Science.gov

Sample records for adolescent psychiatric assessment

  1. Practice Parameter for the Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Physically Ill Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An introduction for any medical health clinician on the knowledge and skills that are needed for the psychiatric assessment and management of physically ill children and adolescents is presented. These parameters are presented to assist clinicians in psychiatric decision making.

  2. Assessment of Mode of Anger Expression in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cautin, Robin L.; Overholser, James C.; Goetz, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated internalized and externalized anger in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Results indicated that internalized anger led to depression and feelings of hopelessness and increased chances of suicide attempts. In contrast, externalized anger was related to alcohol-related problems. Thus, different modes of anger expression appear to be…

  3. Gestational risks and psychiatric disorders among indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10-12 and 13-15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother's positive parenting.

  4. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  5. Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence headache.

    PubMed

    Dyb, Grete; Stensland, Synne; Zwart, John-Anker

    2015-03-01

    Primary headaches among children and adolescents have a substantial impact on quality of life, daily activities, social interaction, and school performance in combination with psychopathological symptoms. The main purpose of the present paper is to summarize clinical and epidemiological evidence for psychiatric comorbidity among children and adolescents with headaches, to describe how evidence in headache research suggest different pathways involved in the development and maintenance of these comorbid conditions, and finally suggest some elements professionals may find helpful to assess the scope of complaints, related functional impairment, and potential precipitating factors in planning of more targeted treatments.

  6. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  7. Illness perceptions in adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Chaudhry, Mansoor R; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method To assess adolescents' perceptions of their psychiatric illness and the role of various demographic factors in a Pakistani setting. Adolescents with various psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R). Results Fifty-two adolescents with various psychiatric illnesses were interviewed; their mean age was 12.7 years and the majority (67%) were female. Males had significantly higher scores on timeline and emotional representation (P<0.05), suggesting strongly held beliefs about chronicity of their illness and anger and worry about their condition. Adolescents' own emotional state, stress, family problems and bad luck were endorsed by participants as some of the causal factors in their mental illness. Clinical implications Despite the importance of early intervention in psychiatric problems, engaging youth in the treatment process in Pakistan remains difficult. Better understanding of how adolescents perceive their psychiatric difficulties may play a significant role in developing culturally sensitive interventions and better utilisation of services. PMID:26755949

  8. Illness perceptions in adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Chaudhry, Mansoor R.; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To assess adolescents' perceptions of their psychiatric illness and the role of various demographic factors in a Pakistani setting. Adolescents with various psychiatric diagnoses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire–Revised (IPQ-R). Results Fifty-two adolescents with various psychiatric illnesses were interviewed; their mean age was 12.7 years and the majority (67%) were female. Males had significantly higher scores on timeline and emotional representation (P<0.05), suggesting strongly held beliefs about chronicity of their illness and anger and worry about their condition. Adolescents' own emotional state, stress, family problems and bad luck were endorsed by participants as some of the causal factors in their mental illness. Clinical implications Despite the importance of early intervention in psychiatric problems, engaging youth in the treatment process in Pakistan remains difficult. Better understanding of how adolescents perceive their psychiatric difficulties may play a significant role in developing culturally sensitive interventions and better utilisation of services. PMID:26755949

  9. Satanism in a psychiatric adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Gagnon, A; Bradford, J M

    1988-04-01

    In a university affiliated adolescent psychiatric facility, providing approximately 250 consultations per year, an unsuspectedly high prevalence of preoccupation with "satanism" was found in referred adolescents. Interested by the phenomenon, the authors have identified and documented eight cases in an attempt to isolate common characteristics among the cases. Initially a link between the marginal cult belief and general maladjustment was hypothesized, specifically delinquent behaviour. The study confirmed this trend and showed a significant impairment in the social adjustment of these adolescents. One of the most striking findings was the high prevalence of family disruption and parental abuse. Furthermore, a wide range of psychiatric symptoms were found in our subjects. This study raises concerns over the psychological development of adolescents who are subject to high levels of psychosocial stress. It will hopefully encourage further work in the area of increased susceptibility towards beliefs and indoctrination.

  10. Working Models of Attachment in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents: Relation to Psychopathology and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    This study examined the role of attachment in adolescent psychopathology among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Subjects consisted of 60 adolescents and 27 of their mothers. Measures included the Adult Attachment Interview classification for both the adolescents and their mothers, and a battery of diagnostic and personality assessment of…

  11. Substance use disorders in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Deas-Nesmith, D; Campbell, S; Brady, K T

    1998-04-01

    This study examined the comorbidity of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders in adolescent populations. The study population was comprised of 100 consecutive admissions, ages 13 to 17, to an acute care adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit for substance use disorders. Patients were assessed using the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) and the substance-use disorder portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID-R). Thirty-three (33%) patients were identified as having a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the age between substance users and nonsubstance users. There were significantly more whites in the substance-using group. Sixty percent of all adolescents interviewed had histories of sexual or physical trauma, with trauma being significantly more common in the substance-using group. There were no significant differences in the number or type of other Axis I or Axis II diagnoses between the two groups. While substance users and nonsubstance users had no significant difference in the number of past psychiatric hospitalizations, nonsubstance users had significantly more past medical hospitalizations. These results indicate that high rates of comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders exist in adolescents, and more in-depth study of comorbidity among adolescents is warranted. PMID:9581443

  12. Substance use disorders in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population.

    PubMed Central

    Deas-Nesmith, D.; Campbell, S.; Brady, K. T.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the comorbidity of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders in adolescent populations. The study population was comprised of 100 consecutive admissions, ages 13 to 17, to an acute care adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit for substance use disorders. Patients were assessed using the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ) and the substance-use disorder portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID-R). Thirty-three (33%) patients were identified as having a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the age between substance users and nonsubstance users. There were significantly more whites in the substance-using group. Sixty percent of all adolescents interviewed had histories of sexual or physical trauma, with trauma being significantly more common in the substance-using group. There were no significant differences in the number or type of other Axis I or Axis II diagnoses between the two groups. While substance users and nonsubstance users had no significant difference in the number of past psychiatric hospitalizations, nonsubstance users had significantly more past medical hospitalizations. These results indicate that high rates of comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders exist in adolescents, and more in-depth study of comorbidity among adolescents is warranted. PMID:9581443

  13. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). Methods: To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children…

  14. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  15. Psychiatric Sequelae in Adolescent Bone Marrow Transplantation Survivors

    PubMed Central

    STUBER, MARGARET L.; NADER, KATHLEEN O.

    1995-01-01

    Survivors of life-threatening pediatric illness and their families present a number of psychotherapeutic challenges. The authors present pilot data evaluating the long-term psychiatric impact of pediatric bone marrow transplantation on 10 adolescent transplantation survivors compared with a matched control group. On a quantitative assessment of posttraumatic stress symptoms, the survivors reported a consistent but low level of symptoms. Their narratives about the experience suggest the need for ongoing mental health assessment in addition to specific interventions with families early in the treatment. PMID:22700211

  16. 10-Year Research Update Review: The Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders--I. Methods and Public Health Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review recent progress in child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology in the area of prevalence and burden. Method: The literature published in the past decade was reviewed under two headings: methods and findings. Results: Methods for assessing the prevalence and community burden of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders have…

  17. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  18. Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence. Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of

  19. Psychiatric Syndromes in Adolescents with Marijuana Abuse and Dependency in Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…

  20. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  1. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  2. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  3. Pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency in a psychiatrically disturbed adolescent.

    PubMed

    Naylor, M W; Alessi, N E

    1989-05-01

    A case of pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency in an adolescent boy presenting with affective lability, impulsivity, aggression, inattention, and academic difficulties is described. Genetically related to metachromatic leukodystrophy, pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency has generally been felt to be a benign disorder. Pseudodeficiency of arylsulfatase A has, however, been associated with serious psychiatric morbidity in recent studies. Possible explanations for this association are suggested. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency in a psychiatrically disturbed adolescent.

  4. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  5. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    PubMed

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-03-02

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit.

  6. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    PubMed

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit. PMID:26990268

  7. Profiles of Personal Resiliency in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Geetha; Steer, Robert A.; Gulab, Nazli A.

