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Sample records for adolescent pregnancy prevention

  1. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  2. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  3. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: A Symposium for Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientists' Inst. for Public Information, New York, NY.

    During a symposium on adolescent pregnancy, medical and education personnel presented an overview of the problem and its causes, a description of solutions currently in practice throughout the country, analysis of the state of research in the field of prevention, and a look at the government's role. Addressed in this transcipt of the symposium are…

  4. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: in hot pursuit.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M A

    1995-01-01

    Many children and teenagers are raised in unstable and unsupportive family and community environments ridden with poverty, institutionalized racism, poor housing, substandard health care, inadequate education, and limited career opportunities. Under such conditions, they see no hope for the future. Having sexual intercourse helps these young people to cope with their otherwise harsh realities. Taking precautions against unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is of secondary importance to the immediate need for emotional and physical bonding through intimate sexual relations. Simply providing adolescents and youths in this context with information on family planning and STD avoidance will not convince them to delay the onset of sexual intercourse or modify their sexual behavior once begun. The desire to live a long, successful, and productive life is what encourages youths to delay the onset of intercourse and to use contraception consistently once they begin to have sex. Youth workers, teachers, and counselors must therefore provide relevant prevention information while also attempting to replace sexual intercourse as a coping mechanism with concrete and hopeful alternatives. Patricia Dempsey and the author launched a program in 1985 at the Children's Aid Society to develop a long-term, holistic, multidimensional adolescent sexuality and pregnancy prevention pilot program for young people, parents, and adults in Harlem. The program would address teen pregnancy and childbearing as well as the underlying causes. This paper presents an overview of the participants and program components.

  5. Innovative collaboration to prevent repeated adolescent pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R B; Brown, H N

    1997-01-01

    Nurse educators from a university setting and staff from the county health department collaborated to establish an innovative program to prevent repeated pregnancy in adolescents. Called Dollar-A-Day and patterned after the original in Denver, CO, the program was operated jointly for 5 years and today continues to operate under the auspices of the health department. Success of the venture is attributed to use of skills in assessment, building, managing, and evaluating, as described by Loxley (1997). These elements were used to construct a context for collaboration.

  6. Brighter Futures: The Wisconsin Plan To Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Executive Committee on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, Madison.

    The Executive Committee and the Subcommittee on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention were charged to develop and provide leadership to implement a state plan to reduce adolescent pregnancy in Wisconsin. Both the negative outcomes for adolescent parents and their children and the cost to society are at issue. This document serves as a first step to…

  7. Adolescents' and Teachers' Perceptions of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Gleason, Jamie H.; Johnson, Stephanie A.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of adolescent and teacher perceptions of adolescent pregnancy-prevention programs using dolls that simulate infant behavior. Uses experimental and control groups of high school students from Midwest suburban areas. Finds increased appreciation for difficulty of infant care among adolescents in experimental groups. Majority of teachers…

  8. Adolescent pregnancy: an interpersonal skill training approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D

    1977-01-01

    The research literature reports numerous negative consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Unfortunately, contemporary approaches to preventing teenage pregnancies have been largely unsuccessful. Recent evidence, however, suggests that interpersonal communication skill training may represent an important step in helping adolescents deal with their sexual and contraceptive behavior. This describes a pilot study of an interpersonal skill training model for sexually active inner-city teenagers. Results show that this training model is a feasible and attractive approach to modifying the youths' communication patterns. Findings indicate that such training is a fruitful direction for future pregnancy prevention research with the adolescent target population.

  9. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  10. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jeanne A.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

  11. Adolescent pregnancy prevention strategies used by school nurses.

    PubMed

    Kobokovich, L J; Bonovich, L K

    1992-01-01

    This survey identified a range of adolescent pregnancy prevention activities used by school nurses in selected Mid-Atlantic public schools. A purposive sample of 224 public school nurses completed the School Nurse Questionnaire adapted from an instrument used previously to survey school nurses. Based on a 54% response rate, a task analysis revealed that respondents performed only one pregnancy prevention activity frequently. A sub-sample of nurses, serving students in grades 6-12, used seven of 21 pregnancy prevention activities frequently. Though nurses did not actually perform the remaining activities, they felt prepared to do so. However, the structure of school nursing services often does not allow adequate time or opportunity to engage in adolescent pregnancy prevention activities. PMID:1548856

  12. Data Archive on Adolescent Pregnancy and Pregnancy Prevention (DAAPPP). Catalog of Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sociometrics Corp., Los Altos, CA.

    This catalog of products from the Data Archive on Adolescent Pregnancy and Pregnancy Prevention (DAAPPP) contains a list of DAAPPP social science Data Sets on topics related to teenage pregnancy and family planning. Each Data Set listing contains the following information: (1) name of study or program; (2) name of investigator or sponsoring…

  13. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  14. Partners in Prevention: Whole School Approaches to Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Marcia A., Ed.; Wooley, Susan F., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This resource describes how pregnancy prevention efforts can be integrated into the various components of a school health program (the linkages between classroom instruction to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the school's health and mental health services, the necessary administrative policies, the type and extent of faculty and staff…

  15. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Interventions and Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    Widespread concern about teenage childbearing led to the establishment of numerous intervention programs throughout the United States during the 1980s. Nevertheless, between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s, the teen birth rate rose in every state. This volume examines numerous prevention programs and makes recommendations for establishing…

  16. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. PMID:25145716

  17. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation.

  18. Serving the Future: An Update on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gary; And Others

    This survey analyzed the nature and level of services in adolescent pregnancy prevention in the developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. While focusing on programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy, many of the groups surveyed were also responding to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in their work with youth.…

  19. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. Methods. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. Results. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use. PMID:27689502

  20. Preventing adolescent pregnancy with social and cognitive skills.

    PubMed

    Barth, R P; Fetro, J V; Leland, N; Volkan, K

    1992-04-01

    A 15-session sex education program was delivered by teachers to 586 10th graders using techniques based on social learning theory, including modeling, in-class and out-of-class practice of skills for abstaining from sexual intercourse, and for contraception. Knowledge about reproduction and birth control, intentions to use skills to avoid pregnancy, and communication with parents about pregnancy prevention were significantly greater at posttest and 6-month follow-up for the trained group than for the control group. Members of the trained group tended to use birth control more often, especially those who started to have sexual intercourse subsequent to the program. No differences in the frequency of sexual intercourse, pregnancy scares, or pregnancies were found. Satisfaction with the program was high. Although skill training by itself may not be sufficient to significantly prevent pregnancies, this program offers promise of being a useful component of combined school, home, and community activities to prevent pregnancy. PMID:12319159

  1. Understanding Adolescents' Motivation To Prevent Pregnancy: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Recent efforts targeting teenage pregnancy in the United States have marked a renewed conviction to reduce the level of childbearing among adolescents. Some of the behavioral, psychosocial, and ethnographic studies that explore the underlying motivation to delay sex and to effectively use contraception are the focus of this literature review.…

  2. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: biological, social, cultural, and political influences on age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.

  3. Pregnancy Prevention and Termination of Pregnancy in Adolescence: Facts, Ethics, Law and Politics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Menachem; Ben Shlomo, Izhar; Solt, Ido; Burke, Yechiel Z

    2015-11-01

    We present an overview of the current sexual behavior of adolescents in Israel, including the related social and moral issues, and compare it to that in Western countries. An important factor is the existence of liberal versus conservative views regarding the use of contraception and termination of pregnancy in these young subjects. We describe the current situation where in most cases the medical providers do not provide adequate contraceptive advice to adolescent girls, resulting ultimately in a high rate of unintended pregnancy. In our opinion, it is essential to make effective contraception more accessible to this vulnerable group. PMID:26757560

  4. Adolescent decision making: a broadly based theory and its application to the prevention of early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a broadly based theory of adolescent decision making including all the necessary components of the subject: cognitive development, social and psychological factors, and, perhaps most importantly, cultural and societal influences. Previous theories and applications have often focused on only one or two aspects. This theory is then applied to the problem of prevention of early pregnancy at an inner-city high school. Use of this theory, combined with an open-ended data-gathering format made possible some of the unexpected findings of this study: most of the young women at this school desire their pregnancies; many of them prefer single parenthood to traditional family structure; and low academic skills and poverty often result in pregnancy, rather than pregnancy causing high school dropouts and a life of poverty. Prevention programs will necessarily differ for sexually active adolescents who do and do not want pregnancy and for younger versus older adolescents. In designing such programs, we need to focus on pregnancy as the problem rather than on adolescent sexuality.

  5. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention: Strategies for the '80's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Elizabeth T.; Bassoff, Betty Z.

    Most efforts at combating teenage pregnancy have focused on cognitive/educational levels felt by concerned adults to be of greatest importance. However, recent research has demonstrated the connection between lack of career goals, low self-esteem, perception of narrow options, and risk-taking behavior as factors leading to pregnancy. A 3-year…

  6. Developing and maintaining state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, J B; Galano, J

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions. Key informants in five states throughout the southern United States were given semi-structured interviews regarding the adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions in their states. From these interviews and other documents, conclusions were drawn regarding the nature and importance of the environments within which these coalitions operate, the universe of activities in which coalitions engage, and the stages of development of these coalitions. Katz and Kahn's model of social organizations served as the basis for understanding coalitions in terms of these three considerations. Future research should consider the utility of organizational models that can explain more fully the organization--committee hybrid structure that tends to characterize these coalitions.

  7. Adolescent Female Text Messaging Preferences to Prevent Pregnancy After an Emergency Department Visit: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to

  8. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention in a Rural Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Janet W.; Skenandore, Alice H.; Scow, Beverly M.; Schanen, Jennifer G.; Clary, Frieda Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Nationally, the United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized nation. Native American youth have a higher birth rate than the national rate. A full-year healthy relationship program, based on Native American teachings, traditions, and cultural norms, was delivered to all eighth-grade students at a rural tribal…

  9. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: A Role for Social Work Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Marion Wright

    1988-01-01

    For poor and minority teenagers the lack of adequate life options may increase their desire for early pregnancy. Since teen mothers face probable poverty and single parenthood, it is imperative that schools and school social workers provide counseling, health services, and work preparation as well as academic skills training. (VM)

  10. All together now. An integrated approach to preventing adolescent pregnancy and STD/HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A

    1990-01-01

    2 outcomes of the high level of unprotected sexual activity among US adolescents--teenage pregnancy and infection with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--are produced by similar behavioral factors. Among these are an unwillingness to acknowledge in advance sexual activity, a failure to seek out necessary preventive knowledge, an unwillingness to engage in preventive behaviors such as use of condoms or other contraceptives, and a lack of communication about sexuality in adolescent relationships. Despite this overlap, health educators and service providers have failed to develop an integrated approach for dealing with adolescent pregnancy and STD/HIV risk. Proposed is a sequence of preventive behaviors and skills to be taught to teenagers, including acceptance of their sexuality, education regarding sex-related preventive options, an active commitment to engage in preventive behaviors, the negotiation of sex-related prevention with one's partner, performance of public preventive acts such as condom purchase, consistent practice and reinforcement of preventive behaviors, and the ability to shift preventive "scripts." At the same time, programs must address the potential psychological obstacles to the performance of sex-related preventive behaviors--e.g., negative feeling about sexuality, misinformation coupled with cognitive immaturity, and mass media images and fantasies. Program interventions can be delivered most efficiently through the public school system, with linkages to birth control clinics, STD clinics, HIV testing centers, and drug treatment programs. The type of sexuality education proposed--provision of relevant information that teenagers can actively translate into preventive behaviors--should be anticipated to produce more resistance from conservative community forces than traditional educational efforts.

  11. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Guatemalan Teenagers: Considerations for Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berganza, Carlos E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted 2 studies to explore prevalence of adolescence pregnancy in Guatemala and identify level of contraception. In first study found 89 percent of male and 38 percent of female adolescents (N=850) had experienced coitus. In the second study found pregnancy rate of minors (N=551) in a gynecology clinic was highest for adolescents aged 13-14.…

  12. Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Partnership Addressing Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention in Filipino American Families

    PubMed Central

    Javier, Joyce R.; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Rivera, Kahealani K.; Gonzalez, Sarah E.; Mendoza, Fernando S.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community–academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community. Objectives We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident. Methods We formed a community–academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine’s Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent–teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design. Lessons Learned Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community–academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic–community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of “community insiders” and “academic outsiders.” Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR. Conclusion CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home. PMID:21169708

  13. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28). PMID:27474526

  14. The Role of Community Health Workers in Preventing Adolescent Repeat Pregnancies and Births.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged <20 years, 2 years after the delivery of their first child. Through electronic database and hand searching, experimental and/or observational studies were screened with their results undergoing systematic review and meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed to further assess how study characteristics affected the pooled estimates and heterogeneity. A total of 11 eligible articles, from January 1980 to May 2015, were included. Seven studies evaluated repeated births and eight measured repeated pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28).

  15. Gender differences in knowledge, intentions, and behaviors concerning pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leland, N L; Barth, R P

    1992-11-01

    Gender differences in knowledge, intentions, and behaviors regarding preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases were studied. Data for the study were collected from 1,033 students in 13 California high schools. Females in this sample were more likely than males to have discussed sexuality topics with parents, to have engaged in sexual intercourse more frequently, to have experienced a pregnancy scare, to have used oral contraceptives during their last sexual encounter, to perceive that a larger proportion of their peers were engaging in sex and using birth control, to obtain birth control from health facilities, and to report intentions to abstain or use protection in hypothetical situations placing them at risk for unprotected sex. In contrast, males reported that they were more likely to have always used birth control, to have used birth control during their first sexual encounter, and to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Furthermore, males were more likely to obtain birth control from a store or a friend. Finally, males knew more about using condoms correctly and their role in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. The efficacy of interventions designed to reduce unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents may be increased by addressing these gender differences. Understanding gender differences may also facilitate an increased role for males in the overall prevention scheme. Further research is clearly needed to increase knowledge about these gender differences.

  16. Historical context for the creation of the Office of Adolescent Health and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Evelyn M; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2014-03-01

    In Fiscal Year 2010, Federal funds were dedicated to support evidence-based approaches to effectively target teen pregnancy prevention and resulted in the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Program. Through the tiered TPP Program, OAH supports replication and evaluation of programs using models whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through rigorous evaluation and the development and testing of promising or innovative pregnancy prevention strategies and approaches. This article documents the creation of OAH and the development of the TPP Program, the identification of a TPP evidence base, current program and evaluation efforts at OAH, and government coordination and partnerships related to reducing teen pregnancy. This article is of interest to those working to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents.

  17. Historical context for the creation of the Office of Adolescent Health and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Evelyn M; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2014-03-01

    In Fiscal Year 2010, Federal funds were dedicated to support evidence-based approaches to effectively target teen pregnancy prevention and resulted in the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Program. Through the tiered TPP Program, OAH supports replication and evaluation of programs using models whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through rigorous evaluation and the development and testing of promising or innovative pregnancy prevention strategies and approaches. This article documents the creation of OAH and the development of the TPP Program, the identification of a TPP evidence base, current program and evaluation efforts at OAH, and government coordination and partnerships related to reducing teen pregnancy. This article is of interest to those working to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:24560074

  18. Adolescent Health, Services, and Pregnancy Prevention and Care Act of 1978; Hearings Before the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifty Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The hearings before the Senate Committee on Human Resources regarding the Adolescent Health, Services, and Pregnancy Prevention and Care Act of 1978 are presented in full. The purpose of the bill is stated to be to establish a program for developing networks of community-based services to prevent initial and repeat pregnancies among adolescents,…

  19. Engaging pregnant and parenting teens: early challenges and lessons learned from the Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Asheer, Subuhi; Berger, Amanda; Meckstroth, Alicia; Kisker, Ellen; Keating, Betsy

    2014-03-01

    This article draws on data from the ongoing federal Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches to discuss the early implementation experiences of two new and innovative programs intended to delay rapid repeat pregnancy among teen mothers: (1) AIM 4 Teen Moms, in Los Angeles County, California; and (2) Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy (T.O.P.P.), in Columbus, Ohio. Program staff report common challenges in working with teen mothers, particularly concerning recruitment and retention, staff capacity and training, barriers to participation, and participants' overarching service needs. Lessons learned in addressing these challenges provide useful guidance to program developers, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders working with similar populations.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  1. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  2. Family planning and adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ramiro Cartes; Roca, Carolina Gonzalez; Zamorano, Jorge Sandoval; Araya, Electra Gonzales

    2010-04-01

    High adolescent fecundity principally affects developing countries. In spite of a decrease in the incidence of pregnancies in the developing countries over the past 13 years, the differences that exist with respect to developed countries turn adolescent fecundity into an indicator of the level of development of countries. The impact of adolescent pregnancy is evident in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, in addition to the age involved in precocious pregnancy, it also reflects previous conditions such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and deficiencies in the health care given to pregnant adolescents. The most important impact lies in the psychosocial area: it contributes to a loss of self-esteem, a destruction of life projects and the maintenance of the circle of poverty. This affects both adolescent mothers and fathers; the latter have been studied very little. Intervention with comprehensive health services and the maintenance of the education of adolescent mothers and fathers prevents repeat pregnancies. Evidence shows success in the prevention of the first pregnancy when the intervention includes comprehensive sexual education, the existence of preferential sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, the handout of modern contraceptives gauged to the adolescence stage of the subjects and the existence of an information network. There is little research in contraception for adolescents, and for this reason, the indications given are projections of data obtained from adults. PMID:20167542

  3. Pregnancy in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.

  4. Roles for School Nurses in Adolescent Pregnancy: Prevention, Intervention and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Carol J.; Klahn, Julie K.

    The 1994 Nebraska Governor's round table subcommittee established the goal of lowering teenage pregnancies in the state by the year 2000. School nurses are in key positions to provide continuous support and surveillance of adolescent health through graduation. This publication presents guidelines and resources to encourage and assist school nurses…

  5. Adolescent pregnancy prevention for Hispanic youth: the role of schools, families, and communities.

    PubMed

    Brindis, C

    1992-09-01

    A sociodemographic profile of Hispanic youth is presented as well as a description of the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in this population. Strategies and recommendations that should be implemented to provide Hispanic youth with viable options and assistance in delaying early childbearing also are offered.

  6. Teen Pregnancy Prevention. A Legislator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiden, Mary

    This publication presents an overview of adolescent pregnancy, including national and state statistical information; funding sources for teen pregnancy prevention programs; examples of the effects of teen pregnancy prevention on society; illustrations of teenagers' perspectives on the issue; recent developments and initiatives in the arena of teen…

  7. Culturally Responsive Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program for Middle School Students in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477

  8. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  9. Success for Every Teen: Programs that Help Adolescents Avoid Pregnancy, Gangs, Drug Abuse, and School Drop-Out. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    This booklet describes two prevention programs, Peer Power, a program for girls, and Awareness and Development for Adolescent Males (ADAM), a program for boys. It is noted that these programs, designed to reach students before high school age, help young adolescents stay in school, delay sexual activity and pregnancy, and develop realistic career…

  10. Mediation Analysis of an Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2014-01-01

    Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…

  11. Review of Interventions in the Field of Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    This report presents an overview of programs that may have a potential for prevention of teenage pregnancy. The report starts with a summary of expert opinions on the dimensions of and solutions to the problem and then describes several relatively successful programs. Following this is an overview of interventions with an analysis of program…

  12. Office of Adolescent Health medical accuracy review process--helping ensure the medical accuracy of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program materials.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jo Anne G; Moreno, Elizabeth L; Rice, Tara M

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents.

  13. [Pregnancy and motherhood in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Desaunay, Pierre; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Gérardin, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and pregnancy are two periods which involve major psychological and identity changes. Teenage pregnancies are often considered to be a result of a confusion between these periods. The circumstances of teenage pregnancies and early motherhood are diverse and sit within the wider context of the psychopathology of adolescence, the heterogeneity of family configurations and evolutions in society. PMID:27444529

  14. Comprehensive Adolescent Pregnancy Services: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, K. A., Ed.; Langlykke, K., Ed.

    This resource guide was compiled to assist state, county, and community personnel in developing comprehensive adolescent health programs which address adolescent pregnancy, prevention, and care. It includes a broad range of topics with materials suitable for both professionals and consumers and for use by regional, state, and local government…

  15. Adolescent substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Henggeler, S W; Felice, M E; Reynoso, T; Williams, N M; Sheets, R

    1993-04-01

    Substance use during pregnancy may be a key mediator of the association between adolescent childbearing and poor newborn outcome. Substance use during pregnancy was evaluated for 50 teens who were consecutive patients at an inner-city university clinic. Although teens reported typical lifetime rates of substance use, self-reports and two urine assays indicated minimal substance use throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that the adolescents exercised judicious decision making in light of the known health risks of substance use during pregnancy.

  16. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Medical Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)

  17. Empowering adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa to prevent unintended pregnancy and HIV: A critical research gap.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sharon J; Mbizvo, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The need to prevent early pregnancy and HIV among adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa has been recognized increasingly over recent years. Although extensive work has been done to determine appropriate interventions for girls in high-income countries, very little evidence is available to guide programmatic interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available evidence has been equivocal regarding improved outcomes. While knowledge and self-reported behaviors frequently change with interventions, including those performed at the community level, educational programs, and direct contraceptive provision, downstream outcomes rarely reflect a significant effect of the interventions; however, provision of financial or other interventions to incentivize continued school enrollment are a promising development. We suggest directions for future research to fill this critical gap in the literature.

  18. Practical experience from the Office of Adolescent Health's large scale implementation of an evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation.

  19. Preventing unintended teenage pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Peckham, S

    1993-03-01

    A review of the literature on unplanned and teenage pregnancies was undertaken for four District Health Authorities. This work was carried out within a national context of increasing conception rates for teenage women aged 16 and under and in the knowledge that pregnant teenagers and their children tend to have poor life chances. The Health of the Nation White Paper has now focused attention on this by the inclusion of a target to reduce pregnancies to under 16-year-old women by half. To achieve this, health authorities need some understanding of the types of services which might be effective. Whilst there is limited evaluative work on the effectiveness of services for young people in this country, international comparisons suggest that some methods for reducing unintended teenage pregnancies may be more effective than others. The specific service issues identified are the need for advice and support pre-conceptually, during pregnancy and after abortion/birth; the need for easier access to contraception; the need for improved information on risky behaviour--particularly relating to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS and substance abuse, and the need for improved medical and social care for pregnant teenage women. The most effective approaches for preventing unintended teenage pregnancy would appear to be the development of comprehensive advisory and family planning services, including sex education and the commitment by central and local government to tackle the adverse socio-economic factors which are associated with teenage pregnancy.

  20. Repeat Pregnancies among Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lewis, Steven M.; Lohr, Mary Jane; Spencer, Michael S.; White, Rachelle D.

    1997-01-01

    Reports the results of an event history analysis of rapidly repeated pregnancies among a sample of 170 adolescents. Results show that the best fitting model for these girls included two proximate determinants of pregnancy, contraceptive use, and other factors. Findings indicate that such pregnancies among teenagers are somewhat predictable. (RJM)

  1. Efficacy of a secondary adolescent pregnancy prevention program: an ecological study before, during and after implementation of the Second Chance Club.

    PubMed

    Key, Janice D; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Judy, Natalie; McKinnon, Sarah A

    Teen mothers are at increased risk of subsequent adolescent births. Interventions to reduce secondary teen pregnancies are expensive and difficult to evaluate. An ecological evaluation compared change in the repeat teen birth rate in an intervention community in Charleston, South Carolina over time to state birth certificate data to determine the efficacy of a school-based pregnancy prevention program. Evaluation included comparison of birth rates for multigravida teens in the program's school catchment area (intervention zip codes) to selected state and community data before, during and after program implementation. The intervention community demonstrated a decrease in repeat teen births during the intervention period of the program with a rebound after it was discontinued. This trend differed from a 50% linear decrease across these time periods in the state. This low cost evaluation method may be useful for evaluation of teen pregnancy prevention programs with limited resources for program evaluation.

  2. Helping Clinicians Prevent Pregnancy among Sexually Active Adolescents: U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emily M

    2015-08-01

    The United States has made substantial progress in reducing teenage birth rates in recent decades, but rates remain high. Teen pregnancy can increase the risk of poor health outcomes and lead to decreased educational attainment, increased poverty, and welfare use, as well as increased cost to taxpayers. One of the most effective ways to prevent teenage pregnancy is through the use of effective birth control methods. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has made the prevention of teenage pregnancy 1 of its 10 winnable battles. The CDC has released 2 evidence-based clinical guideline documents regarding contraceptive use for adolescents and adults. The first guideline, US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, helps clinicians recognize when a contraceptive method may not be safe to use for a particular adolescent but also when not to withhold a contraceptive method that is safe to use. The second document, US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, provides guidance for how to use contraceptive methods safely and effectively once they are deemed safe. Health care providers are encouraged to use these documents to provide safe and effective contraceptive care to patients seeking family planning, including adolescents.

  3. Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra; Farber, Naomi

    This digest reviews trends in adolescent sexual activity and discusses conceptual and programmatic approaches to pregnancy prevention. It discusses a pregnant adolescent's choices for resolving an unplanned pregnancy (i.e. abortion, adoption, keeping the baby, and marriage), and the challenges faced by teenage parents. The final section touches on…

  4. CWLA Standards of Excellence for Services for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, Pregnant Adolescents, and Young Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This revised edition discusses how to use the standards and differentiation of Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) Standards of Excellence and the Council on Accreditation of Services for Families and Children's Standards for Accreditation. An introduction to the CWLA's standards discusses the following issues relating to teen pregnancy:…

  5. A Manual for Promoting Positive Alternatives to Adolescent Pregnancy. Better Beginnings for Virginia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elisabeth S.; And Others

    This guide advocates an alliance among diverse groups for the purpose of decreasing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and improving the outcome of pregnancies that do occur. It provides useful information for communities interested in developing pregnancy prevention activities. Statistics about adolescent pregnancies are given and the…

  6. Adolescent Pregnancy and Its Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lloyd H.

    This paper examines some probable reasons for the black adolescent male's contribution to increased pregnancy in the black community. Using a situation analysis, it presents the following testable suppositions: (1) black males' fear of retribution for impregnating a girl has diminished, leading to increased sexual intercourse and ultimately to…

  7. Adolescent pregnancy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Lorraine V

    2002-01-01

    The rates of adolescent pregnancies and births in the United States are higher than those in most industrialized nations. Fortunately, the rates of sexual activity, pregnancies, and births have declined in the last few years. Contraceptive use has increased and the induced abortion rate and ratio have also declined. The decrease in sexual activity and the increase in contraceptive use are usually attributed, at least in part, to fear of contracting HIV/AIDS. Other contributing factors may be health education programs, a changing moral climate, new contraceptives, and the improved economy. The decrease in sexual activity and increase in contraceptive use have led to the decline in the pregnancy and birth rates. The decline in induced abortions is probably due to legislation restricting access to abortion for minors, harassment of abortion facilities, and violence against abortion providers. Programs to prevent adolescent pregnancies and births have traditionally focused on health education and provision of contraceptive services. Recently there has been increased emphasis, supported by federal funds, on teaching about the value of abstinence. Another new approach has been youth development programs that provide adolescents with opportunities to interact with caring adults outside of their families and to build self-esteem, a sense of self-worth, and skills. PMID:12467178

  8. Adolescent pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.

  9. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  10. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  11. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockaday, Cathy; Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Shelley, Mack C., II; Stockdale, Dahlia F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines prospectively the characteristics contributing to adolescent pregnancy in a pregnant and comparison group of adolescents. Adolescent pregnancy in Blacks was predicted by approval of delaying a family and pursuing a career, aspirations of working, and lower educational expectations. Higher educational wishes, lower educational…

  12. Preventing pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Connors, Jean M

    2014-01-16

    In this issue of Blood, 2 articles by The Nimes Obstetricians and Hematologists–Antiphospholipid Syndrome (NOH-APS) Study Group give us new information about the effects of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on pregnancy complications in women with prior pregnancy loss and either purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) or inherited thrombophilia. The results better define women at risk, suggest a role for LMWH, and confirm the need for further investigation. PMID:24434995

  13. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F; Allen, Lisa; Millar, Debra; Brain, Philippa; Dalziel, Nancy; Dubuc, Elise; Hakim, Julie; Murphy, Deanna; Spitzer, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    Objectif : Décrire les besoins des adolescentes enceintes au Canada (y compris celles qui sont issues de populations particulières) et les pratiques factuelles propres aux soins qui doivent être offerts à ces femmes. Issues : Grossesses saines chez les adolescentes au Canada; offre de soins sûrs au plan culturel et adaptés à l’âge pour assurer l’obtention des meilleures issues possibles pour ces jeunes femmes, leurs enfants et leur famille; et réduction des taux de grossesse à répétition. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PUBMED et The Cochrane Library le 23 mai 2012, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Pregnancy in Adolescence ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « pregnancy », « teen », « youth ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs. Les résultats ont été limités aux articles publiés en anglais ou en français à partir de 1990. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’au 6 juillet 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Avantages, désavantages et coûts : La présente directive clinique a été conçue pour aider les praticiens canadiens à offrir aux adolescentes enceintes des soins

  14. Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691

  15. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  16. Preventing unplanned pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hawken, C

    1978-03-25

    A two-year study was undertaken in 1975--1976 to plan, implement and evaluate innovatory family planning educational and service delivery pilot projects, among those at-risk in Sydney. The study was done in three stages, described in the three parts of this paper. Part 1 describes the process of analyzing the major factors and outcomes in unplanned pregnancy and determining some characteristics of women experiencing unplanned pregnancies, from abortion and adoption records. The characteristics analyzed are: are, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, and ethnic group. Part II describes the process of determing acceptable communication channels and services they would use. Twenty-five women were interviewed in each of eight at-risk categories. Recommendations are made about suitable educational methods, and family planning services. Part 3 describes the implementation and evaluation of pilot projects. Four major projects are described: (i) in a two lower socio-economic housing area(s), (ii) among Greek men, (iii) among South Americans, and (iv) in two factories. Recommendations are made about future educational programmes and services. PMID:661707

  17. Preventing unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J F

    1991-09-14

    This editorial comments on the recent report of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on unplanned pregnancy. This report followed up an earlier report which recommended that the NHS make freely available contraceptive services. Even though this came to fruition, abortion rates continued to rise. In 1990, 174,000 legal abortions were performed in England and Wales, of which 33% were women 20 years. The current report reviewed education and contraceptive services with particular emphasis on teenagers. Unwanted teenage pregnancy was attributed to the lack of education on family planning and related issues in schools. The proposal is for a flexible sex education curriculum with specially trained teachers. Curriculum would be established in national guidelines. A suggested improvement was the addition of seminars for parents and school governors on sex education, even though this means competing with GCSE's. The media should take responsibility for focusing on contraception as a benefit if it continues to promote the delights of sexual intercourse. It is pointed out the emergency contraceptive knowledge is poor. A Family Planning Association (FPA) survey reports that only 1 out of 2 pharmacists receives requests about emergency contraception. Another FPA unpublished study shows that 500 out of 1000 women receiving legal abortions did not use any form of contraception before conception. The need for emergency contraception an appropriate clinic facilities is emphasized. The report also strongly disagrees with the closing of clinics which has been ongoing since the 1974 transfer of FPA clinics to the NHS. The district health authorities must function on a restricted budget while general practitioners in FP are paid from unrestricted funds. Community family planning clinics and general practitioners in the NHS differ considerably in the services offered. Practitioners offer oral contraceptives generally, while clinics provide a wide range of methods. NHS

  18. Preventing unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J F

    1991-09-14

    This editorial comments on the recent report of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on unplanned pregnancy. This report followed up an earlier report which recommended that the NHS make freely available contraceptive services. Even though this came to fruition, abortion rates continued to rise. In 1990, 174,000 legal abortions were performed in England and Wales, of which 33% were women 20 years. The current report reviewed education and contraceptive services with particular emphasis on teenagers. Unwanted teenage pregnancy was attributed to the lack of education on family planning and related issues in schools. The proposal is for a flexible sex education curriculum with specially trained teachers. Curriculum would be established in national guidelines. A suggested improvement was the addition of seminars for parents and school governors on sex education, even though this means competing with GCSE's. The media should take responsibility for focusing on contraception as a benefit if it continues to promote the delights of sexual intercourse. It is pointed out the emergency contraceptive knowledge is poor. A Family Planning Association (FPA) survey reports that only 1 out of 2 pharmacists receives requests about emergency contraception. Another FPA unpublished study shows that 500 out of 1000 women receiving legal abortions did not use any form of contraception before conception. The need for emergency contraception an appropriate clinic facilities is emphasized. The report also strongly disagrees with the closing of clinics which has been ongoing since the 1974 transfer of FPA clinics to the NHS. The district health authorities must function on a restricted budget while general practitioners in FP are paid from unrestricted funds. Community family planning clinics and general practitioners in the NHS differ considerably in the services offered. Practitioners offer oral contraceptives generally, while clinics provide a wide range of methods. NHS

  19. [Adolescent pregnancy: the drama of the child-mothers].

