools for examining the role of the hippocampus in learning. It has also been suggested that learning in these tasks is especially vulnerable to neurotoxic effects of alcohol during key developmental periods such as adolescence. In five experiments we systematically examined the presence and source of age-dependent vulnerability to the memory-disrupting effects of acute ethanol in trace conditioning and contextual fear conditioning. In Experiment 1a pre-training ethanol disrupted trace conditioning more strongly in adolescent (postnatal day, PD30-35) than adult rats (PD65-75). In Experiment 1b when pre-training ethanol was accompanied by pre-test ethanol no deficit in trace conditioning was observed in adolescents, suggesting that state-dependent retrieval failure mediated ethanol's disruption of trace conditioning at this age. Experiment 2a and b examined the effect of ethanol pretreatment on context conditioning. Here, adult but not adolescent rats were impaired in conditioned freezing to context cues. Experiment 2c explored state-dependency of this effect. Pre-training ethanol continued to disrupt context conditioning in adults even when ethanol was also administered prior to test. Collectively these findings reveal clear age-dependent and task-dependent vulnerabilities in ethanol's disruptive effects on hippocampus-dependent memory. Adolescents were more disrupted by ethanol in trace conditioning than adults, and adults were more disrupted by ethanol in context conditioning than adolescents. We suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to changes in internal state (state-dependent retrieval failure) than adults and that ethanol disrupted performance in trace and context conditioning through different mechanisms. Relevance of these findings to theories of hippocampus function is discussed. PMID:26192910

  6. Effect of low-level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of low-dose prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development, and whether alterations would manifest at dosages lower than those which produce anatomic malformations from exposure at the most sensitive period of organogenesis. Ninety-eight Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 Gy X-radiation of were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. A conventional teratologic evaluation was completed on half of the animals (572 fetuses). The age of appearance of four physiologic markers and of acquisition of six reflexes was observed in 372 offspring. Exposure during early organogenesis at these levels had no effect on any of these parameters. Prenatal exposure to X-radiation on the 17th day of gestation at dosage levels greater than 0.1 Gy resulted in alterations in the appearance of three postnatal neurophysiologic parameters. Growth retardation throughout the postpartum period also was observed in the offspring. The induction of developmental and reflex alterations had a comparable threshold to the known threshold for anatomic malformations on the 9th day. These results indicate that all of the parameters studied had thresholds either at or above 0.2 Gy acute radiation, and that the postpartum developmental and reflex acquisition measures were not more sensitive indicators of exposure to X-radiation than growth parameters.

  7. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood. PMID:25402719

  8. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  9. 76 FR 59132 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Pregnancy Prevention Initiative demonstrate effects on adolescent sexual risk behavior and teenage pregnancy... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Evaluation: Implementation Data... overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen...

  10. Unusual morphological damage of Purkinje cells following postnatal BrdU administration in the cerebellar cortex of mouse.

    PubMed

    Takács, T

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal development of the cerebellum lasts for weeks in rodents and can be disturbed by systemic 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) administration. This thymidine analogue incorporates into the DNA of proliferating cells, and result in more or less serious damage or death granule cells, the most actively dividing neuronal population in the developing cerebellar cortex. Further consequences of postnatal BrdU administration are the interrupted postnatal migration and integrations as well as partial loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. In the present study, C57B16 mice were administered with 50 μg/g body weight BrdU, one sc. injection daily, between P0 and P11 postnatal days, respectively.Large "cavities" appeared in the cytoplasm of a subpopulation of Purkinje cells by P7 in about one-third of administered animals, their number are size of the cavities (and PCs exhibiting unusual morphology) decreased. EM studies revealed that the unusual Purkinje cells received numerous axonal inputs of unknown origin, first of all on their somatic and dendritic spines. The transitory appearance of a subpopulation of Purkinje cells possessing unusual morphology refers to the influence of other (neuronal, glial, or both) cells on their regular differentiation. PMID:22514871

  11. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  12. Features of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescents' Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Zook, Joan M.

    Seven features of adolescents' relationships with mothers and with fathers (time together per day, number of activities, degree of influence, subjective closeness, and frequency of experiencing positive, hostile, and sad emotions in the relationship) were used to predict adolescents' problem behavior and chemical use. Using a sample of 64 seventh-…

  13. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy. PMID:27253583

  14. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xihui; Wang, Ligang; Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy. PMID:27253583

  15. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development. PMID:26391019

  16. Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to a persistent loss of neurogenesis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus that is associated with impaired adult cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Crews, Fulton T.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period that coincides with the maturation of adult cognitive faculties. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can impact brain maturation. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 20% EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we discovered that AIE treatment reduced neurogenesis (i.e., doublecortin-immunoreactive [DCX + IR] cells) in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus of late adolescent (P56) male Wistar rats that persisted during abstinence into adulthood (P220). This reduction in neurogenesis was accompanied by a concomitant reduction in proliferating cells (Ki-67) and an increase in cell death (cleaved caspase-3). In the hippocampus, AIE treatment induced a long-term upregulation of neuroimmune genes, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its endogenous agonist high-mobility group box 1 as well as several proinflammatory signaling molecules. Administration of lipopolysaccharide, a gram-negative endotoxin agonist at TLR4, to young adult rats (P70) produced a similar reduction of DCX + IR cells that was observed in AIE-treated animals. Behaviorally, AIE treatment impaired object recognition on the novel object recognition task when assessed from P163 to P165. Interestingly, object recognition memory was positively correlated with DCX + IR in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus while latency to enter the center of the apparatus was negatively correlated with DCX + IR in the ventral dentate gyrus. Together, these data reveal that adolescent binge ethanol exposure persistently inhibits neurogenesis throughout the hippocampus, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might contribute to altered adult cognitive and emotive function. PMID:25729346

  17. NEURODEVELOPMENT. Adult cortical plasticity depends on an early postnatal critical period.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Stuart D; Juczewski, Konrad; de Haan, Annelies M; Seaton, Gillian; Fox, Kevin; Hardingham, Neil R

    2015-07-24

    Development of the cerebral cortex is influenced by sensory experience during distinct phases of postnatal development known as critical periods. Disruption of experience during a critical period produces neurons that lack specificity for particular stimulus features, such as location in the somatosensory system. Synaptic plasticity is the agent by which sensory experience affects cortical development. Here, we describe, in mice, a developmental critical period that affects plasticity itself. Transient neonatal disruption of signaling via the C-terminal domain of "disrupted in schizophrenia 1" (DISC1)—a molecule implicated in psychiatric disorders—resulted in a lack of long-term potentiation (LTP) (persistent strengthening of synapses) and experience-dependent potentiation in adulthood. Long-term depression (LTD) (selective weakening of specific sets of synapses) and reversal of LTD were present, although impaired, in adolescence and absent in adulthood. These changes may form the basis for the cognitive deficits associated with mutations in DISC1 and the delayed onset of a range of psychiatric symptoms in late adolescence. PMID:26206934

  18. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  19. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Greenwood, Maria A.; Brewer, Jacob S.; Rozofsky, John P.; Parise, Eric M.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional or physical stress on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day [PD] 35) or adult (eight-week old) mice were exposed to emotional (ES) or physical stress (PS) using a vicarious social defeat paradigm. Twenty-four hours after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted ERK2, reduced transcription of ΔFosB, and had no effect on CREB mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent-exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice, and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  20. Periconceptional events perturb postnatal growth regulation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H; Harding, Jane E

    2011-09-01

    Periconceptional undernutrition and twin conception alter intrauterine growth and metabolism and are associated with later adverse metabolic outcomes. The contribution of postnatal growth to these outcomes is less well defined. We investigated whether maternal periconceptional undernutrition or twin conception altered postnatal growth regulation in ways that could lead to metabolic disease. Single and twin offspring of ewes undernourished (UN) from 61 d before until 30 d after mating, fed to achieve and maintain 10-15% weight loss (UN), were compared with offspring of maintenance-fed controls (N). At 2 h and 1, 6, and 12 wk after birth, lambs were weighed and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations analyzed. Milk intake, measured by deuterium oxide dilution, was inversely related to birth weight only in N singles, although twins had the greatest postnatal growth velocity. Positive associations were seen between milk intake, growth velocity, and leptin concentrations in N, but not UN, offspring. We conclude that periconceptional undernutrition alters the relationships between regulators of postnatal growth, including nutrient intake and key hormonal axes, in both singles and twins without affecting size at birth or postnatal growth velocity. Dissociation of growth from its key regulators is one possible mechanism underlying adverse metabolic outcomes after periconceptional undernutrition. PMID:21587096

  1. Methamphetamine exposure during early postnatal development in rats: I. Acoustic startle augmentation and spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Ahrens, K G; Acuff-Smith, K D; Schilling, M A; Fisher, J E

    1994-04-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) induces neurotransmitter reductions and neurotoxicity at high doses in adult animals, but its effects on early brain development and behavior have received less attention. In this experiment the effects of MA exposure during a period equivalent to the human third trimester were examined. Rats (Sprague-Dawley CD) were injected subcutaneously with d-MA (30 mg/kg b.i.d.) early in postnatal development (days 1-10), later (postnatal days 11-20), or with water during both of these periods. Both early and later MA-exposed offspring exhibited augmented acoustic startle and impaired performance in a complex multiple-T water maze. Only the early MA exposure group showed a persistent deficit in weight while only the later MA exposure group showed impaired learning in the Morris hidden platform maze. Effects on locomoter activity are reported in the accompanying article. It was concluded that the effects of MA are both long lasting and stage dependent and involve cognitive as well as arousal functions. PMID:7855197

  2. Topical Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Activators Accelerate Postnatal Stratum Corneum Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Man, Mao-Qiang; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pH declines from between 6 and 7 at birth to adult levels (pH 5.0–5.5) over 5–6 days in neonatal rat stratum corneum (SC). As a result, at birth, neonatal epidermis displays decreased permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity, improving days 5–6. We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification. Topical treatment with two different PPARα activators, clofibrate and WY14643, accelerated the postnatal decline in SC surface pH, whereas treatment with PPARγ activators did not and a PPARβ/δ activator had only a modest effect. Treatment with clofibrate significantly accelerated normalization of barrier function. The morphological basis for the improvement in barrier function in PPARα-treated animals includes accelerated secretion of lamellar bodies and enhanced, postsecretory processing of secreted lamellar body contents into mature lamellar membranes. Activity of β-glucocerebrosidase increased after PPARα-activator treatment. PPARα activator also improved SC integrity, which correlated with an increase in corneodesmosome density and increased desmoglein-1 content, with a decline in serine protease activity. Topical treatment of newborn animals with a PPARα activator increased secretory phospholipase A2 activity, which likely accounts for accelerated SC acidification. Thus, PPARα activators accelerate neonatal SC acidification, in parallel with improved permeability homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion. Hence, PPARα activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses. PMID:18704104

  3. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  4. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  5. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters postnatal cardiorespiratory integration in young male but not female rats

    PubMed Central

    Boychuk, Carie R.; Hayward, Linda F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces sex specific alternations in indices of cardiorespiratory coupling during early development. Rat pups exposed to either nicotine (6mg/kg/day) or saline (control) in utero were chronically instrumented with ECG electrodes for measurement of heart rate (HR) and respiratory frequency (RF) was monitored by whole body plethysmography on postnatal days (P)13, P16 and P26. PNE had no identifiable effect on resting respiratory frequency (RF) in either sex. There was however a strong trend (p=0.057) for resting HR to be elevated by PNE in male offspring only. Alternatively, the HR response to hypoxia (10% O2), was significantly blunted at P13 but significantly elevated at P26 s in the absence of any significant change in RF in PNE males only. Indicators of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were also significantly reduced in P26 PNE males. No significant effects of PNE on HR, RF or RSA were identified in female offspring at any age. Our results demonstrate that PNE induces very specific changes in cardiorespiratory integration at select postnatal ages and these changes are more prominent in males. Additionally, alternations in cardiorespiratory integration appear to persist into later development in males only, potentially increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension later in life. PMID:21945005

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic field improves postnatal neovascularization in response to hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Lin; Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Hu, An; Lu, Zhao-Yang; Weng, Liang; Wang, Shen-Qi; Han, Yi-Peng; Zhang, Lan; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been shown to promote proliferation and regeneration in the damaged tissue. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy improved postnatal neovascularization using murine model of hindlimb ischemia, and the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms were further investigated. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by unilateral femoral artery resection using 6-8 week-old male C57BL6 mice. Then, mice were exposed to extracorporeal PEMF therapy (4 cycles, 8min/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) every day until day 14. Our data demonstrated that PEMF therapy significantly accelerated wound healing, decreased prevalence of gangrene and increased postnatal neovascularization. Moreover, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt phosphorylation in ischemic muscles were markedly enhanced following PEMF therapy. In vitro, PEMF inhibited the process of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and augmented tube formation, migration and proliferative capacities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, PEMF exposure increased VEGF secretion, as well as the eNOS and Akt phosphorylation, and these benefits could be blocked by either phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or eNOS inhibitor. In conclusion, our data indicated that PEMF therapy enhanced ischemia-mediated angiogenesis, through up-regulating VEGF expression and activating the PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway. Therefore, PEMF should be a valuable treatment for the patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:26045885

  7. Pulsed electromagnetic field improves postnatal neovascularization in response to hindlimb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Lin; Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Hu, An; Lu, Zhao-Yang; Weng, Liang; Wang, Shen-Qi; Han, Yi-Peng; Zhang, Lan; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been shown to promote proliferation and regeneration in the damaged tissue. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy improved postnatal neovascularization using murine model of hindlimb ischemia, and the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms were further investigated. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by unilateral femoral artery resection using 6-8 week-old male C57BL6 mice. Then, mice were exposed to extracorporeal PEMF therapy (4 cycles, 8min/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) every day until day 14. Our data demonstrated that PEMF therapy significantly accelerated wound healing, decreased prevalence of gangrene and increased postnatal neovascularization. Moreover, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt phosphorylation in ischemic muscles were markedly enhanced following PEMF therapy. In vitro, PEMF inhibited the process of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and augmented tube formation, migration and proliferative capacities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, PEMF exposure increased VEGF secretion, as well as the eNOS and Akt phosphorylation, and these benefits could be blocked by either phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or eNOS inhibitor. In conclusion, our data indicated that PEMF therapy enhanced ischemia-mediated angiogenesis, through up-regulating VEGF expression and activating the PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway. Therefore, PEMF should be a valuable treatment for the patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:26045885

  8. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    2007-03-01

    Azadirachtin, a biopesticide has been evaluated for its possible toxic effects during postnatal development of rats over two generations. Rats were fed 100, 500 and 1000ppm technical azadirachtin through diet which is equivalent to 5, 25 and 50mg/kg body weight of rats. Technical azadirachtin has not produced any adverse effects on reproductive function and data were comparable to control animals over two generations. There were no toxicological effect in parent rats as evidenced by clinical signs of toxicity, enzymatic parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, S. bilirubin, S. cholesterol, total protein and histopathology of liver, brain, kidney and testes/ovary. The litters of F(1B) and F(2B) generations were devoid of any morphological, visceral and teratological changes. The percent cumulative loss and growth index of pups were also comparable to respective controls in successive growth period of 0, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days in two generations. There were no major malformations in fetuses while some insignificant minor skeletal variations like missing 5th sternebrae and bipartite thoracic centre found were not compound or dose related. No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups. In conclusion rats fed technical azadirachtin showed no evidence of cumulative effects on postnatal development and reproductive performance over two generations. Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide. PMID:17084955