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain whether children and adolescents whose ages ranged from 9 to 17 years described distinct profiles of personal resiliency, the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) were administered to 100 youth who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit and were diagnosed with various "DSM-IV-TR" disorders along with the Beck…

  8. Religion/Spirituality and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Goldston, David B.; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of…

  9. Psychiatric Comorbidities among Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…

  10. Intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whisman, Mark A; Johnson, Daniel P; Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that poor relationship quality in marriage and other intimate relationships demonstrates cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with a variety of psychiatric disorders in adults. In comparison, there has been less research on the covariation between relationship quality and psychiatric disorders in adolescents, a developmental period that is associated with elevated risk of incidence of several disorders and that is important for the acquisition and maintenance of intimate relationships. The present study was conducted to examine the associations between intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in a population-based sample of adolescents. The associations between relationship involvement, positive and negative relationship quality, and 12-month prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were evaluated in adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Participants completed an interview-based assessment of psychiatric disorders and a self-report measure of relationship quality. Results indicated that the prevalence of broad categories of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and several specific disorders were significantly associated with (a) being married, cohabiting, or involved in a serious relationship; and (b) reporting more negative (but not less positive) relationship quality. For several disorders, the association between the disorder and relationship involvement was moderated by age, wherein the strength of the association decreased in magnitude with increasing age. Findings suggest that being in an intimate relationship and reporting higher levels of negative relationship quality are associated with the prevalence of several common psychiatric disorders in adolescents. PMID:25365346

  11. Evaluating ego defense mechanisms using clinical interviews: an empirical study of adolescent diabetic and psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A M; Beardslee, W; Hauser, S T; Noam, G G; Powers, S I; Houlihan, J; Rider, E

    1986-12-01

    Ego defense mechanisms were studied in three groups of early adolescents: diabetic patients, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, and healthy high school students. Defenses were assessed from ratings of open-ended, in-depth interviews. High levels of denial and low levels of asceticism were found in all three groups. Comparisons between groups indicated that psychiatric patients had a distinctive profile of defense usage, in comparison to adolescents from the other two groups. An independent measure of ego development was positively correlated with the defenses of altruism, intellectualization, and suppression, while it was negatively correlated with acting out, avoidance, denial, displacement, projection, and repression. The findings of substantial differences in defense usage between the psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples, and the size and directions of the correlations with ego development level, lend support to the validity of the defense codes.

  12. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk for Child-Rearing Difficulties during Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…

  13. Is Exposure to Domestic Violence and Violent Crime Associated with Bullying Behaviour among Underage Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustanoja, Susanna; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Saavala, Hannu; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship of exposure to domestic violence and violence occurring outside home to bullying behaviour in a sample (508; 40.9% males, 59.1% females) of underage psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Participants were interviewed using K-SADS-PL to assess DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses and to gather information about domestic and other…

  14. Bibliometric assessment of publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations between 2005 and 2010 based on the databases PubMed and Scopus.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Ozgür; Föcker, Manuel; Wibker, Katrin; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to determine the quantitative scientific publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations during 2005-2010 by country based on both, "PubMed" and "Scopus" and performed a bibliometric qualitative evaluation for 2009 using "PubMed". We performed our search by affiliation related to child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological institutions using "PubMed". For the quantitative analysis for 2005-2010, we counted the number of abstracts. For the qualitative analysis for 2009 we derived the impact factor of each abstract's journal from "Journal Citation Reports". We related total impact factor scores to the gross domestic product (GDP) and population size of each country. Additionally, we used "Scopus" to determine the number of abstracts for each country that was identified via "PubMed" for 2009 and compared the ranking of countries between the two databases. 61 % of the publications between 2005 and 2010 originated from European countries and 26 % from the USA. After adjustment for GDP and population size, the ranking positions changed in favor of smaller European countries with a population size of less than 20 million inhabitants. The ranking of countries for the count of articles in 2009 as derived from "Scopus" was similar to that identified via the "PubMed" search. The performed search revealed only minor differences between "Scopus" and "PubMed" related to the ranking of countries. Our data indicate a sharp difference between countries with a high versus low GDP with regard to scientific publication output in child and adolescent psychiatry/psychology.

  15. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ). Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD is the strongest predictor of experiences of stigma. More severely personality disordered adolescents tend to experience the highest level of stigma. PMID:25999774

  16. Sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy: Associations with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. PMID:27448238

  17. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160

  19. Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Lance P.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Hollander, Beth L. G.; Dyl, Jennifer; Rizzo, Christie J.; Steinley, Douglas L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) for adolescent inpatients aged 12 to 18. The results reveal moderate agreement between ChIPS diagnoses and Schedule for Affective Disorder sand Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version diagnoses.

  20. Adolescent self-cutting elsewhere than on the arms reveals more serious psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Eila; Rissanen, Marja-Liisa; Tolmunen, Tommi; Kylmä, Jari; Hintikka, Jukka

    2013-08-01

    Self-cutting as a form of self-harm is a common and multifaceted phenomenon among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the location of self-cutting (arms or other areas of the body) could help to assess the severity of the underlying psychiatric problems. A sample of adolescents who reported self-cutting (n = 440) was drawn from a large sample of community adolescents (n = 4,019). The majority of self-cutting adolescents, 296 (67.2%), reported cutting only the upper arms, while 144 (32.8%) also cut other parts of the body. The data included a structured self-rating questionnaire, questions about self-cutting, the Youth Self-Report (YSR) for adolescents aged 11-18 years, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale (A-DES). The results indicate that self-cutting on other parts of body than the arms was associated with female gender, a wide range of emotional and dissociative symptoms and suicidal ideation. In logistic regression analysis, the most pronounced association between self-cutting on other places than the arms was found with YSR subscales withdrawn/depressed, social problems and thought problems, and dissociation (A-DES). We conclude that self-cutting adolescents, mostly girls, with wounds elsewhere than on the arms present with the most serious psychiatric symptoms. It is important to perform a careful physical examination when an adolescent has unexplained wounds or scars on the arms or on other parts of the body. These adolescents also need a caring and conscientious psychiatric examination and possible psychiatric treatment.

  1. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  2. Neurological Impairment and Hypersensitivity among Psychiatrically Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Steven; Hollingsworth, David K.

    1994-01-01

    Because of recent developments in measurements, investigated possible covariation between hyperactivity and cerebral deficits in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Used several different measures on 45 patients (32 boys, 13 girls). The limited amount of covariation found suggests that neuropsychological deficits may be a diffuse problem that…

  3. Suicide Probability Scale and Its Utility with Adolescent Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eltz, Michael; Evans, Allison Schettini; Celio, Mark; Dyl, Jennifer; Hunt, Jeffrey; Armstrong, Laura; Spirito, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) in a sample of 226 (80 male, 146 female) adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Confirmatory factor analyses provided only some support for the original subscales. Exploratory factor analyses revealed some overlap with the original scales, but…

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  5. Psychiatric Illness in Mentally Retarded Adolescents: Clinical Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…

  6. BRAIN STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENTS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes geared to ensure reproduction and achieve independence are very likely mediated by growth of neural processes, remodeling of synaptic connections, increased myelination in prefrontal areas, and maturation of connecting subcortical regions. These processes, greatly accelerated in adolescence, follow an asynchronous pattern in different brain areas. Neuroimaging research using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging has produced most of the insights regarding brain structural and functional neuropathology in adolescent psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenia, first episodes during adolescence are linked to greater-than-normal losses in gray matter density and white matter integrity, and show a divergence of maturational trajectories from normative neural development, in a progression similar to that of adult-onset schizophrenia. Anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence have been linked to abnormally increased activity in the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortical areas, although some data suggest that neural abnormalities in the amygdala and anxiety maybe particularly more frequent in adolescents than in adults. Alcohol misuse in adolescence results in reduced integrity in the white matter and reduced gray matter density that, given the high intensity of adolescent synaptic and myelin remodeling, may result in persistent and profound changes in circuits supporting memory, emotional and appetitive control. Interaction of persistent changes due to prenatal exposure with contemporaneous expression of genetic factors and disturbing environmental exposure may be an important factor in the appearance of psychiatric disorders in adolescence. Further progress in understanding adolescent psychopathology will require postmortem research of molecular and cellular determinants in the adolescent brain. PMID:23828425

  7. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use

  8. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use.

  9. Psychiatric diagnoses in minority female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Trautman, P D; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Dopkins, S; Lewin, N

    1991-07-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children semistructured interview among three groups of minority adolescent females aged 12 to 17:61 suicide attempters, 31 psychiatrically disturbed nonattempters, and 23 nonattempting, nondisturbed girls. Major or minor depressive disorder was found in 42% of the suicide attempters; conduct disorder in 46%; multiple diagnoses in 38%, no diagnosis in 13%. These rates were very similar to those found in disturbed nonattempters. Only one symptom, suicidal ideation, distinguished attempters from disturbed nonattempters, while many symptoms distinguished these two groups from nondisturbed nonattempters. PMID:1890096

  10. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder.

  11. Identification of Trauma Exposure and PTSD in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Jennifer F.; Gudiño, Omar G.; Biggs, Emily A.; Diamond, Ursula N.; Weis, J. Rebecca; Cloitre, Marylene

    2013-01-01

    Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though prevalent among adolescent psychiatric inpatients, are under-identified in standard clinical practice. In a retrospective chart review of 140 adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit, we examine associations between probable PTSD identified through the Child PTSD Symptom Scale and adolescents' service use and clinical characteristics. Results suggest a large discrepancy between rates of probable PTSD identified through standardized assessment and during the emergency room psychiatric evaluation (28.6% vs. 2.2%). Adolescents with probable PTSD had greater clinical severity and service utilization, an increased likelihood of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder (27.5% vs. 9.2%) and being prescribed antipsychotic medications (47.5% vs. 27.6%), and were prescribed more psychotropic medications. Upon discharge, those with probable PTSD were more likely to be assigned a diagnosis of PTSD (45% vs. 7.1%), a comorbid diagnoses of major depressive disorder (30% vs. 14.3%), to be prescribed an antidepressant medication (52.5% vs. 33.7%), and they continued to be prescribed more medications. The under-identification of trauma exposure and PTSD have important implications for the care of adolescents given that accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for providing effective care. Improved methods for identifying trauma-related problems in standard clinical practice are needed. PMID:22522731

  12. Bullying Victimization (Being Bullied) Among Adolescents Referred for Urgent Psychiatric Consultation: Prevalence and Association With Suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. Method: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen’s University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. Results: The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment. PMID:26720189