    PubMed

    Monterosa Castro, A

    1993-12-01

    According to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey, 21% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are adolescents aged 15-19. Research throughout the world has revealed that young people are initiating their sexual lives at ever earlier ages, due to earlier sexual maturation, constant erotic stimuli, and a mistaken understanding of sexuality. A Colombian survey showed that 49% of males and 11% of females had sex by age 18. Earlier sexual activity is leading to increased incidence of unwanted pregnancy. 78 of each 1000 adolescents become mothers each year. Among adolescents aged 16-18 with positive pregnancy tests at the Profamilia Adolescent Clinic in Bogota, 80% did not use contraception and 85% did not with to be pregnant. Unwanted adolescent pregnancy is usually traumatic, with implications for all areas of life. None of the options open to an adolescent with an undesired pregnancy is desirable. Keeping the baby exposes the mother to ostracism and rejection by the family, expulsion from school, and societal rejection. Forced marriages almost always end in separation. Adoption leads to frustration and feelings of guilt in the future. Abortion in Colombia is illegal and exposes the women to emotional and physical trauma and to risk of death or injury. The unwanted child is at risk of mistreatment, abandonment, or rejection. A demographic survey by Profamilia showed that 25% of Colombian women are mothers by age 19. 62% of uneducated adolescents are mothers by this age. Low educational level is associated with early pregnancy and limited economic opportunity. Adolescents are at higher risk of pregnancy complications due to physiological immaturity, stress, poor adaptability to pregnancy, and inadequate prenatal care. Adolescent pregnancy should be prevented. The prevention should be achieved through integrated sex education beginning at the first contact of the child with the world outside the family. The child should learn basic concepts of self-esteem, values, and

  20. Impact of Two Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Interventions on Risky Sexual Behavior: A Three-Arm Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Michael R.; van Zyl, Michiel A.; Antle, Becky F.; Langley, Cheri N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. Methods. The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial of 1448 impoverished youths, aged 14 to 19 years, in 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, Kentucky, from September 2011 through March 2014. Results. At 3 and 6 months, compared with the control condition, youths in RTR reported fewer sexual partners and greater use of birth control. At 6 months, LN participants reported greater use of birth control and condoms, fewer sexual partners, and were less likely to have ever had sex compared with the control condition. Conclusions. We provided additional evidence for the continued efficacy of RTR and the first rigorous study of LN, which embeds sex education into a larger curriculum on healthy relationships and violence prevention. PMID:27689500

  1. Childhood victimization: relationship to adolescent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; McAnarney, E R

    1994-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a common antecedents of adolescent pregnancy. We studied the pregnancies of 127 poor, black, 12- to 18-year-olds; 42 (33%) of whom reported that they had been physically or sexually abused prior to conception. We hypothesized that during pregnancy: (a) Previously abused adolescents report more stress and depression and less adequate social support than do nonabused adolescents; and (b) Previously abused adolescents obtain less prenatal care, gain less weight, engage in more substance abuse, and give birth to smaller babies than do nonabused adolescents. Consistent with the first study hypothesis, we found that abused adolescents scored significantly higher on stress and depression scales and rated their families as less supportive than did nonabused adolescents. Although there were no group differences in the rate of weight gain or the quantity of prenatal care obtained during pregnancy, abused adolescents were more likely to report substance use during pregnancy and gave birth to significantly smaller, (2,904 +/- 676 vs. 3,198 +/- 443 grams; p = .01), less mature (38.0 +/- 3.4 vs. 39.1 +/- 1.7 weeks; p = .05) infants. Our finding demonstrate the importance of asking pregnant adolescents about abuse. PMID:7922731

  2. Pregnancy Prevention among Latina Adolescents--The Role of Social Capital and Cultural Norms: An Interview with Dr. Claire Brindis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Dr. Brindis and her colleagues compared four communities with high poverty and lower than average birth rates among Latina adolescents, with four communities which also had high poverty but had higher than average birth rates among Latina adolescents. Their goal was to examine the social capital and cultural norms within these…

  3. Gang Exposure and Pregnancy Incidence among Female Adolescents in San Francisco: Evidence for the Need to Integrate Reproductive Health with Violence Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, AM; Moore, JG; Doherty, IA; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, NS

    2014-01-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14–19 recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco we examined the relationship between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over two years of follow-up. Using discrete-time survival analysis we investigated whether individual and partner gang membership were associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors and pregnancy intentions mediated the relationship between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Seventy-seven percent of participants were Latinas, with one in five born outside the U.S. One-quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants’ gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (HR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.32). Perceived male partner’s pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner’s gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

  4. Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2008-05-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

  5. Adolescent Pregnancy and Poverty: Implications for Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clara L.

    Adolescent pregnancy is examined from 2 viewpoints: (1) the marital status of young adolescent girls who become mothers at a too young age is less relevant to the social problem of adolescent pregnancy than the attendant adverse effects, i.e., adolescent pregnancy, per se, rather than illegitimacy is the social problem; and (2) too early marriage…

  6. Applied Research and Counseling Practice: A Comprehensive Strategy To Promote the Prevention of Adolescents Pregnancies among Underclass Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael

    It is important to bridge the gap between clinical research and counseling practice. The "I Have a Future" (IHAF) program was designed by professionals affiliated with Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee to serve inner-city African American youths identified as "high risk" for premature pregnancies, drug/alcohol abuse, crime, and youth…

  7. [Inadvertent adolescent pregnancy: a sentinel analysis].

    PubMed

    Marciano, Beatriz E; García Arrigoni, Patricia; Challer, Eduardo; Califano, Paula; Dackiewicz, Nora

    2014-02-01

    A sentinel event is an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof.The sentinel event identified was undiagnosed adolescent pregnancy before the indication of potentially harmful treatments or diagnostic methods. The team performed a root -cause analysis where the following causes were identified: a) Paediatrician bias: not thinking about adolescent sexual behaviour, incomplete questionnaires, insufficient training in adolescent interviews. b) Social factors: legal issues, ambiguous contraceptive recommendations. c) Hospital factors: lack of guidelines for counselling adolescents. d) Host risk factors: cultural barriers, lack of confidence. Regardless of any previous negative pregnancy test results, any time that a new potentially harmful procedure is indicated in a fertile female patient, a test of pregnancy diagnosed might be performed.

  8. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  9. Adolescent Pregnancy in an Urban Environment: Issues, Programs, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Janet B.; Zabin, Laurie Schwab

    An in-depth discussion of national and local statistics regarding teenage and adolescent pregnancy and the developmental issues involved opens this analysis. Problems and adverse consequences of adolescent pregnancy in an urban setting are explored using a city-wide random sample of adolescent births. A model pregnancy and parenting program and…

  10. Three Strategies to Prevent Unintended Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from fiscal impact simulations of three national-level policies designed to prevent unintended pregnancy: A media campaign encouraging condom use, a pregnancy prevention program for at-risk youth, and an expansion in Medicaid family planning services. These simulations were performed using FamilyScape, a recently…

  11. Tailoring Clinical Services to Address the Unique Needs of Adolescents from the Pregnancy Test to Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Alison Moriarty; Sadler, Lois S.; Reynolds, Heather Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians across disciplines and practice settings are likely to encounter adolescents who are at risk for a pregnancy. In 2010, 34.2/1000 15–19 year old teens had a live birth in the United States, many more will seek care for a pregnancy scare or options counseling. Teen mothers are also at risk for a second or higher order pregnancy during adolescence. This paper provides clinicians with adolescent-friendly clinical and counseling strategies for pregnancy prevention, pre- and post-pregnancy test counseling, pregnancy-related care, and a review of the developmental challenges encountered by teens in the transition to parenthood. Clinicians are in a better position to approach the developmental, health and mental health needs of adolescents related to pregnancy if they understand and appreciate the obstacles adolescents may face negotiating the health care system. In addition, when clinical services are specially tailored to the needs of the adolescent, fewer opportunities will be lost to prevent unintended pregnancies, assist teens into timely prenatal services, and improve outcomes for their pregnancies and the transition to parenthood. PMID:23522339

  12. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  13. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  14. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients from Longitudinal Group-Randomized Trials of Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…

  15. School-based adolescent pregnancy classes.

    PubMed

    Podgurski, M J

    1993-01-01

    School-based adolescent pregnancy classes provide the childbirth educator with a unique opportunity to be visible to students. Attitudes about sexuality and pregnancy can be changed within the mainstream population by the presence of prepared childbirth classes at schools. The problems of absenteeism and denial of pregnancy that result in late reporting to health care providers can be minimized. The expectant teen-ager can be encouraged to attend school and given self-confidence in assuming the role of a parent after birth. Support can be engendered from faculty, students, and the teen-ager's support person.

  16. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Mark; Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen; Nettleman, Mary; Sobell, Linda; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Ceperich, Sherry; von Sternberg, Kirk; Bolton, Burt; Skarpness, Bradley; Nagaraja, Jyothi

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Design A randomized controlled trial (2002–2005; data analyzed 2005–2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk drinking and ineffective contraception use. Setting/Participants A total of 830 nonpregnant women, aged 18–44 years, and currently at risk for an AEP were recruited in six diverse settings in Florida, Texas, and Virginia. Combined settings had higher proportions of women at risk for AEP (12.5% overall) than in the general population (2%). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive information plus a brief motivational intervention (n=416) or to receive information only (n=414). The brief motivational intervention consisted of four counseling sessions and one contraception consultation and services visit. Main Outcome Measures Women consuming more than five drinks on any day or more than eight drinks per week on average, were considered risk drinkers; women who had intercourse without effective contraception were considered at risk of pregnancy. Reversing either or both risk conditions resulted in reduced risk of an AEP. Results Across the follow-up period, the odds ratios (ORs) of being at reduced risk for AEP were twofold greater in the intervention group: 3 months, 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69–3.20); 6 months, 2.15 (CI=1.52–3.06); 9 months, 2.11 (CI=1.47–3.03). Between-groups differences by time phase were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 14. 8%, respectively. Conclusions A brief motivational intervention can reduce the risk of an AEP. PMID:17218187

  17. Nutrition & Adolescent Pregnancy: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography on nutrition and adolescent pregnancy is intended to be a source of technical assistance for nurses, nutritionists, physicians, educators, social workers, and other personnel concerned with improving the health of teenage mothers and their babies. It is divided into two major sections. The first section lists selected…

  18. Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing: Findings from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.; And Others

    Issues and trends related to adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the United States are discussed in the 12 papers collected in this publication. Chapters I and II delineate trends in teenage childbearing and explore aspects of psychosocial development and social problems associated with teenage illegitimacy. Chapters III and IV describe…

  19. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  20. The pediatrician's role in assisting teenagers to avoid the consequences of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, J L

    1993-02-01

    There are ways in which the practicing pediatrician can help adolescent prevent pregnancy or improve the outcome of pregnancy. Clearly, each practitioner will have to decide what services will work best within his or her practice as well as for the community.

  1. Bridging progestogens in pregnancy and pregnancy prevention

    PubMed Central

    Micks, Elizabeth; Raglan, Greta B; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones have been in use for more than a half a century as contraceptive agents, and only now are researchers elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of action and non-target effects. Progesterone and synthetic progestins, critical for women's health in the US and internationally, appear to have important effects on immune functioning and other diverse systems. Apart from the contraceptive world is a separate field that is devoted to understanding progesterone in other contexts. Based on research following a development timeline parallel to hormonal contraception, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate are now administered to prevent preterm birth in high-risk pregnant women. Preterm birth researchers are similarly working to determine the precise biochemical actions and immunological effects of progesterone. Progesterone research in both areas could benefit from increased collaboration and bringing these two bodies of literature together. Progesterone, through actions on various hormone receptors, has lifelong importance in different organ systems and researchers have much to learn about this molecule from the combination of existing literatures, and from future studies that build on this combined knowledge base. PMID:26581227

  2. Prevention of the Teenage Pregnancy Epidemic: A Social Learning Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenhoff, Carol; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The review provides a social learning model for explaining adolescent sexual behavior and use/nonuse of contraceptives. The model explains behavior patterns responsible for epidemic rates of teenage pregnancies, suggests research that will result in prevention of teenage pregnancies, and incorporates a range of social/cultural factors. (DB)

  3. Teenage Pregnancy from a Black Perspective: Some Reflections on Its Prevention. Occasional Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.; Montgomery, Teresa A.

    This paper focuses on the causes, consequences and prevention of the alarming number of pregnancies among black teenagers. Teenage pregnancy is a symptom of the failure to have one's basic spiritual, intellectual/emotional, and physical needs met. Unmet infantile needs cause adolescents to search for romantic relationships in which they can…

  4. Endocrine problems of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molitch, M E

    1993-09-01

    A number of changes in renal and endocrine physiology occur during pregnancy that alter hormone levels and affect a number of disease processes. Increased glomerular filtration causes an increase in hormone and substrate clearance. Increased placental steroid production causes an increase in hormone-binding globulin production, insulin resistance, and prolactinoma growth. Production of peptide hormones may cause changes in normal physiology and alter dynamic hormone testing. Placental vasopressinase increases vasopressin clearance. A number of diseases of hormone overproduction and underproduction affect pregnancy outcome and must be treated promptly by therapeutic modalities that also may affect the fetus.

  5. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  6. Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolli, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

  7. Preventing Teenage Pregnancy: Contributions from Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to prevent unintended teen pregnancy seem to have ignored emotional motivations in romantic relationships. Proposes a model that may provide mental-health counselors with a theoretical-research base for interventions and programming designed to enhance teens' romantic relationships while simultaneously preventing unwanted consequences such…

  8. The Psychosocial Meaning of Pregnancy among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Lucille C.; Alatorre-Rico, Javier

    Adolescent childbearing has historically been a relatively frequent phenomenon in Mexico and has only recently begun to decline. This study was designed to identify to what extent urban Mexican adolescents, who became pregnant out-of-wedlock and who carried their pregnancy to term, received social support during pregnancy and their emotional…

  9. Teen pregnancy prevention: do any programs work?

    PubMed

    Card, J J

    1999-01-01

    This paper begins with a review of the problem of teen pregnancy in the United States. Domestic trends are compared with those of other developed countries. Antecedents of the problem are discussed. New developments in addressing the problem are then described, including the following: (a) a renewed emphasis on abstinence on the one hand; (b) a move toward a more positive view of teen sexuality on the other; (c) the development of new prevention initiatives such as STD/HIV/AIDS prevention programs, community-wide teen pregnancy prevention collaboratives, broad-based youth development programs, and state and local government initiatives; and (d) the lauching of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. An analysis of the different ways in which the problem can be framed and the implications for solutions of the problem follow. Examples of promising teen pregnancy and STD/HIV/AIDS prevention programs are provided. The paper ends with a recommendation for an eclectic approach to framing the problem and possible solutions. PMID:10352859

  10. Adolescent Stress, Coping, and Academic Persistence in Rural Appalachia: The Unacknowledged Import of Early Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Linda; Bickel, Robert

    This paper examines pregnancy in early adolescence, among West Virginia females aged 10-14, as it relates to local economic and social contexts. Although research on adolescent pregnancy is substantial, it is generally limited to the experiences of older adolescents and premised on assumptions of methodological individualism--that the correlates…

  11. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between pregnancy and…

  12. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  13. Pregnancy among Urban African-American Teens: Ambivalence about Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Aria Davis; Haynie, Denise L.; Aarons, Sigrid J.; Adair, Elissa; Woodward, Kathy; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups with nonparenting, urban, African-American females examined their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, the social impact of teen pregnancy, and contraception. Results indicated that though the adolescents believed pregnancy and parenting were best delayed until later, they felt they were common, manageable experiences with plenty of…

  14. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  15. School-based model for preventing teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P

    1982-01-01

    Social workers in the schools can take positive and immediate action to address teenage pregnancy through the use of interventive models that help teenagers avoid the risk of unwanted pregnancy. The present article describes and empirically supports 1 such school-based model. The author 1st delineates the major problems associated with teenage pregnancy and then relates the preventive model to prior research and details its implementation in school settings. A discussion of reslults from the model's field evaluation is followed with implications for school social workers. The model reported here is directed to all adolescents rather than focusing on a "high-risk" population. The risk of pregnancy is assumed to be a normal part of adolescent development. Grounded in an intterpersonal conceptualization of teenage pregnancy and in related empirical research, the school-based model helps young men and women acquire the requisite skills for preventing unwanted pregnancy. The program requires school social workers to meet with 12-18 teenage students of both sexes and to provide them with basic information on human sexuality, reproduction and contraception. These topics are covered by lectures, demostrations, discussion and audiovisual presentations. Through instruction, feedback and reinforcement, student learn how to talk about sensitive topics, stand up for their rights and be convincing and effective when carrying out decisions. Homework assignments are designed to develop the students'skills in interactions with dating partners, parents and friends. The clinical applicability and effectiveness of this prevention training model is documented through a study conducted in an urban high school. 36 informed and consenting sophomores of both sexes were randomly assigned either to an interventive group or to a non-treatment control group. Compared to the latter, the former had more accurate knowledge of human reproduction and contraception after the intervention

  16. The Prevention of Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Beardslee, William R.; O’Connor, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article provides a conceptual framework for research on the prevention of depression in youth and reviews the recent literature on prevention efforts targeting children and adolescents. Prevention efforts should target both specific and non-specific risk factors, enhance protective factors, use a developmental approach, and target selective and/or indicated samples. In general, a review of the literature indicates that prevention programs utilizing cognitive behavioral and/or interpersonal approaches, and family-based prevention strategies, are most helpful. Overall, it appears that there is reason for hope regarding the role of interventions in preventing depressive disorders in youth. Several new directions for future research on the prevention of depression in youth were outlined. PMID:21333838

  17. Reproductive health disparities: a focus on family planning and prevention among minority women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haider, Sadia; Stoffel, Cynthia; Donenberg, Geri; Geller, Stacie

    2013-09-01

    Minority women and adolescent females of all races and ethnicities are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy in the United States. Adolescents also experience an additional proportion of the burden compared to other age groups, as 82% of pregnancies among women 19 years old and younger are unintended. Moreover, minority and adolescent mothers are at increased risk for having preterm deliveries, low birth weight infants, and other complications. Unintended pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in the United States, and prevention through family planning is urgently needed. This review presents an overview of the US demographics for unintended pregnancy among both minority and adolescent women and identifies current and past eüorts to reduce unintended pregnancy, specifically among minority and adolescent females, through contraception and family-planning programs.

  18. School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?

    PubMed

    Males, M

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) reduction has not occurred, despite sexuality education and abstinence programs, and intensive publicity and community initiatives. An obstacle to adolescent pregnancy, STD, and childbearing prevention is the assumption that adolescent sexuality is a closed system of activity among peers. When a nation is consumed with the preoccupation of condoms versus chastity debates, and is ignoring high poverty levels and abuse of the young, adolescent girls will seek escape from harsh childhoods in early family formation with young adult men. There is a high correlation between poverty rates and teenage birth, AIDS, and STD rates. Schools are not able to produce magical solutions to teenage pregnancy when adult lawmakers abnegate their responsibility to provide for youth well-being. Adolescent pregnancy will occur regardless of the expansion of curative programs such as school-based clinics; fundamental changes in assumptions, attitudes, and policies are needed. Beneficial aspects of programming appear to be fact-based sexuality and contraceptive education, counseling and referrals for youths with histories of child abuse, and child care classes and flexible school schedules for parenting students. A statistical profile in California indicates that 85% of all fathers of babies born to girls between ages of 11 and 18 years were adults. More than 50% of mothers aged 11-15 years were impregnated by adult men. Fathers' average age for births among junior high school mothers was 15-26 years, when the youngest and the oldest 2.5% of fathers are eliminated. There is a greater likelihood that a man older than 23 years will impregnate a junior high girl than will a junior high boy. The partner age gap is greatest among the very young girls. The California profile of father's age is similar to birth patterns in other states and similar to the national average. An examination of STDs shows a higher rate of STDs among females

  19. Adolescent pregnancy: combating the problem from a multi-systemic health perspective.

    PubMed

    Atwood, J D; Donnelly, J W

    1993-01-01

    Presented is a multi-systemic theoretical model of adolescent pregnancy that incorporates the school-peer-family-community systems and defines a role for health educators. It is noted that teenagers receive conflicting messages from the adolescent socialization community--all the institutions, individuals, and mass media that influence and shape development. To cope with these multiple, inconsistent messages, many adolescents respond with inconsistent behavior given the impossibility of pleasing all sources of influence. Health educators must coordinate the school-peer-family-community systems to achieve more congruence and less competition surrounding inputs into the daily life of young people. The potential to disseminate sex education is greatest in the school context, where information can be provided on a systematic, regular basis to reinforce learning. Since peers are a major reference group during adolescence, per counseling can be used effectively to discuss factors that lead to unwanted pregnancy and help clarify values. Sex education programs are strengthened by the involvement of parents, and interventions aimed at promoting parent-child communication around sexual issues have been demonstrated to delay the onset of sexual activity. The availability of an adolescent health clinic, either in the school or close by, has been shown to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Overall, the most effective adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are those that are comprehensive in substance and duration.

  20. Pregnancy risk among the younger sisters of pregnant and childbearing adolescents.

    PubMed

    East, P L; Felice, M E

    1992-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that younger sisters of childbearing teenagers are at increased risk for adolescent childbearing. We critically review this research and discuss three plausible theoretical explanations (social modeling, shared parenting influences, and shared societal risk) why the younger sisters of childbearing adolescents would themselves be at risk for teenage pregnancy. Considerations for preventive interventions aimed at the younger sisters of pregnant teenagers and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:1577959

  1. Complications in adolescent pregnancy: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075

  2. Appalachian Adolescent Health Education Project (AAHEP) Evaluation: A Study of Teen Pregnancy in East Tennessee (1982-1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie E.; And Others

    The Appalachian Adolescent Health and Education Project (AAHEP), in operation for 3 years, is a program designed to reduce adolescent pregnancy rates (prevention component) and provide care for pregnant teenagers (care component) in East Tennessee. Limitations in funding and service delivery prompted the AAHEP to modify its 15-county scope by…

  3. The PASHA Program Sourcebook: Promising Teen Pregnancy and STD/HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Josefina J., Ed.; Becker, Stephani R., Ed.; Hill, Denise M. K., Ed.

    By providing in-depth descriptions of the 23 promising programs available from the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adolescence (PASHA), the "PASHA Program Sourcebook" offers practitioners a detailed look at "what works" to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency…

  4. Social and Affective Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Study examined perceptions of pregnancy, including life-expectations, desire for pregnancy, and knowledge of menstrual cycle in a sample of pregnant urban adolescents. Results indicate that, although teens were aware of birth control methods, they had little understanding of menstrual cycle and its relationship to intercourse. And while few…

  5. An "Epidemic" of Adolescent Pregnancy? Some Historical and Policy Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    Adolescent pregnancy (AP) is explored from historical and policy perspectives. The "epidemic" of AP, with 4 out of every 10 teenage girls becoming pregnant, is typically portrayed as a recent and unprecedented problem that requires massive federal intervention, but the problem is not new. Chapter 1 analyzes adolescent sexuality, AP, and…

  6. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Prevention, diagnosis, and therapy].

    PubMed

    Russo, M

    1994-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem. Infection of a pregnant woman can result in severe fetal morbidity or in subclinical neonatal infection; most subclinical cases will develop ocular and neurological sequelae. Fetal infection and clinical outcome is related to when in pregnancy toxoplasmosis was acquired. The risk of transmission increases from 14% in the first trimester to 29% in the second and 59% in the third. Conversely, clinical damage decreases from about 80% in the first to 10% in the third trimester, but up to 50% of patients with subclinical congenital toxoplasmosis will develop neurologic and ocular sequelae. Congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented by identification of non immune women at the beginning of pregnancy, by giving information on how to avoid the infection and by a serological follow-up until the delivery. Serological follow-up is based on repeated testing for specific IgG and IgM, but other serologic methods are necessary to differentiate between acute and chronic infections and possibly on a single serum sample. Procedures to detect fetal infection are ultrasound examination, cordocentesis and amniocentesis; prenatal diagnosis relies on demonstration of toxoplasma in fetal blood or amniotic fluid by mouse inoculation. Very promising results have recently obtained by the PCR-method applied to amniotic fluid samples. All strongly suspected cases of acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy have to be treated.

  7. Preventing Adolescent Relapse: Concepts, Theories and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.; Ressler, Robert A.

    This chapter discusses adolescent drug abuse relapse prevention. It presents the following four conclusions regarding the efficacy of prevention programs. First, more controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of relapse prevention strategies with adolescents in reducing factors such as cravings and increasing their…

  8. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  9. Focus on young men in pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.

  10. Public policy and adolescent pregnancy: a reexamination of the issues.

    PubMed

    Montessoro, A C; Blixen, C E

    1996-01-01

    In the United States 45% of female adolescents engage in premarital sex; 40% will become pregnant before reaching the age of 20; and 4/5 of these pregnancies will be unintended. Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with increased health risks for both the mother and the child. Only 6 in 10 adolescents will graduate from high school compared with 9 in 10 of their peers who delayed parenthood. The increasing number of single-parent families has contributed significantly to the increase in child poverty rates from 15% in 1960 to 20.3% in 1988. Further, such families cost billions of dollars to taxpayers because of public assistance and medical care. From a historical viewpoint the number of teen childbearing reached a peak in 1957 with 97.3 births per 1000 women 15-17 years old; it declined to 52.8/1000 by 1977 and to 51.8/1000 by the 1980s. The legalization of abortion in 1973 had a major impact on the resolution of adolescent pregnancies. Since the 1960s there has been a faster increase in early sexual activity, pregnancy, and birth among White adolescents than among minority groups. The United States has higher rates than western European countries, while it is also more ambivalent on sexuality issues. Tremendous change did take place in the 1960s in American culture as regards the family, and social and sexual relationships. Yet there is still a double standard with respect to female morality, and adolescents get a conflicting message about sexuality. Teenage mothers and their infants face an uncertain economic future because the much maligned welfare system is undergoing an overhaul and the market is shrinking for unskilled workers. Although increasing numbers of pregnant adolescents remained in school after amendments were passed to the education act, adolescent pregnancy has not been tackled at its very footing, its socioeconomic causes.

  11. Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    DiCenso, Alba; Guyatt, Gordon; Willan, A; Griffith, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of primary prevention strategies aimed at delaying sexual intercourse, improving use of birth control, and reducing incidence of unintended pregnancy in adolescents. Data sources 12 electronic bibliographic databases, 10 key journals, citations of relevant articles, and contact with authors. Study selection 26 trials described in 22 published and unpublished reports that randomised adolescents to an intervention or a control group (alternate intervention or nothing). Data extraction Two independent reviewers assessed methodological quality and abstracted data. Data synthesis The interventions did not delay initiation of sexual intercourse in young women (pooled odds ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.30) or young men (0.99; 0.84 to 1.16); did not improve use of birth control by young women at every intercourse (0.95; 0.69 to 1.30) or at last intercourse (1.05; 0.50 to 2.19) or by young men at every intercourse (0.90; 0.70 to 1.16) or at last intercourse (1.25; 0.99 to 1.59); and did not reduce pregnancy rates in young women (1.04; 0.78 to 1.40). Four abstinence programmes and one school based sex education programme were associated with an increase in number of pregnancies among partners of young male participants (1.54; 1.03 to 2.29). There were significantly fewer pregnancies in young women who received a multifaceted programme (0.41; 0.20 to 0.83), though baseline differences in this study favoured the intervention. Conclusions Primary prevention strategies evaluated to date do not delay the initiation of sexual intercourse, improve use of birth control among young men and women, or reduce the number of pregnancies in young women. What is already known on this topicUnintended pregnancies among adolescents pose a considerable problem for the young parents, the child, and societyWhat this study addsPrimary prevention strategies evaluated to date do not delay the initiation of sexual intercourse or improve use of

  12. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  13. DEET Repellents Safe in Pregnancy to Prevent Zika, Researchers Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... html DEET Repellents Safe in Pregnancy to Prevent Zika, Researchers Say Analysis of available evidence on the ... used as instructed to prevent infection with the Zika virus, a new research analysis suggests. Exposure to ...