  9. Temporary prenatal hyperglycemia leads to postnatal neuronal 'glucose-resistance' in the chicken hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Tzschentke, Barbara; Bogatyrev, Semjon; Schellong, Karen; Rancourt, Rebecca C; Plagemann, Andreas

    2015-08-27

    Prenatal exposures may have a distinct impact for long-term health. Exposure to maternal 'diabesity' during pregnancy increases offspring 'diabesity' risk, e.g. by malprogramming the central nervous regulation of body weight, food intake and metabolism. Critical mechanisms and concrete disrupting factors still remain unclear. Due to the independent development, from the mother, the chicken embryo could provide a valuable model to distinctively establish causal factors. Aim of this study was to determine effects of temporary prenatal hyperglycemia on postnatal hypothalamic neuronal glucose sensitivity in the chicken. To induce hyperglycemia in chicken embryos, 0.5 ml glucose solution (concentration 30 mmol/l) were daily administered via catheter into a vessel of the chorioallantoic egg membrane from days 14 to 17 of incubation. On day 21 of postnatal age, body weight, body fat content, blood glucose, neuroelectrophysiological glucose sensitivity as well as glucose transporter expression were determined in hypothalamic brain slices. No significant changes in morphometric and metabolic parameters were observed. However, strongly decreased neuronal glucose sensitivity and glucose transporter expression occurred, indicating prenatally acquired hypothalamic 'glucose-resistance'. In conclusion, temporary late prenatal hyperglycemia induces lasting changes in central glucose sensing. The prenatally glucose-treated chicken provides a valuable new model for investigating early central nervous origins of 'diabesity' and related disorders. PMID:26054304

  10. Endogenous oestrogens do not regulate endothelial nitric oxide production in early postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sofronova, Svetlana I; Gaynullina, Dina K; Martyanov, Andrey A; Tarasova, Olga S

    2015-10-15

    Previously we showed that endothelium of 1-2-weeks old rats exerts an anticontractile effect due to spontaneous NO production which correlates with a higher eNOS expression level compared to adult rats. Oestrogens are powerful regulators of eNOS expression and activity in arterial endothelium. This study tested the hypothesis that anticontractile influence of endothelium in young rats is regulated by endogenous oestrogens. Wistar rats were daily treated with ICI 182,780 or letrozole (oestrogen receptor antagonist and aromatase inhibitor, respectively; s.c., 1mg/kg/day) from the second postnatal day, control pups received vehicle injections. At the age of 10-12-days we studied contraction of saphenous arteries using wire myography. ELISA and qPCR were used to evaluate blood sex steroids levels and mRNA expression in arterial tissue, respectively. Ten-12 days old male rats compared to adult male rats demonstrated 78% higher serum 17β-oestradiol concentration and several-fold increase in mRNA contents of oestrogen receptors (ERα and GPER1). However, treatments with ICI 182,780 or letrozole did not affect arterial sensitivity to methoxamine (α1-adrenoceptor agonist) in 10-12-days old males. The blockade of NO-synthase with L-NNA caused tonic contraction and potentiated the response to methoxamine, these effects were similar in control and both treated groups. The sensitivity of endothelium-denuded saphenous arteries to NO-donor DEA/NO did not differ between control and treated groups as well. In addition, treatments with ICI 182,780 or letrozole did not change eNOS expression level in arterial tissue. Our results suggest that endogenous oestrogens do not regulate anticontractile effect of NO during early postnatal development in rats. PMID:26415981

  11. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni Borghese, María F.; Ortiz, María C.; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P.

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  12. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    SciTech Connect

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  13. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR. PMID:23526187

  14. Natural variation in early parental care correlates with social behaviors in adolescent prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Perkeybile, Allison M.; Griffin, Luana L.; Bales, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Natural variation in early parental care may contribute to long-term changes in behavior in the offspring. Here we investigate the role of variable early care in biparental prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Total amounts of parental care were initially quantified for 24 breeder pairs and pairs were ranked in relation to one another based on total contact. Consistency in key components of care suggested a trait-like quality to parental care. Based on this ranking, breeder pairs from the top (high-contact) and bottom (low-contact) quartiles were selected to produce high- and low-contact offspring to investigate adolescent behavior after varying early care. Parental care of subject offspring was again observed postnatally. Offspring of high-contact parents spent more time passively nursing and received more paternal non-huddling contact while low-contact offspring spent more time actively nursing and received more paternal huddling and pseudohuddling in the first postnatal days (PNDs). Low-contact offspring also displayed faster rates of development on a number of physical markers. Post-weaning, offspring were evaluated on anxiety-like behavior, social behavior and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) to a tactile and an acoustic startle. High-contact offspring spent more time sniffing a juvenile and less time autogrooming. With an infant, high-contact offspring spent more time in non-huddling contact and less time autogrooming and retrieving than did low-contact offspring. Considering sexes separately, high-contact females spent more time sniffing a novel juvenile than low-contact females. High-contact males spent more time in non-huddling contact with an infant than low-contact males; while low-contact females retrieved infants more than high-contact females. In both measures of social behavior, high-contact males spent less time autogrooming than low-contact males. These results suggest a relationship between early-life care and differences in social behavior in

  15. Natural variation in early parental care correlates with social behaviors in adolescent prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Perkeybile, Allison M; Griffin, Luana L; Bales, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Natural variation in early parental care may contribute to long-term changes in behavior in the offspring. Here we investigate the role of variable early care in biparental prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Total amounts of parental care were initially quantified for 24 breeder pairs and pairs were ranked in relation to one another based on total contact. Consistency in key components of care suggested a trait-like quality to parental care. Based on this ranking, breeder pairs from the top (high-contact) and bottom (low-contact) quartiles were selected to produce high- and low-contact offspring to investigate adolescent behavior after varying early care. Parental care of subject offspring was again observed postnatally. Offspring of high-contact parents spent more time passively nursing and received more paternal non-huddling contact while low-contact offspring spent more time actively nursing and received more paternal huddling and pseudohuddling in the first postnatal days (PNDs). Low-contact offspring also displayed faster rates of development on a number of physical markers. Post-weaning, offspring were evaluated on anxiety-like behavior, social behavior and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) to a tactile and an acoustic startle. High-contact offspring spent more time sniffing a juvenile and less time autogrooming. With an infant, high-contact offspring spent more time in non-huddling contact and less time autogrooming and retrieving than did low-contact offspring. Considering sexes separately, high-contact females spent more time sniffing a novel juvenile than low-contact females. High-contact males spent more time in non-huddling contact with an infant than low-contact males; while low-contact females retrieved infants more than high-contact females. In both measures of social behavior, high-contact males spent less time autogrooming than low-contact males. These results suggest a relationship between early-life care and differences in social behavior in

  16. The recovery trajectory of adolescent social defeat stress-induced behavioral, (1)H-MRS metabolites and myelin changes in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Handi; Yan, Gen; Xu, Haiyun; Fang, Zeman; Zhang, Jinling; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Renhua; Kong, Jiming; Huang, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to social stress precipitates emotion-related disorders and affects the development and function of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, this adversity-induced behavioral and neurological changes remain not fully explored. Adolescent Balb/c mice were subjected to intermittent social defeat stress during postnatal days 28 to 42. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) measurements, behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry were performed one day or 3 weeks after the last stress episode. Defeated mice exhibited hypoactivity and social avoidance with the latter lasting into the early adulthood, while the anxiety level was unchanged. Social defeat experience lead to temporary decreases in the levels of total creatines (Cr + pCr) and Glx (Glu + Gln), but a delayed increase of N- acetylaspartate (NAA) levels. These alternations were accompanied with a persistent reduction of myelin basic protein expression although the number of mature oligodendrocyte did not change. These findings provide evidence that adolescent adverse social experience permanently impairs the emotion-related behavioral performance and induces biochemical and molecular changes in the brain which at least lasts into early adulthood, thus enhancing our understanding of the neurobiology of social defeat stress. Our finding also implicates that NAA signals on MRS may reflect myelin status. PMID:27283029

  17. The recovery trajectory of adolescent social defeat stress-induced behavioral, 1H-MRS metabolites and myelin changes in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Handi; Yan, Gen; Xu, Haiyun; Fang, Zeman; Zhang, Jinling; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Renhua; Kong, Jiming; Huang, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to social stress precipitates emotion-related disorders and affects the development and function of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, this adversity-induced behavioral and neurological changes remain not fully explored. Adolescent Balb/c mice were subjected to intermittent social defeat stress during postnatal days 28 to 42. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) measurements, behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry were performed one day or 3 weeks after the last stress episode. Defeated mice exhibited hypoactivity and social avoidance with the latter lasting into the early adulthood, while the anxiety level was unchanged. Social defeat experience lead to temporary decreases in the levels of total creatines (Cr + pCr) and Glx (Glu + Gln), but a delayed increase of N- acetylaspartate (NAA) levels. These alternations were accompanied with a persistent reduction of myelin basic protein expression although the number of mature oligodendrocyte did not change. These findings provide evidence that adolescent adverse social experience permanently impairs the emotion-related behavioral performance and induces biochemical and molecular changes in the brain which at least lasts into early adulthood, thus enhancing our understanding of the neurobiology of social defeat stress. Our finding also implicates that NAA signals on MRS may reflect myelin status. PMID:27283029

  18. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: A role for pubertal onset.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097

  19. Ups and Downs: Daily Cycles of Adolescent Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Bonnie L.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Miller, Kristelle E.; Petersen, Anne C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined diurnal patterns of adolescents' stress, affect, and arousal. Found that gender, depression risk status, and day of week influenced mean levels of adolescent moods but were not associated with differences in mood patterns throughout the day. Suggested that adolescents' emotional states follow a diurnal cycle stemming from endogenous…

  20. Media Use among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Coster, Wendy J.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use media, and the factors associated with their media use. A total of 91 adolescents with ASD and their parents completed mail-based surveys. In all, 78% of the adolescents with ASD watched television (approximately 2 h/day), and 98% used computers (approximately 5 h/day) on…

  1. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Amy E.; Fadel, Jim R.; Kelly, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) affect 2–5% of children. FASD have been shown to cause damage to multiple brain regions, but damage to the hippocampus specifically may explain deficits in learning and memory that are hallmark symptoms of FASD. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system is a major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intragastric intubation to developing male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2–10; ethanol-treated [ET]), with controls receiving a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). In Experiment 1, in vivo microdialysis was used to measure acetylcholine efflux in adolescents (PD 32–35). During microdialysis, the effects of a high K+/Ca2+ aCSF solution (PD 32–33) and an acute galantamine (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] inhibitor) injection (2.0 mg/kg; PD 34–35) on acetylcholine efflux were measured. Alcohol-exposed animals did not differ in acetylcholine efflux at baseline. However, alcohol-exposed animals had a decrease in K+/Ca2+-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to non-treated controls, and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine compared to both control groups. Experiment 2 tested whether chronic administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11–30) could attenuate alcohol-induced learning deficits in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE; PD 30–32). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; medial septum), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT; ventral CA1), and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR; ventral CA1) following microdialysis (Exp. 1) or chronic galantamine and behavioral testing (Exp. 2). Neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vAChT or α7 nAChRs in the ventral CA1 region of the

  2. Smoking cessation treatment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Julie P; Timpe, Erin M; Lubsch, Lisa

    2010-10-01

    Cigarette smoking in the adolescent population remains a public health concern. A significant portion of the adolescent population currently uses tobacco. Nicotine is particularly addicting in adolescents, and quitting is difficult. The goals for adolescent cigarette smoking efforts must include both primary prevention and smoking cessation. Bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies-including nicotine patches, gum, and nasal spray-have been studied to a limited extent in the adolescent population. Varenicline has not been evaluated as a treatment modality in adolescents. Long-term quit rates in the pharmacotherapy trials have not been optimal; however, decreases in cigarettes smoked per day have been observed. Several evidencebased guidelines include recommendations for smoking cessation in adolescents that include counseling and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy may be instituted for some adolescents in addition to counseling and behavioral interventions. Therapy should be individualized, based on smoking patterns, patient preferences, and concomitant disease states. Smoking cessation support for parents should be instituted as well. The pharmacist can play a large role in helping the adolescent quit smoking. Further studies evaluating pharmacotherapy options for smoking cessation in adolescents are necessary. If pharmacotherapy is used, it should be individualized and combined with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. PMID:22477813

  3. Ontogenesis of alpha-amylase in rat parotid gland during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, S L; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Rins, L; Aoki, A

    1981-01-01

    Changes in alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) of parotid gland were investigated during postnatal development of the rat. Modifications in amylase activity after birth allow the distinction of three stages which can be correlated with the morphologic development of the parotid gland. Significant sexual differences in the evolution of alpha-amylase activity were found. During the first stage (from birth to the 20th day) there is a higher increase in females, while males have a more pronounced increment in the second stage (from the 20th to the 30th day). By means of gel electrophoresis of parotid extracts, four molecular forms of amylase can be separated. The slowest migrating band (Form 1) is not detected at the initial stage. PMID:6164673

  4. Ozone-induced airway epithelial cell death, the neurokinin-1 receptor pathway, and the postnatal developing lung

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shannon R.; Oslund, Karen L.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to ozone because airway and lung growth continue for an extensive period after birth. Early-life exposure of the rhesus monkey to repeated ozone cycles results in region-specific disrupted airway/lung growth, but the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Substance P (SP), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R); and nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) are signaling pathway components involved in ozone-induced cell death. We hypothesize that acute ozone (AO) exposure during postnatal airway development disrupts SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway expression and that these changes correlate with increased ozone-induced cell death. Our objectives were to 1) spatially define the normal development of the SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway in conducting airways; 2) compare how postnatal age modulates responses to AO exposure; and 3) determine how concomitant, episodic ozone exposure modifies age-specific acute responses. Male infant rhesus monkeys were assigned at age 1 mo to two age groups, 2 or 6 mo, and then to one of three exposure subgroups: filtered air (FA), FA+AO (AO: 8 h/day × 2 days), or episodic biweekly ozone exposure cycles (EAO: 8 h/day × 5 days/14-day cycle+AO). O3 = 0.5 ppm. We found that 1) ozone increases SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway expression in conducting airways, 2) an ozone exposure cycle (5 days/cycle) delivered early at age 2 mo resulted in an airway that was hypersensitive to AO exposure at the end of 2 mo, and 3) continued episodic exposure (11 cycles) resulted in an airway that was hyposensitive to AO exposure at 6 mo. These observations collectively associate with greater overall inflammation and epithelial cell death, particularly in early postnatal (2 mo), distal airways. PMID:25063800

  5. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; Torre, Adrianna De La; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-07-15

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  6. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; De La Torre, Adrianna; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  7. Postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes in the left ventricle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Wulfsohn, D; Nyengaard, J R; Tang, Y