  13. Vitamin D status of adolescent inpatients in a secure psychiatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Simon A.; Riordan-Eva, Elliott; Bhandari, Bharathi; Ferdinandez, Uresh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to use routinely collected data on vitamin D levels of adolescents detained in a secure psychiatric hospital to see if this at-risk group for vitamin D deficiency do in fact have low vitamin D levels. Methods: Vitamin D blood levels were collated from clinical records of inpatients admitted to Bluebird House, a medium secure adolescent unit, since 2012. Corresponding data were gathered to include gender, ethnic status and age. Blood levels were assessed on admission to the unit and after treatment with vitamin D supplementation, if indicated. Results: Only 3 out of the 35 patients (8.6%) had adequate vitamin D levels (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] > 50 nmol/l). A total of 23 patients (65.7%) had levels consistent with deficiency (25-OHD < 30 nmol/l) with the remaining 9 patients (25.7%) showing levels indicating possible deficiency (25-OHD 30–50 nmol/l. Conclusions: Vitamin D levels were low in our sample of young people admitted to a secure psychiatric hospital. This is the first published study of vitamin D levels in a secure adolescent psychiatric hospital. The results point to the need for routine prescription of vitamin D to adolescents held in secure conditions such as hospitals, secure children’s homes and youth offender institutes. PMID:27536343

  14. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype--early life adversity interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gustafsson, Per A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Agnafors, Sara; Aho, Nikolas; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health.

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents Attending Pediatric Out Patient Departments of Tertiary Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jesmin, Akhter; Rahman, Khan Muhammad Zillur; Muntasir, Maruf Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Psychiatric disorders are increasingly recognized among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. Psychiatric disorders are more common in children with chronic and acute pediatric disorders. Our study was designed to determine the psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending pediatric outpatient departments of tertiary care hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2012 to February 2013 in pediatric outpatient departments of three prime tertiary level hospitals of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A purposive sampling technique was used. A total of 240 male and female children aged 5 to 16 years old were included in the study. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic and other relevant clinical information about the children and their families from their parents or caregivers and a validated parent version of the Bangla Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) for measuring psychopathology. Results The mean age of the children was 9.0± 2.6 years. The majority (71%) of children were in the 5–10 year age group. The male/female ratio was 1.2:1. Among the respondents, 18% were found to have a psychiatric disorder. Behavioral disorders, emotional disorders, and developmental disorders were found in 9.0%, 15.0% and 0.4% respectively. Hyperkinetic disorder was the single most frequent (5.0%) psychiatric disorder. Conclusions A significant number of children were found to have psychiatric disorders. Our study indicates the importance of identification and subsequent management of psychiatric conditions among the pediatric population. PMID:27403237

  16. Identity confusion and depression in groups of adolescents having psychiatric and physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cuhadaroğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the identity status of adolescents having psychiatric and physical symptoms and the relation of depression with identity problems in adolescence. Three groups of university students were given a sociodemographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). The first group consisted of 31 students who were seen by the consultant psychiatrist at the Student Health Center of a university in Ankara. The second group included 37 students who applied to the same center with various physical complaints but did not need to be consulted by the psychiatrist. The third group was a group of 50 healthy students at the same university. The analysis revealed that only those with psychiatric complaints had identity confusion and that for the males in this group depressive symptoms are significant predictors of identity confusion.

  17. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2013-10-14

    Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity distribution and diversities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüce, Murat; Zoroglu, Süleyman Salih; Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; Kandemir, Hasan; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls) diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4%) followed by anxiety disorders (49%) and elimination disorders (27.8%). Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one comorbid diagnosis. Therefore, especially in the clinical sample, ADHD cases should not be solely interpreted with ADHD symptom domains, instead they should be investigated properly in terms of accompanying psychiatric disorders. PMID:24265552

  19. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen

    2011-01-01

    Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients. PMID:21731894

  20. Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group. PMID

  1. Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group.

  2. Psychiatric Correlates of Nonsuicidal Cutting Behaviors in an Adolescent Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Lance P.; Spirito, Anthony; Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2008-01-01

    This archival study of 288 adolescent psychiatric inpatients examined the psychiatric correlates of cutting behavior. Participants were categorized into Threshold cutters (n = 61), Subthreshold cutters (n = 43), and Noncutters (n = 184). Groups were compared on psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and self-reported impairment. Results demonstrated…

  3. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Nicotine Dependence among Adolescents: Findings from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Schaffram, Christine; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between nicotine dependence and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in 1,039 adolescents is examined. Findings revealed that psychiatric disorders most usually predicted the onset of the first basis of nicotine dependence while nicotine dependence does not appear to have an influence on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Other…

  4. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory--II with Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Augustine; Kopper, Beverly A; Barrios, Frank; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Bagge, Courtney L.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to validate the Beck Depression Inventory--II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) in samples of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The sample in each substudy was primarily Caucasian. In Study 1, expert raters (N=7) and adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=13) evaluated the BDI-II items to assess…

  6. Social Support as Predictor of Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefnagels, Cees; Meesters, Cor; Simenon, Joke

    2007-01-01

    The potential role of social support for the adolescent offspring of psychiatric patients has hitherto not been examined. We examined whether the adolescent's level of psychiatric symptoms is dependent on the content and the function of social support (whether direct or moderating), controlling for perceived stress. In a cross-sectional design, 40…

  7. Stability of Diagnosis: A 20-Year Retrospective Cohort Study of Israeli Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valevski, Avi; Ratzoni, Gideon; Sever, Jonathan; Apter, Alan; Zalsman, Gil; Shiloh, Roni; Weizman, Abraham; Tyano, Sam

    2001-01-01

    Outcome according to diagnosis and stability of diagnosis were investigated in a follow-back study, with a duration of 15-19 years, of 351 adolescents with various psychiatric disorders hospitalized in a closed psychiatric ward. Findings indicated that transient adolescent psychosis is associated with a relatively good prognosis and should…

  8. Self-Concept and Physical Self-Concept in Psychiatric Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Capio, C. M.; Adriaenssens, P.; Delbroek, H.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept is a widely examined construct in the area of psychiatric disorders. This study compared the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) scores of adolescents with psychiatric disorders (N=103) with the results of a matched group of non-clinical adolescents (N=103). Self-concept and Physical self-concept were lower in the clinical…

  9. Crack and Cocaine Use among Adolescents in Psychiatric Treatment: Associations with HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W. Tarantino, Nicholas; Brown, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Crack and cocaine use among adults has been associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders as well as other drug use and unprotected sex. However, this issue is relatively unstudied in adolescents. This study collected data from 282 adolescents (mean age = 14.9 years) treated in intensive psychiatric treatment settings to understand the…

  10. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Psychiatric Disorders among Adolescent Bedouin with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…

  11. The copycat phenomenon after two Finnish school shootings: an adolescent psychiatric perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two school shootings with altogether 18 victims took place in Finland in November 2007 and September 2008. Homicides and suicides are both associated with the copycat phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to characterize adolescent copycats who had threatened to carry out a school massacre. Methods The nation-wide study evaluated 77 13- to 18-year-old adolescents who were sent for adolescent psychiatric evaluations between 8.11.2007 and 30.6.2009, one of the reasons for evaluation being a threat of massacre at school. The medical files of the copycats were retrospectively analysed using a special data collection form. Data on demographics, family- and school-related issues, previous psychiatric treatment and previous delinquency, current symptoms, family adversities and psychiatric diagnoses were collected. The severity of the threat expressed and the risk posed by the adolescent in question were evaluated. The Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version was used to assess psychopathic traits. Results All of the copycats were native Finns with a mean age of 15.0 years. Almost two thirds of them had a history of previous mental health treatment before the index threat. Almost two thirds of the copycats suffered from anxiety and depressive symptoms, and almost half of the sample expressed either suicidal ideation or suicidal plans. Behavioural problems including impulse control problems, aggressive outbursts, the destruction of property as well as non-physical and physical violence against other persons were common. The diagnosis groups highlighted were behavioural and emotional disorders, mood disorders as well as schizophrenia-related disorders. The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders was high. Only one of the copycats was assessed as expressing high traits of psychopathy. Conclusion The copycats with school massacre threats were characterized with a high prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders. Like actual school shooters, they

  12. Brief intervention in substance-use among adolescent psychiatric patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goti, Javier; Diaz, Rosa; Serrano, Lourdes; Gonzalez, Laura; Calvo, Rosa; Gual, Antoni; Castro, Josefina

    2010-06-01

    Objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement intervention in adolescents referred to psychiatric treatment who reported substance-use. In a sample of adolescents (n = 237) consecutively admitted to a psychiatry department, 143 were identified as users. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: an experimental group that received a brief intervention aimed at increasing their awareness of the risks of substance-use, or a control group. All subjects received standard treatment according to the primary diagnosis. Structured questionnaires assessing knowledge, problems, perception of risks and intention of use of psychoactive substances were administered upon admission and 1 month later. Fifty-nine subjects entered the experimental group and 44 the control group. No significant differences between the two groups were identified in socio-demographic features or substance-use. Non-parametric analyses showed a significant increase across time in overall knowledge about drugs and perception of risk in the experimental group (P < 0.05). A significant increase in overall knowledge in the experimental group compared to controls was found (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for other variables such as intention of use or perception of risk. Brief intervention in adolescents entering psychiatric treatment led to a significant change in overall knowledge about psychoactive substances but not in other variables related to use. Our results point to the need of more intensive interventions.