  14. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use.

  15. Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Support. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    This introductory packet is designed to help those with an interest in preventing teen pregnancy. It opens with "A Brief Introduction to Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Support," an essay by the Center for Mental Health in Schools of the University of California, Los Angeles, that outlines the dimensions of the problem. "A Quick Overview of Some…

  16. Adaptation Guidance for Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy and STI/HIV Prevention Curricula: From Development to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleri, Lori A.; Fuller, Taleria R.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Moore, Claire; Leeks, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field.…

  17. [Adolescent pregnancy, a public health problem].

    PubMed

    Viel Vicuna, B

    1986-01-01

    Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.

  18. Associations of Adolescent Hopelessness and Self-Worth With Pregnancy Attempts and Pregnancy Desire

    PubMed Central

    Fedorowicz, Anna R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Bolland, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. Methods. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Results. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. Conclusions. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success. PMID:24922147

  19. [Abortions and prevention of pregnancies in 1992].

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Wichmann, B

    1994-03-01

    In January 1994, the Health Service published its statistics about pregnancy prevention and abortion in 1991 and 1992. The number of legal abortions was 19,729 in 1991 and 18,833 in 1992, which was the lowest figure since the law was introduced about elective abortion in 1973. 2623 fewer abortions were carried out in 1992 than five years before. The general abortion rate decreased from 15.8 in 1990 to 14.9 in 1992 (it was the highest in 1975 with 23.7). The age-specific abortion rate fell mostly in the 18-29 age group, with fewer in the 15-19 and 30-34 age groups. The number of children who were born to women over 40 increased from 390 in 1982 to 864 in 1992, while the birth rate of women under 20 decreased to almost half. The abortion rate was the highest in large cities, it was about 2.5 times higher than in the county of Ringkobing, which had the lowest rate, especially in the age groups under 25 years. The combined abortion rate (per 1000 women of reproductive age) was 578 in 1982, 540 in 1990, and 505 in 1992. 97.5% of abortions were performed within 12 weeks of pregnancy in accordance with the abortion law. 2% of abortions were carried out because of the woman's health or for social indications. 80% of abortions were performed in the 10th week of pregnancy mostly with vacuum aspiration. Complications decreased compared to previous years, and made up 2.6% of all abortions in 1992, mainly bleeding and, for 1/5 of them, inflammatory conditions. Half of the women who underwent an abortion in 1992 had given birth to at least one living child, 8% to more than three. Half of the 20% of women who could given birth but chose abortion had given birth in the previous two years and 27% within less than a year before abortion. The number of spontaneous abortions was 10,717 in 1991 and 10,605 in 1992, about 1000 fewer than in 1990. The number of male sterilizations fell from 2784 in 1991 to 1722 in 1992, and female sterilizations from 4777 to 4429. About 13 million condoms

  20. Examining the links between perceived impact of pregnancy, depressive symptoms, and quality of life during adolescent pregnancy: the buffering role of social support.

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the indirect effect of the perceived impact of pregnancy on quality of life (QoL) through the severity of depressive symptoms among a sample of pregnant adolescents, and to explore whether adolescents' satisfaction with support from their mothers (SM) or partners (SP) was a buffer of this effect. Demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected for 395 pregnant adolescents age 12-19 and were controlled for testing the proposed indirect effect. SM and SP were tested as moderators of the links between perceived impact of pregnancy and depressive symptoms and between depressive symptoms and QoL. A computational tool for path analysis-based moderation and mediation analysis as well as their combination was used to test indirect and interaction effects (PROCESS). A significant indirect effect of the perceived impact of pregnancy on QoL through the severity of depressive symptoms was found (0.51, CI = 0.29/0.78). There was no significant direct effect of the perceived impact of pregnancy on QoL after controlling for the severity of depressive symptoms. SM and SP buffered the indirect effect by weakening the association between a negative perception of the impact of pregnancy and higher severity of depressive symptoms. Identifying adolescents with a negative perception of the impact of pregnancy, improving the quality of their relations with their mothers and partners, and promoting satisfactory support from these figures may be extremely important to prevent and treat depressive symptoms and, in so doing, improve adolescents' QoL during pregnancy.

  1. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting.

    PubMed

    East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Barber, Jennifer S

    2012-02-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents' lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents' poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents' wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents' poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences.

  2. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials. PMID:3602637

  3. Listening to youth: teen perspectives on pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Hacker, K A; Amare, Y; Strunk, N; Horst, L

    2000-04-01

    This survey determined the views of public high school students on teen pregnancy prevention. The authors hypothesized that students at varying risk for pregnancy would have differing views, which would have implications for future pregnancy prevention programming. A 75-question anonymous survey was designed and administered in 6 Boston high schools. A total of 1000 10th- and 11th-grade students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds completed the questionnaire. The overall analysis showed that 63% of the students had had sexual intercourse: 72% of males and 54% of females. Among these, 35% were consistent contraceptors and 65% were inconsistent. Teens enumerated the factors that will prevent teen pregnancy. These include having more information on pregnancy and birth control (52%), education about relationships (33%), parental communication (32%), improved contraceptive access (31%), and education about parenting realities (30%). Moreover, abstinent, consistent contraceptors, and inconsistent contraceptors had different preferences regarding strategies. Such findings have important implications for educational content and policy discussions.

  4. The Carerra Model: A Success in Pregnancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elling, Duane M.

    This document outlines the development, evaluation, and replication of the Carrera model for pregnancy prevention. The Carerra model helps teens avoid pregnancy by empowering them to develop and reach personal goals, and by providing them with information on sexual issues, including abstinence, contraception, and the consequences of sexual…

  5. Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kakuru, Abel; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Muhindo, Mary K.; Natureeba, Paul; Awori, Patricia; Nakalembe, Miriam; Opira, Bishop; Olwoch, Peter; Ategeka, John; Nayebare, Patience; Clark, Tamara D.; Feeney, Margaret E.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Havlir, Diane V.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intermittent treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine is widely recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women in Africa. However, with the spread of resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine, new interventions are needed. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving 300 human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)–uninfected pregnant adolescents or women in Uganda, where sulfa-doxine–pyrimethamine resistance is widespread. We randomly assigned participants to a sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine regimen (106 participants), a three-dose dihydroartemisinin– piperaquine regimen (94 participants), or a monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine regimen (100 participants). The primary outcome was the prevalence of histopathologically confirmed placental malaria. RESULTS The prevalence of histopathologically confirmed placental malaria was significantly higher in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group (50.0%) than in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (34.1%, P = 0.03) or the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (27.1%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of a composite adverse birth outcome was lower in the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (9.2%) than in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group (18.6%, P = 0.05) or the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (21.3%, P = 0.02). During pregnancy, the incidence of symptomatic malaria was significantly higher in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group (41 episodes over 43.0 person-years at risk) than in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (12 episodes over 38.2 person-years at risk, P = 0.001) or the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (0 episodes over 42.3 person-years at risk, P<0.001), as was the prevalence of parasitemia (40.5% in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group vs. 16.6% in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group [P<0.001] and 5.2% in the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group [P

  6. Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Grassroots Efforts in Orange County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Callista Lee

    In 1979, a March of Dimes task force investigation in Orange County, California found a direct correlation between the rising number of low birth weight babies and the rising number of births to teens. Sparked by this investigation, the Coalition Concerned with Adolescent Pregnancy (CCAP), an independent non-profit agency, was formed. CCAP's…

  7. Adolescent pregnancy in Argentina: evidence-based recommendations for public policies.

    PubMed

    Gogna, Mónica; Binstock, Georgina; Fernández, Silvia; Ibarlucía, Inés; Zamberlin, Nina

    2008-05-01

    In Argentina adolescent pregnancy is still regarded as a public health problem or a "social epidemic". However, it is necessary to ask from which perspective and for whom it is a problem, and what type of problem. This article presents the findings of a large quantitative and qualitative study conducted in five Northern provinces and two metropolitan areas of Argentina in 2003-2004. Based on the results of a survey of adolescent mothers (n=1,645) and ten focus group discussions with adolescent girls and boys, it addresses the connections between school dropout, pregnancy and poverty, and makes recommendations on how to tailor health care and sexuality education to address local realities. The findings indicate a need to develop educational activities to promote safer sex and address gender power relations in programmes working with deprived communities. Sexuality education with a gender and rights perspective, and increasing accessibility to contraceptive methods for adolescent girls and boys is also crucial. Antenatal and post-partum care, as well as post-abortion care, should be improved for young women and viewed as opportunities for contraceptive counselling and provision. Male participation in pregnancy prevention and care also needs to be promoted.

  8. Pregnancy Resolution and Family Formation: Understanding Gender Differences in Adolescents' Preferences and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglio, William; Menaghan, Elizabeth G.

    1990-01-01

    Examined gender differences in adolescents' personal views about pregnancy resolution and family formation. Surveyed adolescents (n=577) using vignette involving unplanned pregnancy. Findings showed similar percentages of males and females preferred abortion and adoption as strategies for handling pregnancy, but females were more likely to select…

  9. Preventing Pregnancy in High School Students: Observations From a 3-Year Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierschke, Nicole; Lowe, Diana; Plastino, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether a sexual health education intervention reduces pregnancy rates in high school students. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year quasi-experimental study performed in South Texas from 2011 to 2015 in which 1437 students without a history of pregnancy at baseline were surveyed each fall and spring. Potentially confounding risk factors considered included sexual behaviors, intentions, and demographics. The outcome measure was self-reported pregnancy status for male and female students. We performed analyses for male and female students using separate discrete time-to-event models. Results. We found no difference in pregnancy rates between intervention and comparison students within the first 3 years of high school. Female and male students in the intervention groups had pregnancy hazard ratios of, respectively, 1.62 (95% CI = 0.9, 2.61; P = .1) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.44, 1.48; P = .4) relative to the comparison groups. Conclusions. The educational intervention had no impact on the pregnancy rate. Social media tools in pregnancy prevention programs should be adaptive to new technologies and rapidly changing adolescent preferences for these services. PMID:27689503

  10. Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Students. Final Report, from July 1978 to June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Betty R.; And Others

    This report presents results of a project to provide useful information for planning pregnancy prevention programs. It focuses on five project objectives: (1) identification of factors associated with adolescent sexual behavior, contraceptive behavior, and pregnancy; (2) development of instructional objectives or skills associated with pregnancy…

  11. An Evidence-Based Guideline for Unintended Pregnancy Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Diana; James, Evelyn Angel

    2011-01-01

    Despite the frequency of and significant costs related to unintended pregnancy, it has received less attention in research and prevention guidelines development than other important health threats. This lack of attention has resulted in a system-wide failure to provide care to reproductive aged women who are at risk of unintended pregnancy. An evidenced-based blueprint for a coordinated system of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention is proposed for health professionals who provide care for patients at risk for unintended pregnancy. PMID:22092349

  12. It All Starts at Home: Hispanic Parents Speak out on Preventing Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report describes data from focus groups on teen pregnancy involving Hispanic parents of adolescents in four states. Participants wanted a good education for their children and positive, loving relationships with them. They wanted to communicate with their children and be closely involved in their lives. Most believed that to help prevent teen…

  13. Pregnancy, STDS, and AIDS prevention: evaluation of New Image Teen Theatre.

    PubMed

    Hillman, E; Hovell, M F; Williams, L; Hofstetter, R; Burdyshaw, C; Rugg, D; Atkins, C; Elder, J; Blumberg, E

    1991-01-01

    New Image Teen Theatre combines peer education and theatre in an informative and entertaining package. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of New Image Teen Theatre on altering teenagers' attitudes, knowledge, and intentions regarding sexual behavior. A total of 143 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 viewed the performance. The performance focused on the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS, and STDs and included content aimed at increasing communication. Teen participants completed pretest and posttest questionnaires. Almost half of the adolescents reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. About one third of the sexually active reported never using birth control, and only 21% reported consistent use of condoms. These results confirm adolescents' risk for pregnancy, STDs, and AIDS in particular. Following the performance, the teens reported significantly more willingness to discuss sexual issues with others, significantly greater intention to use birth control (for sexually active teens), and demonstrated significantly greater sexual knowledge. Furthermore, they indicated that they had experienced more positive emotions than negative emotions while viewing the production. Results suggest that theatre education may set the stage for more comprehensive interventions designed to prevent pregnancy, STDs, and AIDS.

  14. Adolescent pregnancy in Zimbabwe: distribution by socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Rusakaniko, S; Marufu, T; Matchaba, R; Mudyarabikwa, O; Gwanzura, L

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a further analysis of the Zimbabwe 1994 demographic health survey data to determine demographic and social factors associated with adolescent pregnancies in Zimba notbwe. Out of a total of 1486 female adolescents sampled, 12 did not provide information on whether they had begun child bearing, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Significantly elevated odds ratios (OR) were noted for age (OR=2.27,95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.58) and having primary or no education (OR=1.58, 95%CI 1.35,1.87). Watching television every week was protective (OR=0.69, 95%CI 0.57-0.83). Heads of households with less than 25 years of age were 2.10 (95%CI 1.54-2.87) times more likely to have adolescents who were pregnant when compared with heads of households of age 35 years or more. We conclude that electronic media should be continued to be used to deliver sex education messages to adolescents in order to curb the adolescent pregnancy epidemic.

  15. Adolescent pregnancy: networking and the interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Canada, M J

    1986-01-01

    The networking approach to providing needed services to pregnant and parenting teenagers has numerous merits. An historical overview of the formation of the Brooklyn Teen Pregnancy Network highlights service agency need for information and resource sharing, and improved client referral systems as key factors in the genesis of the Network. The borough-wide approach and its spread as an agency model throughout New York City's other boroughs and several other northeastern cities is also attributed to its positive client impact, including: improved family communication and cooperation; early prenatal care with its concomitant improved pregnancy outcomes; financial support for teens; continued teen education; and parenting skills development. Resource information is provided regarding networks operating in the Greater New York metropolitan area. A planned Eastern Regional network initiative is under development. PMID:3745501

  16. Preventing Rapid Repeat Births Among Latina Adolescents: The Role of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cherry, Kevin; Dittus, Patricia; Michael, Shannon; Gloppen, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Latina adolescent parents are at increased risk for rapid repeat births (second birth ≤ 24 months after the first), sexually transmitted infections, and negative educational and social outcomes. Although several effective parent-based interventions have been developed to prevent Latino youths’ sexual risk taking, little research has explored the development of interventions to prevent repeat births that involve the parents of these adolescents. Existing preventative interventions involving parents suffer from important methodological limitations. Additional research is needed to advance theories of behavior, identify the causal pathways of parental influence, and specify appropriate behavioral targets. Future parent-based interventions to prevent repeat births should target pregnancy intentions, age of partners, contraceptive use, integrated prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, educational attainment, and future orientations. PMID:22897524

  17. Prevention and management of viral hepatitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rac, Martha W F; Sheffield, Jeanne S

    2014-12-01

    Of the 5 types of viral hepatitis (HAV-HEV), HBV and HCV are by far the most common causes of chronic hepatitis in both pregnant and nonpregnant populations, causing more than 50% of cirrhosis cases and 78% of cases of primary liver cancer. Infection during pregnancy can have adverse effects on both the mother and her fetus. For all 5 viral hepatitis syndromes, early identification allows appropriate measures to be taken to optimize pregnancy outcomes and minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. This article reviews the prevention and management of all 5 viral hepatitis syndromes during pregnancy. PMID:25454991

  18. Understanding Gender Roles in Teen Pregnancy Prevention among American Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica D.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. Results The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Conclusions Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include re-definitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program. PMID:25207506

  19. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  20. Adolescent pregnancy in the United States: a review and recommendations for clinicians and research needs.

    PubMed

    Fielding, J E; Williams, C A

    1991-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, often unplanned and unwanted, has a negative impact on the physical, emotional, educational, and economic condition of the pregnant teenager. Forty percent of the one million adolescents who became pregnant in 1986 chose abortion, and, of the remainder, 61% were unmarried. Teenage mothers in greater numbers and at younger ages are opting to keep and raise their children. In 1987 over $19 billion in federal monies were expended on families begun when the mother was a teenager. The preferred approach to this problem is prevention of teenage pregnancy rather than abortion, with emphasis on sex education and access to family planning information and contraceptive devices for both females and males. Sex education in schools is presented in widely varying formats; in fact, prevention of pregnancy may not even be presented. Family planning clinics are subject to the whims and biases of the funding agencies. Clinicians have an important role in providing guidance for teenage patients and their parents, but can also influence school and community leadership to ensure that all teenagers receive sound sex education in school programs and that family planning agencies are permitted to counsel teenagers and provide contraceptive devices. PMID:1867899

  1. Adolescent pregnancy in the United States: a review and recommendations for clinicians and research needs.

    PubMed

    Fielding, J E; Williams, C A

    1991-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, often unplanned and unwanted, has a negative impact on the physical, emotional, educational, and economic condition of the pregnant teenager. Forty percent of the one million adolescents who became pregnant in 1986 chose abortion, and, of the remainder, 61% were unmarried. Teenage mothers in greater numbers and at younger ages are opting to keep and raise their children. In 1987 over $19 billion in federal monies were expended on families begun when the mother was a teenager. The preferred approach to this problem is prevention of teenage pregnancy rather than abortion, with emphasis on sex education and access to family planning information and contraceptive devices for both females and males. Sex education in schools is presented in widely varying formats; in fact, prevention of pregnancy may not even be presented. Family planning clinics are subject to the whims and biases of the funding agencies. Clinicians have an important role in providing guidance for teenage patients and their parents, but can also influence school and community leadership to ensure that all teenagers receive sound sex education in school programs and that family planning agencies are permitted to counsel teenagers and provide contraceptive devices.

  2. Shifting the paradigm in Oregon from teen pregnancy prevention to youth sexual health.

    PubMed

    Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.

  3. Experiences with pregnancy of adolescents with disabilities from the perspectives of the school social workers who serve them.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kristen Faye; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2014-05-01

    Adolescents with disabilities are more likely than adolescents without disabilities to become pregnant, although very little is known about the lived contexts of their sexual and pregnancy experiences. Such youths are often deprived of sexual health information across a range of potential sources, although school social workers are in a unique position to provide them services. Thirteen school social workers working primarily with adolescents with disabilities were interviewed using a phenomenological study design to offer their perspectives concerning the sexual and pregnancy experiences of such youths. Inductive content analysis revealed that school social workers provided services for pregnant and parenting adolescents with a range of disabilities in areas that included making decisions about sex, deciphering whether they were pregnant, and making decisions once they were pregnant. These experiences were complicated by cognitive impairments; emotional struggles; desires to fit in with peers; histories of sexual abuse; and issues with communication, self-esteem, and impulsivity. School social workers play an integral role in preventing pregnancy and supporting adolescents with disabilities who are pregnant. Recommendations pertaining to the provision of sexual health services for adolescents with disabilities are provided. PMID:24946425

  4. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs. PMID:27550979

  5. Adolescent Pregnancy: An Inventory of Relevant Federal Programs and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.

    This paper provides an overview of Federal programs related to teenage pregnancy. Primary prevention and ameliorative services are explained to assist fund raisers, counselors, and policymakers in developing appropriate programs. Information is given about legislative background, purpose, eligibility, and disbursement. Programs which provide…

  6. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  7. Adolescent Suicide Prevention: A Compendium of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A., Ed.; Wing, Michael, Ed.

    This guide presents information, direction, and resources to help teachers design a curriculum on suicide prevention tailored to their students' needs. Chapter I describes the problem of adolescent suicide at one high school and the program that developed as a result of that problem. Chapter II presents facts about suicide under the headings of…

  8. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations with Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Life-Change Events, Social Support and Pregnancy Decisions in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mary L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on decisions regarding pregnancy outcome in 43 adolescents who completed the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire and the Social Support Questionnaire. Those continuing the pregnancy (N=30) had higher life event change scores, lower social support scores, and more personal and family problems. (JAC)

  10. Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing in Relation to Infant Adoption in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Coyl, Diana D.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes trends and recent declines in adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and adoption relinquishment. Reviews research regarding adolescent pregnancy resolution decision-making. Discusses contextual factors, such as attitudes and socialization about abortion, parenting, and adoption, and the influence of parents and partners on likelihood of…

  11. Stretch marks during pregnancy: a review of topical prevention.

    PubMed

    Korgavkar, K; Wang, F

    2015-03-01

    Striae gravidarum (SG), or stretch marks developing during pregnancy, affect up to 90% of women. While not medically dangerous, SG can be disfiguring, causing emotional and psychological distress. However, studies specifically addressing the prevention of SG, especially during pregnancy, are sparse. Furthermore, the molecular pathogenesis of SG is unclear and may differ from that of striae from other causes. Considering these factors, we review topical modalities that have been used specifically for preventing SG during pregnancy. We identify two major strategies (end points) addressed by these modalities, namely (i) preventing the de novo development of SG and (ii) reducing the severity of SG that have recently developed. We also identify risk factors for the development of SG and suggest that pregnant women with these risk factors are an appropriate target population for prevention. In reviewing the literature, we find that there is limited evidence that centella, and possibly massage with bitter almond oil, may prevent SG and/or reduce their severity. There is weak evidence that hyaluronic acid prevents SG. Tretinoin holds promise for reducing the severity of new-onset SG, but its use is limited by its pregnancy category. Finally, cocoa butter and olive oil are not effective for preventing SG or reducing the severity of lesions. We conclude that reliable methods for preventing SG are scarce. Furthermore, available topical modalities generally lack strong evidence from rigorous, well-designed, randomized controlled trials with ample numbers of subjects. Thus, further research is necessary to elucidate SG pathogenesis, which may lead to effective prevention modalities. PMID:25255817

  12. Current theoretical perspectives on adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Caldas, S J

    1993-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to synthesize and place in perspective contemporary theories and explanations of the high rates of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the United States. The study examined the strengths and weaknesses of the more prominent explanations of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in light of current research.... This article casts doubt on the hypothesis that the lack of reproductive information is in and of itself an important determinant of adolescent pregnancy in the United States. Many other factors are discussed that intervene to negate the effect of reproductive knowledge alone as a deterrent to adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Suggestions for an integrative research agenda, as well as educational and health strategies focusing on adolescent pregnancy and childbearing are proposed." PMID:12285963

  13. A Call to Action: What Schools Can Do To Prevent Teen Pregnancy and Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of Urban Boards of Education.

    This report presents highlights of a 1998 forum that examined why teen pregnancy is an education priority, the impact of teen pregnancy on student success in school, promising school approaches to teen pregnancy prevention, and what help schools need to become more effective partners in preventing teen pregnancy. Recommendations by forum…

  14. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  15. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress.

  16. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. Memo No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; Russell, Pam

    This memo is an update of a previous memo to the Special Committee on Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. It lists the suggestions that have been submitted by Committee members to staff as of February 21, 1991; and includes suggestions made since the January 24, 1991 meeting of the Special Committee. The suggestions are broken down…

  17. Reducing the Risk: Building Skills To Prevent Pregnancy. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    This document is a student workbook for a program which focuses on ways to prevent teenage pregnancy by teaching and practicing the interpersonal skills necessary to help teenagers abstain or utilize effective contraception methods. It includes worksheets, homework assignments, role plays, quizzes, handouts, and forms to be used in conjunction…

  18. Reducing the Risk: Building Skills To Prevent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    This teacher's guide focuses on ways to prevent teenage pregnancy by teaching and practicing the interpersonal skills necessary to help teenagers abstain or utilize effective contraception methods. The practice in this carefully-tested, 15-lesson curriculum comes in the form of role plays, class discussions, and homework assignments that focus on…

  19. Hispanic Adolescent Pregnancy Testers: A Comparative Analysis of Negative Testers, Childbearers and Aborters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, David K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assessed differences between 20 negative and 36 positive pregnancy testers and evaluated pregnancy resolution decision-making process of positive testers. Subjects were Hispanic adolescents requesting pregnancy determination at outpatient clinic. Results indicated that negative and positive testers were similar, although positives were older and…

  20. Social Norms and Beliefs Regarding Sexual Risk and Pregnancy Involvement among Adolescent Males Treated for Dating Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Rothman, Emily F.; Hathaway, Jeanne E.; Raj, Anita; Miller, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored perceived sexual norms and behaviors related to sexual risk and pregnancy involvement among adolescent males (ages 13 to 20) participating in programs for perpetrators of dating violence. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the contexts and mechanisms underlying the intersection of adolescent dating violence, sexual risk and pregnancy. Six focus groups were conducted (N = 34 participants). A number of major themes emerged: 1) male norm of multiple partnering, 2) perceived gain of male social status from claims of sexual activity, 3) perception that rape is uncommon combined with belief that girls claiming to be raped are liars, 4) perception that men rationalize rapes to avoid responsibility, 5) condom non-use in the context of rape and sex involving substance use, 6) beliefs that girls lie and manipulate boys in order to become pregnant and trap them into relationships, and 7) male avoidance of responsibility and negative responses to pregnancy. The combination of peer-supported norms of male multiple partnering and adversarial sexual beliefs appear to support increased male sexual risk, lack of accountability for sexual risk, and rationalization of rape and negative responses to pregnancy. Further research focused on the context of male sexual risk and abusive relationship behaviors is needed to inform intervention with young men to promote sexual health and prevent rape, dating violence, and adolescent pregnancy. PMID:16845498

  1. Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancy among American-Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie; Baete Kenyon, Den Yelle; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur pre-conceptually with women, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at-risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Programme, which shows promise in reducing AEP risk in American Indian women aged 18 or older. A community needs assessment was conducted with key informant interviews and focus groups with an emphasis on how to expand OST CHOICES. To identify interconnected themes, a content analysis methodology was used on the qualitative feedback from the focus groups and interviews. Altogether, key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Several sub-themes regarding the prevention of AEP with youth were identified, expanding the OST CHOICES curriculum into the schools, and the role of family and culture within AEP prevention. PMID:27429593

  2. Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Parenting: Research through the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; Moore, Kristin A.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes research from the 1980s on topics of adolescent sexual activity, contraception, abortion, marriage, adoption, and childrearing. Emphasizes research about antecedents of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior because they are key risk factors in adolescent pregnancy. Notes advances in data and methods and highlights research gaps.…

  3. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  4. The battle scars of pregnancy: can they be prevented?

    PubMed

    Razi, Emma

    2012-05-01

    I have feared developing stretch marks since my first pregnancy. Getting to grips with my changing shape was a big challenge, but I was safe in the knowledge that post-pregnancy I could work towards losing the weight. But stretch marks are permanent, and to me-disfiguring. I researched how stretch marks can be prevented and after finding little evidence for a particular cream or lotion: I scanned forums and asked friends what worked for them. Many people claimed that by keeping skin hydrated and supple, the dreaded stretch marks can be kept at bay or at least to a minimum. So I opted for regularly massaging oil across vulnerable areas and maintaining a balanced diet, including drinking lots of water. I was lucky the first time round; time will tell if my skincare routine will work for my second pregnancy.

  5. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  6. Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mulamba, Mwamba

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Malaria in pregnancy is associated with many negative outcomes for the woman, foetus and neonate. Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) using three doses of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP), insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spray (IRS), constitute the main strategies used to prevent malaria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies for the reduction of malaria prevalence in pregnant women. Methods A questionnaire on socio-demographic information, history of malaria during current pregnancy and prevention strategies used was administered to 450 consecutive patients admitted into labour wards at three local clinics. From the antenatal cards, information was collected on the last menstrual period, date of each dose of SP taken, gravidity, and HIV status. A blood slide to detect Plasmodium was then collected from each woman after consent. Results Of the participants in the study, 2.4% had a positive blood slide at term and 15.8% reported malaria during pregnancy. All the participants took at least one dose of SP with 87.6% completing the stipulated three doses. The mean gestational ages for each dose were 22.1 (SD 4.6), 29.1 (SD 4.4) and 34.4 (SD 3.9) weeks for the first, second and third dose respectively. With regard to ITNs, 79.5% had one, but only 74.1% used it regularly. IRS was completed in all three of the clinics’ catchment areas. Only 23.4% used commercial insecticide. Conclusion The measured prevalence of malaria at term in Ndola was remarkably low, although the self-reported rate during pregnancy was still high. The national targets for accessing IPTp were exceeded, although the timing of each dose needs to be improved. Access to ITNs was high, but usage needs to increase.

  7. Prevention of relapse in women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, C M; Curry, S J; Lando, H A; Pirie, P L; Grothaus, L C; Nelson, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study is an evaluation of relapse prevention interventions for smokers who quit during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant smokers at 2 managed care organizations were randomized to receive a self-help booklet only, prepartum relapse prevention, or prepartum and postpartum relapse prevention. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 28 weeks of pregnancy and at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. RESULTS: The pre/post intervention delayed but did not prevent postpartum relapse to smoking. Prevalent abstinence was significantly greater for the pre/post intervention group than for the other groups at 8 weeks (booklet group, 30%; prepartum group, 35%; pre/post group, 39%; P = .02 [different superscripts denote differences at P < .05]) and at 6 months (booklet group, 26%, prepartum group, 24%; pre/post group, 33%; P = .04) postpartum. A nonsignificant reduction in relapse among the pre/post group contributed to differences in prevalent abstinence. There was no difference between the groups in prevalent abstinence at 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Relapse prevention interventions may need to be increased in duration and potency to prevent post-partum relapse. PMID:10224982

  8. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce teen…

  9. Invited Commentary: Preventable Pregnancy Loss Is a Public Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Carol J

    2016-04-15

    Pregnancy loss is common and can lead to long-standing parental depression and related problems. In this issue, a study of Danish registries by Bruckner et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(8):701-708) correlates monthly trends in unemployment with monthly trends in reported spontaneous abortion, lagged by 1 month. The observed association might be caused by a general population phenomenon, as suggested by the authors, or might represent an increased miscarriage risk only within the subset of the population that is directly affected by lost income. Preventive interventions will vary depending on which interpretation is more likely. Research into the preventability of miscarriages and stillbirths is hampered in the United States by poor-quality vital registration of these events. Investment in improved surveillance systems is needed and would be worthwhile, as illustrated by the knowledge gained about the black/white gap in infant mortality when national birth and infant death records began to be linked. In addition, institution of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in 1987 shed light on the association of stressful life events with poor birth outcomes. That system can be improved by sampling women who have experienced stillbirths. Better data would facilitate not only surveillance but also hypothesis-generating epidemiologic studies for identifying preventable pregnancy loss. PMID:27009345

  10. Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy: teratology in adolescent medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Seaver, Laurie H

    2002-06-01

    A teratogen is any drug, chemical, infectious or physical agent, or maternal disease or altered metabolic state that causes a structural or functional disability by acting on the embryo or fetus. Teratogens are responsible for approximately 10% of all human birth defects. Education of physicians caring for children and adolescents in the basic principles of teratology, the spectrum of human teratogens, and the recognition of associated anomalies is essential, because many maternal exposures and resultant fetal defects are completely preventable.