    2004-03-01

    We studied the development of myocytes and interstitium using perfusion-fixed left ventricles obtained from normal female Wistar rats at 5 days (n = 5), 25 days (n = 5), and 125 days (n = 5) of age. Using design-based stereological methods and light microscopy, we estimated the following parameters: volume of left ventricle made up by myocytes, myocyte nuclei, and interstitium; total numbers of myocyte and non-myocyte nuclei; mean volumes of myocyte nuclei; the total volume, surface area, and length of fibers; and the mean star volumes of fibers. Some derived parameters were also calculated, namely, the mean myocardium volume per nucleus and the mean fiber cross-sectional area. We found that postnatal myocyte growth after day 5 in the young rat is largely hypertrophic, while interstitial growth is hyperplastic. The increase in left ventricular mass was 10-fold over the ages studied, whereas total length, surface area, and volume of fibers increased approximately 3-, 8-, and 11-fold over the period. Relative rates of growth implied that fiber growth was dominated by an increase in length compared to other dimensions. The total number of myocyte nuclei ( approximately 30 x 10(6)) did not change between 5 and 25 days of age, but then almost doubled in 125-day-old rats. The number of non-myocyte nuclei increased 9-fold over the period studied in an exponential manner. The mean myocyte nucleus volume tripled between the ages of 5 and 25 days and then remained the same. The volume-weighted mean nucleus volume was highly variable and showed no significant trend with age. Our results provide support for the claim made by some researchers that myocyte proliferation had ceased by day 5 after birth, but do not provide evidence for binucleation of myocytes between 5 and 25 days after birth. Reported numbers of myocyte nuclei express a net growth and do not rule out both myocyte death and creation throughout the early postnatal period. We clearly detect an increase in the

  8. Empowering Preadolescent and Adolescent Leukemia Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Describes effects of leukemia diagnosis and treatment for preadolescents and adolescents. Discusses strategies for social workers to assist these cancer patients in participating actively in the day-to-day management of their own care. (ABL)

  9. VGluT1+ Neuronal Glutamatergic Signaling Regulates Postnatal Developmental Maturation of Cortical Protoplasmic Astroglia

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Lydie; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Functional maturation of astroglia is characterized by the development of a unique, ramified morphology and the induction of important functional proteins, such as glutamate transporter GLT1. Although pathways regulating the early fate specification of astroglia have been characterized, mechanisms regulating postnatal maturation of astroglia remain essentially unknown. Here we used a new in vivo approach to illustrate and quantitatively analyze developmental arborization of astroglial processes. Our analysis found a particularly high increase in the number of VGluT1+ neuronal glutamatergic synapses that are ensheathed by processes from individual developing astroglia from postnatal day (P) 14 to P26, when astroglia undergo dramatic postnatal maturation. Subsequent silencing of VGluT1+ synaptic activity in VGluT1 KO mice significantly reduces astroglial domain growth and the induction of GLT1 in the cortex, but has no effect on astroglia in the hypothalamus, where non-VGluT1+ synaptic signaling predominates. In particular, electron microscopy analysis showed that the loss of VGluT1+ synaptic signaling significantly decreases perisynaptic enshealthing of astroglial processes on synapses. To further determine whether synaptically released glutamate mediates VGluT1+ synaptic signaling, we pharmacologically inhibited and genetically ablated metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs, especially mGluR5) in developing cortical astroglia and found that developmental arborization of astroglial processes and expression of functional proteins, such as GLT1, is significantly decreased. In summary, our genetic analysis provides new in vivo evidence that VGluT1+ glutamatergic signaling, mediated by the astroglial mGluR5 receptor, regulates the functional maturation of cortical astroglia during development. These results elucidate a new mechanism for regulating the developmental formation of functional neuron-glia synaptic units. PMID:25122895

  10. Early postnatal stress alters place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Clifford C; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2008-04-01

    Clinical literature has established a link between early childhood incidents of neglect and trauma and adult problems with substance abuse. In rats, such early life stress has been modeled using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm in which rat pups were removed from their mothers for a few hours daily during the first two postnatal weeks. In this study, we used the MS model to investigate the effects of early postnatal stress on place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists in male and female Long-Evans rats. Offspring of both rearing conditions [MS or nonhandled (NH)] were conditioned using a biased procedure to saline, the mu-opioid agonist morphine (3.0, 5.6, and 10 mg/kg s.c.), or the kappa-opioid agonist spiradoline (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) for 3 days, followed by a drug-free place-conditioning test 24 h later. Saline was administered in the morning, 30 min before confinement in one compartment, whereas morphine or spiradoline was administered in a similar manner 6 h later in the opposite compartment. MS offspring spent significantly more time in the morphine-paired compartment than NH offspring, indicating a greater place preference for the mu-opioid agonist. In the case of spiradoline, NH offspring spent significantly less time in the spiradoline-paired compartment, indicating a greater aversion to the kappa-opioid agonist in these animals than in MS offspring. These findings indicate that early postnatal stress can significantly alter the rewarding or aversive value of mu- and kappa-opioid agonists when measured using place conditioning. PMID:18203949

  11. Control of postnatal apoptosis in the neocortex by RhoA-subfamily GTPases determines neuronal density.

    PubMed

    Sanno, Hitomi; Shen, Xiao; Kuru, Nilgün; Bormuth, Ingo; Bobsin, Kristin; Gardner, Humphrey A R; Komljenovic, Dorde; Tarabykin, Victor; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Tucker, Kerry L

    2010-03-24

    Apoptosis of neurons in the maturing neocortex has been recorded in a wide variety of mammals, but very little is known about its effects on cortical differentiation. Recent research has implicated the RhoA GTPase subfamily in the control of apoptosis in the developing nervous system and in other tissue types. Rho GTPases are important components of the signaling pathways linking extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of the RhoA GTPase subfamily in neocortical apoptosis and differentiation, we have engineered a mouse line in which a dominant-negative RhoA mutant (N19-RhoA) is expressed from the Mapt locus, such that all neurons of the developing nervous system are expressing the N19-RhoA inhibitor. Postnatal expression of N19-RhoA led to no major changes in neocortical anatomy. Six layers of the neocortex developed and barrels (whisker-related neural modules) formed in layer IV. However, the density and absolute number of neurons in the somatosensory cortex increased by 12-26% compared with wild-type littermates. This was not explained by a change in the migration of neurons during the formation of cortical layers but rather by a large decrease in the amount of neuronal apoptosis at postnatal day 5, the developmental maximum of cortical apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of RhoA in cortical neurons was seen to cause high levels of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that RhoA-subfamily members play a major role in developmental apoptosis in postnatal neocortex of the mouse but that decreased apoptosis does not alter cortical cytoarchitecture and patterning. PMID:20335457

  12. Postnatal development of electrophysiological properties of principal neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, D E; Ryan, S J; Rainnie, D G

    2012-10-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, which often emerge during brain development. Several studies have characterized postnatal changes to the morphology and biochemistry of BLA neurons, and many more have identified sensitive periods of emotional maturation. However, it is impossible to determine how BLA development contributes to emotional development or the aetiology of psychiatric disorders because no study has characterized the physiological maturation of BLA neurons. We addressed this critical knowledge gap for the first time using whole-cell patch clamp recording in rat BLA principal neurons to measure electrophysiological properties at postnatal day (P)7, P10, P14, P21, P28 and after P35. We show that intrinsic properties of these neurons undergo significant transitions before P21 and reach maturity around P28. Specifically, we observed significant reductions in input resistance and membrane time constant of nearly 10-and 4-fold, respectively, from P7 to P28. The frequency selectivity of these neurons to input also changed significantly, with peak resonance frequency increasing from 1.0 Hz at P7 to 5.7 Hz at P28. In the same period, maximal firing frequency significantly increased and doublets and triplets of action potentials emerged. Concomitantly, individual action potentials became significantly faster, firing threshold hyperpolarized 6.7 mV, the medium AHP became faster and shallower, and a fast AHP emerged. These results demonstrate neurons of the BLA undergo vast change throughout postnatal development, and studies of emotional development and treatments for juvenile psychiatric disorders should consider the dynamic physiology of the immature BLA. PMID:22848043

  13. Calcium-binding protein parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the rat olfactory bulb. 2. Postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K; Heizmann, C W; Kosaka, T

    1994-01-01

    The laminar development of the external plexiform layer (EPL) in the rat main olfactory bulb and the postnatal development of parvalbumin-immunoreactive [PV(+)] neurons mainly located in this layer were studied in animals at postnatal week 1-4 at a light microscopic level. The EPL in the adult olfactory bulb consists of two sublayers, the inner sublayer (ISL) and the outer sublayer (OSL). The ISL was already developed well even at postnatal day 7 (P7), whereas the OSL was first recognized at P10 as a thin zone consisting of more or less loosely packed large-sized and small-to-medium-sized somata subjacent to the glomerular layer (GL). The OSL increased in thickness and came to occupy nearly one-third to -half of the EPL at P14. PV(+) neurons first appeared at P10 mainly in the inner border of EPL. Only a few PV(+) neurons were scattered in the EPL at P10, but they increased remarkably in number during P14-21. Some of these PV(+) neurons at P10 had an intensely immunoreactive soma, extending relatively long processes with varicosities and/or spines. At P14, PV(+) neurons were located not only in the ISL but also at the border between the ISL and OSL, but in the OSL proper they were rarely observed. These PV(+) neurons showed branched and complicated processes with numerous varicosities and spines, displaying more mature features than those in previous stages. Even at P14 many of these PV(+) neurons appeared to exhibit some characteristic structural features of those in the adult stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7925803

  14. A longitudinal study of skin barrier function in pregnancy and the postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, Jonathan O’B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Khashan, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether skin’s barrier function changes in pregnancy. Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) refers to the total amount of water loss through the skin and TEWL can be measured non-invasively as an index of skin barrier function. We measured TEWL during and after pregnancy to evaluate pregnancy-related skin barrier function. Methods This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 52 low-risk, first-time pregnant women nested within the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) Ireland study. TEWL (gwater/m2/h) was measured three times during pregnancy: 19–21 weeks, 27–32 weeks and 36 weeks; and three times postnatally: 2–4 days, 2 months and 6 months post-delivery. Data were analysed using SPSS 18.0 and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A rise in TEWL was seen between each visit with the highest readings, exceeding the normal range of 0–20 gwater/m2/h, recorded at two months post-delivery. Forty women attended at two months post-delivery of whom 22 women had an average reading between 0 and 20 gwater/m2/h; 10 women had an average reading between 21 and 40 gwater/m2/h and 8 women had an average reading between 41 and 75 gwater/m2/h. Readings had returned to an average of 0–20 gwater/m2/h at six months postnatally. Conclusion TEWL increases slightly in pregnancy and the postnatal period. The clinical significance of this is unclear and requires further investigation.

  15. Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Arsenite (NaAsO2) Induces Long Lasting Effects in Rat Testes

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Parul; Dhar, Pushpa; Shivaprasad, Somesh Meludurga; Mehra, Raj D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of early postnatal exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) on rat testis. Materials and Methods: Wistar rat pups were administered aqueous solution of NaAsO2, 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) (experimental) and distilled water (control), respectively, by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14. Testes were collected after 1, 7 and 36 days (at PND 15, 21 and 50) after the treatment period (PND1-14) from the animals and immersion fixed in Bouin's fluid followed by paraffin embedding. Seven micrometer thick serial sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopic observations. At PND 50, morphological features of sperms and their counting was carried out besides processing the perfusion-fixed testes for electron microscopy (EM). Results and Conclusions: The observations revealed an altered morphology of the seminiferous tubules (ST) along with degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells in the experimental animals at PND 15, 21 and 50. Also, increased number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decreased sperm count was noted in the experimental animals. These features together with electron microscopic observations of abnormal mitochondria and apoptotic nuclei of spermatogonia and spermatocytes could be indicative of long-lasting adverse effects on the rat testis induced by exposure to As during early postnatal period. PMID:22778523

  16. Repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence alters inhibitory tone in the medial prefrontal cortex following drug re-exposure in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kush; Kang, Shuo; Cox, Charles L; Gulley, Joshua M

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral sensitization following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) exposure is associated with changes in GABA function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats exposed to AMPH during adolescence compared to adulthood, there are unique patterns of sensitization that may reflect age-dependent differences in drug effects on prefrontal GABAergic function. In the current study, we used a sensitizing regimen of repeated AMPH exposure in adolescent and adult rats to determine if a post-withdrawal AMPH challenge would alter inhibitory transmission in the mPFC in a manner that depends on age of exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or 3mg/kg AMPH (i.p.) during adolescence [postnatal day (P) 27-P45] or adulthood (P85- P103) and were sacrificed either at similar ages in adulthood (∼P133; experiment 1) or after similar withdrawal times (3-4 weeks; experiment 2). Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded in vitro from deep layer pyramidal cells in the mPFC using the whole-cell configuration. We found no effect of AMPH pre-exposure on baseline sIPSC frequency. Subsequent application of AMPH (25μM) produced a stable increase in sIPSC frequency in controls, suggesting that AMPH increases inhibitory tone in the mPFC. However, AMPH failed to increase sIPSCs in adolescent- or adult-exposed rats. In experiment 2, where withdrawal period was kept similar for both exposure groups, AMPH induced a suppression of sIPSC activity in adolescent-exposed rats. These results suggest that sensitizing treatment with AMPH during adolescence or adulthood dampens inhibitory influences on mPFC pyramidal cells, but potentially through different mechanisms. PMID:27085589

  17. Single trial nicotine conditioned place preference in pre-adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexander W; Konz, Nathan; Hirsch, Zahava; Weedon, Jeremy; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2014-10-01

    The mean age of first voluntary tobacco inhalation is 12.3 years (DiFranza et al., 2004). 60% of smokers start smoking before the age of 14 and 90% are dependent before reaching the age of 19. Females are typically more sensitive to nicotine than males yet few studies examine the effects of nicotine on the reward systems in pre-adolescent female subjects. This study utilized the single trial conditioned place preference (CPP) test in very young (postnatal day 25-27) rats of both sexes. Latent effects on anxiety and amphetamine response were determined 5 and 7 days following a second nicotine exposure. Results show that 0.05 mg/kg nicotine induced CPP in females following a single trial while both sexes showed CPP following the 0.5 mg/kg dose. Five days later, rats dosed with 0.05 mg/kg show increased time on the open arm of the elevated plus maze, an anxiolytic response. While baseline activity was increased in nicotine-exposed males 7 days following dosing, amphetamine response was not affected by the treatments in either sex. Therefore, our data suggest that young females are more sensitive to nicotine reward than males supporting a heightened sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopamine system in very young females. However, alterations in baseline activity were only seen in males suggesting that different components of the system are affected by nicotine in each sex. An anxiolytic response to nicotine 5 days after dosing may suggest that this very young age group is uniquely affected by this very low nicotine dose. Clearly, nicotine has substantial acute and lasting effects during pre-adolescence at doses substantially lower than seen at older ages as reported by others. These effects, which could potentially result from cigarette or e-cigarette smoking by 11-12 year old children , focus attention on the vulnerability of this age group to nicotine. PMID:25109273

  18. Changes in dam and pup behavior following repeated postnatal exposure to a predator odor (TMT): A preliminary investigation in Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Luke W; Asok, Arun; Blaze, Jennifer; Roth, Tania L; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated whether repeated early postnatal exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) alters behavioral responses to the stimulus later in life, at postnatal day (PN30). Long-Evans rat pups with their mothers were exposed for 20 min daily to TMT, water, or a noxious odor, butyric acid (BTA), during the first three weeks of life. Mothers exposed to TMT displayed more crouching and nursing behavior than those exposed to BTA, and TMT exposed pups emitted more ultrasonic vocalizations than BTA exposed pups. At PN30, rats were tested for freezing to TMT, water, or BTA. Rats exposed to TMT during the postnatal period displayed less freezing to TMT than rats exposed postnatally to water or BTA. Our data indicate that early-life experience with a predator cue has a significant impact on later fear responses to that same cue, highlighting the programming capacity of the postnatal environment on the development of behavior. PMID:26394891