  13. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  14. Associations between sleep disturbance and suicidal ideation in adolescents admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sebastian G; Ali, Shahzad K; Simpson, Brittany; Britt, Victoria; McCall, W Vaughn

    2014-01-01

    The goals of our study were to: 1) describe the incidence of disturbances in sleep quality, sleep hygiene, sleep-related cognitions and nightmares; and 2) investigate the association between these sleep-related disturbances and suicidal ideation (SI), in adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Our sample consisted of 50 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years (32 females and 18 males; 41 Caucasian and nine African American). Our cross-sectional design involved the administration of the Adolescent Sleep Wake Scale (ASWS), the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-Short version for use with children (DBAS-C10), the Disturbing Dreams and Nightmare Scale (DDNSI), and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire Jr (SIQ-JR). Analyses were conducted using Pearson correlations, as well as univariate and multivariate regression. Results indicated that our sample experienced sleep disturbances and SI to a greater degree than non-clinical samples. Sleep quality was correlated with nightmares, while sleep quality and nightmares were each correlated with SI. Sleep quality, dysfunctional beliefs, and nightmares each independently predicted SI. Our study was the first to use the four sleep measures with an adolescent psychiatric inpatient sample. It is important to develop sleep-related assessment tools in high-risk populations given the link between sleep disturbances and suicidality. Furthermore, a better understanding of the relationships between SI and sleep quality, sleep-related cognitions, and nightmares is needed to develop potential prevention and treatment options for suicidality in adolescents. PMID:24356389

  15. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  17. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic

  18. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

  19. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. PMID:27203825

  20. Treatment engagement in adolescents with severe psychiatric problems: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Roedelof, A J M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2013-08-01

    Motivation is considered a pivotal factor in treatment, but a better understanding of this topic is needed. Drieschner et al. (Clin Psychol Rev 23:1115-1137, 2004) proposed to distinguish treatment motivation and treatment engagement. This study aimed to discover whether it is possible to identify classes of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems having comparable profiles of treatment engagement. To this end, professionals filled out the Treatment Engagement Rating Scale 5 times for 49 adolescents (mean age 18.3 years; SD = 1.6) during the first year of case management treatment. Using a longitudinal latent class analysis, the number of profiles of treatment engagement was investigated and described. Results identified three profiles: high (19 clients, 39%), medium (20 clients, 41%) and low (10 clients, 20%). Adolescents with a high engagement profile were at first equally, and later on more engaged in treatment than clients with a medium engagement profile. Adolescents with a low engagement profile made the least effort to engage, except after 30 weeks. Adolescents with a low engagement profile were often substance-dependent males with the lowest scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale after a year. Only adolescents with a high engagement profile improved on global functioning. In conclusion, it is possible to identify different treatment engagement profiles by asking one question about level of global treatment engagement. Frequent assessment of engagement of the individual client as well as including a behavioural component into assessment and treatment may help to improve case management treatment for adolescents with medium and low engagement profiles.

  1. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African- American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African-American girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African-American youth or in clinical samples. African-American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls’ risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Method 265 African-American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a six-month follow-up. Results Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Conclusions Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African-American girls in psychiatric care, and should be considered in prevention program development. PMID:22742458

  2. Tics and psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-05-01

    This study examined comorbid psychiatric symptoms in a large, community-based sample of children and adolescents. The study sample comprised a total of 3006 school children: 413 preschool (3 to 5 years; 237 males, 176 females; mean age 4 years 2 months, SD 8 months), 1520 elementary school (5 to 12 years; 787 males, 733 females; mean age 8 years 2 months, SD 1 year 11 months), and 1073 secondary school children (12 to 18 years; 573 males, 500 females; mean age 14 years 4 months, SD 1 year 10 months), all of whom were attending regular education programs. Children were evaluated with a teacher-completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. The sample was divided into four groups: attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder with tics (ADHD+tics), ADHD without tics (ADHD), tics without ADHD (T), and a comparison group i.e. neither ADHD nor tics (Non). The percentage of children with tic behaviors varied with age: preschool children (22.3%), elementary school children (7.8%), and adolescents (3.4%). Tic behaviors were more common in males than females, regardless of comorbid ADHD symptoms. For many psychiatric symptoms, screening prevalence rates were highest for the ADHD groups (ADHD+tics>ADHD>T>Non). However, obsessive-compulsive and simple and social phobia symptoms were more common in the groups with tic behavior. Findings for a community-based sample show many similarities with studies of clinically referred samples suggesting that teacher-completed ratings of DSM-IV symptoms may be a useful methodology for investigating the phenomenology of tic disorders.

  3. [Forensic-psychiatric assessment of pedophilia].

    PubMed

    Nitschke, J; Osterheider, M; Mokros, A

    2011-09-01

    The present paper illustrates the approach of a forensic psychiatric expert witness regarding the assessment of pedophilia. In a first step it is inevitable to differentiate if the defendant is suffering from pedophilia or if the alleged crime might have been committed because of other motivations (antisociality, sexual activity as redirection, impulsivity). A sound diagnostic assessment is indispendable for this task. In a second step the level of severity needs to be gauged in order to clarify whether the requirement of the entry criteria of §§ 20, 21 of the German penal code are fulfilled. In a third step, significant impairments of self-control mechanisms need to be elucidated. The present article reviews indicators of such impairments regarding pedophilia. With respect to a mandatory treatment order (§ 63 German penal code) or preventive detention (§ 66 German penal code) the legal prognosis of the defendant needs to be considered. The present paper gives an overview of the current state of risk assessment research and discusses the transfer to an individual prognosis critically.

  4. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  5. Post-traumatic stress and psychiatric disorders in Palestinian adolescents following intifada-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2008-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric disorders (i.e., anxiety and depression) in Palestinian adolescents following intifada-related injuries. It was hypothesized that a combination of pre-trauma variables (e.g., age, geographic location), trauma-specific variables such as trauma recency, type of trauma (deliberately violent vs. accidental), and post-trauma variables (e.g., social support, coping strategies, belief in fate) would be predictive of these psychological sequelae. The participants were 179 boys who were injured during Al-Aqsa intifada and as a result sustained a permanent physical disability. They ranged in age from 12 to 18 years (M=16.30, SD=1.64). Questionnaires were administered in an interview format with adolescents at home. Approximately 76.5% of the injured victims qualify as having PTSD and that the disorder had a heterogeneous course, with excess risk for chronic symptoms and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Among all the predictors in the PTSD, anxiety and depression models, only geographical location, fatalism, and negative coping were significant predictors. In conclusion, post-traumatic reactions and psychiatric disorders in adolescents involved in armed conflict injuries can persist for several months. Given the apparent significant relationship between psychological sequelae of intifada-related injuries and certain predictors (i.e., negative coping style and fatalism), treatments such as trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy may yield positive results. Negative coping and fatalism should be addressed more directly during therapy.

  6. Emergency Presentations to an Inner-City Psychiatric Service for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dil, L. M.; Vuijk, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric emergency services for children and adolescents vary in process, structure and outcome. There are few systematic studies on the type and prevalence of psychiatric problems encountered, related circumstances or resulting interventions. Evidence in these areas is important in evaluation of the function of mental health services in the…

  7. Behavioral Interviewing in Psychiatric Rehabilitation Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan

    Psychiatric rehabilitation differs from traditional approaches to mental health, because it places much greater emphasis on the importance of the person's relationship with the environment. In psychiatric rehabilitation, the importance is not placed on finding a cure for the client's mental illness; rather, what matters is the ability to hold a…

  8. Psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Bilgic, Özlem; Akış, Havva Kaya; Eskioğlu, Fatma; Kılıç, Emine Zinnur

    2010-01-01

    Information about the relationship between psoriasis and psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in children and adolescents is limited. We aimed to examine the symptoms of depression and anxiety and health-related quality of life levels in children and adolescents with psoriasis. Forty-eight outpatients with psoriasis aged 8 to 18 years are included in this study. Child Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventories for Children (STAI-C) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Parent and Child Versions (PedQL-P and C) were applied to both patient and control groups. Psoriasis symptom severity was measured by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Both study and control groups were divided into two age groups, child (8-12 yrs) and adolescent (13-18 yrs), to exclude the effect of puberty on psychological condition. The mean CDI score was higher, and PedQL-C psychosocial and total scores were lower in the children compared with controls. Duration of psoriasis had an increasing effect on physical-health and total scores of PedQL-C in the child group and all PedQL-C scores in the entire sample. Psoriasis severity showed a negative correlation with psychosocial and total scores of PedQL-P in the adolescent group and PedQL-P physical-health scores in the entire sample. Psoriasis is related to depression and impaired quality of life in children. The depressive symptoms in children with psoriasis should not be overlooked and psychiatric assessment of these children should be provided.