  11. Formal operational thinking: the role of cognitive-developmental processes in adolescent decision-making about pregnancy and contraception.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D E

    1990-07-01

    The role of formal operational thinking in adolescent decision-making about pregnancy and contraception is explored through an integration of the cognitive-developmental and pregnancy-contraception literatures. The ways in which cognitive-developmental change mechanisms initiate or hinder formal thinking on pregnancy-contraception are considered, and implications for counseling pregnant adolescents are discussed. PMID:2200271

  12. Creating Consistency and Control Out of Chaos: A Qualitative View of Planned Pregnancy during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, K S

    2000-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy can have devastating effects for both mother and child. However, little is known about the experience of planned pregnancy among adolescents. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of themes identified in a previous study of the experience of planned adolescent pregnancy. The experience of planning a pregnancy during adolescence consists of typical adolescent behavior in that these girls demonstrated the need for control, invulnerability, and a present focus to their lives. In addition to this typical behavior, a component manifests itself in which adolescent girls make reproductive health choices to gain control. By establishing a level of control over their hectic and stressful lives, they are able to add meaning to their lives. The need for consistency and control seem to be linked, because many of the adolescent girls' statements reflected dimensions of both concepts. This initial, descriptive study can be used to further explore adolescent pregnancy and to develop interventions that might assist these girls to lead healthy lives. PMID:17273226

  13. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.

  14. Using Film Clips to Teach Teen Pregnancy Prevention: "The Gloucester 18" at a Teen Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Moore, Christopher C.; Anthony, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Teaching pregnancy prevention to large groups offers many challenges. This article describes the use of film clips, with guided discussion, to teach pregnancy prevention. In order to analyze the costs associated with teen pregnancy, a film clip discussion session based with the film "The Gloucester 18" was the keynote of a youth summit. The lesson…

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Violence Exposure: Contributors to Repeat Pregnancies Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A.; Pierce, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Depressive symptoms and violence exposure (VE) often cooccur and have been recognized to influence childbearing; contribution to repeat pregnancy is unclear and examined in this article. This cross-sectional, descriptive, study screened for depressive symptoms and VE among 193 adolescent mothers at a large county hospital in Southwestern United States. Repeat pregnancy and depressive symptoms characterized one-third and one-quarter of adolescents, respectively. Despite minimal disclosure of VE, repeat pregnancy was significantly influenced by child abuse and past traumatic life experiences. Assessments and interventions with adolescents should focus on frequency of repeat pregnancies and symptoms of depression and VE. Nurses and childbirth educators are poised to offer birth control information and education, support, and resources highlighting depression and VE to adolescents. PMID:26834444

  16. [Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic].

    PubMed

    Persona, Lia; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Tarallo, Maria Celina

    2004-01-01

    This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, factors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.

  17. An attempt to detect "pregnancy susceptibility" in indigent adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, J L; Mumford, D M; Schum, D A; Smith, P B; Flowers, C; Schum, C

    1977-06-01

    Since current birth control education programs seem ineffective in reducing the ever-growing number of unplanned teenage pregnancies, an alternative approach might be intensive counseling for girls whose backgrounds and attitudes seem to make them susceptible to such pregnancy. To identify these factors data were gathered from 1294 pregnant girls aged 12-18 and compared with data from a similar socioeconomic population of nonpregnant girls interviewed at school. Families of both groups were all indigent. Based on this information an attitude scale was drawn up and weights assigned to questions most predictive of illegitimate pregnancy. Details of developing this questionnaire are given. The final version showed high predictive correlation when given to another group of 170 pregnant girls. In general, girls from large families, who had repeated 1 or more subjects in school, and who received sex education late and from friends were more likely to become pregnant. Girls from smaller families, who did well in school, and received sex education from parents were less at risk. Use of a scale to identify girls in need of "parenting" has many problems. They may feel singled out. However, intensive counseling may be the only way to reach these adolescents. Also the 1 most predictive factor is age at which sex education was received and from whom. Those who learned about menstruation at age 13 or later and then from friends was 206 times more likely to become pregnant than the girl who receives sex education early from her family. An approach would be to establish intensive counseling programs in schools with a large at-risk population, thus avoiding the stigma of singling out any 1 girl.

  18. Girls' Participation in Sports: An Important Tool in Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Nancy M.

    This policy brief highlights the interrelationship between sports participation and teen pregnancy prevention, noting barriers that have prevented sports from being utilized in teen pregnancy prevention. Discrimination against girls and women in school sports persists 30 years after Congress enacted Title IX, and this prevents girls and young…

  19. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programs: What Have We Learned? Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Report of a Family Impact Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa

    This report contains highlights from a seminar on teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Comments by these panelists are summarized: Kristin Moore, senior research associate, Child Trends, Inc.; Dennis McBride, consultant for the Adolescent Family Life Office; Susan Newcomer, consultant for the National Institute of Child Health and Development;…

  20. It’s Your Game…Keep It Real in South Carolina: A Group Randomized Trial Evaluating the Replication of an Evidence-Based Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Karin K.; Glassman, Jill R.; Kershner, Sarah; Prince, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)/pregnancy prevention program for middle schools implemented by school staff in South Carolina. Methods. Twenty-four schools, representing 3143 youths, participated in a randomized trial from 2011 to 2014. Students completed surveys before programming (fall of seventh grade), after completing the 2-year It’s Your Game…Keep It Real program (spring of eighth grade), and 1-year postprogram (spring of ninth grade). Results. There was no statistically significant effect on initiation of vaginal sex between baseline and eighth grade. Significantly fewer students in the comparison condition reported initiating sex at ninth grade, relative to the intervention condition. No group differences existed on other behavioral outcomes that addressed sexual activity in the past 3 months at ninth grade. Seven of 26 psychosocial outcomes (3 knowledge, 1 attitude, 1 self-efficacy, 2 personal limits) were positively affected at eighth grade; 4 remained significant at ninth grade. Conclusions. The original studies’ behavioral effects were not replicated in this population, possibly as a result of this being an effectiveness trial instead of an efficacy trial, counterfactual exposure design issues, or postprogram exposure to evidence-based programming. PMID:27689496

  1. U.S. teen pregnancy: studies point to new prevention approaches.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The US has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the developed world, and although there is no consensus on the best solution, promising prevention approaches are being offered. 1 in 10 teenaged girls in the US becomes pregnant each year, and more than 1/2 of these pregnancies end in abortion or miscarriage. In a 1986 survey of US teens aged 12 to 17, 1/3 of the sexually active reported using contraceptives all the time, and 27% said they never used them. 24% of the teens cited embarrassment and fear of parental disapproval as reasons for not using contraceptives, while almost 40% said they did not want to use them. 1/4 reportedly lacked knowledge about contraceptives. A successful approach, which increased contraceptive use among teens and helped reduce adolescent pregnancies, involved a school-based clinic in Minnesota. It provided information about sex and birth control, and referred students to a clinic for contraceptive services. Another effective approach provided a combination of sex education and accessible family planning services in 2 Baltimore schools. It resulted in reduced teenage pregnancy rates and a small decrease in the age at 1st intercourse. Programs designed to encourage postponement of sexual activity, and resistance of peer pressure, as well as efforts to promote responsible decision-making and communication between parents and children, are thought to have potential. The "life options" strategy targets girls with low educational ambitions, who are from poor families since study results indicate a high rate of pregnancy among this group. The approach is to help young people develop values and self-esteem, and work toward realistic goals.

  2. Sustained Reduction in Adolescent Pregnancy Rates through School and Community-Based Education, 1982-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Murray; Drane, J. Wanzer; Joshi, Praphul; Shankarnarayan, Saikiran; Nimmons, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The resident population of Bamberg County, SC, has been exposed to multiples of public health information and education interventions since October 1982 with the intent to reduce the occurrence of unintended pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. Data analyses were conducted to compare 20 years of pregnancy rates among girls aged 14-17 years for…

  3. Factors that Adolescent Males Take into Account in Decisions about an Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkindale, Carolyn J.; Condon, John T.; Russell, Alan; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what factors adolescent males consider important when making decisions concerning the resolution of an unplanned pregnancy with a teenage partner. Young men's influence on pregnancy outcome decisions can play an important part in the subsequent psychological adjustment of the female. The present report draws on data from a…

  4. Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy in La Paz, Bolivia: Findings from a Quantitative-Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovsek, Varja; Karim, Ali Mehryar; Gutierrez, Emily Zielinski; Magnani, Robert J.; Gomez, Maria del Carmen Castro

    2002-01-01

    Study explores why some female adolescents in La Paz, Bolivia, become pregnant while others in similar circumstances avoid early pregnancy. Results reveal that girls who had experienced a pregnancy were less likely to have reported affectionate and supportive parents, more likely to have reported fighting in their home, and exhibited lower levels…

  5. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  6. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  7. Methamphetamine Use Is Independently Associated with Recent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Adolescent Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to…

  8. How Families Experience the Phenomenon of Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting: Implications for Family Therapists and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Glenda J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how family members experience the phenomenon of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the family unit, over time, and to examine the meanings family members attach to the experience. The participants were six nuclear families (20 individuals) of six adolescent mothers who had previously…

  9. State Variation in Rates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Blumenthal, Connie; Sugland, Barbara W.; Hyatt, Byoung-gi; Snyder, Nancy O.; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Recent declines in funding for contraceptive services have led to questions regarding the role of contraceptive services and social policy in shaping adolescent reproductive behavior. This 2-year study examined the impact of state-level policies on adolescent pregnancy and fertility. Data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the…

  10. The school-based approach to teen pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Zabin, L S

    1986-01-01

    A pregnancy prevention project, a collaborative school- and clinic-based program serving 2 Baltimore inner-city, all black schools, delivered reproductive health services at a special clinic close to the schools, while education and counseling int he clinic and in the schools utilized the same staff. The junior high and senior high was attended by more than 1700 male and female students. A social worker and a nurse practitioner were placed in each school to give classroom lectures and to meet with individuals and groups during the school day. In the afternoon they were in the clinic, where information rap sessions, private counseling and consultation, medical services, and educational programs were available. Responsible sexual behavior was emphasized along with postponement of sexual intercourse, open communication with parents, and placing sexual conduct in the context of personal goals and values. Both males and females could enroll in the clinic. Regardless of whether they registered for services, they were welcome to come to talk in the waiting room, to see films, or to enter group discussions. They were eligible for services, all of which were free, as long as they remained in 1 of the 2 schools. Thus, educational and medical interventions were accessible to these school populations, and the unified professional staff provided continuity for the students between the school and clinic programs. The privately funded intervention began in November 1981, with the clinic opening a few months later. It lasted for 3 academic years, or 28 months of clinic operation. To evaluate the program, data were collected by self-administered questionnaire 4 times in the program schools: before the program began and at the end of each of the 3 program years. All male and female students were asked to complete the detailed questionnaire on a broad range of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Data also were collected at a nonprogram junior and senior high school, as well

  11. Adolescent school experiences and dropout, adolescent pregnancy, and young adult deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Kasen, S; Cohen, P; Brook, J S

    1998-01-01

    Outside of the family, schools are the most proximal socializing agent available to convey societal norms and prohibitions to young people. In some cases, a positive school experience can compensate for the antisocial influence of family and community. The present study investigated the predictive ability of school-related factors on later deviancy in a random sample of 452 US adolescents 12-18 years of age attending 150 junior or senior high schools in upstate New York and enrolled in a broader prospective study. A measure of conduct problems, obtained 2 years before measurement of school factors, was used to control for the predisposing effects of problematic behavior on later deviance. Academic achievement, academic aspirations, and a learning-focused school environment had deterrent effects on all deviant outcomes assessed--dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, engaging in criminal activities, criminal conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse--independent of age, gender, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, childhood conduct problems, and proportion of deviance-oriented friends in adolescence. Given the persistence of deviant behavioral patterns of adolescence into adulthood, the systems-level influences identified in this study should be given careful attention. PMID:12348538

  12. Being Well Born: Preventive Health Practices in Pregnancy and Delivery. Matrix No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iams, Jay D.

    Some of the principal research advances of the 1970s related to pregnancy and newborn infants and consequent changes in obstetrical practice are summarized in this report. The process of infant-parent attachment (bonding), adolescent pregnancy, and the reproductive hazards of tobacco, alcohol, and poor nutrition have been investigated and, in…

  13. The Association Between Prepregnancy Parental Support and Control and Adolescent Girls’ Pregnancy Resolution Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the influence of prepregnancy parental support and control on adolescent girls’ pregnancy resolution decisions. Methods Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls whose first pregnancy reported in wave IV occurred after wave I and before age 20 were included (n = 1,107). Participants self-reported pregnancy disposition (abortion, ectopic or tubal pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth, live birth) for each pregnancy; responses were dichotomized as abortion versus other. Girls’ perceptions of parental support and control were measured at wave I. Controls were included for wave I age, age at pregnancy, year at the end of pregnancy, race/ethnicity, and parent characteristics (i.e., education, religious affiliation, age at first marriage, and educational expectations). Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were performed. Results Approximately 18% of girls reporting a teen pregnancy reported having an abortion. In crude analyses, parental support was marginally negatively related to abortion (odds ratio [OR] =.83, p =.06) and parental control was significantly negatively related to abortion (OR = .78, p = .02). In multivariable analyses, higher parental control was significantly negatively related to abortion versus other pregnancy outcomes (adjusted OR .80, 95% confidence interval .66–.98). Perceived parental support was unassociated with pregnancy resolution decisions. The only other factor associated with abortion decisions was parent education: odds of choosing abortion versus other pregnancy outcomes were significantly higher for adolescent girls whose parents had a bachelor’s degree or greater versus those with lower educational attainment. Conclusions Pregnant adolescents with less educated parents or parents exercising greater control were less likely to have an abortion. PMID:23763966

  14. "Let the Circle be Unbroken" helps African-Americans prevent teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Okwumabua, T M; Okwumabua, J O; Elliott, V

    1998-01-01

    Strategies must be developed to address the high rate of adolescent pregnancy among Blacks in the US and the adverse consequences of premature parenting. A number of programs and strategies have been developed and are being implemented in various sites across the US. The "Let the Circle Be Unbroken: Rites of Passage" program is an effort to incorporate an Afrocentric conceptual model into a prevention program. It involves adapting socialization processes often observed in African cultures, which openly acknowledge the need to formally help adolescents during their transition from childhood to adulthood. That socialization process tends to be a cultural experience which requires that ideology, education, training, and culture be taught before an activity or celebration marking the successful transition from one stage of development to another. The "Rites of Passage" approach follows these basic premises to teach adolescents the knowledge and skills needed to become responsible community members and spiritually mature adults. It is specifically designed to help young people build self-esteem; enhance self-image; develop leadership skills, cultural awareness, and appreciation; and make healthy, productive, and self-affirming life choices. PMID:12293246

  15. Use of Nurse-Client Contracting to Reduce Risk of Unintended Pregnancy in an Adolescent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dover, Leslie J.

    Unintended pregnancies occur among young people who are sexually active and who do not take sufficient precautions to prevent pregnancy. Two major factors identified as contributing to unintended pregnancy are the lack of knowledge and skill in family planning and inconsistency in use of contraceptives. A pretest-posttest experiment was conducted…

  16. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  17. Report on Adolescent Pregnancy in Fort Worth, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tees, Sandra

    Teenage pregnancy is an overwhelming problem in Fort Worth, Texas. To examine the problem of teenage pregnancy, figures on total live births by age, race, repeat pregnancy, and at-risk infants were gathered from 1981 and 1982 Department of Public Health data. In addition, consequences of teenage pregnancy and motivation factors were examined. An…

  18. Malaria Prevention with IPTp during Pregnancy Reduces Neonatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Clara; Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Sanz, Sergi; Aponte, John J.; Mabunda, Samuel; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the global context of a reduction of under-five mortality, neonatal mortality is an increasingly relevant component of this mortality. Malaria in pregnancy may affect neonatal survival, though no strong evidence exists to support this association. Methods In the context of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 1030 Mozambican pregnant women, 997 newborns were followed up until 12 months of age. There were 500 live borns to women who received placebo and 497 to those who received SP. Findings There were 58 infant deaths; 60.4% occurred in children born to women who received placebo and 39.6% to women who received IPTp (p = 0.136). There were 25 neonatal deaths; 72% occurred in the placebo group and 28% in the IPTp group (p = 0.041). Of the 20 deaths that occurred in the first week of life, 75% were babies born to women in the placebo group and 25% to those in the IPTp group (p = 0.039). IPTp reduced neonatal mortality by 61.3% (95% CI 7.4%, 83.8%); p = 0.024]. Conclusions Malaria prevention with SP in pregnancy can reduce neonatal mortality. Mechanisms associated with increased malaria infection at the end of pregnancy may explain the excess mortality in the malaria less protected group. Alternatively, SP may have reduced the risk of neonatal infections. These findings are of relevance to promote the implementation of IPTp with SP, and provide insights into the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms through which maternal malaria affects fetal and neonatal health. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00209781 PMID:20195472

  19. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  20. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention.

    PubMed

    Gernand, Alison D; Schulze, Kerry J; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-05-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  1. Blueprint for Action: Dialogues from Wingspread II. Proceedings of the Conference on Adolescent Pregnancy: State Action on Adolescent Pregnancy (2nd, Racine, Wisconsin, August 10-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to improve and coordinate state-level efforts to ameliorate the crisis of adolescent pregnancy. The document includes summaries of addresses by Edgar May, vice-president of the American Public Welfare Association's board of directors; Ann Rosewater, staff director of the Select Committee…

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Adolescent Pregnancy in Urban, Disadvantaged Settings across Five Cities

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Heena; Kågesten, Anna; Emerson, Mark; Decker, Michele; Olumide, Adesolu; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Chaohua, Lou; Sonenstein, Freya; Blum, Robert; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of pregnancy on the health and livelihood of adolescents aged 15–19 is substantial. This study explored sociodemographic, behavioral and environmental-level factors associated with adolescent pregnancy across 5 urban disadvantaged settings. Methods The Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments study used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit males and females from Baltimore (456), Johannesburg (496), Ibadan (449), Delhi (500) and Shanghai(438). RDS-II and post-stratification age weights were used to explore the odds associated with “ever had sex” and “ever pregnant”; adjusted odds of pregnancy and 95% CI were developed by site and gender. Results Among the sexually experienced, pregnancy was most common in Baltimore (females 53%, males 25%) and Johannesburg (females 29%, males 22%). Heterosexual experience and therefore pregnancy were rare in Ibadan, Delhi and Shanghai. Current schooling and condom use at first sex decreased the odds of pregnancy among females in Baltimore and Johannesburg participants. Factors associated with higher odds of pregnancy were: early sexual debut (Johannesburg participants, Baltimore females) being raised by someone other than 2 parents (Johannesburg females); alcohol use and binge drinking in the past month (Baltimore participants); greater community violence and poor physical environment (Baltimore males, Johannesburg participants). Conclusions The reported prevalence of adolescent pregnancy varies substantially across similarly economically disadvantaged urban settings. These differences are related to large differences in sexual experience, which may be underreported, as well as differences in environmental contexts. Pregnancy risk needs to be understood within the specific context that adolescents reside, with particular attention to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:25454003

  3. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659

  4. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to

  5. Nike-Footed Health Workers deal with the problems of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Perino, S S

    1992-01-01

    Working principally to prevent repeat teen pregnancy, improve birth outcomes to teen mothers, and build adolescent parenting skills, the Nike (sneaker)-Footed Health Worker Project (NFHW) draws trainees from the target population of parenting adolescents. The young mothers will participate in an education project that, after 1 year, will return them to serve the same population from which they were drawn. The Nike-Footed Health Worker Project is designed to allow adolescent mothers to complete high school while they are simultaneously trained in the principles of basic pre- and postnatal care, child development, nutrition, and counseling. After fully understanding and signing a contract detailing the expectations and requirements of the course, trainees will begin the project and receive a base salary in the form of a student loan. Eligible for merit wage increases, they are obligated to use their salaries to make pre-set contributions to the project for housing, food, and child care expenses. After graduating from the 12-month residential project, the NFHWs will be prepared to serve their community. Working out of local clinics and hospitals, they will bring basic care to the homes of pregnant teenagers. Acting as the advocates and counselors of adolescents, the NFHWs will help to prepare the expectant mothers for the arrival of their infant. Following the child's birth, the NFHWs will continue to work with the mother and her primary health care providers as the new mother learns the art of parenting. The NFHW will also ensure that the child has received the appropriate well-baby care (immunizations and so forth) and that the mother has received needed postnatal care and counseling about contraception.

  6. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    due to inconsistent use of contraception to prevent recurrence while poor birth outcomes among higher order pregnancies are partly due to abortion. This underscores the need for HIV and AIDS programs to provide appropriate sexual and reproductive health information and services to HIV-positive adolescent clients in order to reduce the risk of undesired reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23039966

  7. Predictive ability and stability of adolescents' pregnancy intentions in a predominantly Latino community.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort of 555 adolescent girls and boys from a predominantly Latino neighborhood of San Francisco, we examined how well four survey questionnaire items measuring pregnancy intentions predicted the incidence of pregnancy. We also compared consistency of responses among items and assessed how intentions fluctuated over time. Girls experienced 72 pregnancies over two years (six-month cumulative incidence = 8 percent), and boys reported being responsible for 50 pregnancies (six-month cumulative incidence = 10 percent). Although the probability of becoming pregnant generally increased with higher intention to do so, the risk of becoming pregnant was elevated only at the highest response categories for each item. Most pregnancies occurred among teenagers reporting the lowest levels of intention: for instance, 73 percent of pregnancies occurred among girls who reported that they definitely did not want to become pregnant. Considerable change in respondents' intentions were found over short periods of time: 18 percent and 41 percent of responses to the wantedness and happiness items, respectively, changed between six-month survey visits. The development of appropriate strategies to reduce pregnancy among adolescents would benefit from a more nuanced understanding of how teenagers view the prospect of pregnancy and what determines whether they actively protect themselves from unintended pregnancy. PMID:21469271

  8. Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kaale, Anna; Minja, Anna; Bangapi, Doreen; Kalungura, Happy; Headley, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the disproportionate impact of HIV on women, and adolescents in particular, those below age 18 years are underrepresented in HIV prevention trials due to ethical, safety and logistical concerns. This study examined and compared the sexual risk contexts of adolescent women aged 15–17 to young adult women aged 18–21 to determine whether adolescents exhibited similar risk profiles and the implications for their inclusion in future trials. Methods We conducted a two-phase, mixed-method study to assess the opportunities and challenges of recruiting and retaining adolescents (aged 15–17) versus young women (18–21) in Tanzania. Phase I, community formative research (CFR), used serial in-depth interviews with 11 adolescent and 12 young adult women from a range of sexual risk contexts in preparation for a mock clinical trial (MCT). For Phase II, 135 HIV-negative, non-pregnant adolescents and young women were enrolled into a six-month MCT to assess and compare differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour, incident pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and HIV. Results In both research phases, adolescents appeared to be at similar, if not higher, risk than their young adult counterparts. Adolescents reported earlier sexual debut, and similar numbers of lifetime partners, pregnancy and STI/RTI rates, yet had lower perceived risk. Married women in the CFR appeared at particular risk but were less represented in the MCT. In addition, adolescents were less likely than their older counterparts to have accessed HIV testing, obtained gynaecological exams or used protective technologies. Conclusions Adolescent women under 18 are at risk of multiple negative SRH outcomes and they underuse preventive services. Their access to new technologies such as vaginal microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may similarly be compromised unless greater effort is

  9. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  10. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability.

  11. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  12. Connectedness and suicide prevention in adolescents: pathways and implications.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Janis; Wyman, Peter A; Moore, Sarah R

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health concern. Stressing the need for public health-based solutions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified "connectedness" as one means of pursuing this agenda. To advance this effort in suicide prevention with adolescents, (1) consistencies and variation in the literature overtly linking connectedness to suicide thoughts and behaviors (STB) are reviewed, (2) three more specific mechanistic pathways are proposed whereby connectedness may influence STB, and (3) several implications related to use of connectedness as a public health framework for adolescent suicide prevention and intervention are outlined.

  13. Incompatibility between Pregnancy and Educational Projects, from the Perspective of Socially Vulnerable Adolescent Women and Men in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campero, Lourdes; Herrera, Cristina; Benítez, Alejandra; Atienzo, Erika; González, Guillermo; Marín, Eréndira

    2014-01-01

    Research focused on adolescent pregnancy reports that this event acquires significance and has different consequences according to the context and social subjects who experience it. In this study, by means of a sample formed by adolescent women and men who are socially vulnerable in Mexico, with and without a history of pregnancy, we can see how…

  14. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing. PMID:27188460

  15. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.

  16. Practitioners' Perspectives on Cultural Sensitivity in Latina/o Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…

  17. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  18. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention: Empowerment for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulette, Carol A.

    Adolescent suicide has tripled in the past two decades and is considered to be a leading cause of death among America's youths. This increase has prompted much research on the assessment and prevention of adolescent suicide. Suicidologists have agreed there are no scientifically proven methods to assess which individual might attempt suicide.…

  19. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  20. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family.

  1. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  2. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  3. Using Books to Prevent and Treat Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Presents strategies for using bibliotherapeutic process to prevent and treat adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. Definitions, goals, and principles of bibliotherapy are overviewed. Synopses of several useful books that focus on chemical dependency are presented. (Author)

  4. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game. PMID:22871481

  5. Decisionmaking regarding unwanted pregnancy among adolescents in Mexico City: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Carrie; Rueda, Marcela; Bain, Jennifer; Clyde, Jessie; Carino, Giselle

    2012-03-01

    Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean confront difficult decisions when faced with unwanted pregnancies, especially given the region's legal restrictions on and widespread cultural opposition to abortion. Little research has been conducted on pregnancy decisionmaking among young people in this region. This study examines the role of peers, partners, family members, and health-care providers in adolescents' decisionmaking regarding pregnancy continuation or termination in Mexico City shortly after abortion was legalized in 2007. Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in 2009 with participants aged 13-17 who experienced an unwanted pregnancy. Although participants were able to formulate preferences regarding pregnancy resolution, parents' wishes usually prevailed when their wishes conflicted. Peers were generally found to be supportive, whereas the role of partners varied. Results indicate the need for comprehensive sexuality education to promote adolescents' autonomy, mechanisms other than legal mandates to encourage constructive parental involvement, and confidential counseling from health professionals offering options and supporting adolescents'ability to act on their decisions. PMID:23185871

  6. Prime Time: 12-Month Sexual Health Outcomes of a Clinic-Based Intervention to Prevent Pregnancy Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, Renee E.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Beckman, Kara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Secor-Turner, Molly; Kugler, Kari; Garwick, Ann W.; Resnick, Michael D.; Bearinger, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce pregnancy risk among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. This paper examines sexual risk behaviors and hypothesized psychosocial mediators after 12 months of the Prime Time intervention. Methods Randomized controlled trial with 253 girls ages 13-17 years meeting specified risk criteria. Intervention participants were involved in Prime Time programming plus usual clinic services for 18 months, control participants received usual clinic services. The intervention employed a combination of case management and peer leadership programs. Participants in this interim outcomes study completed self-report surveys at baseline and 12 months following enrollment. Surveys assessed sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial factors targeted for change by Prime Time. Results At the 12-month interim, the intervention group reported more consistent use of condoms, hormonal contraception and dual contraceptive methods with their most recent partner than did the control group. The intervention group also reported greater stress management skills with trends towards higher levels of pro-social connectedness at school and with family. No between-group differences were noted in psychosocial measures specific to sex and contraceptive use. Conclusions Preventing early pregnancy among high-risk adolescents requires multifaceted, sustained approaches. An important research focus involves testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have emphasized a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. Findings suggest that youth development interventions through clinic settings hold promise in reducing pregnancy risk among high-risk youth. PMID:21783050

  7. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  8. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  9. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters. PMID:8442571

  10. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention, Postvention and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Peggy

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…

  11. Repeat Pregnancy among Urban Adolescents: Sociodemographic, Family, and Health Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, Stephanie Irby; Nitz, Katherine; Felice, Marianne E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines sociodemographic, family, and health factors associated with repeat pregnancy in a clinical sample of urban, first-time mothers. Results indicate that postpartum contraceptive method was associated with repeat pregnancy at year one; contraceptive use, maternal age, history of miscarriages, and postpartum contraceptive method were…

  12. Selected Resources in the Areas of Adolescent Sexuality and Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glimps, Blanche E.