  19. Relevé postnatal Rourke 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour la version de 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR) à la suite d’une révision des meilleures données probantes récentes sur le suivi de la santé des nourrissons et des enfants de la naissance jusqu’à l’âge de 5 ans. Qualité des données La qualité des données a été cotée en fonction de l’ancien système de classification du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (jusqu’à 2006) et l’approche de détermination, d’élaboration et d’évaluation des recommandations (GRADE). Message principal De nouveaux faits scientifiques ont été pris en compte dans les recommandations du RPR 2014 en ce qui a trait au suivi de la croissance, à la nutrition, à l’éducation et aux conseils, au développement, à l’examen physique et à l’immunisation. La croissance est surveillée à l’aide des courbes de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé qui ont été révisées en 2014. On devrait introduire les aliments solides en fonction de l’état de préparation du nourrisson et ces produits devraient contenir du fer. Il n’est actuellement plus recommandé de retarder l’introduction des allergènes alimentaires courants pour prévenir les allergies. Il faut promouvoir l’utilisation d’une tasse sans couvercle au lieu d’une tasse à bec dès l’âge de 12 mois. La section sur l’éducation et les conseils porte sur les blessures causées par du mobilier instable, ainsi que l’utilisation d’un siège d’auto orienté vers l’arrière jusqu’à 2 ans. Elle comporte aussi de l’information sur les saines habitudes de sommeil, la prévention de la maltraitance des enfants, la vie saine et active et la sédentarité de la famille, de même que l’hygiène buccale. On a aussi ajouté à cette section une nouvelle catégorie consacrée à la santé environnementale pour tenir compte des effets des dangers environnementaux sur la santé des enfants. Le RPR a recours à une

  20. Oral methylphenidate alleviates the fine motor dysfunction caused by chronic postnatal manganese exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stéphane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Lasley, Stephen M; Fornal, Casimir A; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R

    2015-04-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. Rats were orally exposed to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day from postnatal day 1 until the end of the study (PND 145). The staircase test was used to assess skilled forelimb function. Oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered daily 1 h before staircase testing for 16 days. DA and NE levels were measured by dual probe microdialysis. Results show that Mn exposure impaired reaching and grasping skills and the evoked release of DA and NE in the PFC and striatum of adult rats. Importantly, oral MPH treatment fully alleviated the fine motor deficits in the Mn-exposed animals, but did not affect forelimb skills of control rats not exposed to Mn. These results suggest that catecholaminergic hypofunctioning in the PFC and striatum may underlie the Mn-induced fine motor dysfunction, and that oral MPH pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment approach for alleviating this dysfunction in adult animals. The therapeutic potential of MPH for the treatment of motor dysfunction in Mn-exposed children and adults appears promising pending further characterization of MPH efficacy in other functional areas (eg, attention) believed to be affected by developmental Mn exposure. PMID:25601986

  1. Oral Methylphenidate Alleviates the Fine Motor Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Postnatal Manganese Exposure in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Barbara J.; Lasley, Stephen M.; Fornal, Casimir A.; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. Rats were orally exposed to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day from postnatal day 1 until the end of the study (PND 145). The staircase test was used to assess skilled forelimb function. Oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered daily 1 h before staircase testing for 16 days. DA and NE levels were measured by dual probe microdialysis. Results show that Mn exposure impaired reaching and grasping skills and the evoked release of DA and NE in the PFC and striatum of adult rats. Importantly, oral MPH treatment fully alleviated the fine motor deficits in the Mn-exposed animals, but did not affect forelimb skills of control rats not exposed to Mn. These results suggest that catecholaminergic hypofunctioning in the PFC and striatum may underlie the Mn-induced fine motor dysfunction, and that oral MPH pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment approach for alleviating this dysfunction in adult animals. The therapeutic potential of MPH for the treatment of motor dysfunction in Mn-exposed children and adults appears promising pending further characterization of MPH efficacy in other functional areas (eg, attention) believed to be affected by developmental Mn exposure. PMID:25601986

  2. Histochemical study of magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) minor salivary glands during postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Samar, M E; Avila, R E; De Fabro, S P; Porfirio, V; Esteban, F J; Pedrosa, J A; Peinado, M A

    1999-02-01

    The histological and histochemical features of the minor salivary glands during postnatal development have been generally associated with the type of food ingested. However, recent studies support the fact that these salivary glands develop independently of the diet; in fact, minor salivary glands have similar morphological and histochemical characteristics in adult individuals of species with different diet regimens. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the developmental morphology of the penguin minor salivary glands and to contrast them with minor salivary glands of other species. The tongue, palatine, and mouth cavity (bottom) minor salivary glands of newborn, 1- to 20-day-old, and adult magellanic penguins were studied with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue, toluidine blue, and lectin histochemistry. Minor salivary glands were present at all ages, although they were only moderately developed in animals less than 15 days old. After this age, glands were abundant in all age groups; in addition, cells from the glandular epithelium were functionally mature and secreted mucins. Nevertheless, in newborn to 15-day-old penguins, mucins were located only at the apical cytoplasm of mucous cells. In all ages, mucous cells displayed periodic acid-Schiff-positive, alcianophilic, and metachromatic reactions; among mucous cells, other orthochromatic cells appeared interspersed. From 15 days on, histochemical reactions became more intense until adulthood, and the cytoplasm of secretory cells was filled with glycoproteins and sulfomucins. Moreover, lectins bound to different oligosaccharides in mucous cells, depending on the stage of maturation of the glands. In conclusion, penguin minor salivary glands are already present at birth, and show progressive and quantitative increases in mucous secretion during postnatal development. These changes are necessary not only for nutrient ingestion, but also for nonimmune protection of the buccal cavity

  3. Sex-dependent changes in brain CB1R expression and functionality and immune CB2R expression as a consequence of maternal deprivation and adolescent cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Assis, María A; Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Marco, Eva M; Parolaro, Daniela; Ambrosio, Emilio; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-08-01

    Early life stress has been associated with several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Actually, maternal deprivation (MD) alters the endocannabinoid system, which participates in motivation and reward for drugs, including cocaine. At youth, the rate of cocaine abuse is alarmingly increasing. Herein, we have investigated the consequences of MD and/or adolescent cocaine exposure in brain CB1Rs and CB2Rs in immune tissues. Control and maternally deprived (24h on postnatal day, pnd, 9) male and female Wistar rats were administered cocaine (8mg/kg/day) or saline during adolescence (pnd 28-42). At adulthood, [(3)H]-CP-55,940 autoradiographic binding was employed for the analysis of CB1R density and CP-55,940-stimulated [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding for CB1R functionality; CB2R expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Sex differences in CB1R expression and functionality were found, and MD induced important and enduring sex-dependent changes. In addition, the plastic changes induced by adolescent cocaine administration in brain CB1Rs were differentially influenced by early life events. MD increased spleen CB2R expression while adolescent cocaine administration attenuated this effect; cocaine exposure also diminished CB2R expression in bone marrow. Present findings provide evidence for changes in brain CB1R expression and functionality and immune CB2R expression as a consequence of early life stress and adolescent cocaine exposure, and indicate functional interactions between both treatments, which in many regions differ between males and females. PMID:23680694

  4. Overexpression of Dlx2 leads to postnatal condyle degradation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Dandan; Lu, Jingting; Ouyang, Ningjuan; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Guofang

    2016-01-01

    Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2), a member of the Dlx family of transcription factors, is important for the development of craniofacial tissues. Previous studies based on knock-out mutant mice revealed that Dlx2 primarily disturbed the development of tissues from maxillary arch. The present study used a transgenic mouse model to specifically overexpress Dlx2 in neural crest cells in order to investigate the role of Dlx2 overexpression in post-natal condyle in mice. The model was constructed and the phenotype observed using gross observation, micro-CT scan and histological examination. The model determined that overexpression of Dlx2 may lead to postnatal condyle malformation, subchondral bone degradation and irregular histological structure of the condylar cartilage. In addition, the expression of osteocalcin in the condyle region was markedly downregulated, whereas expression of msh homeobox 2 was upregulated. The results of the present study suggest that Dlx2 overexpression in cranial neural crest cells would disrupt the development of post-natal condyle, which demonstrates that the expression level and the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Dlx2 may be important in regulating the development of post-natal condyle in mice, and also offered a possible temporal-mandibular joint osteoarthritis model animal for future studies. PMID:27315306

  5. Prevalence of Anaemia among Postnatal Mothers in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwan, Darshan; Kumar, Ashwini; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum is the most neglected period in reproductive cycle of woman. Prevalence of anaemia in developing countries ranges from 50-95%. Aim To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among postnatal mothers. Setting and design A community based cross-sectional study among recently delivered mothers residing in field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. Materials and Methods The study sample included 401 respondents who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation from all rural health centres. Data was collected by personal interviews followed by haemoglobin estimation by indirect cyanomethaemoglobin method. Results The prevalence of postnatal anaemia was 26.5% (Anaemia = Hb<12gm/dl). There were no cases of severe anaemia. Postnatal anaemia was predominantly seen in mothers of age < 20 years and half of the mothers with inter-pregnancy intervals less than two years were found to be anaemic. Illiteracy was identified as a significant variable (OR=11.23, 95% CI = 1.90-65.08) for postpartum anaemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia was significantly lower in the present study; however sustained efforts have to be made to further lower the prevalence of postnatal anaemia in order to promote the health and well-being of women. PMID:26894096

  6. Implications of Post-Natal Cortical Development for Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Marjory; Dacey, John

    Man's long period of cerebral growth has important implications for education. The brain goes through major developmental changes after birth, and researchers have suggested that this growth process presents an opportunity for fostering the plasticity of genetically determined connections. Animal studies show that postnatal growth of the brain is…

  7. Hypothyroidism alters antioxidant defence system in rat brainstem during postnatal development and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jena, Srikanta; Bhanja, Shravani

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate alterations in oxidative stress parameter [lipid peroxidation (LPx)] and antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in rat brainstem in response to neonatal hypothyroidism during development (from birth to 7, 15 and 30 days old) and adulthood (90 days old). Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by feeding the lactating mothers (from the day of parturition till weaning, 25 days old) or directly to the pups with 0.05 % [6-n-propyl 2-thiouracil (PTU)] in drinking water. Increased level of LPx was observed in brainstem of 7 days old hypothyroid rats, accompanied by augmented activities of SOD and GPx. In 15 and 30 days old hypothyroid rat brainstem, a significant decline in LPx was observed. Significantly increased activities of CAT and GPx were observed in 15 and 30 days PTU-treated rats. Decreased level of LPx was observed in brainstem of rats treated with PTU from birth to 30 days followed by withdrawal up to 90 days of age (transient hypothyroidism) as compared to control and persistent treatment of PTU up to 90 days of age. Activities of CAT and GPx were decreased in persistent hypothyroid rats of 90 days old with respect to control and transient hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, SOD activity was decreased in both persistent and transient hypothyroid rats with respect to control rats. These results suggest that the PTU-induced neonatal hypothyroidism modulates the antioxidant defence system during postnatal development and adulthood in brainstem of rats. PMID:24595920

  8. Patterns of Respiratory Disease During the First 2 Postnatal Weeks in Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, Matthew; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Bose, Carl; O'Shea, T. Michael; Van Marter, Linda J.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Leviton, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Pulmonary disease among infants of <28 weeks' gestation (extremely low gestational age newborns) often has the following pattern: the infant starts out with little need for supplemental oxygen and ventilatory support in the first postnatal week but then has pulmonary deterioration in the second postnatal week, with an increased need for supplemental oxygen and respiratory support. We evaluated the antecedents and correlates of patterns of early lung disease, with particular emphasis on pulmonary deterioration, in a large cohort study (the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn [ELGAN] study). Patients and Methods We examined data collected prospectively on 1340 infants born between 2002 and 2004 at 23 to 27 completed weeks of gestation and who survived to 14 days. Pulmonary deterioration was defined as receipt of fraction of inspired oxygen <0.23 on any day between days 3 and 7 and receipt of fraction of inspired oxygen ≥ 0.25 on day 14. Results One fifth (20%) of the infants had consistently low fraction of inspired oxygen, approximately two fifths (38%) had pulmonary deterioration, and the remaining approximately two fifths (43%) had consistently high fraction of inspired oxygen (early and persistent lung dysfunction). Compared with infants who had consistently low fraction of inspired oxygen, infants who experienced pulmonary deterioration had lower gestational ages and lower birth weights, had higher scores for neonatal acute physiology, and received more intensive modes of respiratory support. Gender, multifetal pregnancy, cesarean delivery, antenatal steroids, chorioamnionitis, and funisitis were not associated with pulmonary deterioration. The incidence of chronic lung disease, defined as oxygen therapy at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, was 17% in the consistently low fraction of inspired oxygen group, 51% in the pulmonary deterioration group, and 67% in the early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction group. The incidence of death in these 3 groups

  9. Dacryocystocele on prenatal ultrasonography: diagnosis and postnatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence of dacryocystoceles detected by prenatal ultrasonography (US) and their postnatal outcomes and to determine the factors associated with the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles at birth. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the prenatal US database at our institution for the period between January 2012 and December 2013. The medical records of women who had fetuses diagnosed with dacryocystocel larger than 5 mm were reviewed for maternal age, gestational age (GA) at detection, size and side of the dacryocystoceles, delivery, and postnatal information, such as GA at delivery, delivery mode, and gender of the neonate. Results: A total of 49 singletons were diagnosed with a dacryocystocele on prenatal US, yielding an overall incidence of 0.43%. The incidence of dacryocystoceles was the highest at the GA of 27 weeks and decreased toward term. Of the 49 fetuses including three of undeter mined gender, 25 (54%) were female. The mean GA at first detection was 31.2 weeks. The dacryocystocele was unilateral in 29 cases, with a mean maximum diameter of 7 mm. Spontaneous resolution at birth was documented in 35 out of 46 neonates (76%), including six with prenatal resolution. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GA at delivery was a significant predictor of the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles (P=0.045). Conclusion: The overall incidence of prenatal dacryocystoceles was 0.43%; the incidence was higher in the early third trimester and decreased thereafter. Prenatal dacryocystoceles resolved in 76% of the patients at birth, and the GA at delivery was a significant predictor of postnatal persistence. PMID:25475649

  10. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  11. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P < 0.05) in total food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p < 0.05) at 103 days of age and had an 11.0% greater (p < 0.05) daily weight gain compared with control offspring. The IUCG regimen did not affect body glucose and lipid metabolism. After exposure to the HFD, the IUCG regimen has not exacerbated metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IUCG nutritional regimen during pregnancy can increase the food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals. PMID:24495271

  12. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on the development of intestinal brush border disaccharidases of postnatally malnourished weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, T M; Lee, P C; Young, C M; Lerner, A; Lebenthal, E

    1986-08-01

    The reversibility of the effects of postnatal malnutrition on the intestinal brush border enzymes and somatic and intestinal weights were examined using either ad libitum or restricted feedings. Malnutrition was induced in the immediate postnatal period by expanding newborn rat litters to 20 pups/dam. At 21 days of age, malnourished pups exhibited significantly decreased body and intestinal weights as compared to those from control litters. Malnourished pups also had significantly elevated lactase specific activities whereas sucrase and maltase activities were not affected in the proximal small intestine. With subsequent nutritional rehabilitation by an ad libitum (food available 24 h/day) or restricted feeding regimen (food available 2 h/day), body and intestinal weights remained significantly depressed by 56 days in malnourished as compared to control animals. Rats on 2-h feedings consumed approximately 35% of the food consumed by their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Comparison of the ratio of weight gained to the amount of food consumed did not demonstrate a greater food efficiency with any particular feeding pattern. With ad libitum or restricted feedings, lactase specific activity in the proximal segment attained control values by 14 days. Restricted feedings resulted in an apparent elevation of specific activity of sucrase and of maltase, when rats were sacrificed at one chosen time point. Multiple time studies in a 24-h cycle showed that maximal elevations in enzyme activities were associated with feeding time. There were no significant differences in mean specific daily enzyme activities between the two feeding regimens. Restricted feedings show no advantage in enzyme efficiency or in promoting the rate of recovery of the intestine after postnatal malnutrition. PMID:3090509

  13. Histological study on hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum following low lead exposure during prenatal and postnatal brain development in rats.