  9. Prevalence of DSM-IV TR Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents of Paveh, a Western City of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dodangi, Nasrin; Habibi Ashtiani, Nastaran; Valadbeigi, Burhanoddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiology, the study of patterns of disease distribution in time and space, can help to improve mental health services for children and adolescents by increasing understanding of causes, development, and course of psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV TR psychiatric disorders and comorbidities in students of Paveh, one of the western cities in Iran. Materials and Methods: The participants of this cross sectional survey were 379 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years old that were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. They were screened in the first phase of the study by two screening tools. In the second phase, 141 students were assessed by K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. Results: The overall prevalence of DSM-IV TR disorders in this population according to psychiatric interview was 24.4%. The most common disorder was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (11.9%) and then generalized anxiety disorder (11.3%), social phobia (6.2%), and separation anxiety disorder (6.2%). There was no significant difference between two sex and age groups except enuresis. Conclusions: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Paveh is comparable to other areas of Iran and the world. The high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder needs more consideration and treatment plans. PMID:25237571

  10. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Nondetained Delinquent and Nondelinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents. A nationally representative sample of adolescents ("n" = 3,614; "M" age = 14.5 years, "SD" = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White,…

  11. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  12. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  13. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  14. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  15. [Prospective study of psychiatric and pedagogic evaluation of the adolescent service of the Student Health Foundation of France. Methodology and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Halfon, O; Laget, J; Ekbatani, A; Barbaux, J J

    1992-01-01

    The present prospective study, with a five-year follow-up, presents an extensive psychiatric and educational assessment of an adolescent population (N = 30) in the age range 14-20, suffering from several psychiatric disorders, though apt to follow a normal academic program. The residential settings where the study took place provide both psychiatric and schooling facilities. In this environment, what is the effectiveness of long-term hospitalization? Are there any criteria for predicting results? After discharge, could social adjustments difficulties be prevented? Assessment instruments are described and the results of one preliminary study are presented. The actual data seems to confirm the impact of the special treatment facilities combining schooling and psychiatric settings on the long term outcome of adolescents. PMID:1342658

  16. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder: An Empirical Investigation in Adolescent Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2013-01-01

    Objective Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a growing public health concern, especially among adolescents. In the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, NSSI is classified as a criterion of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, a distinct NSSI disorder will now be included in DSM-5 as a “condition requiring further study.” Importantly, at this time, there is little direct evidence supporting the DSM-5 proposal over the DSM-IV classification. To address this need, the current study examined the extent to which NSSI occurs independently of BPD, and has clinical significance beyond a diagnosis of BPD in adolescent psychiatric patients. Method NSSI disorder was assessed based on the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 198 adolescents ages 12 to 18 (74% female; 64% Caucasian, 14% Hispanic, 10% African American, and 12% mixed/other ethnicity) from a psychiatric hospital. Major Axis I disorders, Axis II BPD, and suicide ideation and attempts were assessed with structured clinical interviews; emotion dysregulation and loneliness were measured with validated self-report questionnaires. Results First, results indicate that NSSI disorder occurs independently of BPD. Specifically, although there was overlap between the occurrence of BPD and NSSI disorder, this overlap was no greater than that between BPD and other Axis I disorders (e.g., anxiety and mood disorders). Second, NSSI disorder demonstrated unique associations with clinical impairment – indexed by suicide ideation and attempts, emotion dysregulation, and loneliness – over and above a BPD diagnosis. Conclusions Taken together, findings support the classification of NSSI as a distinct and clinically significant diagnostic entity. PMID:23682597

  17. Is an interest in computers or individual/team sports associated with adolescent psychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Harju, Outi; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    The Internet plays a major role in adolescents' free time activities and communication nowadays. The aim here was to investigate the possibility of an association of computers and video games or sports (team, individual) with psychiatric disorders among underage psychiatric inpatients. The series of adolescents (n = 508) had been diagnosed using semistructured interviews (K-SADS-PL). The results showed that an interest in computers and video games did not increase the risk of any specific psychiatric disorder among these adolescent inpatients, but the likelihood of a substance-related disorder was statistically significantly lower among the boys with computers as a hobby. Team sports were related to increased likelihood of conduct disorder among the boys, whereas the likelihood of an affective disorder was reduced. No such association was found in individual sports or among the girls. We conclude that social contacts and peers play an important role in preventing adolescent depression.

  18. A Systematic Review of Psychiatric, Psychological, and Behavioural Outcomes following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Karen M.; Brooks, Brian L.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Villavicencio-Requis, Angela; Gnanakumar, Vithya; Robertson, Helen Lee; Schneider, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding longer-term psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes (for example, anxiety, mood disorders, depression, and attention disorders) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children and adolescents has not been previously synthesized. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the available evidence examining psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes following mTBI in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Nine electronic databases were systematically searched from 1980 to August 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; study design was a randomized controlled trial, quasi-experimental design, cohort or historical cohort study, case-control study, or cross-sectional study; exposure included mTBI (including concussion); population included children and adolescents (<19 years) at the time of mTBI, as well as a comparison group (for example, healthy children, children with orthopaedic injuries); and included psychiatric, psychological, or behavioural outcomes (for example, anxiety, mood disorders, depression, attention disorders). Two authors independently assessed the quality and level of evidence with the Downs and Black (DB) criteria and Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) model, respectively, for each manuscript. Results: Of 9472 studies identified in the initial search, 30 were included and scored. Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The median methodological quality for all 30 studies, based on the DB criteria, was 15/33 (range 6 to 19). The highest level of evidence demonstrated by all reviewed studies was level 2b based on OCEBM criteria, with the majority (28/30 studies) classified at this level. Based on the literature included in this systematic review, psychological and psychiatric problems in children with a history of mTBI were found to be more prevalent when mTBI is associated with hospitalization, when

  19. [Ethical problems in forensic-psychiatric assessment].

    PubMed

    Barbey, I

    1988-09-01

    Forensic psychiatry as a subspecialty variously differs from general psychiatry. Therefore psychiatrists working in forensic psychiatry are confronted with ethical problems of other kind. In the following several ethical problems connecting with forensic psychiatric examination are pointed out. Finally the question is discussed, whether there is a need of special ethical guidelines for forensic psychiatry.

  20. Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Substance Use in Adolescents with Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Prince, Mark A; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Apodaca, Timothy R; Strong, David R; Picotte, Dawn M; Monti, Peter M; MacPherson, Laura; Matsko, Stephen V; Hunt, Jeffrey I

    2015-12-01

    Substance use among adolescents with one or more psychiatric disorders is a significant public health concern. In this study, 151 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ages 13-17 with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders, were randomized to a two-session Motivational Interviewing intervention to reduce substance use plus treatment as usual (MI) vs. treatment as usual only (TAU). Results indicated that the MI group had a longer latency to first use of any substance following hospital discharge relative to TAU (36 days versus 11 days). Adolescents who received MI also reported less total use of substances and less use of marijuana during the first 6 months post-discharge, although this effect was not significant across 12 months. Finally, MI was associated with a significant reduction in rule-breaking behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Future directions are discussed, including means of extending effects beyond 6 months and dissemination of the intervention to community-based settings.

  1. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Nicotine Dependence Among Adolescents: Findings From a Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Schaffran, Christine; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the comorbidity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence in adolescence. Method A multiethnic sample (N = 1,039) of adolescents from grades 6 to 10 in the Chicago public schools (mean age 14.1 years) was interviewed at home five times, and mothers were interviewed three times over a 2-year period (2003–2005). Completion rates at each wave were 96% of the initial sample. Selected DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were ascertained from youths and mothers about youths at two annual waves with the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV-Y and IV-P; DSM-IV symptoms of nicotine dependence were ascertained from youths at every wave using a measure developed for adolescents. Results Psychiatric disorders most often preceded the onset of the first criterion of nicotine dependence. Prospective associations between psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence were examined through logistic regressions. After controlling for comorbid disorders, it was found that lifetime disruptive disorder significantly predicted the onset of a nicotine dependence criterion (adjusted odds ratio 2.1). Early onset of any psychiatric disorder increased this risk. Other predictors included novelty seeking and extensiveness of smoking. By contrast, nicotine dependence did not predict the onset of a psychiatric disorder; significant predictors included the youths' prior other psychiatric disorders, novelty seeking, and parental depression and antisocial behavior. Conclusions Nicotine dependence does not seem to contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders, whereas disruptive disorder is an important etiologic factor for nicotine dependence in adolescence. PMID:18827718

  2. Adolescents' utilisation of psychiatric care, neighbourhoods and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Ivert, Anna-Karin; Torstensson Levander, Marie; Merlo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i) to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii) to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS) database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13-18 years (N=18,417), who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6%). The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect) disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas), do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our understanding of

  3. The association of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior according to DSM-5 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kaess, Michael; Fischer, Gloria; Ameis, Nina; Schulze, Ulrike M E; Brunner, Romuald; Koelch, Michael; Plener, Paul L

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors frequently occur among adolescent psychiatric patients. Although those behaviors are distinct with regards to intent, NSSI has been shown to be an important risk-factor for suicide attempts. However, the association of NSSI and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) according to DSM-5 criteria has not yet been investigated. For investigating distinctive features and mutual risk-factors of NSSI-disorder and SBD, adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=111, aged 12-19 years; 65.8% females) were interviewed using the Self-Injurious-Thoughts-And-Behaviors-Interview-German (SITBI-G). NSSI started significantly earlier in life (M=12.5 years, SD=2.2) than first suicide attempts (M=14.1 years, SD=2.0). Patients meeting NSSI-disorder and/or SBD were significantly more likely to be female and to be diagnosed with an affective disorder. NSSI-disorder and SBD seem to have several distinctive features (i.e. age of onset or frequency), but also seem to share certain mutual risk-factors (i.e. affective disorders, female gender). While both NSSI and SBD seem to be maintained by mainly automatic negative reinforcement, positive automatic and social functions were rated significantly higher for NSSI. Most importantly, NSSI seems to be a strong risk factor for the occurrence of SBD (even when controlling for suicidal ideation) and should therefore always be assessed when dealing with psychiatric adolescent patients.