    This annotated bibliography of resources is suggested for use by school guidance counselors, health educators, teachers, and school nurses who provide supportive counseling and education to teenagers. It includes a general review of some of the problems associated with adolescent pregnancy and childbirth, and presents a list of selected books,…

  13. Pittsburgh Board of Public Education Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting: Minority Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaleida, Phillip; And Others

    This minority report is a rebuttal to the recommendations made by the Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting of the Pittsburgh Board of Public Education. It takes issue with the way in which decisions were made and especially with the recommendation to establish school-based clinics (SBCs) in or near high risk schools. This minority…

  14. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. PMID:26804507

  15. Can it be done? Implementing adolescent clinical preventive services.

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, E M; Adams, S H; Lustig, J L; Millstein, S G; Camfield, K; El-Diwany, S; Volpe, S; Irwin, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of an intervention to increase the delivery of adolescent preventive services within a large managed care organization. Target health areas were tobacco, alcohol, sexual behavior, and safety (seat belt and helmet use). DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: Adolescent reports of clinician screening and counseling were obtained from adolescents who attended well visits with their primary care providers. A prepost study design was used to evaluate the preventive services intervention. The intervention had three components: (1) 89 clinicians from three outpatient pediatric clinics attended a training to increase the delivery of preventive services; (2) customized adolescent screening and provider charting forms were integrated into the clinics; and (3) the resources of a health educator were provided to the clinics. DATA COLLECTION: Following a visit, adolescents completed surveys reporting on clinician screening and counseling for each of the target risk areas. Preimplementation (three months), 104 adolescents completed surveys. Postimplementation of the training, tools, and health educator intervention, 211 adolescents completed surveys (five months). For 18 months postimplementation clinicians delivered services and 998 adolescents completed surveys. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chi-square analyses of changes in screening from preimplementation to postimplementation showed that screening increased in all areas (p < .000), with an average increase in screening rates from 47 percent to 94 percent. Postimplementation counseling in all areas also increased significantly, with an average increase in counseling rates from 39 percent to 91 percent. There were slight decreases in screening from postimplementation to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers support for the efficacy of providing training, tools, and resources as a method for increasing preventive screening and counseling of adolescents across multiple risky health behaviors during a

  16. On research: new contraceptive gel prevents pregnancy and STDs.

    PubMed

    Venere, E

    1996-09-30

    A contraceptive gel, which prevents pregnancy as well as sexually transmitted diseases, created by scientists at the Johns Hopkins University has been selected for clinical trials by the National Institutes of Health. The gel is a vaginal microbicide that kills both sperm and microbes. It also destroys white blood cells in sperm and cervical mucus that can be infected with HIV. The creators of the gel found out that an effective acidic microbicide should neither harm the cells of the vaginal lining nor kill the beneficial bacteria in the vagina. Thus they created an ¿acidic buffer¿ that would be unable to penetrate the membranes of beneficial cells, rendering the buffer harmless to those cells. Yet, it would maintain the mild acidity which kills sperm and microbes that are sensitive to acid. The scientists are also developing ways to increase the gel's effectiveness by incorporating antibodies and vaccines. Additional research could result in a contraceptive gel lasting for 24 hours or longer. The gel, which they call BufferGel, may be marketed after undergoing extensive tests over the next 2 years. PMID:12295770

  17. Fat Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Prevention among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a weight-related teasing prevention program and evaluate the effectiveness of the program among adolescents. One hundred forty-three students in 7th-grade in health classes at the middle school were asked to participate in the study. The weight-related teasing prevention program was implemented as part of…

  18. Counselors Can Make a Difference in Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that school counselors can play vital role in the prevention of adolescent suicide. Lists warning signs of suicide risk and characteristics of at-risk students. Presents set of guidelines for helping potential suicide victims. Sees key to teenage suicide prevention to be communication skills. Identifies components for suicide prevention…

  19. Pregnancy options counseling for adolescents: overcoming barriers to care and preserving preference.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, Loren M; Perrucci, Alissa C; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Current clinical guidelines for counseling adolescent patients about their pregnancy options fail to give concrete suggestions for how to begin and hold conversations that support patient autonomy, provide accurate and unbiased information, and address barriers to care. Recent research suggests that relative to adult women, adolescents are at increased risk of being denied abortion because they present beyond facilities' gestational age limits. Counseling that neglects to address the structural and developmental challenges that adolescents face when seeking care may contribute to the risk of abortion denial as well as subsequent delays in prenatal care. The task of providing non-directive, patient-centered, evidence-based pregnancy options counseling to an adolescent while ensuring that she receives her chosen course of care in a timely manner is challenging. This article presents a shared decision-making framework and specific suggestions for healthcare providers to support adolescent patients in coming to their decision about whether to continue or terminate an unplanned pregnancy and access follow-up care within the current sociopolitical environment.

  20. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents'…

  1. Halfway There: A Prescription for Continued Progress in Preventing Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report offers findings and recommendations by the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Nearly one million teens become pregnant annually. The teen birth rate increased 24 percent between 1986-91 and has fallen 20 percent since then. Overall, too many parents and adult leaders do not take a strong stand against teen pregnancy. Strident…

  2. Adolescent Pregnancy: The Unmet Need for Psychological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Christiane B.; Freese, Margaret P.

    Adolescents contribute nearly 20% of all births in the United States; half of these are unplanned or unwanted. Negative health and socioeconomic consequences are associated with adolescent childbearing, and teenagers account for nearly one-third of all reported therapeutic abortions. Failure to use other than traditional research methods to study…

  3. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV and Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…

  4. Culture Circles in adolescent empowerment for the prevention of violence

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Neto, Waldemar Brandão; de Lima, Luciane Soares; de Aquino, Jael Maria; Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities; changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance; expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks. PMID:25931647

  5. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  6. Adolescent Pregnancy Decision-Making: Are Parents Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Raye Hudson

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which teenagers involve their parents in decision making on the resolution of unwanted conceptions, even though legalization of abortion allows them to terminate their pregnancies without parental knowledge. (RMH)

  7. Sexual Health Outcomes at 24 Months for a Clinic-Linked Intervention to Prevent Pregnancy Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, Renee E.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J.; Beckman, Kara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Garwick, Ann W.; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Plowman, Shari; Resnick, Michael D.; Secor-Turner, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Importance Preventing early pregnancy among vulnerable adolescents requires innovative and sustained approaches. Prime Time, a youth development intervention, aims to reduce pregnancy risk among adolescent girls seeking clinic services who are at high risk for pregnancy. Objective To evaluate sexual risk behaviors and related outcomes with a 24-month postbaseline survey, 6 months after the conclusion of the Prime Time intervention. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Community and school-based primary care clinics. Participants Of 253 sexually active 13- to 17-year-old girls meeting specified risk criteria, 236 (93.3%) completed the 24-month follow-up survey. Intervention Offered during an 18-month period, Prime Time includes case management and youth leadership programs. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported consistency of condom, hormonal, and dual-method contraceptive use with most recent male sex partner and number of male sex partners in the past 6 months. Results At 24-month follow-up, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent use of condoms, hormonal contraception, and dual-method contraception than the control group. Intervention participants also reported improvements in family connectedness and self-efficacy to refuse unwanted sex, and reductions in the perceived importance of having sex. No between-group differences were found in the number of recent male sex partners. Conclusions and Relevance This study contributes to what has been a dearth of evidence regarding youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful but few efforts have emphasized a dual approach of strengthening sexual and nonsexual protective factors while addressing risk. Findings suggest that health services grounded in a youth development framework can lead to long-term reductions in sexual risk among vulnerable youth. PMID:23440337

  8. Adaptation Guidance for Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy and STI/HIV Prevention Curricula: From Development to Practice

    PubMed Central

    ROLLERI, LORI A.; FULLER, TALERIA R.; FIRPO-TRIPLETT, REGINA; LESESNE, CATHERINE A.; MOORE, CLAIRE; LEEKS, KIMBERLY D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing ado-lescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Reproductive Health initiated the Adaptation Guidance Project. The project included the development of a comprehensive adaptation guidance framework and adaptation kits for select evidence-based teen pregnancy and HIV prevention programs. In addition, three innovative concepts emerged that have application to other adaptation program and evaluation efforts, including moving research into practice. First, the authors defined the core components of an EBI in three distinct ways: core content, core pedagogy, and core implementation. Second, they piloted a practitioner-friendly adaptation guidance-messaging schema—Green, Yellow, and Red Light Adaptations, and last they included fidelity/adaptation monitoring logs. This article will describe the process used to develop the adaptation guidance kits, including the main features and tools. PMID:25844074

  9. Young adolescent girls are at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: an observational multicountry study

    PubMed Central

    Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Mackanga, Jean Rodolphe; González, Raquel; Ouedraogo, Smaila; Kakolwa, Mwaka A; Manego, Rella Zoleko; Basra, Arti; Rupérez, María; Cot, Michel; Kabanywany, Abdunoor M; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Seldiji T; Vala, Anifa; Massougbodji, Achille; Abdulla, Salim; Adegnika, Ayôla A; Sevene, Esperança; Macete, Eusebio; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Aponte, John J; Menéndez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives One of Africa's most important challenges is to improve maternal and neonatal health. The identification of groups at highest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes is important for developing and implementing targeted prevention programmes. This study assessed whether young adolescent girls constitute a group at increased risk for adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Setting Data were collected prospectively as part of a large randomised controlled clinical trial evaluating intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (NCT00811421—Clinical Trials.gov), conducted between September 2009 and December 2013 in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania. Participants Of 4749 participants, pregnancy outcomes were collected for 4388 deliveries with 4183 live births including 83 multiple gestations. Of 4100 mothers with a singleton live birth delivery, 24% (975/4100) were adolescents (≤19 years of age) and 6% (248/4100) were aged ≤16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes of this predefined analysis were preterm delivery and low birth weight. Results The overall prevalence of low birthweight infants and preterm delivery was 10% (371/3851) and 4% (159/3862), respectively. Mothers aged ≤16 years showed higher risk for the delivery of a low birthweight infant (OR: 1.96; 95% CI 1.35 to 2.83). Similarly, preterm delivery was associated with young maternal age (≤16 years; OR: 2.62; 95% CI 1.59 to 4.30). In a subanalysis restricted to primiparous women: preterm delivery, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.05 to 8.93; low birth weight, OR: 1.29; 95% CI 0.82 to 2.01. Conclusions Young maternal age increases the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and it is a stronger predictor for low birth weight and preterm delivery than other established risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. This finding highlights the need to improve adolescent reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa. Trial registration number NCT00811421

  10. Evidence-Based Prevention for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Erin; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-07-01

    Due to the significant consequences of adolescent substance use behaviors, researchers have increasingly focused on prevention approaches. The field of prevention science is based on the identification of predictors of problem behaviors, and the development and testing of prevention programs that seek to change these predictors. As the field of prevention science moves forward, there are many opportunities for growth, including the integration of prevention programs into service systems and primary care, an expansion of program adaptations to fit the needs of local populations, and a greater emphasis on the development of programs targeted at young adult populations.

  11. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  12. Adoption of an Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Curriculum: A Case Study in a South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…

  13. Adolescent pregnancy in the U.S. military: what we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Klein, David A; Adelman, William P

    2008-07-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health problem in the United States, but little is known about this condition in military-affiliated populations. This article reviews what is known about adolescent pregnancy among (1) dependent children of active duty and retired personnel and (2) active duty military personnel. Sparse and conflicting evidence exists regarding the prevalence of, the risk factors for, and the impacts of pregnancy in the dependent child population. Limited evidence regarding active duty service members reveals risky behavior by young military personnel, failure to effectively use contraception, and resulting pregnancies that consume military resources and diminish deployability and retention. We suggest research questions for further study that could lead to interventions targeting unintended adolescent pregnancy and its attendant tolls on health, budgets, military readiness, and fighting strength. PMID:18700600

  14. Adolescent pregnancy in the U.S. military: what we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Klein, David A; Adelman, William P

    2008-07-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health problem in the United States, but little is known about this condition in military-affiliated populations. This article reviews what is known about adolescent pregnancy among (1) dependent children of active duty and retired personnel and (2) active duty military personnel. Sparse and conflicting evidence exists regarding the prevalence of, the risk factors for, and the impacts of pregnancy in the dependent child population. Limited evidence regarding active duty service members reveals risky behavior by young military personnel, failure to effectively use contraception, and resulting pregnancies that consume military resources and diminish deployability and retention. We suggest research questions for further study that could lead to interventions targeting unintended adolescent pregnancy and its attendant tolls on health, budgets, military readiness, and fighting strength.

  15. Adolescent women face triple jeopardy: unwanted pregnancy, HIV / AIDS and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, A; Gringle, R; Greenslade, F

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the risks of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion relative to HIV/AIDS by adolescent women. Data presented at the XI International Conference on AIDS indicated that adolescents aged 15-19 years form the highest risk group for newly acquired HIV infections and also with the highest rate worldwide of unwanted pregnancy. Contributing factors of this high rate includes physical violence and other forms of coercion; an earlier age of sexual initiation for girls than boys; so-called "sexual mixing", wherein young girls may have sex with older men for a variety of cultural and economic reasons; social pressures faced by young girls; the lack of access to formal education including sex education; the lack of access to contraception and reproductive health services; the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent female partners; and young women's lack of power to negotiate terms of sex with their partners. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, adolescent women have always found it difficult to obtain appropriate services to meet their needs, including safe abortion care. The AIDS epidemic exacerbates these difficulties and adds new medical, legal and ethical dimensions to the practice of unsafe and illegal abortion procedures that put young women's health and lives in danger. PMID:12179733

  16. Cultural factors affecting diet and pregnancy outcome of Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Y M

    1999-09-01

    A study was conducted to describe the cultural beliefs, nutrition knowledge, food intake, and attitudes about weight gain of Mexican American adolescents, and their relationship to pregnancy weight gain and infant's birth weight. A convenience sample of 46 pregnant adolescents, who were self-identified Mexican American primigravidas aged 13-18 years, were recruited from 6 San Francisco Bay Area and San Jose clinic sites. Data were collected over an 18-month period from Winter 1994 to Spring 1995. Results showed that acculturation affected nutritional knowledge, attitudes about weight gain during pregnancy, and the psychosocial and educational level of pregnant Mexican American adolescents. There were no differences in the quality of diet and pregnancy outcomes, gestational weeks at delivery, or birth weight among acculturated, versus the nonacculturated adolescents. Both benefited from cultural protective factors related to their dependence on the family for emotional, economic, and social support. Nutrition recommendations should emphasize the importance of maintaining traditional food habits and nutritive value information of American foods.

  17. Patient Education through Pregnancy Counseling: A Preventive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Linda; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Gynecology Clinic, Wilce Health Center, Ohio State University, is putting into operation a comprehensive family planning service program that includes (1) patient education, (2) medical care, (3) pregnancy counseling, and (4) reproductive and sexuality counseling. (Author)

  18. Risk factors for depressive symptoms in adolescent pregnancy in a late-teen subsample.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.

  19. Secondary Prevention of Attempted Suicide in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotgrove, Andrew; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adolescents discharged from a hospital following suicide attempt who were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving standard management plus a token allowing readmission to the hospital on demand, or a control group receiving standard management only. Results suggest lower rates of repeat suicide attempts in the group that received…

  20. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  1. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  2. Mobile Phone Apps for the Prevention of Unintended Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun, Victoria; Muessig, Kathryn E

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, meaning that the pregnancy is mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted. Unintended pregnancy increases health risks for mother and child, leads to high economic costs for society, and increases social disparities. Mobile phone ownership is rapidly increasing, providing opportunities to reach at-risk populations with reproductive health information and tailored unintended pregnancy prevention interventions through mobile phone apps. However, apps that offer support for unintended pregnancy prevention remain unevaluated. Objective To identify, describe, and evaluate mobile phone apps that purport to help users prevent unintended pregnancy. Methods We conducted an extensive search of the Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores for apps that explicitly included or advertised pregnancy prevention or decision-making support in the context of fertility information/tracking, birth control reminders, contraceptive information, pregnancy decision-making, abortion information or counseling, sexual communication/negotiation, and pregnancy tests. We excluded apps that targeted medical professionals or that cost more than US $1.99. Eligible apps were downloaded and categorized by primary purpose. Data extraction was performed on a minimum of 143 attributes in 3 domains: (1) pregnancy prevention best practices, (2) contraceptive methods and clinical services, and (3) user interface. Apps were assigned points for their inclusion of features overall and for pregnancy prevention best practices and contraceptive information. Results Our search identified 6805 app descriptions in iTunes and Google Play. Of these, 218 unique apps met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Apps were grouped into 9 categories: fertility trackers (n=72), centers and resources (n=38), birth control reminders (n=35), general sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information (n=17), SRH information targeted specifically to young

  3. Risking the Future. Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbearing. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D., Ed.

    This book examines in detail the complex, controversial problem of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Compiled by a panel of distinguished experts, it is a comprehensive review of data on such issues as sex education in the schools, contraception, abortion, adoption, prenatal and pediatric care, child support enforcement, and Aid to Families…

  4. Early Childbearing: Perspectives of Black Adolescents on Pregnancy, Abortion, and Contraception. Sage Library of Social Research 192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Rickels, Karl

    This book reports on the Penn Study of Teenage Pregnancy, which examined issues surrounding adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and childbearing. Participants were African-American teenagers between the ages of 13 and 17 from disadvantaged urban backgrounds. Based on individual interviews over 2 years in the early 1980s, the study provided details…

  5. Arginine flux, but not nitric oxide synthesis, decreases in adolescent girls compared with adult women during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric Oxide (NO) has been proposed as a mediator of vascular expansion during pregnancy. Inability to increase NO synthesis and/or production of its precursor, arginine, may contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension. Adolescents have a higher incidence of gestational hypertension. It is not know...

  6. Resolution of Unwanted Pregnancy during Adolescence through Abortion versus Childbirth: Individual and Family Predictors and Psychological Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Priscilla K.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, various demographic, psychological, educational, and family variables were explored as predictors of pregnancy resolution. Only 2 of the 17 variables examined were significantly associated with pregnancy resolution (risk-taking and the desire to leave home). After controlling…

  7. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  8. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  9. Determinants of Use of Insecticide Treated Nets for the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy: Jinja, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Laura R.; Weiss, Noel S.; Brentlinger, Paula E.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Kiwuwa, Mpungu S.; Stergachis, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Background One established means of preventing the adverse consequences of malaria during pregnancy is sleeping under an insecticide treated net (ITN) throughout pregnancy. Despite increased access to this intervention over time, consistent ITN use during pregnancy remains relatively uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to identify determinants of ITN use during pregnancy. Utilizing a population-based random sample, we interviewed 500 women living in Jinja, Uganda, who had been pregnant in the past year. ITN ownership at the start of pregnancy was reported by 359 women (72%) and 28 women (20%) acquired an ITN after the first trimester of pregnancy. Among 387 ITN owners, 73% reported either always sleeping under the ITN during all trimesters of pregnancy, or after acquiring their net. Owning more than 1 net was slightly associated with always sleeping under an ITN during pregnancy (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.28). Women who always slept under an ITN during pregnancy were more likely to be influenced by an advertisement on the radio/poster than being given an ITN free of charge (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.76). No differences were found between other socio-demographic factors, pregnancy history, ANC use or socio-cultural factors. Conclusions/Significance While self-reported ITN ownership and use was common throughout pregnancy, we were unable to pinpoint why a sizable fraction of Ugandan women did not always adhere to recommendations for use of an ITN during pregnancy. More data are needed on the capacity of individual households to support the installation of ITNs which may provide insight into interventions targeted at improving the convenience and adherence of daily ITN use. PMID:22745817

  10. The impact of a county wide sex education effort on adolescent pregnancies in one South Carolina Regional Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Rubel, H R; Baughman, O L

    1988-07-01

    South Carolina ranks 18th among all US states with regard to its incidence of adolescent pregnancies. No formal sex education was provided in any of Spartanburg County's schools before 1976, even though adolescents aged 12-16 years accounted for 9% of all deliveries at Spartanburg Regional Medical Center (SRMC), a county-owned tertiary care center which accepts complicated obstetrical cases from a three-county catchment area. Docs Oughta Care (DOC), an international voluntary organization of concerned primary care physicians, together with teams of male and female family medicine residents at SRMC, developed slide presentations on human reproductive anatomy, venereal disease, and pregnancy prevention. The presentations were factual, with neither scare tactics nor heavy moral overtones. Respect for self and others, independent thinking, a positive self image, and understanding peer pressures were central themes. Following the announcement of the availability of the teams to all Spartanburg County schools in the fall of 1978, junior and senior high schools in the four largest of seven school districts requested visits. The majority of students reached were aged 13-17 years. However, lack of resident interest and leaders led to waning enthusiasm for the presentations after 1980 and their cessation during 1982-85. Within 2-3 years of the program's launch, the percentage of adolescents under age 16 years delivering babies at SRMC declined from the usual level of 9% to slightly more than 4% of all deliveries. This reduction persisted beyond the decline of the DOC program, although some recidivism was noted as the peak of the effort passed.

  11. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  12. Adolescent Use of Two Types of HIV Prevention Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Shillington, Audrey M.; Min, Jong Won; Clapp, John D.; Mueller, Kristin; Hovell, Melbourne

    2008-01-01

    This study compared two groups of adolescents seeking help at HIV prevention drop-in agencies. The first group attended agencies in low-income Hispanic neighborhoods which recruited within the locale. The second group of youth attended agencies that recruited based upon a specific population--they targeted homeless and LGBQ youth. We explored the…

  13. Coping with Stress: Implications for Preventive Interventions with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to stress and the ways individuals cope with stress are of central importance for prevention of mental health and adjustment problems during childhood and adolescence. Coping may be a moderator, or a protective factor, which increases or decreases the probability of developing mental health problems in response to a…

  14. Measuring Social Support from Mother Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…

  15. Tracking the trends. Year-end review of state actions on reproductive health policy. Teenage pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T

    1995-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy prevention programs in the US pertain to sex education about reproduction, condom availability in schools, and outreach. This review of state actions on reproductive health policy in 1995 shows that, of the more than 100 bills introduced in 41 states, 16 bills were enacted. Some states eliminated condom and sex education programs in schools. 64 bills related to sexuality education in 30 states. 75% of these bills aimed to eliminate or restrict the scope of comprehensive sexuality education. The five laws enacted were identified as receiving a comprehensive analysis in the "State Reproductive Health Monitor," Vol.6, No.2, June 1995. The conservative states of North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas enacted new laws, which eliminated the teacher requirement for providing pregnancy prevention and disease education. These states retained education about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality education. North Carolina and Texas granted parents the right to remove students from these classes, and schools must inform parents of their rights. Oklahoma required parental consent for attendance in these classes. Most proposed legislation about condom distribution in schools attempts to prohibit condom access. In 1995, there were 11 measures on prohibiting condom access proposed in 9 states, but none were enacted. Massachusetts is the only state where the State Board of Education policy recommends that schools consider condom availability as part of their HIV/AIDS prevention education efforts. This action was upheld in the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Four bills, out of 50 bills introduced in 1995, were enacted on unintended teenage pregnancy prevention issues. Opponents to sexuality education tend to promote abstinence-only education and an emphasis on the immorality and negative consequences of sexual intercourse. Opponents also tend to remove information from the curricula on pregnancy prevention and disease prevention on the grounds that it promotes

  16. Pregnancy and lactation hinder growth and nutritional status of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2008-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about its influence on maternal growth and nutritional status. We determined how pregnancy and lactation during adolescence affects postmenarcheal linear and ponderal growth and body composition of 12-19 y olds in rural Bangladesh. In a prospective cohort study, anthropometric measurements were taken among primigravidae (n = 229) in the early first trimester of pregnancy and at 6 mo postpartum. Randomly selected never-pregnant adolescents (n = 458) of the same age and time since menarche were measured within 1 wk of these assessments. Annual changes in anthropometric measurements were compared between the 2 groups adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. The mean +/- SD age and age at menarche of adolescents were 16.3 +/- 1.6 y and 12.7 +/- 1.2 y, respectively. Unlike pregnant girls who did not grow in height (-0.09 +/- 0.08 cm/y), never-pregnant girls increased in stature by 0.35 +/- 0.05 cm/y. The adjusted mean difference between the 2 groups was 0.43 +/- 0.1cm (P < 0.001). Similarly, whereas never-pregnant girls gained BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, and percent body fat, pregnant girls declined in every measurement by 6 mo postpartum, resulting in adjusted mean +/- SD differences in annual changes of 0.62 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2), 0.89 +/- 0.12 cm, and 1.54 +/- 0.25%, respectively (all P < 0.001). Differences in changes in all anthropometric measurements except height were greater among adolescents whose first pregnancy occurred <24 mo vs. > or =24 mo since menarche (BMI, -1.40 +/- 0.18 vs. -0.60 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2); all interaction terms, P < 0.05). Pregnancy and lactation during adolescence ceased linear growth and resulted in weight loss and depletion of fat and lean body mass of young girls.

  17. Parent–Adolescent Relationship Education (PARE): Program Delivery to Reduce Risks for Adolescent Pregnancy and STDs

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, Regina P.; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The first author recruited parent–adolescent dyads (N = 192) into after-school prevention education groups at middle schools in southeast Texas. This author placed participants in either (1) an Interactive Program (IP) in which they role-played, practiced resistance skills, and held parent–child discussions or (2) an Attention Control Program (ACP) that used the same curriculum but was delivered in a traditional, didactic format. Questionnaires administered at the beginning and end of the 4-session program and again after booster sessions in 3 subsequent semesters provided measures of social controls (eg, communication with parents) and self controls (eg, protection against risk) on the youths' sexual health behaviors. Linear mixed models adjusted for gender, age, and ethnicity showed that the IP, in comparison with the ACP, achieved significant gains in social control by increasing parental rules about having sex and other risky behaviors and also enhanced students' self-control by increasing their knowledge about prevention and enhancing resistance responses when pressured to have sex. PMID:18316271

  18. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  19. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  20. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study.

  1. Present and future aspects of dydrogesterone in prevention or treatment of pregnancy disorders: an outlook.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2016-08-01

    Over time, it became evident that with the use of micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone prevention or treatment of pregnancy disorders such as threatened miscarriage, recurrent (habitual) miscarriage, preterm labor or preeclampsia appears to be possible. The results so far obtained will be delineated and concepts of prevention or treatment are suggested with the aim to further explore these pregnancy disorders either by prevention or treatment concepts to obtain not only benefits to the mother and the fetus, but furthermore this results in benefits for lifetime for the individual, for the family and last but not least for society. PMID:27662647

  2. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001...

  3. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel D, Initial Review In accordance...

  4. Early Fatherhood: A Mapping of the Evidence Base Relating to Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…

  5. Preventing Unintended Pregnancy: The Contraceptive CHOICE Project in Review.

    PubMed

    Birgisson, Natalia E; Zhao, Qiuhong; Secura, Gina M; Madden, Tessa; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2015-05-01

    The Contraceptive CHOICE Project (CHOICE) sought to reduce unintended pregnancies in the St. Louis Region by removing cost, education, and access barriers to highly effective contraception. CHOICE was a prospective cohort study of over 9,000 women 14-45 years of age who received tiered contraceptive counseling to increase awareness of all reversible methods available, particularly long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods. Participants were provided with contraception of their choice at no cost for 2-3 years. We studied contraceptive method choice, continuation, and population outcomes of repeat abortion and teen pregnancy. Seventy-five percent of study participants chose one of the three LARC methods (46% levonorgestrel intrauterine system, 12% copper intrauterine device, and 17% subdermal implant). LARC users reported greater continuation than non-LARC users at 12 months (87% versus 57%) and 24 months (77% versus 41%). In our cohort, LARC methods were 20 times more effective than non-LARC methods. As a result, we observed a reduction in the percent of repeat abortions from 2006 to 2010 in St. Louis compared with Kansas City and nonmetropolitan Missouri and found substantial reductions in teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion (34.0, 19.4, and 9.7 per 1000 teens, respectively) compared with national rates among sexually experienced teens (158.5, 94.0, and 41.5 per 1000, respectively). Improved access to LARC methods can result in fewer unintended pregnancies and abortions and considerable cost savings to the health care system. PMID:25825986

  6. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:26550005

  7. Evaluation of an integrated services program to prevent subsequent pregnancy and birth among urban teen mothers.

    PubMed

    Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.

  8. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in adolescent pregnancies: The Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls between 15 and 19 years give birth to around 16 million babies each year, around 11% of births worldwide. We sought to determine whether adolescent mothers are at higher risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes compared with mothers aged 20–24 years in a prospective, population-based observational study of newborn outcomes in low resource settings. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based multi-country research study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in six low-middle income countries (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). The study population for this analysis was restricted to women aged 24 years or less, who gave birth to infants of at least 20 weeks’ gestation and 500g or more. We compared adverse pregnancy maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents 15-19 years, <15 years, and adults 20-24 years. Results A total of 269,273 women were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2013. Of all pregnancies 11.9% (32,097/269,273) were in adolescents 15-19 years, while 0.14% (370/269,273) occurred among girls <15 years. Pregnancy among adolescents 15-19 years ranged from 2% in Pakistan to 26% in Argentina, and adolescent pregnancies <15 year were only observed in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Compared to adults, adolescents did not show increased risk of maternal adverse outcomes. Risks of preterm birth and LBW were significantly higher among both early and older adolescents, with the highest risks observed in the <15 years group. Neonatal and perinatal mortality followed a similar trend in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, with the highest risk in early adolescents, although the differences in this age group were not significant. However, in South Asia the risks of neonatal and perinatal death were not different among adolescents 15-19 years compared to adults. Conclusions This study suggests that pregnancy among adolescents is not associated

  9. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  10. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  11. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Related Issues. Memo No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pam

    This memo provides information on staffing and services provided at the North Division High School adolescent health clinic for two phases of the clinic's operation: calendar year 1989, when the Milwaukee Comprehensive Community Health (MCCH), Inc. operated the clinic; and from July 1 to December 31, 1990, when the clinic was under the…

  12. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... behaviors place individuals at greatest risk for infection. HIV awareness and education should be universally integrated into all educational environments. * CDC recommends all adolescents and adults 13-64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine medical ...

  13. Medical and social aspects of pregnancy among adolescents. Part II. Comparative study of abortions and deliveries.

    PubMed

    Rautanen, E; Kantero, R L; Widholm, O

    1977-01-01

    Socio-medical aspects concerning 193 pregnant patients under the age of 18 were analysed. Of these patients 131 had an interruption of the pregnancy and 62 gave birth to a baby. All the abortion patients were unmarried. The mean age in the abortion group was 16.8 years and in the delivery group 17.2 years. The girls of this study had their first experience of sexual intercourse very early, 32% under the age of 15. The frequency of complications after abortion was 18.5%. In the delivery group the prematurity and prenatal mortality were at least twice as great as in the general population. The girls who gave birth to their babies often came from lower social strata and the relationships in their families were more harmonious than in those who had had abortions. The birth of the baby or the decision to have an abortion is not accidental. The different behaviour patterns have a different background regarding both the personal and the environmental characteristics. The decision of the patient whether to abort or not was influenced by the attitude of the immediate family. The relations between family members were better in the homes of the girls who had a baby than in the homes of those who belonged to the abortion group. In both groups more than 40% of the subjects had suffered the risk of being emotionally deprived because of environmental conditions, including crowded housing and limited economic means. Almost all the subjects knew about the means of prevention, although they may not have had proper instruction and sufficient knowledge of their use. The services given by the goverment to adolescent pregnant patients are insufficient and require immediate attention by society.