    PubMed

    Barkur, Rajashekar Rao; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological studies in children who are exposed to lead during their early brain development have shown to develop behavioural and cognitive deficit. The aim of the present study was to assess the cellular damage in hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum of rat pups exposed to lead during different periods of early brain development. Five groups of rat pups were investigated. (a) Control group (n = 8) (mothers of these rats were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation), (b) pregestation lead-exposed group (n = 8) (mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for one month before conception), (c) gestation lead-exposed group (n = 8) (exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water through the mother throughout gestation [gestation day 01 to day 21]), (d) lactation lead-exposed group (n = 8) (exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water through the mother throughout lactation [postnatal day 01 to day 21]) and (e) gestation and lactation lead-exposed group (n = 8) (exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation). On postnatal day 30, rat pups of all the groups were killed. Numbers of surviving neurons in the hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum regions were counted using cresyl violet staining technique. Histological data indicate that lead exposure caused significant damage to neurons of hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum regions in all lead-exposed groups except lactation lead-exposed group. The extent of damage to neurons of hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum regions in lactation lead-exposed group was comparable to gestation and lactation groups even though the duration of lead exposure was much less in lactation lead-exposed group. To conclude, the postnatal period of brain development seems to be more vulnerable to lead neurotoxicity compared to prenatal period of brain development. PMID:25147304

  14. Spatial distributions of AQP5 and AQP0 in embryonic and postnatal mouse lens development

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Rosica S.; Schey, Kevin L.; Donaldson, Paul J.; Grey, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the water channel protein aquaporin (AQP)-5 in adult rodent and human lenses was recently reported using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, and mass spectrometry techniques, confirming a second transmembrane water channel that is present in lens fibre cells in addition to the abundant AQP0 protein. Interestingly, the sub-cellular distribution and level of post-translational modification of both proteins changes with fibre cell differentiation and location in the adult rodent lens. This study compares the sub-cellular distribution of AQP0 and AQP5 during embryonic and postnatal fibre cell development in the mouse lens to understand how the immunolabelling patterns for both AQPs observed in adult lens are first established. Immunohistochemistry was used to map the cellular and sub-cellular distribution of AQP5 and AQP0 throughout the lens in cryosections from adult (6 weeks to 8 months) and postnatal (0-2 weeks) mouse lenses and in sections from paraffin embedded mouse embryos (E10-E19). All sections were imaged by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Using antibodies directed against the C-terminus of each AQP, AQP5 was abundantly expressed early in development, being found in the cytoplasm of cells of the lens vesicle and surrounding tissues (E10), while AQP0 was detected later (E11), and only in the membranes of elongating primary fibre cells. During the course of subsequent embryonic and postnatal development the pattern of cytoplasmic AQP5 and membranous AQP0 labelling was maintained until postnatal day 6 (P6). From P6 AQP5 labelling became progressively more membranous initially in the lens nucleus and then later in all regions of the lens, while AQP0 labelling was abruptly lost in the lens nucleus due to C-terminal truncation. Our results show that the spatial distribution patterns of AQP0 and AQP5 observed in the adult lens are established during a narrow window of post natal development (P6-P15) that precedes eye opening and coincides

  15. Sensory Neural Responses to Ozone Exposure during Early Postnatal Development in Rat Airways

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Dawn D.; Wu, Zhongxin; Dey, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Airway infections or irritant exposures during early postnatal periods may contribute to the onset of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine critical periods of postnatal airway development during which ozone (O3) exposure leads to heightened neural responses. Rats were exposed to O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air for 1 hour on specific postnatal days (PDs) between PD1 and PD29, and killed 24 hours after exposure. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to O3 on PD2–PD6, inside a proposed critical period of development, or on PD19–PD23, outside the critical period. Both groups were re-exposed to O3 on PD28, and killed 24 hours later. Airways were removed, fixed, and prepared for substance P (SP) immunocytochemistry. SP nerve fiber density (NFD) in control extrapulmonary (EXP) epithelium/lamina propria (EPLP) increased threefold, from 1% to 3.3% from PD1–PD3 through PD13–PD15, and maintained through PD29. Upon O3 exposure, SP-NFD in EXP–smooth muscle (SM) and intrapulmonary (INT)-SM increased at least twofold at PD1–PD3 through PD13–PD15 in comparison to air exposure. No change was observed at PD21–PD22 or PD28–PD29. In critical period studies, SP-NFD in the INT-SM and EXP-SM of the PD2–PD6 O3 group re-exposed to O3 on PD28 was significantly higher than that of the group exposed at PD19–PD23 and re-exposed at PD28. These findings suggest that O3-mediated changes in sensory innervation of SM are more responsive during earlier postnatal development. Enhanced responsiveness of airway sensory nerves may be a contributing mechanism of increased susceptibility to environmental exposures observed in human infants and children. PMID:20118220

  16. Adolescent Prejudice Reduction Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketroser, Heidi

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the fifth annual Dr. Curtis C. Melnick Adolescent Prejudice Reduction Conference sponsored by the Greater Chicago (Illinois) Regional Office of the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith. The day-long conference addressed issues of prejudice and allowed students and staff from various high schools to explore their concerns with…

  17. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity. PMID:26161272

  18. Elevated yolk progesterone moderates prenatal heart rate and postnatal auditory learning in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Rodriguez, Yvette; Lickliter, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have established that yolk hormones of maternal origin can influence physiology and behavior in birds. However, few studies have examined the effects of maternal gestagens, like progesterone, on chick behavior and physiology. We tested the effects of experimentally elevated egg yolk progesterone on embryonic heart rate and postnatal auditory learning in bobwhite quail hatchlings. Quail chicks were passively exposed to an individual maternal assembly call for 10 min/hr during the 24 hr following hatching. Preference for the familiarized call was tested at 48 hr following hatching in three experimental groups: chicks that received artificially elevated yolk progesterone (P) prior to incubation, vehicle-only controls (V), and non-manipulated controls (C). Resting heart rate of P, V, and C embryos were also measured on prenatal day 17. The resting heart rate of P embryos was significantly higher than both the V and C embryos. Chicks from the P group also showed an enhanced preference for the familiarized bobwhite maternal call when compared to chicks from the C and V groups. Our results indicate that elevated yolk progesterone in pre-incubated bobwhite quail eggs can influence arousal level in bobwhite embryos and postnatal perceptual learning in bobwhite neonates. PMID:27108924

  19. V3 interneuron subpopulations in the mouse spinal cord undergo distinctive postnatal maturation processes.

    PubMed

    Borowska, J; Jones, C T; Deska-Gauthier, D; Zhang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Mice develop weight-bearing locomotion within the first 2-3 weeks of birth, a period during which motoneurons (MNs) and interneurons (INs) that control locomotor activities undergo rapid maturation. In this study, we investigate the maturation of two subpopulations of V3 INs in the mouse spinal cord during this period. To do this, we conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of tdTomato fluorescent protein-expressing spinal V3 INs from Sim1(Cre/+);tdTom mice at post-natal day (P) 0, P4, P9 and P14 and compared their properties to those at P21. Combining electrophysiology with computational analyses, we show that dorsal and ventral V3 subpopulations are physiologically distinct at birth, but the electrophysiological properties of V3 INs change significantly during the first three post-natal weeks. We further reveal that there are multiple developmental phases of both V3 subpopulations during the maturation process. The different developmental trajectories of physiological properties also coincide with changes in an animal's locomotor behavior. These properties likely reflect the differential functions of V3 subpopulations in maturing spinal locomotor circuits. PMID:25800308

  20. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Geng; Yang, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xing-Yue; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play important roles in neuronal diseases, memory and cognitive functions. However, their development in the ACC remains unclear. Using postnatal day 3 (P3) to P45 GIN mice, we found that most of the intrinsic membrane properties of SST interneurons in the ACC were developmentally mature after the second postnatal week and that the development of these neurons differed from that of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, electrical coupling between SST interneurons appeared primarily between P12-14. The coupling probability plateaued at approximately P21-30, with a non-age-dependent development of coupling strength. The development of excitatory chemical afferents to SST interneurons occurred earlier than the development of inhibitory chemical afferents. Furthermore, eye closure attenuated the development of electrical coupling probability at P21-30 but had no effect on coupling strength. Eye closure also delayed the development of inhibitory chemical afferent frequency but had no effect on the excitatory chemical afferent amplitude, frequency or rise time. Our data suggest that SST interneurons in the ACC exhibit inherent developmental characteristics distinct from other interneuron subtypes, such as PV interneurons, and that some of these characteristics are subject to environmental regulation. PMID:27319800

  1. Transplantation of Neuro2a Cells into the Developing Postnatal Mouse Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Shil; Jeong, Se-Jin; Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the host retinal microenvironment on cell migration and differentiation using Neuro2a (N2a) cells transduced with green fluorescent protein. N2a cells were transplanted into the vitreous cavities of developing mouse eyes (C57BL/6) on postnatal days 1, 5, and 10 (P1, 5, and 10). To analyze the effects of the host microenvironment on neural differentiation of N2a cells in vitro, cells were treated with a conditioned medium (CM) collected from retinal cells cultured at each developmental stage. We observed that numerous cells transplanted into P5 mice eyes migrated into all layers of the host retina, and the presence of processes indicated morphological differentiation. Some transplanted N2a cells expressed several neural markers. However, cells transplanted into the P1 and 10 mice eyes only proliferated within the vitreous cavity. Neurite length increased in N2a cells treated with CM collected from the cultured retinal cells from P5 and 10 mice, while western blotting revealed that the levels of proteins related to neural differentiation were not significantly altered in N2a cells treated with CM. We show that the migration and differentiation capacities of transplanted cells were differentially influenced by the microenvironment of the retinal postnatal ontogeny. PMID:26855453

  2. Transplantation of Neuro2a Cells into the Developing Postnatal Mouse Eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Shil; Jeong, Se-Jin; Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2015-12-25

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the host retinal microenvironment on cell migration and differentiation using Neuro2a (N2a) cells transduced with green fluorescent protein. N2a cells were transplanted into the vitreous cavities of developing mouse eyes (C57BL/6) on postnatal days 1, 5, and 10 (P1, 5, and 10). To analyze the effects of the host microenvironment on neural differentiation of N2a cells in vitro, cells were treated with a conditioned medium (CM) collected from retinal cells cultured at each developmental stage. We observed that numerous cells transplanted into P5 mice eyes migrated into all layers of the host retina, and the presence of processes indicated morphological differentiation. Some transplanted N2a cells expressed several neural markers. However, cells transplanted into the P1 and 10 mice eyes only proliferated within the vitreous cavity. Neurite length increased in N2a cells treated with CM collected from the cultured retinal cells from P5 and 10 mice, while western blotting revealed that the levels of proteins related to neural differentiation were not significantly altered in N2a cells treated with CM. We show that the migration and differentiation capacities of transplanted cells were differentially influenced by the microenvironment of the retinal postnatal ontogeny. PMID:26855453

  3. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Geng; Yang, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xing-Yue; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play important roles in neuronal diseases, memory and cognitive functions. However, their development in the ACC remains unclear. Using postnatal day 3 (P3) to P45 GIN mice, we found that most of the intrinsic membrane properties of SST interneurons in the ACC were developmentally mature after the second postnatal week and that the development of these neurons differed from that of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, electrical coupling between SST interneurons appeared primarily between P12–14. The coupling probability plateaued at approximately P21–30, with a non-age-dependent development of coupling strength. The development of excitatory chemical afferents to SST interneurons occurred earlier than the development of inhibitory chemical afferents. Furthermore, eye closure attenuated the development of electrical coupling probability at P21–30 but had no effect on coupling strength. Eye closure also delayed the development of inhibitory chemical afferent frequency but had no effect on the excitatory chemical afferent amplitude, frequency or rise time. Our data suggest that SST interneurons in the ACC exhibit inherent developmental characteristics distinct from other interneuron subtypes, such as PV interneurons, and that some of these characteristics are subject to environmental regulation. PMID:27319800

  4. Ablation of BRaf impairs neuronal differentiation in the postnatal hippocampus and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Götz, Rudolf; Xiang, Chaomei; Camarero, Guadelupe; Braun, Attila; Zhang, Yina; Blum, Robert; Heinsen, Helmut; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Rapp, Ulf R

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of the kinase BRaf in postnatal brain development. Mice expressing truncated, non-functional BRaf in neural stem cell-derived brain tissue demonstrate alterations in the cerebellum, with decreased sizes and fuzzy borders of the glomeruli in the granule cell layer. In addition we observed reduced numbers and misplaced ectopic Purkinje cells that showed an altered structure of their dendritic arborizations in the hippocampus, while the overall cornus ammonis architecture appeared to be unchanged. In male mice lacking BRaf in the hippocampus the size of the granule cell layer was normal at postnatal day 12 (P12) but diminished at P21, as compared to control littermates. This defect was caused by a reduced ability of dentate gyrus progenitor cells to differentiate into NeuN positive granule cell neurons. In vitro cell culture of P0/P1 hippocampal cells revealed that BRaf deficient cells were impaired in their ability to form microtubule-associated protein 2 positive neurons. Together with the alterations in behaviour, such as autoaggression and loss of balance fitness, these observations indicate that in the absence of BRaf all neuronal cellular structures develop, but neuronal circuits in the cerebellum and hippocampus are partially disturbed besides impaired neuronal generation in both structures. PMID:23505473

  5. Postnatal development of Mongolian gerbil female prostate: An immunohistochemical and 3D modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Zani, Bruno C; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-05-01

    The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5. We observed secretions in the acini at the end of the first month, and, on P45, the acini were completely differentiated. The strong cell proliferation phase in the first week coincided with the mesenchymal expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The expression of androgen receptor (AR) paralleled cell differentiation, and, on P30, immunolabelling with p63 was restricted to basal cells. This study serves as a baseline parameter for future research on disruptions that could affect the development of the female prostate. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:438-446, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971884

  6. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junichi; Aizawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Dai; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Mishima, Kenji; Aiba, Atsu; Maki, Koutaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2016-02-19