  4. [Forensic psychiatric assessment in the USSR].

    PubMed

    Friemert, K

    1988-11-01

    Basing on the author's experiences during his study stay at the Serbsky All-Union Research Institute for General and Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow a report is given about the theoretical foundations and the carrying-out of forensic-psychiatric expert-opinions in the field of penal as well as civil law in the U.S.S.R. Some peculiarities in comparison with the practice in the G.D.R. are taken in special account.

  5. Challenges in Providing Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Services in Low Resource Countries.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Ninety percent of the world's children and adolescents live in low resource countries; and nearly one-half of all mental disorders begin before age 14. The prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in low resource countries is around 20%. Fewer than 25% of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders receive treatment. Resources are insufficient, inequitably distributed, and inefficiently utilized; treatment and care are often neither evidence based nor of comprehensive or of high quality. Nationally, child and adolescent mental health policies and standardized training are virtually nonexistent. This article highlights the challenges faced and discusses measures to overcome them.

  6. Familial and neighborhood effects on psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Jan; Li, Xinjun; Ohlsson, Henrik; Råstam, Maria; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Crump, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Background More knowledge is needed on potential associations between individual-, family-, and neighborhood-level factors and psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Aims To examine associations between, individual-, family-, and neighborhood-level factors and incident internalizing (anxiety and mood) disorders and externalizing (ADHD and conduct) disorders in children and adolescents, and to estimate the relative contributions of family and neighborhood to individual variation in these disorders. Method We performed a three-level logistic regression on all 542,195 children born in Sweden in 1992 to 1996, nested in 427,954 families, which in turn were nested in 8,475 neighborhoods. The children were followed from 2000 to 2010 for incident internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders, assessed from medical records. Results 26,514 children (4.8%) were diagnosed with internalizing or externalizing psychiatric disorders. Approximately 29% of the total individual variance in internalizing disorders could be attributed to the family level, which includes both genetic and family environmental effects, and 5% to the neighborhood level. The corresponding figures for externalizing disorders were 43.5% and 5.5%, respectively. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic factors, high neighborhood deprivation was associated with increased risks of externalizing and internalizing psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR]=1.37, 95% credible interval [CI]=1.25–1.50 and OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.25–1.45, respectively), including conduct disorder (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.58–2.55), anxiety disorders (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.29–1.52), and mood disorders (OR=1.21, 95% CI, 1.09–1.35). The strongest association between neighborhood deprivation and ADHD was observed in moderately deprived neighborhoods (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.19–1.44). Conclusions These findings call for policies to promote mental health that consider potential influences from children’s family and

  7. Motor abilities of children and adolescents with a psychiatric condition: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Damme, Tine Van; Simons, Johan; Sabbe, Bernard; van West, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize research regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents who suffer from a common psychiatric condition. METHODS: In order to outline the current knowledge regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and depression, a comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ERIC databases. The databases were searched for relevant English language articles published between January 1990 and April 2014. Only studies that conducted a quantitative evaluation of motor ability and concerned individuals aged 0-18 years were included. A separate search was conducted for each disorder (ASD, ADHD, DBD, depression) in conjunction with each of the following keywords: (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement skill(s), (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement abilities, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement impairment, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement problem(s), motor function, motor coordination, motor performance, motor deficit(s). To detect supplementary relevant literature, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were examined. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 51 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In total, 28 studies were included that examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ASD. All studies indicated that they performed below average on various standardized motor assessment instruments. The overall prevalence rate for impairment in motor abilities ranged from 33% to 100%. Twenty-seven studies examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ADHD. Depending on the type of motor assessment tool and the cut-off points used by different researchers, prevalence rates of impairment in motor abilities are highly variable and ranged from 8% to 73%. Remarkably, there is a paucity of research addressing the motor abilities of individuals with DBD or depression

  8. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. PMID:23827938

  9. Diversion from custody. I: Psychiatric assessment at the magistrates' court.

    PubMed

    Joseph, P L; Potter, M

    1993-03-01

    The homeless mentally disordered defendant facing minor charges poses considerable problems regarding appropriate disposal. Psychiatric assessment may be required in order to facilitate the court's decision, but this is often available only after remand in custody. A psychiatric assessment service based at two inner-London magistrates' courts is described. Over 18 months, 201 defendants were referred. They were predominantly male, single, and of no fixed abode, suffering from serious psychiatric disorder; these defendants had often received previous in-patient treatment, frequently as detained patients. They typically were recidivists charged with minor offences. Following initial assessment, 25% were admitted to hospital, 50% were released, and 25% returned to custody. The Crown Prosecution Service discontinued 29% of cases. For those admitted directly to hospital, the mean (s.d.) time from arrest to hospital admission was 5.8 (6.8) days, significantly quicker than with prison-based assessments.

  10. Off-label prescribing of psychotropic drugs in a Danish child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Eva Skovslund; Hellfritzsch, Maja; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Rasmussen, Helle; Thomsen, Per Hove; Laursen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the level of off-label treatment with psychotropic drugs at a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic in Denmark. We performed a cross-sectional study assessing records on patients treated with medicine at two outpatient clinics at the child and adolescent psychiatric ward, on 1 day in 2014. Prescriptions of drugs from ATC group N05-N06 were classified according to label status. Six hundred and fifteen drug prescriptions distributed on nine different drugs were prescribed to 503 children eligible for this study. Overall results showed that 170 of the 615 prescriptions were off-label, which corresponds to 27.6 %. Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) drugs were prescribed 450 times (73.2 %) of which 11 prescriptions were off-label (2.4 %). Other psychotropic drugs comprised 165 (26.8 %) prescriptions and of these 159 (96.4 %) were off-label. With 106 prescriptions, melatonin was the most prescribed of these drugs; all prescriptions were off-label. The main reasons for classifying prescriptions as off-label were age and indication of treatment. This cross-sectional study reveals that medical treatment of children with other psychotropic drugs than ADHD drugs is usually off-label. ADHD drugs were, as the only drug group, primarily prescribed on-label. Although off-label prescription may be rational and even evidence based, the responsibility in case of, e.g. adverse drug reactions is a challenge, and clinical trials in children should be incited.

  11. Psychiatric diagnosis in adolescents with sickle cell disease: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Benton, Tami D; Boyd, Rhonda; Ifeagwu, Judith; Feldtmose, Emily; Smith-Whitley, Kim

    2011-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), the most common genetic hemoglobin disorder, affects more than 70,000 Americans, primarily those of African and Mediterranean descent. SCD, characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia; recurrent, episodic painful episodes; vaso-occlusive complications affecting multiple organ systems; and increased risk of infections, is associated with a shortened life span for affected individuals. However, recent medical advances have significantly increased survivability and quality of life for individuals with SCD. Despite these advances, adolescents with SCD continue to face many challenges of living with a chronic condition that requires lifelong medical management that may place them at risk of psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Studies focusing on children and adolescents with SCD suggest greater risks for psychosocial difficulties and depressive and anxiety symptoms. This article describes findings from a structured psychiatric interview administered to 40 adolescents and their parents. The rates of reported psychiatric diagnosis were significantly higher than those reported for the general population. Awareness of risks for psychiatric disorders in SCD could lead to increased identification and interventions that may improve medical and psychiatric outcomes. PMID:21312010

  12. Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Paus, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    What do we know about the maturation of the human brain during adolescence? Do structural changes in cerebral cortex reflect synaptic pruning? Are increases in white-matter volume driven by myelination? Is the adolescent brain more or less sensitive to reward? These are but a few questions we ask in this review while attempting to indicate how findings obtained in the healthy brain help in furthering our understanding of mental health during adolescence. PMID:19002191

  13. Program Learning: Dealing with Common Problems in the Residential Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms of Children and Adolescents with Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, M. L.; Santavuori, P. R.; Aberg, L. E.; Aronen, E. T.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in childhood and adolescence. The clinical picture includes diverse and complex psychiatric symptoms that are difficult to treat. Only symptomatic treatment is available. To improve symptomatic therapy, it is important to recognize the symptoms.…

  15. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  16. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  17. Challenging Times: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidal Behaviours in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Fionnuala; Mills, Carla; Daly, Irenee; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Against a background of a lack of systematic epidemiological research in Ireland in the area, this study set out to determine prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, suicidal ideation and intent, and parasuicide in a population of Irish adolescents aged 12-15 years in a defined geographical area. Method: All 12-15-year olds attending…

  18. Adolescent Attitudes toward Psychiatric Medication: The Utility of the Drug Attitude Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Lisa; Floersch, Jerry; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the effectiveness of psychotropic treatment for alleviating symptoms of psychiatric disorders, youth adherence to psychotropic medication regimens is low. Adolescent adherence rates range from 10-80% (Swanson, 2003; Cromer & Tarnowski, 1989; Lloyd et al., 1998; Brown, Borden, and Clingerman, 1985; Sleator, 1985) depending on…

  19. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  20. A Four-Year Analysis of Adolescent Self-Destructive Behavior and Psychiatric Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan J.