  14. Differential characteristics of adolescent pregnancy test patients: abortion, childbearing and negative test groups.

    PubMed

    Zabin, L S; Hirsch, M B; Boscia, J A

    1990-03-01

    Studies of the consequences of adolescent childbearing report many negative sequelae, but the effects of induced abortion are less studied, and most studies lack appropriate controls for preexisting characteristics. This paper uses baseline data from the intake interview into a longitudinal study of 360 innercity black women (less than or equal to 17 years old) presenting for a pregnancy test at two sites in Baltimore to examine baseline differences between three groups: young women who terminated the index pregnancy and, as controls, those who carried to term and those whose tests were negative. They were interviewed before being told the test result. Education aspirations/achievement, economic well-being, sexual/contraceptive history, psychologic characteristics, and desire for a child were compared. Negative test patients often reveal characteristics suggesting a particularly high risk of pregnancy, e.g., more prior pregnancy tests and a greater desire to conceive. Implications are discussed, emphasizing the need to intervene after a negative pregnancy test with counseling to help avert a future undesired conception.

  15. Translating primary into 'positive' prevention for adolescents in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Jasna, Loos; Sabrina, Bakeera-Kitaka; Obong'o, Christopher; Eric, Wobudeya; Buvé, Anne

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop positive prevention interventions for adolescents living with HIV in high endemic regions. Adapting existing evidence-based interventions for resource-constrained settings is effective when the intervention's theoretical core elements are preserved while achieving cultural relevance. We describe the process of adapting a primary prevention to a secondary/positive prevention programme for adolescents living with HIV in Kenya and Uganda. The systematic adaptation was guided by the Centers for Diseases Control's map for the adaptation process, describing an iterative process. The procedure included: assessing the target positive prevention group's needs (safer sex; fertility-related issues), identifying the potential interventions through a literature review, conducting qualitative adaptation research to identify areas for adaptation by ensuring cultural relevance (revising the intervention logic by adding topics such as adherence; HIV-related stigma; HIV-disclosure; safer sex), pilot-testing the adapted programme and conducting a process evaluation of its first implementation. Areas added onto the original intervention's logic framework, based on social cognitive theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour were information and skills building on sexual relationships and protection behaviour, prevention of vertical HIV transmission, contraception, HIV-disclosure, HIV-related stigma, HIV-treatment and adherence. The process evaluation using mixed methods showed that we delivered a feasible and acceptable intervention for HIV-positive adolescents aged 13-17 years. The systematic approach adopted facilitated the development of a contextualized and developmentally appropriate (i.e. age-specific) intervention for adolescents living with HIV.

  16. Translating primary into 'positive' prevention for adolescents in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Jasna, Loos; Sabrina, Bakeera-Kitaka; Obong'o, Christopher; Eric, Wobudeya; Buvé, Anne

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop positive prevention interventions for adolescents living with HIV in high endemic regions. Adapting existing evidence-based interventions for resource-constrained settings is effective when the intervention's theoretical core elements are preserved while achieving cultural relevance. We describe the process of adapting a primary prevention to a secondary/positive prevention programme for adolescents living with HIV in Kenya and Uganda. The systematic adaptation was guided by the Centers for Diseases Control's map for the adaptation process, describing an iterative process. The procedure included: assessing the target positive prevention group's needs (safer sex; fertility-related issues), identifying the potential interventions through a literature review, conducting qualitative adaptation research to identify areas for adaptation by ensuring cultural relevance (revising the intervention logic by adding topics such as adherence; HIV-related stigma; HIV-disclosure; safer sex), pilot-testing the adapted programme and conducting a process evaluation of its first implementation. Areas added onto the original intervention's logic framework, based on social cognitive theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour were information and skills building on sexual relationships and protection behaviour, prevention of vertical HIV transmission, contraception, HIV-disclosure, HIV-related stigma, HIV-treatment and adherence. The process evaluation using mixed methods showed that we delivered a feasible and acceptable intervention for HIV-positive adolescents aged 13-17 years. The systematic approach adopted facilitated the development of a contextualized and developmentally appropriate (i.e. age-specific) intervention for adolescents living with HIV. PMID:26048865

  17. The Association of BMI Status With Adolescent Preventive Screening

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) and preventive screening among adolescents at their last checkup. METHODS: We used population-based data from the 2003–2007 California Health Interview Surveys, telephone interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a checkup in the past 12 months (n = 9220). Respondents were asked whether they received screening for nutrition, physical activity, and emotional distress. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight: (1) normal weight or underweight (<85th percentile); (2) overweight (85th–94th percentile); and (3) obese (>95th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression models tested how screening by topic differed according to BMI status, adjusting for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, and survey year. RESULTS: Screening percentages in the pooled sample (all 3 years) were higher for obese, but not overweight, adolescents for physical activity (odds ratio: 1.4; P < .01) and nutrition (odds ratio: 1.6; screening did not differ P < .01). Stratified analysis by year revealed higher screening for obese (versus normal-weight) adolescents for nutrition and physical activity in 2003 and for all 3 topics in 2005. However, by 2007, screening did not differ according to BMI status. Overall screening between 2003 and 2007 declined for nutrition (75%–59%; P < .01), physical activity (74%–60%; P < .01), and emotional distress (31%–24%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents receive more preventive screening versus their normal-weight peers. Overweight adolescents do not report more screening, but standards of care dictate increased attention for this group. These results are discouraging amid a rise in pediatric obesity and new guidelines that recommend screening by BMI status. PMID:21768313

  18. Race differences in teenage sexuality, pregnancy, and adolescent childbearing.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, F F

    1987-01-01

    This article has examined the origin and consequences of racial differences in teen sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Black/white differences in rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing have been declining in the past several decades though the incidence of nonmartial fertility among younger teens is still about five times as high for blacks as for whites. Early sexual behavior, irregular use of contraception, and a much lower probability of marrying prior to having a birth all contribute to the racial differential. Evidence suggests that both normative and socioeconomic differences may account for these demographic patterns. Black teens show markedly higher tolerance for childbearing before marriage. They also express much greater reservations about the viability of marriage, especially at an early age, than do whites. These views may affect their willingness to risk early pregnancy and initiate intercourse at an early age. Several types of interventions that might reduce black/white differences in teen childbearing were reviewed. The most promising of these involved simultaneously strengthening the community sanctions that discourage early parenthood while expanding social opportunities. Presently, poor, especially poor minority youth, may feel that they have little to lose by entering parenthood prematurely. Unless we are able to persuade these youth that they have a larger stake in the future, we are unlikely to see a dramatic decline in the incidence of early childbearing among blacks. This does not necessarily mean that racial differences are destined to persist. Increasingly, white youth are subject to many of the same conditions that have produced high rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing among blacks. Thus, racial differences may decline not because the situation of blacks is improving but because white youth are less willing to defer sexual activity or less able to marry when pregnancy occurs. This may at least change the perception

  19. Developing guidance for pregnancy testing of adolescents participating in research: ethical, legal and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Vic; Brierley, Joe

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents need safe effective drugs that have undergone ethically approved testing in clinical trials; such studies often require pregnancy testing in 'women of childbearing age' which includes children/adolescents. There is a lack of consistent standard operating procedures for pregnancy testing in these individuals, in either research or clinical (ie, both preprocedure and clinical emergency) settings. Some harmonisation between a selective or universal testing approach based on a risk analysis of the trial drug or procedure would seem sensible. The need for pregnancy testing and the reasons for the method chosen (universal or selective) should be clearly defined in the research protocol. Research ethics committees (RECs) need to satisfy themselves that the selection of subjects to be tested, the procedures for obtaining consent and the respecting of the young person's confidentiality are appropriate and that management of any positive tests are in accord with local safeguarding policies and procedures. Researchers should have core competencies necessary to manage sensitive questioning and child safeguarding training. Clinical trials of medicinal product (CTIMP) pregnancy testing in females 13-15 years of age requires parental consent and the child's active involvement in the decision-making process ('assent') the implications of a positive test should be discussed in advance Children under 13 years should not normally be subject to pregnancy testing in CTIMPs, unless there are exceptional circumstances, for example, a trial of contraceptive agents of a high teratogenicity risk, as reviewed by a specialist paediatric REC. We analyse the ethical, legal and practical aspects of this issues and supply guidance to support those involved.

  20. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  1. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Knopf, Amelia S.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network Protocol 113 (ATN113) is an open-label, multi-site demonstration project and phase II safety study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis with 15-17 year old young men who have sex with men that requires adolescent consent for participation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers made decisions regarding whether to approve and implement ATN113, so as to inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Methods Participants included seventeen researchers at thirteen sites in twelve states considering ATN113 implementation. Qualitative descriptive methods were used. Data sources included interviews and documents generated during the initiation process. Results A common process for initiating ATN113 emerged, and informants described how they identified and addressed practical, ethical and legal challenges that arose. Informants described the process as responding to the protocol, preparing for IRB submission, abstaining from or proceeding with submission, responding to IRB concerns and reacting to the outcomes. A complex array of factors impacting approval and implementation were identified; and ATN113 was ultimately implemented in 7 of 13 sites. Informants also reflected on lessons learned that may help inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Conclusions The results illustrate factors for consideration in determining whether to implement such trials, demonstrate that such protocols have the potential to be approved, and highlight a need for clearer standards regarding biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. PMID:26095412

  2. Pre-pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birthweight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Methods Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/96), II (1996), and IV (2007/08) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (n=558) self-reported infants’ birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age; parent education; age at pregnancy; time between reporting abuse and birth; and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black). Results On average, births occurred two years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birthweight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared to non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birthweight (p<.001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p<0.01) for Black mothers who gave birth two years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Conclusions Reducing physical dating violence in

  3. Sex, Pregnancy and Contraception: A Report of Focus Group Discussions with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…

  4. [Sports injuries and their prevention in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Lascombes, Pierre; Mainard, Laurence; Haumont, Thierry; Journeau, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    Sports injuries are common in children and adolescents. Typical musculoskeletal disorders include overuse injuries such as stress fractures and apophyseal avulsions. Gymnastics has one of the highest injury rates of all girls' sports. Intensive gymnastics can cause chronic spine and wrist trauma. Prevention of sport injuries should be a priority for parents, coaches and children themselves. Protection (helmet, padding) is mandatory for some activities. Proper education and preparation are necessary for all sports activities.

  5. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  6. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Klein, L

    1978-12-01

    Antecedent factors operative in the causation of adolescent pregnancy include: The sexuality of contemporary society, especially the media. Prolongation of educational any vocational preparation in industrialized western society. Normal physical maturation at an early age. Peer and social pressure. Low expectations of life among minority and economically poor individuals. The conspiracy of silence surrounding sexuality and the inability of society to admit and deal realistically with the sexual activity of adolescents. Failure to provide sex education, clarification of values, family-life education, preparation for parenthood, and knowledge of birth-control and family-planning services targeted to teenagers, including adolescent males. Psychological and emotional problems. Failure to provide available and accessible early pregnancy-detection services with adequate counseling and support services. Failure to provide abortion services. Failure to provide supportive services to adolescents who have a child in order to prevent repeated pregnancy. Pregnancy, childbearing, and motherhood represent ultimate feminine fulfillment to many in our society, and unless attainable expectations and desirable alternatives are available, adolescents will continue to see little reason to postpone pregnancy and childbearing.

  7. Mexican American adolescent couples' vulnerability for observed negativity and physical violence: Pregnancy and acculturation mismatch.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2016-10-01

    Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended. PMID:27572956

  8. Mexican American adolescent couples' vulnerability for observed negativity and physical violence: Pregnancy and acculturation mismatch.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2016-10-01

    Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended.

  9. Beyond Primary Prevention of Alcohol Use: A Culturally Specific Secondary Prevention Program for Mexican Heritage Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants’ use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  10. Issues and Actions: Dialogues from Wingspread. Proceedings of the Conference on Adolescent Pregnancy: State Policies and Programs (Racine, Wisconsin, August 19-21, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott (C.S.) Foundation, Flint, MI.

    Proceedings of a conference on adolescent pregnancy are presented in this document. Eunice Kennedy Shriver's opening address, in which she urged the building of "communities of caring" is summarized, as is the address by Gina C. Adams who discussed recent findings on the topic of adolescent pregnancy. Several programs developed to address the…

  11. [Beta thalassemia major and pregnancy during adolescence: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Trigo, Lucas Augusto Monteiro Castro; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pereira, Belmiro Gonçalves; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-06-01

    Beta thalassemia major is a rare hereditary blood disease in which impaired synthesis of beta globin chains causes severe anemia. Medical treatment consists of chronic blood transfusions and iron chelation. We describe two cases of adolescents with beta thalassemia major with unplanned pregnancies and late onset of prenatal care. One had worsening of anemia with increased transfusional requirement, fetal growth restriction, and placental senescence. The other was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism and low maternal weight, and was admitted twice during pregnancy due to dengue shock syndrome and influenza H1N1-associated respiratory infection. She also developed fetal growth restriction and underwent vaginal delivery at term complicated by uterine hypotonia. Both patients required blood transfusions after birth and chose medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive method afterwards. This report highlights the importance of medical advice on contraceptive methods for these women and the role of a specialized prenatal follow-up in association with a hematologist.

  12. Pregnancy Test Taking Is a Correlate of Unsafe Sex, Contraceptive Nonadherence, Pregnancy, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescent and Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was conducted to examine the hypotheses that adolescent and young adult pregnancy test takers are at increased risk for unsafe sex, oral contraception (OC) nonadherence, and higher pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Methods We conducted secondary analyses using data collected for a study on OC adherence among 1155 women 16–24 years of age. Data collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months were used for the analyses. Results At baseline, 33% of women reported having undergone ≥1 pregnancy test at home or a clinic during the past 3 months. Pregnancy test takers were more likely to have ≥3 sexual partners (odds ratio [OR] 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–3.02) in the past year, report unprotected oral (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.28–1.72) or anal sex (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.32–2.39), be diagnosed with an STI (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.23–2.51), become pregnant (hazards ratio 1.52; 95% CI 1.10–2.10), or not use any birth control method (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.66–2.60). Moreover, they were less likely to continue using OC that was prescribed at baseline (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.31–0.47) and to report being ambivalent about pregnancy (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60–0.90) compared to non–test takers. Conclusions Pregnancy test taking is an important correlate of high-risk sexual behaviors, OC nonadherence, and risk of subsequent pregnancy and STIs among adolescent and young adult women. Future interventions should target these women to decrease the risk of unintended pregnancies and STIs. PMID:23531050

  13. Teenage Pregnancy and Primary Prevention: New Approaches to an Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, David J., Jr.; Knight, Susan

    This document describes the Parents Too Soon (PTS) program, a project which integrated a comprehensive array of services for teenagers in an effort to help prevent premature and unwanted pregnancies. Four components of the PTS program are listed: (1) comprehensive family planning medical services including provision of contraceptives; (2) social…

  14. Preventing Teen Pregnancy. Secondary Learning Guide 4. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on preventing teen pregnancy is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems; establish…

  15. Effectiveness of the "Baby Think It Over" Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of computerized infant simulator that provided realistic infant care experience to prevent teen pregnancy. Surveys examined changes in intervention and control group students' attitudes and sexual behaviors. Overall, the program did not significantly affect intervention students. Many students reported that it taught…

  16. Experiences of Peer Evaluation of the Leicester Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennie; Chong, Hannah Goodman; Skinner, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The Centre for Social Action was commissioned by the Leicester City Council to evaluate its Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Strategy. This was a multi-stage project with a central element of consulting with young people. This article outlines the process that was followed in order to recruit, train and support young people through the process of…

  17. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  18. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  19. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  20. Parent Power: What Parents Need To Know and Do To Help Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This guide discusses the importance of parent influence in preventing teen pregnancy, offering insights from research regarding: closeness between parents and their children; parent-child communication; parental attitudes and values about abstinence and/or the dangers of unprotected sex; parents' reluctance to discuss the issue; parental…

  1. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  2. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-06-24

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  3. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted. The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender–power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters. PMID:20596248

  4. [Adolescent pregnancy in Peru: its current situation and implications for public policies].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Walter; Subiría, Gracia

    2013-07-01

    This article ellaborates on the relation between peruvian pregnant adolescents of 15 to 19 years of age and poverty, malnutrition and social exclusion, proposing alternatives for their medical care within the frame of social programs and the fight against poverty. Likewise, it describes and analyzes the trends recorded over the past 20 years, emphasizing the multiple and persistent inequalities. Over this period, prevalences have not changed substantially, despite a slight drop recorded in the rural area. First, the article analyzes these trends in the light of their closest determinants, including changes in teenagers'exposure to the risk of an unplanned pregnancy. Then, it describes the impact this situation has on adolescents and their children, as well as the economic and labour impacts. Finally, it examines the experiences of countries with social programs similar to the one in Peru, highlighting those which could be implemented in our country.

  5. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Antvorskov, Julie C; Josefsen, Knud; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin; Fundova, Petra; Funda, David P; Buschard, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7 groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16-27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p < 0.0001) in the gluten-free group. The islets of Langerhans were less infiltrated (p < 0.001) and the intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17) (p < 0.0001) reduced in mice whose mothers were Gluten-free during pregnancy. Conclusion. A gluten-free diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces insulitis and intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17). PMID:27642610

  6. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7 groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16–27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p < 0.0001) in the gluten-free group. The islets of Langerhans were less infiltrated (p < 0.001) and the intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17) (p < 0.0001) reduced in mice whose mothers were Gluten-free during pregnancy. Conclusion. A gluten-free diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces insulitis and intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17).

  7. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7 groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16–27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p < 0.0001) in the gluten-free group. The islets of Langerhans were less infiltrated (p < 0.001) and the intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17) (p < 0.0001) reduced in mice whose mothers were Gluten-free during pregnancy. Conclusion. A gluten-free diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces insulitis and intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17). PMID:27642610

  8. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  9. Availability and utilization of malaria prevention strategies in pregnancy in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy in India, as elsewhere, is responsible for maternal anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm birth. It is not known whether prevention and treatment strategies for malaria in pregnancy (case management, insecticide-treated bednets, intermittent preventive therapy) are widely utilized in India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2006-2008 in two states of India, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, at 7 facilities representing a range of rural and urban populations and areas of more versus less stable malaria transmission. 280 antenatal visits (40/site) were observed by study personnel coupled with exit interviews of pregnant women to assess emphasis upon, availability and utilization of malaria prevention practices by health workers and pregnant women. The facilities were assessed for the availability of antimalarials, lab supplies and bednets. Results All participating facilities were equipped to perform malaria blood smears; none used rapid diagnostic tests. Chloroquine, endorsed for chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy by the government at the time of the study, was stocked regularly at all facilities although the quantity stocked varied. Availability of alternative antimalarials for use in pregnancy was less consistent. In Jharkhand, no health worker recommended bednet use during the antenatal visit yet over 90% of pregnant women had bednets in their household. In Chhattisgarh, bednets were available at all facilities but only 14.4% of health workers recommended their use. 40% of the pregnant women interviewed had bednets in their household. Only 1.4% of all households owned an insecticide-treated bednet; yet 40% of all women reported their households had been sprayed with insecticide. Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine was prescribed in only 2 (0.7%) and intermittent preventive therapy prescribed in only one (0.4%) of the 280 observed visits. Conclusions A disconnect remains

  10. Rehabilitation programs and prevention strategies in adolescent throwing athletes.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Edward G; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    A specific and early diagnosis must be made in the injured skeletally immature throwing athlete. A well-outlined program of rest, rehabilitation, and proper throwing techniques should be implemented and continued. Overuse injuries are preventable when biomechanics are sound and pitch counts are done with the limits enforced. Guidelines for inning limits, number of pitches, rest intervals, and throwing programs should be followed for adolescent pitchers because adolescents differ from adults. Information is included for specifications of the ball and helmet, as well as chest protective equipment. The goal should be for the Little League players to have fun and be injury free as they are competing, which gives them the best experience and allows continuation of athletic activities for a lifetime.

  11. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Africa: What's new, what's needed?

    PubMed Central

    Vallely, Andrew; Vallely, Lisa; Changalucha, John; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Falciparum malaria is an important cause of maternal, perinatal and neonatal morbidity in high transmission settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPT) has proven efficacious in reducing the burden of pregnancy-associated malaria but increasing levels of parasite resistance mean that the benefits of national SP-IPT programmes may soon be seriously undermined in much of the region. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative drug regimens for IPT in pregnancy. This paper reviews published safety and efficacy data on various antimalarials and proposes several candidate combination regimens for assessment in phase II/III clinical trials. PMID:17306014

  12. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  13. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance.

  14. Importance of Social Support in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies with American Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Methods Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Results Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. Conclusions In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  15. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV/Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV/pregnancy instruction, three months after instruction, and one year after instruction). Results indicated that classroom goal structures were related to both proximal and distal knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and efficacy beliefs. Results in particular indicate that the perception of a mastery goal structure in health education classrooms fosters knowledge, improved attitudes, enhanced efficacy beliefs, and lower intentions to have sexual intercourse. PMID:24876759

  16. Findings from SHAZ!: a feasibility study of a microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention to reduce risk among adolescent female orphans in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Megan S; Maternowska, M Catherine; Kang, Mi-Suk J; Laver, Susan M; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of a combined microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention among 50 adolescent female orphans in urban/peri-urban Zimbabwe. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on intervention delivery, HIV knowledge and behavior, and economic indicators. The study also tested for HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy. At 6 months, results indicated improvements in knowledge and relationship power. Because of the economic context and lack of adequate support, however, loan repayment and business success was poor. The results suggest that microcredit is not the best livelihood option to reduce risk among adolescent girls in this context.

  17. Findings from SHAZ!: a feasibility study of a microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention to reduce risk among adolescent female orphans in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Megan S; Maternowska, M Catherine; Kang, Mi-Suk J; Laver, Susan M; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of a combined microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention among 50 adolescent female orphans in urban/peri-urban Zimbabwe. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on intervention delivery, HIV knowledge and behavior, and economic indicators. The study also tested for HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy. At 6 months, results indicated improvements in knowledge and relationship power. Because of the economic context and lack of adequate support, however, loan repayment and business success was poor. The results suggest that microcredit is not the best livelihood option to reduce risk among adolescent girls in this context. PMID:20391061

  18. Findings from SHAZ!: A Feasibility Study of a Microcredit and Life-Skills HIV Prevention Intervention to Reduce Risk among Adolescent Female Orphans in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Megan S.; Maternowska, Catherine; Kang, Mi-Suk J.; Laver, Susan M.; Mudekunye, Imelda; Padian, Nancy S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study tested the feasibility of a combined microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention among 50 adolescent female orphans in urban/peri-urban Zimbabwe. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on intervention delivery, HIV knowledge and behavior, and economic indicators. The study also tested for HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy. At 6 months, results indicated improvements in knowledge and relationship power. Because of the economic context and lack of adequate support, however, loan repayment and business success was poor. The results suggest that microcredit is not the best livelihood option to reduce risk among adolescent girls in this context. PMID:20391061

  19. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258

  20. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-06-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  1. Managing Obesity in Pregnancy: A Change in Focus from Harm Minimization to Prevention.

    PubMed

    Grivell, Rosalie M; O'Brien, Cecelia M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-03-01

    Obesity represents a significant global health problem, contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide and a 30% increase in cost of health care provision. Over 50% of women who enter pregnancy are classified as overweight or obese resulting in short and long term effects on maternal and child health outcomes.There is a substantial amount of literature focusing on interventions in the antenatal period have been associated with modest changes in weight gain during pregnancy. There has been little effect on clinical pregnancy and birth outcomes.The article discusses the evidence supporting the shift from harm minimization via antenatal intervention, to one of prevention by targeting the time prior to conception to optimize maternal weight. PMID:27144372

  2. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... each trimester are described below. 1 First Trimester (Week 1 to Week 12) The events that lead to pregnancy begin ... and oxygen to the fetus. 2 Second Trimester (Week 13 to Week 28) At 16 weeks, and ...

  3. The impact of the Women's Centre of Jamaica Foundation programme for adolescent mothers on repeat pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Drayton, V L; Montgomery, S B; Modeste, N N; Frye-Anderson, B A; McNeil, P

    2000-12-01

    A random sample (n = 260) of primiparous Jamaican adolescent mothers (12-16 years old) who gave birth in 1994 in the parishes of Kingston and St Andrew, St Catherine and Manchester was selected from vital records and interviewed in 1998 for this historical cohort study. Among programme participants, the incidence of repeat pregnancy was 37 per cent compared with 60 percent among non-participants. Programme participation reduced the risk of one or more repeat pregnancies by 45 per cent with 95% confidence interval (0.22, 0.91). Programme participants were also 1.5 times (1.005, 2.347) more likely to complete high school than non-participants; however, this effect did not achieve statistical significance. The results confirmed that the WCJF Programme exerts a considerable effect on the incidence of repeat pregnancy among participants. The benefits of programme participation were greatest among residents of the Kingston Metropolitan Area from single-parent, female-headed households with average monthly incomes below J$10,000, who wanted to continue their education after the first live birth. PMID:11211543

  4. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  5. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  6. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  7. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An Indicated Preventive Intervention for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…

  8. Adolescent preventive health and team-games-tournaments: five decades of evidence for an empirically based paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wodarski, John S; Feit, Marvin D

    2011-01-01

    The problematic behaviors of teenagers and the subsequent negative consequences are extensive and well documented: unwanted pregnancy, substance abuse, violent behavior, depression, and social and psychological consequences of unemployment. In this article, the authors review an approach that uses a cooperative learning, empirically based intervention that employs peers as teachers. This intervention of choice is Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), a paradigm backed by five decades of empirical support. The application of TGT in preventive health programs incorporates elements in common with other prevention programs that are based on a public health orientation and constitute the essential components of health education, that is, skills training and practice in applying skills. The TGT intervention supports the idea that children and adolescents from various socioeconomic classes, between the ages of 8 and 18 and in classrooms or groups ranging in size from 4 to 17 members, can work together for one another. TGT has been applied successfully in such diverse areas as adolescent development, sexuality education, psychoactive substance abuse education, anger control, coping with depression and suicide, nutrition, comprehensive employment preparation, and family intervention. This article reviews the extensive research on TGT using examples of successful projects in substance abuse, violence, and nutrition. Issues are raised that relate to the implementation of preventive health strategies for adolescents, including cognitive aspects, social and family networks, and intervention components.

  9. Teaching medical professionals and trainees about adolescent suicide prevention: five key problems.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

  10. A brief image-based prevention intervention for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Werch, Chudley E Chad; Bian, Hui; Diclemente, Carlo C; Moore, Michelle J; Thombs, Dennis; Ames, Steven C; Huang, I-Chan; Pokorny, Steven

    2010-03-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of a brief image-based prevention intervention and assessed current drug use as a moderator of intervention effects. In a clinical trial, 416 high school-age adolescents were randomized to either the brief intervention or usual care control, with data collected at baseline and 3-month follow-up. The brief intervention consisted of a tailored in-person communication and a series of parent/guardian print materials based on the behavior-image model. Health behavior goal setting increased for participants receiving the brief intervention, with an effect size in the small range (d = 0.33). Overall effect sizes for cigarette smoking frequency and quantity and alcohol use frequency and quantity were small (ds = 0.16-0.21) and in favor of the brief intervention. However, adolescents reporting current substance use who received the brief intervention reduced their frequency and heavy use of alcohol, frequency and quantity of cigarette smoking, and reported fewer alcohol/drug problems, with larger effects ranging from small to approaching medium in size (ds = 0.32-0.43, ps < .01). This study suggests that brief image-based messages may increase health behavior goal setting and reduce substance use, particularly among drug-using older adolescents.

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  12. A decade of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil: what has been done concerning prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Paola; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Marinho, Claudio Romero Farias

    2014-08-01

    In Brazil, malaria remains a disease of major epidemiological importance because of the high number of cases in the Amazonian Region. Plasmodium spp infections during pregnancy are a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, the foetus and the newborn child. In Brazil, the control of malaria during pregnancy is primarily achieved by prompt and effective treatment of the acute episodes. Thus, to assure rapid diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women with malaria, one of the recommended strategy for low transmission areas by World Health Organization and as part of a strategy by the Ministry of Health, the National Malaria Control Program has focused on integrative measures with woman and reproductive health. Here, we discuss the approach for the prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil over the last 10 years (2003-2012) using morbidity data from Malaria Health Information System. Improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare and education and the consolidation of prevention programmes will be challenges in the control of malaria during pregnancy in the next decade.

  13. Comparing the in vivo glycine fluxes of adolescent girls and adult women during early and late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, growth of the fetus depends on an adequate glycine supply because it is needed for synthesis of fetal DNA, collagen, and serine. Since pregnant adolescent girls give birth to lower birth weight babies, it is possible that they do not produce sufficient glycine to meet overall deman...

  14. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  15. [Care of pregnancy and prevention of lamb diseases in goats].

    PubMed

    Elze, K; Krische, G

    1995-12-01

    The breeding of dairy goats has spread in Saxony for over 200 years. Recently the keeping of bigger flocks (30-300 animals) for milk and cheese production has become more common. Within the care of the pregnant she goats the feeding recommendation is a main point of the veterinary herd management. The special performances done by the pregnant animals are discussed. The daily need of energy intake is given with about 11 Megajoule Nettoenergy-lactation as well as the daily need of protein with 230 g. Additionally the minimal daily intake of minerals and vitamins is mentioned. Supervising she goats during lambing and avoiding temperatures lower than 18 degrees C in the stables is considered as necessary to prevent hypoglycemia of the newborn lambs. The enzootic process of Clostridium-perfringens-type-B-infection is discussed in connection with the intake of colostrum and the increasing density of pathogen microorganism during the lambing period.