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 (fl/fl); Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 (fl/fl)) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. PMID:26820532

  7. Ontogeny of the O2-sensitive pathway in medulla oblongata of postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    White, L D; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    Fos protein, the product of the immediate early gene c-fos, has been used as a metabolic marker to map the O2 chemosensory pathway activated by hypoxia in the adult rat (Erickson and Millhorn, Brain Res. 567: 11-24, 1991). The current study provides evidence that the O2 chemoreceptor pathway develops during the first postnatal month. Rats at postnatal ages (P) 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days were exposed for 3 h to 21% (control) or 10% (hypoxia) O2. Pups were transcardially fixed, brain stems were frozen, sectioned, then reacted with Fos primary antibody, a secondary antibody, avidin-biotin peroxidase, then Ni-DAB as chromogen. Cells showing Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) under control and hypoxic conditions were counted in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM). In both areas there was initially a low basal level of Fos-LI, a peak at P10 and a decline to P28. At all ages there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-LI cells in pups exposed to hypoxia. The high basal level of Fos expression at P10 and the high induced level at P14 may correlate with periods of terminal differentiation and maximum synaptogenesis, respectively. PMID:7817045

  8. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings. PMID:26960969

  9. Clinical importance of pyelocalyceal dilation diagnosed by postnatal ultrasonographic screening of the urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Drnasin, Kristina; Saraga-Babić, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonographic (US) screening of the urinary tract (UT) in infants was used to determine if there is a connection between the frequency of pyelocaliceal dilation (PCD) in asymptomatic infants with normal antenatal US screening and occurrence of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and urinary tract infections (UTI). Material/Methods US screening of the UT was performed on 1000 healthy infants, 7 days to 6 months old. Two subgroups of kidneys were described: subgroup 1 contained kidneys with anterior posterior pelvic diameter (APPD) of 5–9.9 mm, and subgroup 2 with APPD over 10 mm. US examinations and methods for detection of UTI and CAKUT were used. Results PCD was found in 74 infants (7.4%): 1.9% of infants had CAKUT, and 8.4% had UTI. In subgroup 1, CAKUT was found in 4 (6.3%) and UTI in 9 (14.3%) infants. In subgroup 2, CAKUT was found in 6 (54.5%), and UTI in 4 (36.4%) infants. Conclusions Mild PCD significantly increases the risk for CAKUT but not for UTI. Moderate to severe PCD significantly increases risk for both CAKUT and UTI. The postnatal US screening of UT is recommended for improved detection of PCD and associated CAKUT. Indirectly, postnatal US screening of UT can help in detecting people at risk for UTI in the first year of life, and therefore help prevent possible kidney damage. PMID:23419315

  10. Modeling binge-like ethanol drinking by peri-adolescent and adult P rats

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Smith, Rebecca J.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Franklin, Kelle M.; McBride, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking, especially among adolescents and young adults, is a serious public health concern. The present study examined ethanol binge-like drinking by peri-adolescent [postnatal days (PNDs 30—72)] and adult (PNDs 90—132) alcohol-preferring (P) rats with a drinking-in-the-dark—multiple-scheduled-acces (DID-MSA) procedure used by our laboratory. Male and female P rats were provided concurrent access to 15% and 30% ethanol for three 1-hr sessions across the dark cycle 5 days/week. For the 1st week, adolescent and adult female P rats consumed 3.4 and 1.6 g/kg of ethanol, respectively, during the 1st hr of access, whereas for male rats the values were 3.5 and 1.1 g/kg of ethanol, respectively. Adult intakes increased to ~2.0 g/kg/hr and adolescent intakes decreased to ~2.5 g/kg/hr across the 6 weeks of ethanol access. The daily ethanol intake of adult DID-MSA rats approximated or modestly exceeded that seen in continuous access (CA) rats or the selection criterion for P rats (≥ 5g/kg/day). However, in general, the daily ethanol intake of DID-MSA peri-adolescent rats significantly exceeded that of their CA counterparts. BELs were assessed at 15-min intervals across the 3rd hr of access during the 4th week. Ethanol intake was 1.7 g/kg vs. 2.7 g/kg and BELs were 57 mg% vs. 100 mg% at 15- and 60-min, respectively. Intoxication induced by DID-MSA in female P rats was assessed during the 1st vs. 4th week of ethanol access. Level of impairment did not differ between the 2 weeks (106 vs. 97 sec latency to fall, 120 sec criterion) and was significant (vs. naïve controls) only during the 4th week. Overall, these findings support the use of the DID-MSA procedure in rats, and underscore the presence of age- and sex-dependent effects mediating ethanol binge-like drinking in P rats. PMID:21824488

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals adolescent binge ethanol-induced brain structural integrity alterations in adult rats that correlate with behavioral dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz; Crews, Fulton T

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by considerable brain maturation that coincides with the development of adult behavior. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can have deleterious effects on brain maturation because of the heightened neuroplasticity of the adolescent brain. Using an animal model of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastric, 20 percent EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day (P)25 to P55], we assessed the adult brain structural volumes and integrity on P80 and P220 using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While we did not observe a long-term effect of AIE on structural volumes, AIE did reduce axial diffusivity (AD) in the cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Radial diffusivity (RD) was reduced in the hippocampus and neocortex of AIE-treated animals. Prior AIE treatment did not affect fractional anisotropy (FA), but did lead to long-term reductions of mean diffusivity (MD) in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum. AIE resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior and diminished object recognition memory, the latter of which was positively correlated with DTI measures. Across aging, whole brain volumes increased, as did volumes of the corpus callosum and neocortex. This was accompanied by age-associated AD reductions in the cerebellum and neocortex as well as RD and MD reductions in the cerebellum. Further, we found that FA increased in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum as rats aged from P80 to P220. Thus, both age and AIE treatment caused long-term changes to brain structural integrity that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25678360

  12. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  13. Does status epilepticus induced at early postnatal period change excitability after cortical epileptic afterdischarges?

    PubMed

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2016-08-01

    Possible changes of cortical excitability after status epilepticus (SE) elicited in 12-day-old rats were studied by means of paired cortical afterdischarges (ADs). Consequences of lithium-pilocarpine status were studied in animals with implanted electrodes 3, 6, 9, 13, and 26 days after SE. Paired low-frequency stimulation with a 1-min interval was repeated after 10 min, and duration of ADs was measured. Control rats received saline instead of pilocarpine; other treatments were the same as in SE group. Postictal refractoriness (i.e., the testing response significantly shorter than the conditioning one) appeared at the age of 18 days in lithium-paraldehyde controls, whereas SE animals exhibited this phenomenon since postnatal day 21. The only significant difference between SE and lithium-paraldehyde controls was found in the second conditioning AD in the oldest group studied-it was longer in 38-day-old SE animals. Our results demonstrated moderate signs of higher excitability of SE rats in comparison with control ones long before appearance of spontaneous seizures. PMID:27346862

  14. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Results Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Conclusion Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth. PMID:26372012

  15. Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Diaphragm Muscle Contractile Function in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm—the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 h a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 h of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24 h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile, and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus, the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis. PMID:27462274

  16. Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Diaphragm Muscle Contractile Function in the Rat.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Fiona B; Dempsey, Eugene M; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm-the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 h a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 h of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24 h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile, and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus, the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis. PMID:27462274

  17. Postnatal epigenetic reprogramming in the germline of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epigenetic reprogramming is essential to restore totipotency and to reset genomic imprints during mammalian germ cell development and gamete formation. The dynamic DNA methylation change at DMRs (differentially methylated regions) within imprinted domains and of retrotransposons is characteristic of this process. Both marsupials and eutherian mammals have genomic imprinting but these two subgroups have been evolving separately for up to 160 million years. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy and deliver tiny, altricial young that complete their development within their mother's pouch. Germ cell proliferation in the genital ridge continues after birth in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), and it is only after 25 days postpartum that female germ cells begin to enter meiosis and male germ cells begin to enter mitotic arrest. At least two marsupial imprinted loci (PEG10 and H19) also have DMRs. To investigate the evolution of epigenetic reprogramming in the marsupial germline, here we collected germ cells from male pouch young of the tammar wallaby and analysed the methylation status of PEG10 and H19 DMR, an LTR (long terminal repeat) and a non-LTR retrotransposons. Results Demethylation of the H19 DMR was almost completed by 14 days postpartum and de-novo methylation started from 34 days postpartum. These stages correspond to 14 days after the completion of primordial germ cell migration into genital ridge (demethylation) and 9 days after the first detection of mitotic arrest (re-methylation) in the male germ cells. Interestingly, the PEG10 DMR was already unmethylated at 7 days postpartum, suggesting that the timing of epigenetic reprogramming is not the same at all genomic loci. Retrotransposon methylation was not completely removed after the demethylation event in the germ cells, similar to the situation in the mouse. Conclusions Thus, despite the postnatal occurrence of epigenetic reprogramming and the persistence of genome

  18. Enhancing Sensitivity in Adolescent Mothers: Does a Standardised, Popular Parenting Intervention Work with Teens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Yvonne; BinNoon, Noam

    2014-01-01

    This community pilot study was designed to evaluate a small group intervention, Right From The Start (RFTS), in terms of the benefits it provides to adolescent mothers specifically. The effectiveness of the programme was examined in the areas of maternal sensitivity, parenting confidence, parenting stress, and postnatal depression. RFTS has been…

  19. Vulnerability to nicotine self-administration in adolescent mice correlates with age-specific expression of α4* nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Renda, Anthony; Penty, Nora; Komal, Pragya; Nashmi, Raad

    2016-09-01

    The majority of smokers begin during adolescence, a developmental period with a high susceptibility to substance abuse. Adolescents are affected differently by nicotine compared to adults, with adolescents being more vulnerable to nicotine's rewarding properties. It is unknown if the age-dependent molecular composition of a younger brain contributes to a heightened susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Nicotine, the principle pharmacological component of tobacco, binds and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The most prevalent is the widely expressed α4-containing (α4*) subtype which mediates reward and is strongly implicated in nicotine dependence. Exposing different age groups of mice, postnatal day (P) 44-86 days old, to a two bottle-choice oral nicotine self-administration paradigm for five days yielded age-specific consumption levels. Nicotine self-administration was elevated in the P44 group, peaked at P54-60 and was drastically lower in the P66 through P86 groups. We also quantified α4* nAChR expression via spectral confocal imaging of brain slices from α4YFP knock-in mice, in which the α4 nAChR subunit is tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Quantitative fluorescence revealed age-specific α4* nAChR expression in dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area. Receptor expression showed a strong positive correlation with daily nicotine dose, suggesting that α4* nAChR expression levels are age-specific and may contribute to the propensity to self-administer nicotine. PMID:27102349

  20. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Glover, Matthew E.; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Mehi, Stephen J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; King, Gwendalyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development. PMID:23838326

  1. Deficiency of the microglial receptor CX3CR1 impairs postnatal functional development of thalamocortical synapses in the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Hoshiko, Maki; Arnoux, Isabelle; Avignone, Elena; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Audinat, Etienne

    2012-10-24

    Accumulative evidence indicates that microglial cells influence the normal development of brain synapses. Yet, the mechanisms by which these immune cells target maturating synapses and influence their functional development at early postnatal stages remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the role of CX3CR1, a microglial receptor activated by the neuronal chemokine CX3CL1 (or fractalkine) which controls key functions of microglial cells. In the whisker-related barrel field of the mouse somatosensory cortex, we show that the recruitment of microglia to the sites where developing thalamocortical synapses are concentrated (i.e., the barrel centers) occurs only after postnatal day 5 and is controlled by the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway. Indeed, at this developmental stage fractalkine is overexpressed within the barrels and CX3CR1 deficiency delays microglial cell recruitment into the barrel centers. Functional analysis of thalamocortical synapses shows that CX3CR1 deficiency also delays the functional maturation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors which normally occurs at these synapses between the first and second postnatal week. These results show that reciprocal interactions between neurons and microglial cells control the functional maturation of cortical synapses. PMID:23100431

  2. 5-Hydroxytryptophan during critical postnatal period improves cognitive performances and promotes dendritic spine maturation in genetic mouse model of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Andolina, Diego; Conversi, David; Cabib, Simona; Trabalza, Antonio; Ventura, Rossella; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Pascucci, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    Although phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, the cellular mechanisms underlying impaired brain function are still unclear. Using PAHenu2 mice (ENU2), the genetic mouse model of PKU, we previously demonstrated that high phenylalanine levels interfere with brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity by reducing the availability of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), crucial for maturation of neuronal connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), around the third postnatal week, a critical period for cortical maturation. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the product of tryptophan hydroxylation, is known to be a better treatment to increase brain 5-HT levels. In this study we investigated the role of 5-HT during the early postnatal period in cognitive disturbances and in cortical dendritic alterations of PKU subjects by restoring temporarily (postnatal days 14–21) physiological brain levels of 5-HT in ENU2 through 5-HTP treatment. In adult ENU2 mice early 5-HTP treatment reverses cognitive deficits in spatial and object recognition tests accompanied by an increase in spine maturation of pyramidal neurons in layer V of the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the PFC, although locomotor deficits are not recovered by treatment. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that mental retardation in PKU depends on reduced availability of brain 5-HT during critical developmental periods that interferes with cortical maturation and point to 5-HTP supplementation as a highly promising additional tool to heal PKU patients. PMID:21040618

  3. Predictors of severity for postnatal cytomegalovirus infection in preterm infants and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Gunkel, Julia; Wolfs, Tom F W; de Vries, Linda S; Nijman, Joppe

    2014-11-01

    Postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in neonates and is mostly acquired through infected breast milk from seropositive mothers. In this review, risk factors of postnatal CMV transmission and predictors of severity, preventive measures and treatment of symptomatic postnatal CMV infection in preterm infants are discussed. Several viral, transmission route and host factors have been associated with a higher risk of postnatal CMV transmission from mother to child. Severity predictors of symptomatic postnatal CMV infection may include extreme prematurity (gestational age <26 weeks), timing of postnatal infection as well as comorbidities. Further research in postnatally infected preterm infants at risk for severe symptoms is essential with respect to preventive measures involving the infected breast milk and antiviral treatment. PMID:25277116

  4. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Jesse; Podos, Jeffrey; Richardson, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive choice—the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards—has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of different reward sizes within the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present in detail the methods for isolating delay, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between post-natal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity) can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders. PMID:24478644

  5. SEPARATE AND JOINT EFFECTS OF TRANPLACENTAL AND POSTNATAL INHALATORY EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY ON WHEEZING EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Majewska, Renata; Camman, David; Spengler, John D.; Mroz, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Flak, Elżbieta; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this epidemiologic investigation was to analyze the associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and severity of wheeze and recurrent wheeze. The 257 children included in this analysis had a complete set of prenatal and postnatal PAH measurements and attended regular health checkups over a four-year follow-up period since birth. Transplacental PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring of the mothers during the second trimester of pregnancy; postnatal exposure was estimated using the same instruments indoors at the children’s’ residences at age 3. Chemical analysis tests were performed to determine airborne concentrations of nine PAH compounds. The results show that both prenatal and postnatal exposure were associated positively with the severity of wheezing days and recurrent wheezing reported in the follow-up. While the IRR (incidence rate ratio) for severity of wheeze and prenatal PAH exposure was 1.53 (95%CI: 1.43 – 1.64) that for postnatal PAH exposure was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.19). However, recurrent wheezing was more strongly associated with airborne PAH levels measured at age 3 (OR= 2.31, 95%CI: 1.26 – 4.22) than transplacental PAH exposure (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.85 – 2.09), but the difference was statistically insignificant. In conclusion, it appears that prenatal PAH exposure may precipitate and intensify early onset of wheezing symptoms in childhood, resulting from the postnatal exposure and suggest that success in reducing the incidence of respiratory diseases in children would depend on reducing both fetal and childhood exposure to air pollution. PMID:24155203