    Data were gathered on a statewide basis in 102 Illinois counties on both the incidence and prevalence of adolescent public psychiatric hospitalizations and the identified self-destructive behaviors: (1) completed suicides; (2) assaultive behaviors; (3) runaway behavior; (4) substance abuse; and (5) teenage births, from fiscal year 1985 through…

  1. Practicing and resisting constraint: ethnography of "counter response" in American adolescent psychiatric custody.

    PubMed

    Hejtmanek, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic research in psychiatric custody for adolescents, this article uses the creation of, implementation of, and resistance to a treatment model to reveal issues of constraint in American psychiatric treatment. The treatment model is called Counter Response. As a model Counter Response shifts the treatment focus in a total institution for mentally ill youth from the youth themselves to the staff response to the youth. This article uses Counter Response as a case study to illustrate the close ties between constraint and autonomy in psychiatry. It also shows how models like Counter Response reflect the power of unregulated treatment paradigms in American adolescent institutional psychiatric intervention. Finally, the article demonstrates that resistance to Counter Response reveals a tension American practitioners have with psychiatry's constraining power.

  2. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were…

  3. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  4. Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Christie J.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193

  5. Adolescent exposure to cannabis as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Zamberletti, Erica; Parolaro, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period for brain development and the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuronal refinement during this period. Cannabis is the most consumed drug among adolescent people and its heavy use may affect maturational refinement by disrupting the regulatory role of the endocannabinoid system. In animals, adolescent cannabinoid exposure has been reported to cause long-term impairment in specific components of learning and memory and to differentially affect emotional reactivity with milder effects on anxiety behaviour and more pronounced effects on depression-like behaviour. Moreover, adolescent exposure to cannabinoids might represent a risk factor for developing psychotic-like symptoms at adulthood. Also epidemiological studies suggest that heavy adolescent cannabis use may increase the risk of cognitive abnormalities, psychotic illness, mood disorders and other illicit substance use later in life. In conclusion, the available data point to the hypothesis that heavy cannabis use in adolescence could increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders, especially in people who already have a vulnerability to develop a psychiatric syndrome. Only few papers have investigated the neurobiological substrates of this vulnerability, thus further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

  6. Assessment of PIC and MMPI Scales in Adolescent Psychosis: A Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Allison; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated sensitivity of Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in assessing psychotic states in adolescents. Results from comparison of 29 psychotic and 58 nonpsychotic adolescent psychiatric inpatients suggest the need for a profile-analytic approach to PIC and MMPI interpretation in…

  7. Exposure to Violence, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Borderline Personality Pathology Among Adolescents in Residential Psychiatric Treatment: The Influence of Emotion Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Buckholdt, Kelly E; Weiss, Nicole H; Young, John; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to violence during adolescence is a highly prevalent phenomenon associated with a range of deleterious outcomes. Theoretical literature suggests that emotion dysregulation is one consequence of exposure to violence associated with the manifestation of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and borderline personality (BP) pathology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology in a sample of 144 adolescents (age 10- to 17-years; 51% male; 55% African American) admitted to a psychiatric residential treatment center. Exposure to violence was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, was associated with greater PTSS and BP pathology. Furthermore, emotion dysregulation mediated the associations between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology. Findings suggest the importance of assessing and treating emotion dysregulation among violence-exposed adolescents in psychiatric residential treatment.

  8. Assessing overall functioning with adolescent inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Forlenza, Nicholas; Poland, Charlotte; Ray, Sagarika; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Goyal, Ajay; Baity, Matthew R.; Siefert, Caleb J.; Sobin, Sean; Leite, David; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study looks to evaluate the validity and reliability of a brief measure of overall functioning for adolescents. Clinicians were asked to complete the Overall Functioning Scale for 72 adolescents consecutively admitted to the adolescent psychiatric inpatient service of a community safety net medical center. The results revealed that this new measure is related to the patients’ length of stay, clinician-rated measures of social cognition and object relations, Global Assessment of Functioning score at admission, and global rating of engagement in individual psychotherapy. Results also showed that the OFS was related to patients’ history of non-suicidal self-harm as well as treatment outcome as assessed by measures of psychological health and well-being and symtomatology. Hierarchical regressions reveal that the OFS shows incremental validity above the admission GAF score in predicting length of stay. The results also showed that the OFS demonstrates inter-rater reliability in the excellent range (ICC 1,2) of .88. Clinical implications of the use of this tool as well as areas of future research are discussed. PMID:25259948

  9. Cortical and subcortical volumes in adolescents with alcohol dependence but without substance or psychiatric comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Greenstein, David; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Foucheb, Jean-Paul; Ferrett, Helen; Thomas, Keven; Stein, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    Most prior studies of the effects of excessive alcohol intake on the adolescent brain examined alcohol use dependent samples with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. In the Cape Town region, we identified a sizeable cohort of adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) without externalizing or other psychiatric disorders. We examined brain morphology in 64 such adolescents compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed using FSL’s FIRST software for subcortical volumes, and cortical gray matter (GM) was analyzed using voxel based morphometry (VBM) and regions of interest (ROI) analysis. AUD boys had smaller thalamic and putamen volumes compared to non-drinking boys, while AUD girls had larger thalamic and putamen volumes compared to non-drinking girls. VBM revealed a large region of decreased GM density in AUDs compared to controls located in the left lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, extending medially deep into the parietal lobe. Smaller GM volume in this region was also present when examined using ROI analysis. Our lack of findings in other brain regions, particularly hippocampus, suggests that reports of smaller brain volumes in adolescent AUDs in the literature are a consequence of psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities. PMID:23916536

  10. Abuse, depressive symptoms, executive functioning, and overgeneral memory among a psychiatric sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized.

  11. Associations of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene VNTR Polymorphism with Drug Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    McGeary, John E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Background The VNTR polymorphism in the Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been associated with differential urge for substances across multiple methodologies ranging from neuroimaging to assessment in the natural environment. It is unclear whether the DRD4 gene is a marker for an underlying propensity for greater urge or whether the DRD4 gene differentially moderates the neuroadaptive effects of extended substance use on urge. Examination of the DRD4 in an adolescent sample may provide evidence of a mechanism of this putative relationship. Method Data from a subset of 77 participants in a larger assessment study characterized adolescents for substance-related behaviors by DRD4 genotype. The psychiatrically admitted adolescents were genotyped for the variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the DRD4 gene (L ≥ 7 [n = 25], S = < 7 [n = 52]). Associations of the DRD4 with scores on the SASSI, and ADI were examined as well as selected individual items thought to be most related to the intermediate phenotype of urge. Results The DRD4 gene was not associated with any DSM-IV substance misuse diagnostic classification. Individual items related to urge were also nonsignificantly related to DRD4 status. Carriers of the long variant of the DRD4 polymorphism were more likely to have used hard drugs within the previous 6 months and scored higher on the self-medication subscale of the ADI compared to short variant homozygotes. Discussion Preliminary results provide little evidence for the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism to be related to urge-related phenomena in hospitalized adolescents on a psychiatric inpatient unit. The association of the DRD4 gene with hard drug use may support literature linking this gene to impulsivity. Subscale findings may suggest a role of negative affect in previous DRD4 urge findings. PMID:17175015

  12. The Influence of Sex on the Course and Psychiatric Correlates of ADHD from Childhood to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of sex on the course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbid psychiatric conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sex on the course and psychiatric correlates of ADHD from childhood into adolescence. Methods: Two identically designed,…

  13. The Handbook of Psychiatric Drug Therapy for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theesen, Karen A.

    A compilation of literature and clinical wisdom, this handbook provides the reader with current information on the safety and efficacy of the psychotropic agents in the pediatric population. It lists information on the pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, dosing, and suggested monitoring guidelines for children and adolescents. The guide may also be…

  14. Straining Psychic and Social Sinew: Trauma among Adolescent Psychiatric Patients in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Janis H

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal study of 47 adolescents of diverse ethnic backgrounds hospitalized for psychiatric disorder in New Mexico, the article critically examines the relevance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to address anthropological questions of how to define the problem. Factors include the utility/limitation of psychiatric diagnostic categories, the lived experience of severe distress, the socioeconomic and political conditions of suffering, and reciprocal relations between immediate and remote social institutions. I discuss the mental health care system for adolescents and present two case studies of young inpatients, emphasizing the need for dual specification of the conditions of trauma and the structure of experience. I argue for understanding patterns of abandonment that shape the raw existence of young people at both the personal and collective levels to apprehend their depth and durability. PMID:24942649

  15. Straining Psychic and Social Sinew: Trauma among Adolescent Psychiatric Patients in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Janis H

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal study of 47 adolescents of diverse ethnic backgrounds hospitalized for psychiatric disorder in New Mexico, the article critically examines the relevance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to address anthropological questions of how to define the problem. Factors include the utility/limitation of psychiatric diagnostic categories, the lived experience of severe distress, the socioeconomic and political conditions of suffering, and reciprocal relations between immediate and remote social institutions. I discuss the mental health care system for adolescents and present two case studies of young inpatients, emphasizing the need for dual specification of the conditions of trauma and the structure of experience. I argue for understanding patterns of abandonment that shape the raw existence of young people at both the personal and collective levels to apprehend their depth and durability.