  16. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  17. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  18. Interventions to Prevent Unintended and Repeat Pregnancy Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Kalamar, Amanda M; Thompson, Terri-Ann; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, particularly unintended pregnancy, can have lasting social, economic, and health outcomes. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease unintended and repeat pregnancy among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched for all languages for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as unpacking systematic reviews. Selected articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Nine reported statistically significant declines in pregnancy rates (five cash transfer programs, one education curriculum, two life-skills curricula, and a provision of contraception intervention), seven reported increases in contraceptive use (three provision of contraception interventions, two life-skills curricula, a peer education program, and a mass media campaign), two reported decreases in sexual activity (a cash transfer program and an education and life-skills curriculum), and two reported an increase in age of sexual debut (both cash transfer programs). The selected high quality, effective interventions included in this review can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease unintended pregnancy during young adulthood. Additionally, this review can assist with avoiding investments in interventions that failed to produce significant impact on the intended outcomes. The diversity of successful high-quality interventions, implemented in a range of venues, with a diversity of young people, suggests that there are multiple strategies that can work to prevent unintended pregnancy. PMID:27562452

  19. Interventions to Prevent Unintended and Repeat Pregnancy Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Kalamar, Amanda M; Thompson, Terri-Ann; Upadhyay, Ushma D

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, particularly unintended pregnancy, can have lasting social, economic, and health outcomes. The objective of this review is to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decrease unintended and repeat pregnancy among young people in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched for all languages for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was utilized, as well as unpacking systematic reviews. Selected articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Twenty-one high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Nine reported statistically significant declines in pregnancy rates (five cash transfer programs, one education curriculum, two life-skills curricula, and a provision of contraception intervention), seven reported increases in contraceptive use (three provision of contraception interventions, two life-skills curricula, a peer education program, and a mass media campaign), two reported decreases in sexual activity (a cash transfer program and an education and life-skills curriculum), and two reported an increase in age of sexual debut (both cash transfer programs). The selected high quality, effective interventions included in this review can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to decrease unintended pregnancy during young adulthood. Additionally, this review can assist with avoiding investments in interventions that failed to produce significant impact on the intended outcomes. The diversity of successful high-quality interventions, implemented in a range of venues, with a diversity of young people, suggests that there are multiple strategies that can work to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  20. High Educational Aspirations Among Pregnant Adolescents Are Related to Pregnancy Unwantedness and Subsequent Parenting Stress and Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of theories of maternal identity development, role conflict, and childbearing motivation, the authors tested whether high educational aspirations among pregnant adolescents are related to the unwantedness of the pregnancy and whether pregnancy unwantedness leads to subsequent parenting stress and inadequacy. Longitudinal data from 100 first-time-pregnant, unmarried Latina adolescents (M age = 17.3 years) were analyzed. Results from structural equation path modeling confirmed these associations, with strong educational ambitions related to greater unwantedness of the pregnancy, which led to feeling trapped by parenting at 6 months postpartum, which in turn was related to unaffectionate parenting and feeling inadequate in mothering at 1 year postpartum. The potential long-term negative consequences of high educational aspirations for pregnant adolescents’ adjustment to parenting are discussed. PMID:25641985

  1. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  2. A meta-analysis of adolescent smoking prevention programs.

    PubMed Central

    Bruvold, W H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A large number of studies evaluating adolescent smoking prevention programs have been published. Systematic quantitative reviews of this literature are needed to learn what does and does not work. The present meta-analysis focuses on the efficacy of school-based programs. METHODS. Evaluations of 94 separate interventions were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were screened for methodological rigor and those with weaker methodology were segregated from those with more defensible methodology; major analyses focused on the latter. RESULTS. Behavioral effect sizes were found to be largest for interventions with a social reinforcement orientation, moderate for interventions with either a developmental or a social norms orientation, and small for interventions with the traditional rational orientation. Attitude effect sizes followed the same pattern, but knowledge effect sizes were similar across all four orientation categories. CONCLUSIONS. Because behavioral effect represents the fundamental objective of programs for prevention of adolescent tobacco use, the present results indicate that school-based programs should consider adopting interventions with a social reinforcement, social norms, or developmental orientation. PMID:8498627

  3. Health Promotion Strategies for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Houston-Hamilton, Amanda

    1989-01-01

    This article offers a framework for development and implementation of health education strategies for preventing HIV infection and enhancing health promoting attitudes and behaviors among Black and Latino adolescents. Three HIV prevention program components are identified and discussed. (IAH)

  4. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24628488

  5. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  7. Do Latino Youth Really Want to Get Pregnant?: Assessing Pregnancy Wantedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-García, Genevieve; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Atkinson, Nancy; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent declines, Latinas bear a disproportionate burden of teen births. Understanding social, cultural, and demographic factors underlying pregnancy desire among Latino adolescents is needed to design effective teen pregnancy prevention interventions. A questionnaire was completed by 794 Latino youth including a "pregnancy wantedness…

  8. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  9. Intervention Fidelity in Family-Based Prevention Counseling for Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.; Singer, Alisa; Leckrone, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    This study examined fidelity in multidimensional family prevention (MDFP), a family-based prevention counseling model for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse and related behavior problems, in comparison to two empirically based treatments for adolescent drug abuse: multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  10. Intimate partner violence during the first pregnancy: A comparison between adolescents and adults in an urban area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bahrami-Vazir, Ellahe; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan

    2016-10-01

    There is uncertain evidence that intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is more common among adolescents. We aimed to compare prevalence and chronicity of IPV during the first pregnancy between adolescents and adults. 136 women aged 15 to 19 and 272 women aged 20-29 years between 24 and 30 weeks gestation (stratified by center) were examined at all 80 public health centers/posts in Tabriz-Iran. IPV was assessed using the revised conflict tactics scales. The adolescents and adults reported roughly the same rate of overall IPV perpetration (72% vs. 71%, p = 0.816). Rate of victimization was slightly higher among the adolescents (69% vs. 62%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.144). The most common types of IPV perpetration and victimization in the both groups were psychological aggression, followed by physical assault and sexual coercion. Using only two physical assault and sexual coercion subscales, rate of IPV perpetration fell to 40% vs. 28%, p = 0.016 and victimization fell to 46% vs. 38%, p = 0.227. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of prevalence and chronicity of various types of IPV, except sexual coercion victimization which was more prevalent among the adolescents (31% vs. 21%, p = 0.034). The high rates of IPV perpetration and victimization during pregnancy among both adolescents and adults in the study area with significant higher risk of sexual coercion victimization among adolescents require health policy makers and care providers to have serious efforts for its reduction.

  11. Intimate partner violence during the first pregnancy: A comparison between adolescents and adults in an urban area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bahrami-Vazir, Ellahe; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan

    2016-10-01

    There is uncertain evidence that intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is more common among adolescents. We aimed to compare prevalence and chronicity of IPV during the first pregnancy between adolescents and adults. 136 women aged 15 to 19 and 272 women aged 20-29 years between 24 and 30 weeks gestation (stratified by center) were examined at all 80 public health centers/posts in Tabriz-Iran. IPV was assessed using the revised conflict tactics scales. The adolescents and adults reported roughly the same rate of overall IPV perpetration (72% vs. 71%, p = 0.816). Rate of victimization was slightly higher among the adolescents (69% vs. 62%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.144). The most common types of IPV perpetration and victimization in the both groups were psychological aggression, followed by physical assault and sexual coercion. Using only two physical assault and sexual coercion subscales, rate of IPV perpetration fell to 40% vs. 28%, p = 0.016 and victimization fell to 46% vs. 38%, p = 0.227. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of prevalence and chronicity of various types of IPV, except sexual coercion victimization which was more prevalent among the adolescents (31% vs. 21%, p = 0.034). The high rates of IPV perpetration and victimization during pregnancy among both adolescents and adults in the study area with significant higher risk of sexual coercion victimization among adolescents require health policy makers and care providers to have serious efforts for its reduction. PMID:27450537

  12. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children.

    PubMed

    Herring, S J; Rose, M Z; Skouteris, H; Oken, E

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. In response to these data, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain guidelines in 2009 for the first time in nearly two decades. However, less than one third of pregnant women achieve guideline-recommended gains, with the majority gaining above IOM recommended levels. To date, interventions to optimize pregnancy weight gains have had mixed success. In this paper, we summarize the evidence from human and animal studies linking over-nutrition and under-nutrition in pregnancy to maternal and child obesity. In addition, we discuss published trials and ongoing interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain as a strategy for obesity prevention in women and their children.

  13. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be tired and need more rest. Your body will change as your baby grows during the nine months of your pregnancy. Don't hesitate to call your health care provider if you think you have a problem or something is bothering or worrying you.

  14. Low-income African American adolescents who avoid pregnancy: tough girls who rewrite negative scripts.

    PubMed

    Martyn, K K; Hutchinson, S A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to generate a grounded theory that explains the social-psychological processes of low-income African American adolescents who avoided pregnancy. Data collection included focus groups and in-depth interviews with 17 women aged 19 to 26. Data analysis using the grounded theory method revealed that these girls were the recipients of negative social-psychological scripts, putting them at risk for poverty and early childbearing. The "tough girls" struggled to rewrite these scripts by recognizing their negativity, being disenchanted with the scripts, determining to be different, and creating better lives. These aware, introspective young women believed in self-responsibility, self-protection, education, and financial independence. Practice implications and considerations for programmatic interventions can be based on this analysis.

  15. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  16. Annotated Bibliography of Selected Publications on the Adolescent Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoff, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    An annotated bibliography includes publications on adolescent issues such as school-community collaboration, pregnancy prevention, decision making, health promotion, injury prevention, music, violence prevention, health care, African-American adolescents, sexuality education, futures planning, policy, and health service delivery. (SM)

  17. One measure, two motives. Prediction of condom use and interaction between two prevention goals among heterosexual young adults: preventing pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagels, Cees; Hospers, Harm J; Hosman, Clemens; Schouten, Leo; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-12-01

    Although the dual function of condom use (preventing pregnancy and preventing STDs) is well known, little is known about the determinants of condom use for STD prevention when contraception is not an issue. We compared two intentions to use condoms with a new sex partner: one based on a vignette not mentioning pregnancy risk and one on a vignette explicitly stating there was no risk of pregnancy. We also investigated whether intentions to use condoms change when there is no pregnancy risk, to allow such changes to be predicted from an STD risk-perception perspective. This cross-sectional survey was completed by 151 undergraduate students. The correlation coefficient between the two intentions about condom use approached zero (0.02; p=.783). Logistic regression showed that two STD risk-perception variables distinguished between consistent and non-consistent reporters of their intention to use condoms. Findings are discussed from the perspectives of policy, methodology and theory.

  18. Reducing substance use during adolescence: a translational framework for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanis, Jessica J.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Most substance use is initiated during adolescence when substantial development of relevant brain circuitry is still rapidly maturing. Developmental differences in reward processing, behavioral flexibility, and self-regulation lead to changes in resilience or vulnerability to drugs of abuse depending on exposure to risk factors. Intervention and prevention approaches to reducing addiction in teens may be able to capitalize on malleable brain systems in a predictable manner. Objective To review what is known about how factors that increase vulnerability to addiction, including developmental stage, exposure to early life adversity (ranging from abuse, neglect, and bullying), drug exposure, and genetic predisposition, impact the development of relevant systems. Results and Conclusions Appropriate, early intervention may restore the normal course of an abnormal trajectory and reduce the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder (SUD) later in life. A considerable amount is known about the functional neuroanatomy and/or pharmacology of risky behaviors based on clinical and preclinical studies, but relatively little has been directly translated to reduce their impact on addiction in high-risk children or teenagers. An opportunity exists to effectively intervene before adolescence when substance use is likely to emerge. PMID:24464527

  19. Human chorionic somatomammotropin in normal adolescent primiparous pregnancy. I. Effect of smoking.

    PubMed

    Moser, R J; Hollingsworth, D R; Carlson, J W; Lamotte, L

    1974-12-15

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) levels were studied in normal smoking and nonsmoking primiparous adolescent pregnancies. 136 teenagers, aged 12-18 years, were divided into groups: nonsmokers, deep, and shallow inhalers, long, and short puffers, high, and low tar, and high, and low nicotin. Shallow inhaling and low nicotine exposure patients were found to have a later age of menarche than did nonsmokers (13.2 vs. 12.3 years, p=.03). The mean body weight of the mothers who smoked was slightly less (61 gm) than that of nonsmoking mothers. Except for long puffers, overall, smokers had significantly lower HCS values throughout pregnancy than noosmokers (p = .48 high tar-p = .002 low tar). However, in the third trimester those with the lowest smoking exposures had the lowest HCS values and the heavier smokers had slightly higher mean values than nonsmokers. These data suggest that HCS production may be more sensitive to low tar and nicotine exposure with possible tolerance or even stimulation occurring in larger doses. PMID:4432896

  20. [Strategies for obesity prevention in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Souza, Rita Adriana de

    2008-01-01

    Few studies on treatment or prevention of obesity have shown significant results. Theoretically, in children and adolescents as compared to adults, prevention of excessive weight gain should be easy due to the energy expended during growth, associated with more time spent in leisure-time activities. However, numerous factors that stimulate overeating and sedentary behaviors are difficult to overcome. Additionally, most intervention studies have focused on a minor portion of the many factors associated with obesity. Important aspects of the obesity epidemic such as the role of the food industry, fast food chains, advertising, and a lifestyle that limits children to sedentary activities and overeating cannot be explored by a traditional clinical trial design. At any rate, among the published interventions, those including the family in weight-reduction strategies have shown the best results, as compared to children-centered approaches. Meanwhile, studies on specific nutrient or dietary composition (such as calcium, protein, or glycemic index) related to prevention or treatment of obesity have failed to yield good results. Reducing the intake of high-sugar carbonated drinks and juices has shown promising but still inconclusive results. PMID:18670698

  1. Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in

  2. Cultural considerations in adolescent suicide prevention and psychosocial treatment.

    PubMed

    Goldston, David B; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B; Murakami, Jessica L; Zayas, Luis H; Hall, Gordon C Nagayama

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and Latino adolescents, and the implications of these contexts for suicide prevention and treatment. Several cross-cutting issues are discussed, including acculturative stress and protective factors within cultures; the roles of religion and spirituality and the family in culturally sensitive interventions; different manifestations and interpretations of distress in different cultures; and the impact of stigma and cultural distrust on help-seeking. The needs for culturally sensitive and community- based interventions are discussed, along with future opportunities for research in intervention development and evaluation.

  3. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and Latino adolescents, and the implications of these contexts for suicide prevention and treatment. Several cross-cutting issues are discussed, including acculturative stress and protective factors within cultures; the roles of religion and spirituality and the family in culturally sensitive interventions; different manifestations and interpretations of distress in different cultures; and the impact of stigma and cultural distrust on help-seeking. The needs for culturally sensitive and community-based interventions are discussed, along with future opportunities for research in intervention development and evaluation. PMID:18193978

  4. Awareness of prevention of teenage pregnancy amongst secondary school learners in Makhado municipality

    PubMed Central

    Radzilani-Makatu, Makondelele; Takalani, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexuality plays a very significant role in the lives of both boys and girls. It is, therefore, considered important for schools to recognise and accept sexuality as part of the development process of the child. Professor Kader Asmal (previous South African Minister of Education) suggested that the earlier the school begins to teach learners about sexuality, the better because they can be easily misled by their peers if proper guidance regarding their sexuality is not given. Aim The current study was conducted to assess the awareness of teenagers on the prevention of teenage pregnancy (TP) in six secondary school learners situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Setting The study was conducted at six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province in 2014. Methodology A quantitative descriptive survey study was conducted where data were collected, using self-administered questionnaires, from 381 systematically sampled participants from six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.0. Necessary approval procedures and ethical clearance were obtained prior to data collection. Results Ninety-four percent of participants agreed that TP can be prevented through abstaining from sex, whilst 65% of participants agreed that TP could be prevented by using contraceptives such as pills and injections. Eighty-three percent of participants agreed that TP could be prevented through the use of condoms. Seventy-four percent participants disagreed that bathing after sex prevents teenage pregnancies. Furthermore, 28% participants agreed that TP can be prevented by oral sex. Conclusion The conclusion drawn was that learners are aware of the measures for preventing TP. PMID:27380836

  5. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. PMID:27088658

  6. Preventing Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy Using a Seasonal Window of Opportunity for Conception.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Micaela Elvira

    2016-07-01

    It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly, and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be >9,200,000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions. I propose that the damaging effects of ZIKV can be reduced using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception that may minimize maternal exposure. Like other acute viral infections-including the related flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-the transmission of ZIKV is anticipated to be seasonal. By seasonally planning pregnancy, this aspect of pathogen ecology can be leveraged to align sensitive periods of gestation with the low-transmission season.

  7. Preventing Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy Using a Seasonal Window of Opportunity for Conception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly, and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be >9,200,000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions. I propose that the damaging effects of ZIKV can be reduced using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception that may minimize maternal exposure. Like other acute viral infections—including the related flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)—the transmission of ZIKV is anticipated to be seasonal. By seasonally planning pregnancy, this aspect of pathogen ecology can be leveraged to align sensitive periods of gestation with the low-transmission season. PMID:27467271

  8. Preventing Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy Using a Seasonal Window of Opportunity for Conception.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Micaela Elvira

    2016-07-01

    It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly, and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be >9,200,000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions. I propose that the damaging effects of ZIKV can be reduced using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception that may minimize maternal exposure. Like other acute viral infections-including the related flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-the transmission of ZIKV is anticipated to be seasonal. By seasonally planning pregnancy, this aspect of pathogen ecology can be leveraged to align sensitive periods of gestation with the low-transmission season. PMID:27467271

  9. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Diseases Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing In the States Adolescent Health Topics America's Adolescents Healthy Relationships Mental Health ... database Email Address> Health Insurance Marketplace Office of Adolescent Health 1101 Wootton Parkway, Suite 700 Rockville, MD ...

  10. Interventions to prevent adverse fetal programming due to maternal obesity during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-10-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring.

  11. PREVENTING CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS: OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Overviews of systematic reviews (OSRs) provide rapid access to high quality, consolidated research evidence about prevention intervention options, supporting evidence-informed decision-making, and the identification of fruitful areas of new research. This OSR addressed three questions about prevention strategies for child and adolescent anxiety: (1) Does the intervention prevent anxiety diagnosis and/or reduce anxiety symptoms compared to passive controls? (2) Is the intervention equal to or more effective than active controls? (3) What is the evidence quality (EQ) for the intervention? Prespecified inclusion criteria identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses (2000-2014) with an AMSTAR quality score ≥ 3/5. EQ was rated using Oxford evidence levels EQ1 (highest) to EQ5 (lowest). Three reviews met inclusion criteria. One narrative systematic review concluded school-based interventions reduce anxiety symptoms. One meta-analysis pooled 65 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; any intervention) and reported a small, statistically significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and diagnosis incidence. Neither review provided pooled effect size estimates for specific intervention options defined by type (i.e., universal/selective/indicated), intervention content, or comparison group (i.e., passive/active control), thus precluding EQ ratings. One meta-analysis pooled trials of vigorous exercise and reported small, nonstatistically significant reductions in anxiety symptoms for comparisons against passive and active controls (EQ1). Better use of primary studies in meta-analyses, including program-specific pooled effect size estimates and network meta-analysis is needed to guide evidence-informed anxiety prevention program choices. RCTs of innovative community/primary care based interventions and web-based strategies can fill knowledge gaps.

  12. Adaptation of in vivo amino acid kinetics facilitates increased amino acid availability for fetal growth in adolescent and adult pregnancies alike

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, adult women with a normal BMI synthesize extra amino acids after an overnight fast by increasing body protein breakdown and decreasing amino acid oxidation. It is not known whether adolescent girls can make these adaptations during pregnancy. The present study aimed to measure and ...

  13. Prevention of unnecessary pregnancy terminations by counselling women on drug, chemical, and radiation exposure during the first trimester

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, G.; Pastuszak, A. )

    1990-06-01

    As part of a new approach to counselling pregnant women concerned about antenatal exposure to drugs, chemicals, or radiation, we measured their tendency to terminate their pregnancy by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Analysis of 78 cases where women had less than 50% tendency to continue pregnancy before they were advised by us reveals that 61 decided to continue their pregnancy after the consultation (57 normal, healthy infants, four miscarriages) and 17 terminated. Women who continued their pregnancy significantly changed their tendency after we discussed relevant information with them (from 34.3 +/- 2.5% to 84.5 +/- 3.3%, P less than 0.00001), whereas most of those who eventually terminated pregnancy did not change their tendency to continue pregnancy beyond the 50% mark (from 24.8 +/- 5.4% to 45.1 +/- 9.8%) (P greater than 0.1). Only two of the women who terminated their pregnancy were exposed to teratogenic drugs; however, in most other cases, other obvious reasons, unrelated to the exposure in question, were identified by the women as leading reasons for termination. An appropriate intervention in early pregnancy can prevent unnecessary pregnancy terminations by correcting misinformation and thereby decreasing the unrealistically high perception of risk by women exposed to nonteratogens.

  14. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended. PMID:26090048

  15. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  16. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services among Colombian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pinto, Tatiana A; Blanco-Gómez, Argénida; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Seventy percent of adolescent morbidity and mortality is related to six risky behaviors. The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services is a screening questionnaire consisting of 21 questions but there is not a validated Spanish-language version. The obj ective of this study was to validate the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services in two Colombian cities: Bucaramanga and Medellin. The questionnaire was administered to 270 randomly selected adolescent students aged between 11 and 19 years old. Its internal consistency measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.7207. The factor analysis showed that two factors accounted for 84.5% of variance, but factor loading indicates that only one of these is valid in Colombia: substance use (tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, and psychoactive substances). PMID:27606643

  17. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services among Colombian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pinto, Tatiana A; Blanco-Gómez, Argénida; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Seventy percent of adolescent morbidity and mortality is related to six risky behaviors. The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services is a screening questionnaire consisting of 21 questions but there is not a validated Spanish-language version. The obj ective of this study was to validate the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services in two Colombian cities: Bucaramanga and Medellin. The questionnaire was administered to 270 randomly selected adolescent students aged between 11 and 19 years old. Its internal consistency measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.7207. The factor analysis showed that two factors accounted for 84.5% of variance, but factor loading indicates that only one of these is valid in Colombia: substance use (tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, and psychoactive substances).

  18. Validation of the Worry about Sexual Outcomes Scale for Use in STI/HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents' worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was…

  19. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  20. Aggression in Adolescent Dating Relationships: Predictors and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…

  1. Rising School Enrollment and Declining HIV and Pregnancy Risk Among Adolescents in Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2013

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John; Mathur, Sanyukta; Song, Xiaoyu; Huang, Tzu Jung; Wei, Ying; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Serwadda, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poverty, family stability, and social policies influence the ability of adolescents to attend school. Likewise, being enrolled in school may shape an adolescent's risk for HIV and pregnancy. We identified trends in school enrollment, factors predicting school enrollment (antecedents), and health risks associated with staying in or leaving school (consequences). Methods Data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) were examined for adolescents 15-19 years (n=21,735 person-rounds) from 1994 to 2013. Trends, antecedents, and consequences were assessed using logistic and linear regression with robust variance estimation. Qualitative data were used to explore school leaving among HIV+ and HIV- youth (15-24 years). Results School enrollment and socioeconomic status (SES) rose steadily from 1994 to 2013 among adolescents; orphanhood declined after availability of antiretroviral therapy. Antecedent factors associated with school enrollment included age, SES, orphanhood, marriage, family size, and the percent of family members <20 years. In qualitative interviews, youth reported lack of money, death of parents, and pregnancy as primary reasons for school dropout. Among adolescents, consequences associated with school enrollment included lower HIV prevalence, prevalence of sexual experience, and rates of alcohol use and increases in consistent condom use. Young women in school were more likely to report use of modern contraception and never being pregnant. Young men in school reported fewer recent sexual partners and lower rates of sexual concurrency. Conclusions Rising SES and declining orphanhood were associated with rising school enrollment in Rakai. Increasing school enrollment was associated with declining risk for HIV and pregnancy. PMID:26075159

  2. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  3. Preventing Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Walsh, Barent W.; McDade, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and…

  4. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  5. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early…

  6. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  7. Adolescents' Attitudes about Obesity and What They Want in Obesity Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Louise F.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major pediatric public health problem. Adolescents are a priority population for intervention strategies. School nurses are in key positions to design intervention strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent adolescent obesity in the students they serve. To design effective programs, school nurses need to know what components…

  8. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.; Millsap, Roger E.; Gottschall, Amanda; McClain, Darya B.; Wong, Jessie J.; German, Miguelina; Mauricio, Anne M.; Wheeler, Lorey; Carpentier, Francesca D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, 1 year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined…

  9. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  10. Developing Theory-based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Blake, Susan M.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Integrates evidence on gender relevance for substance use prevention research and reviews trends in tobacco, alcohol and drug use, gender differences in risk factors, and relevant theoretical models of substance use prevention among adolescent girls. Recommends further research and prevention strategies focusing on gender, race, and ethnicity.…

  11. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  12. The Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Research on the prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents was reviewed and synthesized with meta-analysis. When all 30 studies were included, selective prevention programs were found to be more effective than universal programs immediately following intervention. Both selective and indicated prevention programs were more…

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  14. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Clavel, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is among the top five causes of mortality in the 15- to 19- year age group. Pediatricians and primary care providers are in a distinctive position to help prevent suicide in adolescents. According to the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, all adolescents should have at least an annual preventive services visit, which should address both the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of health. Suicide prevention may best be accomplished by detection and management of specific risk factors, rather than by attempting to recognize those youth who are considered most likely to commit suicide. Alcohol use has been regarded as an important risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior and the diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder indicates an elevated risk for adolescent suicide. Although the causal relationship between alcohol use and suicide remains unknown, a clear and strong relationship exists. Pediatricians and other health care providers should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide, including alcohol and drug misuse, depression, major loss, and recent suicides within a community. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents suffering from alcohol use disorders and its distressing effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies in general pediatric settings. PMID:17458325

  15. Assessment of a sexual coercion prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J

    2012-07-01

    This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.

  16. Resilience in parentally bereaved children and adolescents seeking preventive services.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kirk K; Sandler, Irwin N; Ayers, Tim S; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Luecken, Linda J

    2004-12-01

    This study examined environmental stress, family, and child variables that differentiate resilient children and adolescents from those with mental health problems following the death of a primary caregiver. The community-based sample included 179 bereaved children ages 8 to 16 years and their surviving caregivers who completed a test battery of measures before participating in a prevention program. Forty-four percent of bereaved children were classified as resilient and 56% as affected based on the absence of clinically significant mental health problems on at least 1 measure as reported by either the child, surviving caregiver, or teacher on standardized measures of mental health problems. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that bereaved resilient versus affected status was a function of both family and child variables. Higher levels of caregiver warmth and discipline and lower levels of caregiver mental health problems were family-level variables that significantly differentiated resilient children from affected children. Bereaved children's perceptions of less threat in response to negative events and greater personal efficacy in coping with stress were child-level variables that differentiated resilient from affected status. Family and child variables were entered into a discriminant function analysis that correctly classified 72% of the sample. The findings are consistent with a model of resilience in which multilevel variables account for children's positive adaptation following exposure to adversity. PMID:15498735

  17. Refocusing the Adolescent Preparticipation Physical Evaluation Toward Preventive Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional preparticipation physical evaluation has come under much scrutiny by sports medicine physicians in recent years, following a number of studies that have found it to be of low yield and not cost effective. There is a general consensus among these researchers that a refocused preparticipation physical evaluation presents an excellent opportunity for health education. In this article, I review recent research that shows that the traditional “head-to-toe” physical exam is unnecessary and is more effectively replaced by a detailed history and focused physical exam. I present current epidemiologic and sociologic data that is pertinent to all health care professionals working with adolescents. Various methods to uncover potential problem areas in the young athletes' lives are also discussed. Each format may be adapted to local or community standards and needs. The approach to the preparticipation physical evaluation presented in the article allows athletic trainers to have an active role in the most important aspect of health care: the prevention of disease and injury. PMID:16558363

  18. Gender Differences in HIV/AIDS Preventive Self-Efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to understand gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to measure HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy and covariates (age, substance use, and sexual experiences). Data were collected from 734 Taiwanese high school adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. Descriptive statistic analyses, t-test, and ANCOVA were utilized to analyze data. The results indicate significant differences exist between genders in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Compared to the males, female adolescents were found having significantly higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy related to refusing sexual intercourse, condom use, and questioning potential sexual partners than those who are males. While controlling age, sexual experience, and substance use, female Taiwanese adolescents also had higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy than those who are males. The findings suggest the importance of addressing gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy when developing HIV reduction programs for Taiwanese adolescents.

  19. Anaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goonewardene, Malik; Shehata, Mishkat; Hamad, Asma

    2012-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 110 g/L, affects more than 56 million women globally, two thirds of them being from Asia. Multiple factors lead to anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately.

  20. Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2006-06-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to anti-industry advertisements (ads), the attitudes these ads target, and the relationship between these attitudes and smoking differed by social bonding and sensation-seeking risk factors. Results indicated that anti-industry ad reactions and the strength of anti-industry attitudes were comparable between high- and low-sensation seeking adolescents, whereas weakly bonded adolescents had less favorable ad reactions and weaker anti-industry attitudes than strongly bonded adolescents. Social bonding also moderated the influence of sensation seeking on anti-industry ad reactions, such that sensation seeking had a positive influence among more strongly bonded adolescents and no influence among weakly bonded adolescents. Finally, the relationship between anti-industry attitudes and smoking appeared consistent across risk groups, whether risk was defined using social bonding, sensation seeking or the interaction between them. Overall, these results suggest that anti-industry messages are a promising strategy for preventing smoking among high- and low-risk adolescents alike. PMID:16492681

  1. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: a review of prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Naing, Zin W; Scott, Gillian M; Shand, Antonia; Hamilton, Stuart T; van Zuylen, Wendy J; Basha, James; Hall, Beverly; Craig, Maria E; Rawlinson, William D

    2016-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is under-recognised, despite being the leading infectious cause of congenital malformation, affecting ~0.3% of Australian live births. Approximately 11% of infants born with congenital CMV infection are symptomatic, resulting in clinical manifestations, including jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction and death. Congenital CMV infection may cause severe long-term sequelae, including progressive sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay in 40-58% of symptomatic neonates, and ~14% of initially asymptomatic infected neonates. Up to 50% of maternal CMV infections have nonspecific clinical manifestations, and most remain undetected unless specific serological testing is undertaken. The combination of serology tests for CMV-specific IgM, IgG and IgG avidity provide improved distinction between primary and secondary maternal infections. In pregnancies with confirmed primary maternal CMV infection, amniocentesis with CMV-PCR performed on amniotic fluid, undertaken after 21-22 weeks gestation, may determine whether maternofetal virus transmission has occurred. Ultrasound and, to a lesser extent, magnetic resonance imaging are valuable tools to assess fetal structural and growth abnormalities, although the absence of fetal abnormalities does not exclude fetal damage. Diagnosis of congenital CMV infection at birth or in the first 3 weeks of an infant's life is crucial, as this should prompt interventions for prevention of delayed-onset hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay in affected infants. Prevention strategies should also target mothers because increased awareness and hygiene measures may reduce maternal infection. Recognition of the importance of CMV in pregnancy and in neonates is increasingly needed, particularly as therapeutic and preventive interventions expand for this serious problem.