  6. Review of the antenatal and postnatal use of steroids.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Julie; Kovacs, Lajos; Papageorgiou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids play an extremely important role in the management of premature infants. The antenatal administration of steroids has been universally implemented. They have not only been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), but also have an impact on the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by reducing the need for supplemental oxygen due to improved lung function. The postnatal use of dexamethasone in ventilated infants has been adopted with caution, as there have been several reports of long-term neurodevelopmental complications with this therapy. Hence, changes in dosage and indications and the search for alternative therapies has emerged. Hydrocortisone appears to be a good alternative, with reassuring long-term evaluations thus far. PMID:24682835

  7. Postnatal overestimation of gestational age in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Shukla, H; Atakent, Y S; Ferrara, A; Topsis, J; Antoine, C

    1987-10-01

    In a study involving 25 preterm infants, obstetric clinical age (standard gestational age) was determined by history, physical examination, and ultrasonographic evaluation. Postnatally, these infants were then evaluated using the Dubowitz Scoring System (DSS) for gestational age assessment. The DSS, as administered by us, significantly overestimated gestational age compared with the standard gestational age (mean +/- 1 SD: 34.2 +/- 2.9 vs 32.5 +/- 3.9 weeks, respectively) in preterm infants. To illustrate, the gestational ages of 13 newborns (52%) in the total study group were each overestimated by more than two weeks. This percentage increased to 75% among the 16 infants whose gestational ages were less than 34 weeks (by standard gestational age). When the standard gestational age was underestimated by the DSS, this difference never exceeded two weeks. These findings suggest that the present system of postnatal assessment of gestational age in preterm infants needs further investigation. PMID:3307384

  8. The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development.

    PubMed

    Gomez de Agüero, Mercedes; Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C; Fuhrer, Tobias; Rupp, Sandra; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Li, Hai; Steinert, Anna; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Sauer, Uwe; McCoy, Kathy D; Macpherson, Andrew J

    2016-03-18

    Postnatal colonization of the body with microbes is assumed to be the main stimulus to postnatal immune development. By transiently colonizing pregnant female mice, we show that the maternal microbiota shapes the immune system of the offspring. Gestational colonization increases intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells and F4/80(+)CD11c(+) mononuclear cells in the pups. Maternal colonization reprograms intestinal transcriptional profiles of the offspring, including increased expression of genes encoding epithelial antibacterial peptides and metabolism of microbial molecules. Some of these effects are dependent on maternal antibodies that potentially retain microbial molecules and transmit them to the offspring during pregnancy and in milk. Pups born to mothers transiently colonized in pregnancy are better able to avoid inflammatory responses to microbial molecules and penetration of intestinal microbes. PMID:26989247

  9. Prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Turner's syndrome: a registry study.

    PubMed Central

    Gravholt, C. H.; Juul, S.; Naeraa, R. W.; Hansen, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study prevalence of Turner's syndrome in Denmark and to assess validity of prenatal diagnosis. DESIGN--Study of data on prenatal and postnatal Turner's syndrome in Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. SUBJECTS--All registered Turner's syndrome karyotypes (100 prenatal cases and 215 postnatal cases) during 1970-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of Turner's syndrome karyotypes among prenatally tested fetuses and Turner's syndrome among liveborn infants. RESULTS--Among infant girls, prevalence of Turner's syndrome was 32/100,000. Among female fetuses tested by amniocentesis, prevalence of Turner's syndrome karyotypes was 176/100,000 (relative risk of syndrome, 6.74 compared with prevalence among untested pregnancies). Among female fetuses tested by chorion villus sampling, prevalence of syndrome karyotypes was 392/100,000 (relative risk, 16.8). We excluded prenatal tests referred because of results of ultrasound scanning: among fetuses tested by amniocentesis revised relative risk was 5.68, while revised relative risk among fetuses tested by chorion villus sampling was 13.3. For 29 fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of possible Turner's syndrome, pregnancy was allowed to continue and 24 children were live born. Thirteen of these children were karyotyped postnatally, and diagnosis of Turner's syndrome had to be revised for eight, seven being normal girls and one boy. This gives tentative predictive value of amniocentesis in diagnosing Turner's syndrome of between 21% and 67%. There was no significant relation between mother's age and risk of Turner's syndrome. CONCLUSIONS--Discrepancy between prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Turner's syndrome challenges specificity of prenatal examination in diagnosing Turner's syndrome. PMID:8555850

  10. Postnatal management of newborn with antenatal detected urinary tract abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Galiano, Rossella; Spasari, Ezio

    2011-10-01

    The goals of postnatal management of congenital anomalies of the kidneys and the urinary tracts are two: The first to distinguish between patients (the minority) who are at risk for renal parenchyma damage, from neonates (the majority) who have not consequences to renal functionality; the second to avoid for healthy infant strenuous follow-up, painful diagnostic procedures, and unnecessary anxiety for their parents. PMID:21942607

  11. The role of alternative medicine in treating postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Mantle, Fiona

    2002-11-01

    Postnatal depression is a serious and debilitating condition. Due to the perceived stigma of mental illness, the incidence of it is underreported and many mothers refuse psychiatric help either assuming postnatal depression to be normal or because of the potential consequences of having a psychiatric history. Community practitioners who are in contact with new mothers may welcome additional interventions which can enhance the supportive care they give to these women. This article discusses the evidence for a number of these interventions which mothers may find more acceptable than orthodox treatment. The aim of this article is to highlight the possible role of a number of complementary and alternative medicines as adjuncts or alternative treatments for postnatal depression. The interventions discussed in this article include Ayurvedic medicine, herbalism, homeopathy, aromatherapy, massage, hypnosis and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). With the exception of TCM and Ayurvedic medicine, these interventions have been supported by the House of Lord's Select Committee on Science and Technology (2000) as having an evidence base. Ayurvedic medicine and TCM have been included in this article however, because a number of clients may be using them as their main system of health care--thereby validating the need for information regarding their efficacy. This article is not exhaustive, nor a licence to practice, but is intended as a resource for practitioners with a sound understanding of postnatal depression and conventional treatments whose clients may reject these approaches and be looking for alternative interventions. The final choice of treatment should be the result of discussion between the health visitor and the client and will depend on considerations such as availability, cost and acceptability of the intervention--this article does not, therefore, suggest a 'best option' approach. In addition, it does not address the professional and legal responsibilities of

  12. A Randomized Trial of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Brock, John W.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Johnson, Mark P.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Dabrowiak, Mary E.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Gupta, Nalin; Tulipan, Noel B.; D'Alton, Mary E.; Farmer, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal repair of myelomeningocele, the most common form of spina bifida, may result in better neurologic function than repair deferred until after delivery. We compared outcomes of in utero repair with standard postnatal repair. Methods We randomly assigned eligible women to undergo either prenatal surgery before 26 weeks of gestation or standard postnatal repair. One primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or the need for placement of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt by the age of 12 months. Another primary outcome at 30 months was a composite of mental development and motor function. Results The trial was stopped for efficacy of prenatal surgery after the recruitment of 183 of a planned 200 patients. This report is based on results in 158 patients whose children were evaluated at 12 months. The first primary outcome occurred in 68% of the infants in the prenatal-surgery group and in 98% of those in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.70; 97.7% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.84; P<0.001). Actual rates of shunt placement were 40% in the prenatal-surgery group and 82% in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.48; 97.7% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001). Prenatal surgery also resulted in improvement in the composite score for mental development and motor function at 30 months (P = 0.007) and in improvement in several secondary outcomes, including hindbrain herniation by 12 months and ambulation by 30 months. However, prenatal surgery was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and uterine dehiscence at delivery. Conclusions Prenatal surgery for myelomeningocele reduced the need for shunting and improved motor outcomes at 30 months but was associated with maternal and fetal risks. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00060606.) PMID:21306277

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for urinary tract abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hálek, Jan; Flögelová, Hana; Michálková, Kamila; Smakal, Oldrich; Dubrava, Lubomír; Zapletalová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed at (1) the determination of the incidence of abnormalities of the urinary tract in newborn infants detected by postnatal ultrasound screening, and (2) the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for detecting surgical urinary tract abnormalities. The prospective study was of full-term neonates born in the University Hospital of Olomouc in 2005-2008 who underwent renal ultrasound screening after 72 h of life. Significant findings were recorded. Subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were recorded and evaluated in a group of children with detected renal pelvic dilatation (RPD). (1) A total of 6,088 newborn infants was examined. The absolute and relative RPD incidence rates (anteroposterior diameter, APD) were as follows: 5-7 mm, 146 (2.4%); 7-10 mm, 70 (1.15%); 10-15 mm, 13 (0.21%), and 15 mm or more, 5 (0.08%). Of those, 16 children were operated on for abnormalities of the urinary tract, of which nine (56%) had been detected by prenatal screening. Other findings: six cases of unilateral renal agenesis, four cases of multicystic renal dysplasia, four of renal dystopia, one of polycystic kidney disease and one of renal hypoplasia. (2) A group of 224 children with postnatally detected RPD was examined, of whom 40 (17.9%) underwent voiding cystourethrography and/or scintigraphy and 16 (7.1%) were treated surgically. The receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed, and the areas under the curves were calculated. Postnatal renal ultrasound screening is probably a suitable test for detecting significant urinary tract abnormalities. PMID:19856001

  14. Effect of GnRH analogs in postnatal domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Carranza, A; Faya, M; Merlo, M Lopez; Batista, P; Gobello, C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reproductively assess the clinical and hormonal effects of a GnRH agonist (AG) and an antagonist (AN) administered during the postnatal period in domestic cats. Forty-eight male and female postnatal kittens were randomly assigned to deslorelin acetate 1.6 mg subcutaneous (AG; n = 16), acyline 33 μg/100 g subcutaneous weekly for 3 months (AN; n = 16), or control (CO; n = 16) which remained untreated. The cats were followed up (behavioral observation, physical examination, fecal sexual steroid determinations, mating test, and pregnancy diagnosis) up to puberty. Puberty was delayed (weeks) in the AG animals (62.9 ± 3.5; P < 0.01) but not in the AN (15.5 ± 1.7; P > 0.05) when they were compared with CO kittens (13.4 ± 0.4). Fifteen (15/16) of the AN and CO animals, and only 11 of 16 cats of the AG group were fertile (P > 0.1). No differences were found in body weight (P > 0.1) and measurements (P > 0.1), libido (P > 0.1) and in the appearance of side effects (P > 0.1; except a pyometra in an AG female) among groups. In both AG- and AN-treated males (testosterone; P < 0.01) and females (estradiol-17β; P < 0.01) fecal hormone concentrations were lower than in CO group during the first five postnatal weeks but not later. It is concluded that the neonatal administration of these AG and AN decreased fecal sexual steroids during the first postnatal weeks causing, the agonists but not the antagonist, a significant, reversible delay in puberty appearance. PMID:24725419

  15. The Postnatal Role of Sox9 in Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Stephen P.; Liang, Shoudan; Akdemir, Kadir C; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Sox9 is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation of the chondrocytic lineage during embryonic development. To test whether Sox9 continues to play a critical role in cartilaginous tissues in the adult mice, we used an inducible, genetic strategy to disrupt the Sox9 gene postnatally in these tissues. The postnatal inactivation of Sox9 led to stunted growth characterized by decreased proliferation, increased cell death, and de-differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Upon postnatal Sox9 inactivation in the articular cartilage, the sulfated proteoglycan and aggrecan content of the uncalcified cartilage were rapidly depleted and the degradation of aggrecan was accompanied by higher ADAMTS5 immunostaining and increased detection of the aggrecan neoepitope, NITEGE. In spite of the severe loss of Collagen 2a1 mRNA, the Collagen II protein persisted in the articular cartilage, and no histopathological signs of osteoarthritis were observed. The homeostasis of the intervertebral disk (IVD) was dramatically altered upon Sox9 depletion, resulting in disk compression and subsequent degeneration. Inactivation of Sox9 in the IVD markedly reduced the expression of several genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, as well as some of the enzymes responsible for their posttranslational modification. Furthermore, the loss of Sox9 in the IVD decreased the expression of cytokines, cell surface receptors, and ion channels suggesting that Sox9 coordinates a large genetic program that is instrumental for the proper homeostasis of the cells contained in the intervertebral disk postnatally. Our results indicate that Sox9 has an essential role in the physiological control of cartilaginous tissues in adult mice. PMID:22777888

  16. Sex differences in the effects of ethanol pre-exposure during adolescence on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Berthold, Claire; Koss, Wendy A.; Juraska, Janice M.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use, which typically begins during adolescence and differs between males and females, is influenced by both the rewarding and aversive properties of the drug. One way adolescent alcohol use may modulate later consumption is by reducing alcohol s aversive properties. Here, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to determine if pre-exposure to alcohol (ethanol) during adolescence would attenuate ethanol-induced CTA assessed in adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female Long-Evans rats were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol in a binge-like pattern during postnatal days (PD) 35–45. In adulthood (> PD 100), rats were given access to 0.1% saccharin, followed by saline or ethanol (1.0 or 1.5 g/kg, i.p.), over four conditioning sessions. We found sex differences in ethanol-induced CTA, with males developing a more robust aversion earlier in conditioning. Sex differences in the effects of pre-exposure were also evident: males, but not females, showed an attenuated CTA in adulthood following ethanol pre-exposure, which occurred approximately nine weeks earlier. Taken together, these findings indicate that males are more sensitive to the aversive properties of ethanol than females. In addition, the ability of pre-exposure to the ethanol US to attenuate CTA is enhanced in males compared to females. PMID:21767576

  17. Sex differences in the effects of ethanol pre-exposure during adolescence on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Luke K; Berthold, Claire; Koss, Wendy A; Juraska, Janice M; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-11-20

    Alcohol use, which typically begins during adolescence and differs between males and females, is influenced by both the rewarding and aversive properties of the drug. One way adolescent alcohol use may modulate later consumption is by reducing alcohol's aversive properties. Here, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to determine if pre-exposure to alcohol (ethanol) during adolescence would attenuate ethanol-induced CTA assessed in adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female Long-Evans rats were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or 3.0g/kg ethanol in a binge-like pattern during postnatal days (PD) 35-45. In adulthood (>PD 100), rats were given access to 0.1% saccharin, followed by saline or ethanol (1.0 or 1.5g/kg, i.p.), over four conditioning sessions. We found sex differences in ethanol-induced CTA, with males developing a more robust aversion earlier in conditioning. Sex differences in the effects of pre-exposure were also evident: males, but not females, showed an attenuated CTA in adulthood following ethanol pre-exposure, which occurred approximately nine weeks earlier. Taken together, these findings indicate that males are more sensitive to the aversive properties of ethanol than females. In addition, the ability of pre-exposure to the ethanol US to attenuate CTA is enhanced in males compared to females. PMID:21767576