  2. Enhancing teen pregnancy prevention in local communities: capacity building using the interactive systems framework.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer L; Prince, Mary Severson; Johnson, Erin E; Alton, Forrest L; Flynn, Shannon; Faye, Amy Mattison; Padgett, Polly Edwards; Rollison, Chris; Becker, Dana; Hinzey, Angela L

    2012-12-01

    Getting To Outcomes (GTO), an innovative framework for planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining interventions has been shown to be effective in helping community-based organizations (CBOs) introduce science-based approaches into their prevention work. However, the Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) suggests that adopting innovations like GTO requires a significant amount of capacity building through training and technical assistance (T/TA). In this study, 11 CBOs and three schools in South Carolina entered into a 3 year program of intense and proactive T/TA based on the ISF to learn how to apply an adaptation of GTO (Promoting Science-Based Approaches-Getting To Outcomes, PSBA-GTO) to their teen pregnancy prevention programs. Using semi-structured interviews, the partnering organizations were assessed at three points in time, pre-T/TA, 12 months, and post T/TA (30 months) for their performance of the steps of GTO in their work. The seven organizations which participated in T/TA until the end of the project received an average of 76 h of TA and 112 h of training per organization. Interview results showed increased performance of all 10 steps of PSBA-GTO by these organizations when conducting their teen pregnancy programs. These results suggest targeted and proactive T/TA can successfully bridge the gap between research and practice by using a three part delivery system, as prescribed in the ISF, which relies on an intermediary prevention support system to ensure accurate and effective translation of research to the everyday work of community-based practitioners.

  3. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: a review of prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Naing, Zin W; Scott, Gillian M; Shand, Antonia; Hamilton, Stuart T; van Zuylen, Wendy J; Basha, James; Hall, Beverly; Craig, Maria E; Rawlinson, William D

    2016-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is under-recognised, despite being the leading infectious cause of congenital malformation, affecting ~0.3% of Australian live births. Approximately 11% of infants born with congenital CMV infection are symptomatic, resulting in clinical manifestations, including jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction and death. Congenital CMV infection may cause severe long-term sequelae, including progressive sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay in 40-58% of symptomatic neonates, and ~14% of initially asymptomatic infected neonates. Up to 50% of maternal CMV infections have nonspecific clinical manifestations, and most remain undetected unless specific serological testing is undertaken. The combination of serology tests for CMV-specific IgM, IgG and IgG avidity provide improved distinction between primary and secondary maternal infections. In pregnancies with confirmed primary maternal CMV infection, amniocentesis with CMV-PCR performed on amniotic fluid, undertaken after 21-22 weeks gestation, may determine whether maternofetal virus transmission has occurred. Ultrasound and, to a lesser extent, magnetic resonance imaging are valuable tools to assess fetal structural and growth abnormalities, although the absence of fetal abnormalities does not exclude fetal damage. Diagnosis of congenital CMV infection at birth or in the first 3 weeks of an infant's life is crucial, as this should prompt interventions for prevention of delayed-onset hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay in affected infants. Prevention strategies should also target mothers because increased awareness and hygiene measures may reduce maternal infection. Recognition of the importance of CMV in pregnancy and in neonates is increasingly needed, particularly as therapeutic and preventive interventions expand for this serious problem. PMID:26391432

  4. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested.

  5. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. PMID:22846537

  6. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  7. The importance of antenatal prevention of RhD immunisation in the first pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dajak, Slavica; Roje, Damir; Hašpl, Željka Hundrić; Maglić, Pera Erceg

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine which pregnancies are associated with RhD immunisation and haemolytic disease of foetus and newborn (HDFN) when postnatal RhD prophylaxis is applied. Material and methods This retrospective cohort study included pregnancies with RhD immunisation; each of the pregnant women received anti-D immunoglobulin after delivery, miscarriage or invasive antenatal diagnostic procedures. For each pregnancy we analysed the order of pregnancy that caused immunisation as well as the order of the monitored pregnancy and whether the anti-D antibodies caused HDFN. Results Anti-D antibody was detected in 1.2% of RhD-negative pregnancies. Out of 89 monitored pregnancies, 56 (63%) were immunised by the first pregnancy, 21 (24%) by the second one, and 12 (13%) by subsequent pregnancies. HDFN occurred in 28 cases; 25 of them were the consequence of the immunisation in the first pregnancy. The most severe cases of HDFN, perinatal death (n=2) and intrauterine transfusion (n=7) were consequence of immunisation during the first pregnancy. Significantly more cases of HDFN were caused by immunisation in the first pregnancy than by immunisation in subsequent pregnancies (χ2=12, p<0.01). Conclusion RhD immunisation could be reduced in more than half cases by administering anti-D immunoglobulin at the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy, especially the first pregnancy. PMID:24887219

  8. Adolescence Behaviour Problems: How to Tackle or Prevent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…

  9. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  10. Influence of progesterone supplementation during the first third of pregnancy on fetal and placental growth in overnourished adolescent ewes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Bourke, D A; Da Silva, P; Aitken, R P

    2003-10-01

    Overnourishing adolescent ewes throughout pregnancy promotes maternal tissue synthesis at the expense of placental growth, which in turn leads to a major decrease in lamb birth weight. As maternal dietary intakes are inversely related to peripheral progesterone concentrations in these adolescent dams, it was hypothesized that sup-optimal progesterone concentrations in overnourished dams may compromise the growth of the differentiating conceptus resulting in fewer uterine caruncles being occupied and, hence, fewer placentomes formed. This hypothesis was tested by supplementing overnourished adolescent dams with exogenous progesterone during early pregnancy and determining the impact on pregnancy outcome at term. Embryos recovered from superovulated adult ewes inseminated by a single sire were transferred in singleton to the uterus of peripubertal adolescent recipients. After transfer of embryos, ewes were offered a moderate or high amount of a complete diet (n=11 per group). A further high intake group received a progesterone supplement each day from day 5 to day 55 of gestation (term=145 days) to restore circulating progesterone concentrations to moderate values throughout the first third of pregnancy (n=11). For ewes establishing pregnancies (n=7 per group), live weight gain during the first 100 days of gestation was 66+/-4, 323+/-17 and 300+/-7 g per day, body condition score at term was 2.1+/-0.05, 3.0+/-0.08 and 3.1+/-0.07 units and the duration of gestation after spontaneous delivery was 148+/-1.7, 144+/-0.8 and 143+/-0.8 days for the moderate intake, high intake and high intake plus progesterone groups, respectively. At delivery, fetal cotyledon mass (136+/-12.1 versus 57+/-8.2g, P<0.001) and lamb birth weight (5164+/-151 versus 2893+/-381 g, P<0.001) were higher in moderate intake than in high intake dams. Progesterone supplementation restored circulating concentrations to moderate values during the first third of gestation. Lamb birth weight in the high

  11. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-09-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood.

  12. Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on early pregnancy and marriage of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Huang, Carolyn; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    There is promising evidence that poverty-targeted cash transfer programs can have positive impacts on adolescent transitions to adulthood in resource poor settings, however existing research is typically from small scale programs in diverse geographic and cultural settings. We provide estimates of the impact of a national unconditional cash transfer program, the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, on pregnancy and early marriage among females aged 12 to 24, four years after program initiation. The evaluation was designed as a clustered randomized controlled trial and ran from 2007 to 2011, capitalizing on the existence of a control group, which was delayed entry to the program due to budget constraints. Findings indicate that, among 1,549 females included in the study, while the program reduced the likelihood of pregnancy by five percentage points, there was no significant impact on likelihood of early marriage. Program impacts on pregnancy appear to work through increasing the enrollment of young women in school, financial stability of the household and delayed age at first sex. The Kenyan program is similar in design to most other major national cash transfer programs in Eastern and Southern Africa, suggesting a degree of generalizability of the results reported here. Although the objective of the program is primarily poverty alleviation, it appears to have an important impact on facilitating the successful transition of adolescent girls into adulthood. PMID:26246032

  13. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  14. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  15. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  16. Resourcing resilience: social protection for HIV prevention amongst children and adolescents in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Gittings, Lesley; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie D; Govender, Kaymarlin; Chademana, K Emma; Gutiérrez, Vincent Evans

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with behavioural and social interventions to alleviate the socio-structural determinants of HIV infection. There is growing evidence that social protection has the potential to reduce the risk of HIV infection among children and adolescents. This research combined expert consultations with a rigorous review of academic and policy literature on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention among children and adolescents, including prevention for those already HIV-positive. The study had three goals: (i) assess the evidence on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention, (ii) consider key challenges to implementing social protection programmes that promote HIV prevention, and (iii) identify critical research gaps in social protection and HIV prevention, in Eastern and Southern Africa. Causal pathways of inequality, poverty, gender and HIV risk require flexible and responsive social protection mechanisms. Results confirmed that HIV-inclusive child-and adolescent-sensitive social protection has the potential to interrupt risk pathways to HIV infection and foster resilience. In particular, empirical evidence (literature and expert feedback) detailed the effectiveness of combination social protection particularly cash/in-kind components combined with "care" and "capability" among children and adolescents. Social protection programmes should be dynamic and flexible, and consider age, gender, HIV-related stigma, and context, including cultural norms, which offer opportunities to improve programmatic coverage, reach and uptake. Effective HIV prevention also requires integrated social protection policies, developed through strong national

  17. Resourcing resilience: social protection for HIV prevention amongst children and adolescents in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Gittings, Lesley; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie D; Govender, Kaymarlin; Chademana, K Emma; Gutiérrez, Vincent Evans

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with behavioural and social interventions to alleviate the socio-structural determinants of HIV infection. There is growing evidence that social protection has the potential to reduce the risk of HIV infection among children and adolescents. This research combined expert consultations with a rigorous review of academic and policy literature on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention among children and adolescents, including prevention for those already HIV-positive. The study had three goals: (i) assess the evidence on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention, (ii) consider key challenges to implementing social protection programmes that promote HIV prevention, and (iii) identify critical research gaps in social protection and HIV prevention, in Eastern and Southern Africa. Causal pathways of inequality, poverty, gender and HIV risk require flexible and responsive social protection mechanisms. Results confirmed that HIV-inclusive child-and adolescent-sensitive social protection has the potential to interrupt risk pathways to HIV infection and foster resilience. In particular, empirical evidence (literature and expert feedback) detailed the effectiveness of combination social protection particularly cash/in-kind components combined with "care" and "capability" among children and adolescents. Social protection programmes should be dynamic and flexible, and consider age, gender, HIV-related stigma, and context, including cultural norms, which offer opportunities to improve programmatic coverage, reach and uptake. Effective HIV prevention also requires integrated social protection policies, developed through strong national

  18. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  19. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  20. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling. PMID:26480847

  1. Fostering a Healthy Body Image: Prevention and Intervention with Adolescent Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…

  2. Mindfulness for Adolescents: A Promising Approach to Supporting Emotion Regulation and Preventing Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Patricia C.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the contextual and neuropsychological challenges of the adolescent period with particular attention to the role that universal prevention can play in moderating the harmful effects of stress. The centrality of emotion regulation skills to long-term health and wellness suggests their importance in prevention and intervention…

  3. Integrated Prevention of Social Dependencies in Adolescents through the Scenario Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maznichenko, Marina A.; Neskoromnykh, Nataliya I.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for the need to take an integrated approach to prevention of social dependencies in adolescents. Through this approach, the authors fine-tune the determination of the phenomenon of prevention of social dependencies. The authors bring to light the potential of the scenario method in resolving the above objective.…

  4. Partnerships in Preventing Adolescent Stress: Increasing Self-Esteem, Coping, and Support through Effective Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Alex S.; Torres, Ivelisse

    2002-01-01

    Offers mental health counselors two prevention models, Bloom's Configural Equation and Albee's Incidence Formula, as excellent tools to plan and implement prevention programs in schools and in community efforts to improve adolescent well-being. Critical assessments are offered of both models and outcome research, along with ideas for utilization…

  5. An Attachment Parenting Intervention to Prevent Adolescents' Problem Behaviors: A Pilot Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…

  6. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  7. Making Pono Choices: a collaborative approach to developing a culturally responsive teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections prevention curriculum in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission.

  8. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  9. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  10. Adolescent parents and their children: a multifaceted approach to prevention of adverse childhood experiences (ACE).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lynn Milgram; Thursby, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood experiences can have long-term effects. Research shows that children who undergo adverse childhood experiences (ACE) often have negative health and mental health outcomes later in life. Children of adolescent parents with high ACE Scores are at greater risk of ACE. As such, an intergenerational approach to preventing ACE is proposed in this article, addressing the needs of both the adolescent parent and their children. A review of the literature indicates that a public health perspective can guide the development of a prevention model aimed at reducing the effects of ACE. The current article proposes a universal, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary prevention science model that has two targets: adolescent parents and their children. Schools and early childhood programs can be mobilized to offer community prevention strategies across realms to include the individual, community, provider, coalitions/networks, organizational practices, and policy/legislation. PMID:22970783

  11. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  12. Assessing Capacity to Promote Science-Based Programs: A Key Informant Study of State Teen Pregnancy Prevention Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Edward; Sabri, Bushra; Huberman, Barbara; Klaus, T. W.; Davis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify significant external and internal challenges that state organization leaders face in promoting science-based teen pregnancy prevention programs within their states. The state organization administrators were chosen because their organizations were funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control…

  13. Management and prevention of varicella-zoster virus infection in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noce, Nikki; Berger, Emily M; Pomeranz, Miriam K

    2013-08-01

    Primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) during pregnancy can lead to devastating outcomes for both the mother and fetus. We describe a case of VZV infection in a pregnant woman who presented at 38 weeks' gestation. We also review the literature regarding management and prevention. Varicella-zoster virus-associated pneumonia in the mother is important to recognize. Outcomes in the newborn largely are dependent on gestational age at the time of infection. Prevention is paramount to management.

  14. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers’ involvement. Design A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. Setting A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. Participants The snowball method was used to select mothers. Results Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers’ awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. Conclusions The mothers’ awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25976761

  15. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel...

  16. Neurobiology of adolescent substance use disorders: implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2010-07-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period of development with neuronal maturation accompanied by increases in behavioral risk taking. Although risky behavior is a likely marker of normative adolescent development, there is an early emergence of substance use disorders in this population. Adolescence represents a distinct period of vulnerability to substance use initiation and transitions to substance abuse and dependence. Of recent interest is understanding the neurobiology of adolescent substance use disorders, with adult studies being limited in their applicability to this developmentally sensitive maturation period and providing restricted insight into potential treatment and intervention. First, the authors review the neurobiology of adolescent substance use disorders and, second, the authors consider the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment.

  17. Realizing the Potential of Adolescence to Prevent Transgenerational Conditioning of Noncommunicable Disease Risk: Multi-Sectoral Design Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Jacquie L.; Morton, Susan M.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) demonstrates that early life environmental exposures impact later-life risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This has revealed the transgenerational nature of NCD risk, thus demonstrating that interventions to improve environmental exposures during early life offer important potential for primary prevention of DOHaD-related NCDs. Based on this evidence, the prospect of multi-sectoral approaches to enable primary NCD risk reduction has been highlighted in major international reports. It is agreed that pregnancy, lactation and early childhood offer significant intervention opportunities. However, the importance of interventions that establish positive behaviors impacting nutritional and non-nutritional environmental exposures in the pre-conceptual period in both males and females, thus capturing the full potential of DOHaD, must not be overlooked. Adolescence, a period where life-long health-related behaviors are established, is therefore an important life-stage for DOHaD-informed intervention. DOHaD evidence underpinning this potential is well documented. However, there is a gap in the literature with respect to combined application of theoretical evidence from science, education and public health to inform intervention design. This paper addresses this gap, presenting a review of evidence informing theoretical frameworks for adolescent DOHaD interventions that is accessible collectively to all relevant sectors. PMID:27417627

  18. Realizing the Potential of Adolescence to Prevent Transgenerational Conditioning of Noncommunicable Disease Risk: Multi-Sectoral Design Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Bay, Jacquie L; Morton, Susan M; Vickers, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) demonstrates that early life environmental exposures impact later-life risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This has revealed the transgenerational nature of NCD risk, thus demonstrating that interventions to improve environmental exposures during early life offer important potential for primary prevention of DOHaD-related NCDs. Based on this evidence, the prospect of multi-sectoral approaches to enable primary NCD risk reduction has been highlighted in major international reports. It is agreed that pregnancy, lactation and early childhood offer significant intervention opportunities. However, the importance of interventions that establish positive behaviors impacting nutritional and non-nutritional environmental exposures in the pre-conceptual period in both males and females, thus capturing the full potential of DOHaD, must not be overlooked. Adolescence, a period where life-long health-related behaviors are established, is therefore an important life-stage for DOHaD-informed intervention. DOHaD evidence underpinning this potential is well documented. However, there is a gap in the literature with respect to combined application of theoretical evidence from science, education and public health to inform intervention design. This paper addresses this gap, presenting a review of evidence informing theoretical frameworks for adolescent DOHaD interventions that is accessible collectively to all relevant sectors. PMID:27417627

  19. [Child and adolescent gynecology. Introduction to the focal topic 'Child and adolescent gynecology'].

    PubMed

    Anthuber, Sabine; Hepp, H

    2003-06-01

    Valuable knowledge from the subspecialty of child and adolescent gynecology is of considerable importance for the clinically active pediatrician and gynecologist. Focal topics such as sexual violence to children and young adults, undesired pregnancies and pregnancy termination should not only be made known in the media, but also to specialists, so that successful prevention and treatment can be carried out. Furthermore, endocrinological problems and genital malformations in adolescence should be detectable and treatable. PMID:12806190

  20. Why we should offer routine vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and childhood to prevent multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that runs a chronic course and disables young people. The disease is more prevalent in the geographic areas that are farthest from the equator. No form of treatment is known to be effective in preventing MS or its disabling complications. A number of epidemiological studies have shown a protective effect of exposure to sunlight during early life and a recent longitudinal study confirmed that vitamin D supplementation reduced life-time prevalence of MS in women. Very little is known regarding the role of vitamin D on the developing brain but experimental data suggest that cerebral white matter is vitamin D responsive and oligodendrocytes in the brain and spinal cord and express vitamin D receptors. It is possible that differentiation and axonal adhesion of oligodendrocytes are influenced by vitamin D level during brain development and a relative lack of vitamin D may increase oligodendroglial apoptosis. The age effect of migration on susceptibility to develop MS could be explained by a role of vitamin D on brain development. In areas of high MS prevalence, dietary supplementation of vitamin D in early life may reduce the incidence of MS. In addition, like folic acid, vitamin D supplementation should also be routinely recommended in pregnancy. Prevention of MS by modifying an important environmental factor (sunlight exposure and vitamin D level) offers a practical and cost-effective way to reduce the burden of the disease in the future generations. PMID:15617877

  1. Strategies for diabetes prevention before and after pregnancy in women with GDM.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Assiamira; Ehrlich, Samantha F

    2011-03-01

    Interventions for lifestyle modification promoting weight loss and pharmacotherapy interventions for improving insulin sensitivity have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in high risk populations. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for T2DM, but only two trials have assessed the feasibility of diabetes prevention in this population. We present evidence supporting an intervention with lifestyle modification for women with GDM that would begin during pregnancy and continue through the postpartum period, as pharmacotherapy interventions may not be appropriate for pregnant women or women of reproductive age who could again become pregnant. Young women with GDM may not be aware of their diabetes risk and may perceive difficulty in changing behaviors. Thus, novel approaches will be necessary to translate the lifestyle modification programs previously proven effective among older women with impaired glucose tolerance to younger women with a recent history of GDM, particularly those with normal glucose tolerance postpartum. Understanding barriers to increasing physical activity and adopting a healthy diet and finding strategies for the successful integration of lifestyle modification programs into the busy schedules of women with young children remain priorities for future research.

  2. Can a health coaching intervention delivered during pregnancy help prevent excessive gestational weight gain?

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McPhie, Skye

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated: (1) the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG); and (2) whether there were improved psychological, motivational, and behavioural outcomes for women in the HC intervention compared to a "usual care" control group. In this quasi-experimental study, 267 pregnant women ≤18 weeks gestation were recruited between August 2011 and June 2013 from two hospital antenatal clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention women received four individual HC and two group HC/educational sessions informed by theories of behaviour change. Women completed questionnaires assessing psychological, motivational and behavioural outcomes at 16-18 (baseline) and 33 (post-intervention) weeks gestation. Weight measures were collected. Compared to usual care, the intervention did not limit GWG or prevent excessive GWG. However, HC women reported greater use of active coping skills post-intervention. Despite lack of success of the HC intervention, given the risks associated with excessive weight gain in pregnancy, health professionals should continue to recommend appropriate GWG.

  3. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  4. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. METHODS Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. RESULTS Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. CONCLUSIONS Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being “free” or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. PMID:25388597

  5. Preventing internalizing symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: a synthesis across Familias Unidas trials.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Beardslee, William; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-12-01

    Studies document that there are efficacious interventions to prevent adolescent depression and internalizing symptoms, including several family-focused interventions. Questions remain about for whom interventions work (moderation) and by what mechanisms they work (mediation) to prevent internalizing symptoms. Unfortunately, single trials are often underpowered to address moderation and mediation, an issue addressed in this paper. This synthesis study combined individual-level, longitudinal data from 721 adolescents across 3 randomized clinical trials of Familias Unidas, a family-focused prevention intervention for Hispanic youth. Using integrative data analysis (IDA) methods applied to trials, the study examined intervention moderation and mediation effects on internalizing symptoms. Baseline internalizing symptoms were a significant moderator of the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, while baseline externalizing symptoms did not moderate intervention effects. Baseline parent-adolescent communication, a modifiable risk factor and hypothesized mechanism by which the intervention works, significantly moderated the intervention's effects. Specifically, the intervention was more efficacious in its impact on internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of parent-adolescent communication compared to those with higher communication levels. Moderated mediation analyses showed that parent-adolescent communication changes mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, with stronger effects for those with poorer baseline communication. Results suggest a potential benefit of identifying youth risks prior to interventions, and targeting specific modifiable mediators that lead to reductions of internalizing problems of adolescents. Findings also highlight advantages of utilizing data from combined trials and IDA for examining intervention moderators and mediators.

  6. Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex in Rural India: U.S.–India Collaboration to Prevent Adolescent HIV

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Soletti, Asha Banu; Burnette, Denise; Sharma, Shilpi; Leavitt, Sarah; McCarthy, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine parent–adolescent communication about sex among rural Indian youth and their parents. We conducted in-depth interviews (N = 40) with mothers, fathers, and adolescent boys and girls aged 14 to 18 years in a rural community in Maharashtra, India. In the context of key cultural factors, including gender-related norms, we explore issues of sexual health and critically assess widely held beliefs that Indian parents are unwilling or unable to discuss sex-related topics with their children. Our findings suggest that despite communication barriers, e.g., lack of knowledge and cultural proscriptions, Indian families are interested in and willing to communicate about sex-related topics. Future research should seek to determine the viability of family-based HIV prevention interventions for Indian adolescents. PMID:22232297

  7. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  8. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  9. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  10. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  11. Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, C; Fagan, P; Matthews, E; Grana, R

    2003-01-01

    Data sources:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two major reviews that span January 1978 to May 2002. PubMed, PsychInfo, and SCCI were searched for young adults from January 1990 to May 2002. Study selection:Data included smoking prevention studies published from January 1990 to May 2002 and conducted in the USA; all identified smoking cessation studies for adolescents. Young adult data were limited to initiation and cessation studies. Data extraction:Extraction of data was by consensus of the authors. Data synthesis:Results of the review are qualitative in nature using a consensus approach of the authors. Conclusions:School based curricula alone have been generally ineffective in the long term in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use but are effective when combined with other approaches such as media and smoke-free policies. Prevention research should consider multiple approaches and the social conditions that influence the development of youth problem behaviours including tobacco use. Because youth smoking cessation has been understudied to date, scientifically rigorous adolescent smoking cessation studies need to be conducted with attention to high risk smokers and less than daily smokers. Tobacco prevention and cessation for young adults needs focused attention. Prevention and cessation programmes need to address other tobacco products in addition to cigarettes. PMID:14645940

  12. Highlights From a Workshop on Opportunities for Cancer Prevention During Preadolescence and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Rodriguez, Juan L.; Peipins, Lucy; Watson, Meg; White, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to explore opportunities for cancer prevention during preadolescence and adolescence, the Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan workgroup within the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened an informal panel of experts for a 2-day workshop August 9–10, 2011. In this report, we provide highlights from the workshop. A central theme of the workshop was that preadolescence and adolescence are times of unique susceptibility and vulnerability within the lifespan. Participants discussed the evidence linking exposures during adolescence (e.g., risky behaviors, chemicals, medical imaging procedures) and subsequent cancer risk during adulthood. Participants also discussed potential opportunities to intervene on risk factors for cancer at multiple levels during adolescence, the importance of more focused approaches to adequately address health disparities, and the ongoing need for transdisciplinary and translational prevention research. Future opportunities for the CDC include further leveraging surveillance data from sources such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Children's Study and continuing to build on collaborations with other federal agencies and with national, state, and local organizations. Many ideas and insights generated during the workshop will be put into action as CDC continues to explore opportunities for cancer prevention during youth and across the lifespan. PMID:23601615

  13. The importance of long-term follow-up in child and adolescent obesity prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Magarey, Anthea

    2011-08-01

    Pediatric overweight and obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat; therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. There is considerable evidence to suggest that obesity prevention initiatives can change children's behaviours and weight status over the short- or medium-term; however, there is far less evidence on which to judge the impact over the longer term. In response to the rise in short- and medium-term obesity prevention studies for children and adolescents over recent years, the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network highlight five points as to why the dearth of obesity prevention studies with long-term follow-up should be urgently addressed. Furthermore, recommendations to strengthen the evidence base and outline key implications for research design in this area and the support required for long-term follow-up studies are detailed.

  14. Evidence-Based Interventions for Preventing Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Substantial progress has been made in developing prevention programs for adolescent drug abuse. The most effective interventions target salient risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and/or community levels and are guided by relevant psychosocial theories regarding the etiology of substance use and abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology, etiologic risk and protective factors, and evidence-based approaches that have been found to be most effective in preventing adolescent substance use and abuse. Exemplary school and family-based prevention programs for universal (everyone in population), selected (members of at-risk groups), and indicated (at-risk individuals) target populations are reviewed, along with model community-based prevention approaches. Challenges remain in widely disseminating evidence-based prevention programs into schools, families, and communities. PMID:20682218

  15. Adolescent mothers: what factors relate to level of preventive health care sought for their infants?

    PubMed

    Kelly, L E

    1995-04-01

    This exploratory study investigated the level of preventive health care services that adolescent mothers (ages 14 to 17) sought for their infants during the first 2 years of the infants' lives. Findings showed that mothers who maintained a relationship with their child's father or exhibited a high Powerful Others Locus of Control were more likely to practice better preventive health care. The role that social support and locus of control play in mediating parental stress is discussed. Implications for nurses working with adolescent mothers are presented.

  16. [Accidents involving children and adolescents: from epidemiological findings to preventive action].

    PubMed

    Manciaux, M; Jeanneret, O

    1983-01-01

    It is generally accepted that improving epidemiological knowledge of accidents in childhood and adolescence leads to a better implementation of more efficient prevention programs. Nevertheless, it is not yet generally admitted that any new preventive measure addressing these accidents has to be evaluated by competent epidemiologists. Obviously, there are exceptions regarding these two rules. Four examples of successful implementation are presented in this paper: safety packaging of aspirin; fences around private swimming pools; changes in minimal drinking and driving age in adolescence; bicycle accidents. The discussion is focused on four intervention levels suggested for the epidemiologists. PMID:6669771

  17. Pregnancy prevention among American Indian men ages 18 to 24: the role of mental health and intention to use birth control.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kris; Medicine Elk, Jarrett; Dick, Rebecca; Jewett, Lacey; Gesink, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    The Fort Peck Sexual Health Project: A Contextual Analysis of Native American Men is a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that explores the extent to which knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sex, intimate relationships, and mental health influence sexual and reproductive health. For the purpose of this study, the influence of age, fatherhood, and mental health factors related to historical trauma and loss on young American Indian (AI) men's intention to use birth control was examined. In-depth interviews were conducted with 112 Native American men between the ages of 18 and 24 years. The mean age reported was 21 years. Thirty-eight percent of the young men reported having children. The young men reported experiences of historical trauma during their lifetime as well as emotional responses due to historical losses. Ninety-five percent reported that it was very important that they use some form of birth control to prevent their partner from getting pregnant within the next year. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, as age increased, young men were less likely to use birth control to prevent pregnancy. The young men who reported feelings of loss due to experiences related to historical trauma and loss were more likely to use birth control. Findings from this study suggest that public health efforts to educate AI men about planned pregnancies and the use of birth control may be most effective in adolescence. Public health programs that address mental health concerns such as the emotional responses due to historical losses may assist young AI men in their decision to use birth control.

  18. Screening as an Approach for Adolescent Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Caine, Eric D.

    2006-01-01

    Among the provisions of the recently signed Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act, Congress called for the use of screening to detect adolescents who are at risk for suicide. After a review of the literature, 17 studies involving screening instruments and programs were identified. We addressed the question: What do we know about the demonstrated…

  19. Resilience in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents Seeking Preventive Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Kirk K.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Luecken, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined environmental stress, family, and child variables that differentiate resilient children and adolescents from those with mental health problems following the death of a primary caregiver. The community-based sample included 179 bereaved children ages 8 to 16 years and their surviving caregivers who completed a test battery of…

  20. Preventing Child and Adolescent Firearm Injuries. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie

    In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…