  18. Postnatal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors Accessible to Spiral Ganglion Neurons in the Auditory System of Adult Hearing and Deafened Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) receive input from cochlear hair cells and project from the cochlea to the cochlear nucleus. After destruction of hair cells with aminoglycoside antibiotics or noise, SGNs gradually die. It has been assumed that SGN death is attributable to loss of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) derived from hair cells or supporting cells in the organ of Corti (OC). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assay NTF expression—neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), BDNF, GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and CNTF—in the OC and cochlear nucleus at various ages from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P90 in control hearing and neonatally deafened rats. NT-3, neurturin, and CNTF were most abundant in the postnatal hearing OC; CNTF and neurturin most abundant in the cochlear nucleus. In the OC, NT-3 and CNTF showed a postnatal increase in expression approximately concomitant with hearing onset. In rats deafened by daily kanamycin injections (from P8 to P16), surviving inner hair cells were evident at P16 but absent by P19, with most postsynaptic boutons lost before P16. NT-3 and CNTF, which normally increase postnatally, had significantly reduced expression in the OC of deafened rats, although CNTF was expressed throughout the time that SGNs were dying. In contrast, neurturin expression was constant, unaffected by deafening or by age. CNTF and neurturin expression in the cochlear nucleus was unaffected by deafening or age. Thus, NTFs other than NT-3 are available to SGNs even as they are dying after deafening, apparently conflicting with the hypothesis that SGN death is attributable to lack of NTFs. PMID:25253857

  19. Piracetam prevents memory deficit induced by postnatal propofol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Postnatal propofol exposure impairs hippocampal synaptic development and memory. However, the effective agent to alleviate the impairments was not verified. In this study, piracetam, a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor was administered following a seven-day propofol regime. Two months after propofol administration, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory decreased, while intraperitoneal injection of piracetam at doses of 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg following last propofol exposure reversed the impairments of memory and LTP. Mechanically, piracetam reversed propofol exposure-induced decrease of BDNF and phosphorylation of mTor. Similar as piracetam, BDNF supplementary also ameliorated propofol-induced abnormalities of synaptic plasticity-related protein expressions, hippocampal LTP and long-term memory. These results suggest that piracetam prevents detrimental effects of propofol, likely via activating BDNF synthesis. PMID:26957054

  20. Transcriptional profiling of the postnatal brain of the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kai-Leng; Ling, King-Hwa; Hewitt, Chelsee A; Cheah, Pike-See; Simpson, Ken; Gordon, Lavinia; Pritchard, Melanie A; Smyth, Gordon K; Thomas, Tim; Scott, Hamish S

    2014-12-01

    The Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) has partial trisomy of mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16), which is syntenic to human chromosome 21 (HSA21). It develops various neuropathological features demonstrated by DS patients such as reduced cerebellar volume [1] and altered hippocampus-dependent learning and memory [2,3]. To understand the global gene expression effect of the partially triplicated MMU16 segment on mouse brain development, we performed the spatiotemporal transcriptome analysis of Ts1Cje and disomic control cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus harvested at four developmental time-points: postnatal day (P)1, P15, P30 and P84. Here, we provide a detailed description of the experimental and analysis procedures of the microarray dataset, which has been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE49050) database. PMID:26484118

  1. Altered behavioral development in Nrf2 knockout mice following early postnatal exposure to valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Furnari, Melody A.; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Kong, Ah-Ng; Wagner, George C

    2015-01-01

    Early exposure to valproic acid results in autism-like neural and behavioral deficits in humans and other animals through oxidative stress-induced neural damage. In the present study, valproic acid was administered to genetically altered mice lacking the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2) gene on postnatal day 14 (P14). Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces genes that protect against oxidative stress. It was found that valproic acid-treated Nrf2 knockout mice were less active in open field activity chambers, less successful on the rotorod, and had deficits in learning and memory in the Morris water maze compared to the valproic acid-treated wild type mice. Given these results, it appears that Nrf2 knockout mice were more sensitive to the neural damage caused by valproic acid administered during early development. PMID:25454122

  2. Phosphorylated SAP155, the spliceosomal component, is localized to chromatin in postnatal mouse testes

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Ko; Sonoda, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Yuji; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2010-03-19

    SAP155 is an essential component of the spliceosome and its phosphorylation is required for splicing catalysis, but little is known concerning its expression and regulation during spermatogenesis in postnatal mouse testes. We report that SAP155 is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of germ and Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules of 6- and 35-day postpartum (dpp) testes. Analyses by fractionation of testes revealed that (1) phosphorylated SAP155 was found in the fraction containing nuclear structures at 6 dpp in amounts much larger than that at other ages; (2) non-phosphorylated SAP155 was detected in the fraction containing nucleoplasm; and (3) phosphorylated SAP155 was preferentially associated with chromatin. Our findings suggest that the active spliceosome, containing phosphorylated SAP155, performs pre-mRNA splicing on chromatin concomitant with transcription during testicular development.

  3. Effects of postnatal stress on the development of type 1 diabetes in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Freimanis, Tonny; Heller, Knud E; Schønecker, Bryan; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) kept in the laboratory under barren housing conditions develop high incidences of type 1 diabetes mellitus due to beta cell-specific lysis in association with the appearance of GAD65, IA-2, and insulin autoantibodies. Wild-caught and immediately analyzed voles show no histological signs of diabetes, and the disease may therefore be induced by circumstances related to the housing of the animals in captivity. We tested the possibility that postnatal stress by either maternal separation or water immersion at different intervals would induce diabetes in adult bank voles. We found that low-frequent stress during the first 21 days of life increases, whereas high-frequent stress markedly reduces, the incidence of type 1 diabetes in adulthood. These results differentiate the role of early-experienced stress on subsequent type 1 diabetes development and emphasize that the bank vole may serve as a useful new animal model for the disease. PMID:12745667

  4. Sex difference and postnatal change of maternal behavioral patterns in juvenile male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Shima, Satoshi; Urano, Aya; Korányi, Lajos; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2005-06-01

    Juvenile rats are known to show certain elements of maternal behavior. In this experiment, to investigate sex difference and postnatal change of retrieving and pup-cleaning (licking) behaviors in juvenile rats, these behaviors were recorded using new observation method at 20, 30 and 45 days of age in female and male Wistar rats. At 20 days of age, maternal behavior was observed in a common plastic observation cage (test A) and then test B was performed. In the test B, observation was carried out using a cage with a wooden box that was open on one side, helping the juveniles to establish a nest. As the results of day 20, most rats in all groups showed licking behavior in both the test A and B. The incidence of retrieving behavior increased from the test A to the test B with the box in both sexes, especially in males (p<0.01). The box is thought to play a facilitative role in induction of retrieving. Moreover, the incidence in males was higher than that in females in the test B (p<0.001). At 30 and 45 days of age, only a test B with box was performed. The incidences of licking and retrieving behaviors at 30 days of age were decreased significantly compared to those at 20 days of age in both sexes(p<0.001). Further decrease from 30 days to 45 days was observed. These results suggest that in juvenile rat, incidence of retrieving behavior in males is higher than that in females but there is no sex difference in incidence of licking behavior. Potency to show these behaviors decreases acutely before puberty in rats. PMID:15988166

  5. Postnatal Development of the Mouse Enteric Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Foong, Jaime Pei Pei

    2016-01-01

    Owing to over three decades of research, we now have a good understanding of the genetic and molecular control of enteric nervous system (ENS) development during embryonic and prenatal stages. On the other hand, it has only just become clear that a substantial process of ENS maturation occurs after birth (Hao et al. 2013a). During postnatal stages, in addition to genetic influences, ENS development is also potentially affected by the external environment. Thus it is possible that manipulating certain environmental factors could help prevent or reduce motility disorders. However the genetic and environmental factors that regulate postnatal ENS development remain unknown. Researchers have used a variety of animal models that are easy to manipulate genetically or experimentally, and have short gestational periods, to understand the development of the ENS. Notably, due to the availability of mouse models for several human enteric neuropathies, many studies have used the mature and developing murine ENS as a model. Here, I will discuss recent advances in knowledge about postnatal development of the murine ENS, and highlight future directions for this emerging research field. PMID:27379641

  6. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  7. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Wood, WH; Becker, KG; Mattson, Mark P.; Okun, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  8. 75 FR 39695 - 60-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: First Follow-Up Data... collection. OAH is overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH is working collaboratively with the Office of...

  9. Electrical properties of pig colonic mucosa measured during early post-natal development.

    PubMed Central

    Hénin, S; Smith, M W

    1976-01-01

    Microvillar membrane (Vm) and transmural (Vt) potential differences were measured in proximal colon taken from pigs at birth and up to 10 days of age. 2. Vm remained independent of the age of the animal provided it was measured in the absence of methionine. The over-all mean was -43-3 mV. Adding methionine to fluid bathing the mucosal surface of new-born pig colon caused a 9-8 mV depolarization of Vm and a 6-7 mV increase in Vt. These effects, which were Na+-dependent, were not seen in the 10-day-old animal. 3. Substituting SO4(2-) for Cl- in methionine-free medium caused a hyperpolarization in Vm. Increasing the concentration of K+ caused corresponding depolarization. Substituting choline for Na+ had no effect on VmCl- and K+ movement across the microvillar membrane together account for the bulk of the measured membrane potential. These results apply to all stages of development. 4. Na+ uptake across the microvillar membrane of the new-born pig colon was increased in the presence of methionine. This effect disappeared in older animals. Na+ uptake in the absence of methionine doubled during the first 24 h of post-natal life. This increase was maintained using colons taken from older animals. 5. Methionine depolarization of Vm in the new-born pig colon is probably caused by the electrogenic influx of Na+. The ability of the colon to actively concentrate methionine within tis mucosa disappears at the same time as methionine ceases to affect Vm and Vt. It is suggested that methionine and Na+ form a ternary complex with a carrier in the brush border of the new-born pig colon and that this carrier is lost or modified during early post-natal development. PMID:994037

  10. Intracortical distribution of number and volume of glomeruli during postnatal maturation in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Horster, Michael; Kemler, Barry J.; Valtin, Heinz

    1971-01-01

    Morphometric analysis was carried out on kidneys of neonatal dogs in which function of the entire kidney and of single nephrons had been evaluated. Measurements were begun after neogenesis of nephrons had been completed, i.e., at the end of the 3rd postnatal wk. They were continued to 74 days by which time glomerular function, expressed per unit of renal weight, had reached the mature level. For statistical analysis, the cortical histogram at each age was divided into eight zones of equal depth between the capsule and corticomedullary junction. The mean total number of glomeruli in this beagle strain was 589 × 103 per kidney. The fraction of the total number of glomeruli was lowest in the subcapsular layer (3.9%) and highest (24.5%) in the zone immediately beneath from where it decreased almost linearly to a value of 4.5% in the juxtamedullary region. This numerical distribution did not change with age, which suggests that growth of nonglomerular structures proceeded at the same rate in all cortical layers. Volume of the glomerular tuft rose slightly between the subcapsular and next layer and remained constant down to the juxtamedullary region where it increased sharply. The juxtamedullary glomerulus was about 45% larger in volume than the other glomeruli. This intracortical distribution of glomerular volume did not vary between 23 and 74 days, although the volume of an individual glomerulus at each level increased slightly with age. Total glomerular volume increased by 33% during the postnatal period studied, whereas simultaneously nonglomerular cortical volume rose by 235%. On the assumption that nonglomerular tissue consists mainly of tubules, the data suggest that the rate of tubular growth far exceeded that of glomerular growth. Despite this difference in glomerular and tubular growth rates, analysis of single nephrons in these dogs demonstrates constant and mature proximal fractional reabsorption of sodium and water. Images PMID:5547276

  11. Development of a novel postnatal neurobehavioral scale for evaluation of common marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Braun, Katarina; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schneider, Mary; Moore, Colleen F; Emborg, Marina E

    2015-04-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys when compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mullatta) present several advantages for disease modeling, especially transgenic initiatives, as they commonly give birth to twins, which increases sample size, have accelerated development and a shorter life span that facilitates the analysis of the onset of age-related diseases. Yet, no tools are currently available to assess marmoset neurodevelopment during the initial first month of life. Here we report the creation of a novel Primate Postnatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale for marmoset monkeys (PPNAS-M) that was based on currently available scales for human and rhesus monkeys. Twenty-four healthy marmoset infants (12 females, 12 males) from 12 families were evaluated. The infant assessments involved 10-minute testing administered at 15 and 30 days after birth. The PPNAS-M consists of 41 noninvasive tests grouped into 5 testing categories: visual orienting, auditory and spatial orienting, motor responses, righting and body strength, and temperament tests. Testing at these two ages did not affect the overall health of the infants, suggesting that the PPNAS-M is a non-invasive testing tool. Significant maturation was demonstrated by increased scores in each of the five testing categories from postnatal day 15 to 30, with developmental patterns unique to marmosets. Principal component analysis defined 4 item groups (Orientation, State Control, Motor Maturity and Sensory Sensitivity) with 5 variables each. Orientation and State Control factors were highly similar to each other at both ages and correlated highly with previous item groupings used with rhesus macaques. Our results indicate that the PPNAS-M is a useful assessment tool for detecting neuromotor, attention, and temperament status of infant marmosets and that it is sensitive to developmental effects. Further studies to validate the PPNAS-M for the assessment of normal development versus early effects of developmental

  12. Postnatal growth of corticospinal axons in the spinal cord of developing mice.

    PubMed

    Gianino, S; Stein, S A; Li, H; Lu, X; Biesiada, E; Ulas, J; Xu, X M

    1999-02-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) plays an important role in the control of voluntary movements. Although the development of the CST has been studied extensively in other species, limited information is available on its development in mice. In the present study, the growth of corticospinal axons was characterized in developing mice using Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). Our results indicate that the leading CST axons reach the 8th cervical segment at postnatal day (PD) 2, the 7th thoracic segment at PD4, the 13th thoracic segment at PD7, and the 5th lumbar segment at PD9. The arrival of corticospinal axons at the distal lumbar cord at PD9 was further confirmed by retrograde tracing using fast blue (FB). A waiting period of 2-3 days exists after the leading CST axons pass a particular segment before sending collaterals into the gray matter of that segment. The CST continues to increase in size in lower thoracic and lumbar areas up to PD14 when its adult appearance is achieved. In this study, the date of animal's sacrifice was used as the specific postnatal date to demonstrate the growth of the CST. This definition gives a more reliable indication of the exact location of the CST at a specific developmental time point since the CST continues to grow after tracer injections and since the dye is transported much faster than axonal growth. We suggest that these findings can be used as a template for studies on both normal and transgenic mice where some developmental significance is given to the CST. PMID:9878731

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL POSTNATAL NEUROBEHAVIORAL SCALE FOR EVALUATION OF COMMON MARMOSET MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary; Moore, Colleen F.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys when compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mullatta) present several advantages for disease modeling, especially transgenic initiatives, as they commonly give birth to twins, which increases sample size, have accelerated development and a shorter life span that facilitates the analysis of the onset of age-related diseases. Yet, no tools are currently available to assess marmoset neurodevelopment during the initial first month of life. Here we report the creation of a novel Primate Postnatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale for marmoset monkeys (PPNAS-M) that was based on currently available scales for human and rhesus monke