  16. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  17. Association of Family Structure to Later Criminality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Northern Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikaheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Rasanen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure…

  18. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  19. Forensic psychiatric assessment in selected Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Webster, C D; Menzies, R J; Butler, B T; Turner, R E

    1982-10-01

    Forensic psychiatrists in six Canadian municipalities completed a single-page form following each court-ordered assessment conducted during the month of July 1978. A total of 248 cases accumulated during the study period. During the following 18 months researchers collected court dispositions on the sample. With data from all six cities pooled, 85% of patients were found fit to stand trail. Almost all, 96%, were accorded a diagnosis with 39% classified as psychotic. Overall the examining psychiatrists considered 36% to be dangerous to others in the future. When psychiatrists recommended a custodial setting, in 73% of cases the person was incarcerated. Recommendations for hospitalization were observed in 59% of cases. Although the data would seem to suggest that judges take psychiatrists' recommendations into account, the investigators were nonetheless struck by the general lack of communication between clinic and court. They offer a number a number of suggestions for improvement.

  20. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Representative Study in One County in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Trine L.; Helverschou, Sissel B; Eilertsen, Dag E.; Heggelund, Trond; Myrbakk, Even; Martinsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Few studies assess psychiatric disorders in representative samples of individuals with autism and ID. Symptoms of autism and psychiatric disorders have been confounded. PAC, a conceptually analysed and validated screening instrument, was used. Aims: Assess prevalence of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability only…

  1. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  2. Self-evaluation by adolescents in a psychiatric hospital school token program.

    PubMed

    Santogrossi, D A; O'leary, K D; Romanczyk, R G; Kaufman, K F

    1973-01-01

    Nine adolescent boys with a history of high rates of disruptive classroom behavior were selected from a psychiatric hospital school and placed in a remedial reading class after school in which various factors in a token reinforcement program involving self-evaluation were investigated. The effects of self-evaluation, in the form of a rating the students gave themselves about the appropriateness of their classroom behavior, were first assessed. While the students' ratings of their own behavior correlated highly with the teacher's ratings and evaluations made by independent observers, the self-evaluations did not lead to a reduction in disruptive behavior. A token reinforcement program, in which the teacher rated the students' level of appropriate behavior and in which the students traded earned rating points for prizes, clearly led to a reduction of disruptive behavior. When the students were given the opportunity to evaluate their own behavior and to receive rewards in exchange for the evaluation, they returned to their former rates of disruptive behavior. PMID:16795409

  3. The precarious practice of forensic psychiatric risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Thomas; Munthe, Christian; Gustavson, Christina; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The development of forensic psychiatric risk assessments is discussed from a clinical point of view using the example of Sweden. A central task in forensic psychiatry has traditionally been to identify dangerous, mentally disordered subjects considered to be prone to commit violent acts. Over time, "dangerousness" has been reworded into "risk". Nevertheless, such assessments have generally been based on the psychiatric factors characterising the individual patient, while group interaction, situational factors, or social and cultural circumstances, such as the availability of alcohol and drugs, have been largely overlooked. That risk assessments have a focused on people with a diagnosis of "mental disorder" and been used as grounds for coercive measures and integrity violations has somehow been accepted as a matter of course in the public and political debate. Even the basic question whether offenders with a mental disorder are really more prone to criminal recidivism than other offenders seems to have been treated light-handedly and dealt with merely by epidemiological comparisons between groups of persons with broad ranges of psychosocial vulnerability and the general population. Legal texts, instructions and guidelines from the authorities in charge are often vague and general, while actors in the judicial system seem to put their trust in psychiatric opinions. The exchange of professional opinions, general public expectations, and judicial decision processes poses a huge risk for misunderstandings based on divergent expectations and uses of terminology.

  4. Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Scomparini, Luciana Burim; dos Santos, Bernardo; Rosenheck, Robert Alan; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of child maltreatment and the presence of psychiatric disorders in highly vulnerable children and adolescents served by a multidisciplinary program. METHODS: In total, 351 patients with a mean age of 12.47, of whom 68.7% were male and 82.1% lived in shelters, underwent psychiatric evaluations based on the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version. Two different methods were used to evaluate maltreatment: medical records were reviewed to identify previous diagnoses related to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to obtain a structured history of trauma. Bivariate associations were evaluated between psychiatric disorders and evidence of each type and the frequency of abuse. RESULTS: The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorders, affective disorders and specific disorders of early childhood, whereas 13.67% of the sample had no psychiatric diagnosis. All patients suffered neglect, and 58.4% experienced physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a history of multiple traumas was only associated with a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Mental retardation showed a strong positive association with reported physical abuse and emotional neglect. However, a negative correlation was found when we analyzed the presence of a history of multiple traumas and mental retardation. CONCLUSION: All children living in adverse conditions deserve careful assistance, but we found that physical abuse and emotional neglect were most strongly associated with mental retardation and multiple traumas with substance abuse. PMID:24037004

  5. Is exposure to domestic violence and violent crime associated with bullying behaviour among underage adolescent psychiatric inpatients?

    PubMed

    Mustanoja, Susanna; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Säävälä, Hannu; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship of exposure to domestic violence and violence occurring outside home to bullying behaviour in a sample (508; 40.9% males, 59.1% females) of underage psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Participants were interviewed using K-SADS-PL to assess DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses and to gather information about domestic and other violence and bullying behaviour. Witnessing interparental violence increased the risk of being a victim of bullying up to 2.5-fold among boys. For girls, being a victim of a violent crime was an over 10-fold risk factor for being a bully-victim. Gender differences were seen in witnessing of a violent crime; girls were more likely to be bullies than boys. Further, as regards being a victim of a violent crime outside home and physical abuse by parents at home, girls were significantly more often bully-victims than boys. When interfering and preventing bullying behaviour, it is important to screen adolescents' earlier experiences of violence.

  6. Universal parent training as a supplement to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Schneider, Wolfgang; Reichert, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Parent trainings constitute an effective method to target aspects of parenting in child and adolescent psychiatric and psychotherapeutic care. Past research has mainly been conducted in outpatient contexts, with parents of children with externalizing disorders and often included only small sample sizes. The aim of the current study was first to assess the effectiveness of a novel parent training which is characterized by a universal approach, an open group concept, and short duration, and second to identify variables that have an influence on the effectiveness. A sample of n = 151 parent-child dyads treated in an inpatient clinic was included in the study and randomly assigned to a treatment group and a waiting-list control group. As dependent measures served child behavior problems, dysfunctional parenting, parental mental health, and parental self-efficacy measured with parent-rated questionnaires prior to the training, post training and 3 months after discharge of the clinic. Additionally, a parent-child-interaction observation was conducted and rated by blind raters. Results indicated a general inpatient treatment effect on all dependent measures assessed with questionnaires. An additional effect of the parent training was only shown for parenting and parental mental health with the treatment group revealing better outcomes post training and at follow-up. No effects were found for the measures assessed by interaction observation. Out of a number of variables, only a low monthly income was associated with a higher reduction of dysfunctional parenting. Results indicate that parent training does not contribute additionally to standard inpatient care with respect to child behavior, but does have an influence on parental well-being, which might have a positive effect on the long run. PMID:26707493

  7. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders. PMID:23327502

  8. 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Sterling, Stacy; Campbell, Cynthia I; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the associations between 12-step participation and outcomes over 7 years among 419 adolescent substance use patients with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Although level of participation decreased over time for both groups, comorbid adolescents participated in 12-step groups at comparable or higher levels across time points. Results from mixed-effects logistic regression models indicated that for both groups, 12-step participation was associated with both alcohol and drug abstinence at follow-ups, increasing the likelihood of either by at least 3 times. Findings highlight the potential benefits of 12-step participation in maintaining long-term recovery for adolescents with and without psychiatric disorders.

  9. Bullying behavior in relation to psychiatric disorders and physical health among adolescents: a clinical cohort of 508 underage inpatient adolescents in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Räsänen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa

    2010-06-30

    The aim was to investigate the association of bullying behavior with psychiatric disorders and physical health in a sample of adolescent psychiatric patients, as there have to our knowledge been no previous studies using actual psychiatric diagnoses examining this relationship in boys and girls. We studied 508 Finnish adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006 from the geographically large area of Northern Finland. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to obtain psychiatric diagnoses of adolescents according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and information on bullying behavior. Logistic regression analyses showed that having an externalizing disorder increased the likelihood of being a bully or a bully-victim (i.e. a person who is both a bully and a victim of bullying) among both the boys (odds ratio, OR=14.4, P=0.001) and the girls (OR=10.0, P<0.001). In addition, having an internalizing disorder increased the likelihood of being a victim of bullying among the boys (OR=3.4, P=0.008), but not the girls. Chronic somatic diseases were also significantly associated with being bullied among the boys (OR=2.5, P=0.041). Our results suggest that adolescents who are involved in bullying behavior should be evaluated psychiatrically, as this might be an early marker of psychiatric disorders.

  10. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  11. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-10-01

    Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (<18 years) reported by the search term [aripiprazole] AND all spontaneous reports since the introduction of aripiprazole in 2003 until December 31, 2015. Nineteen case reports were included in the study and included both patients with psychotic disorders (PS group) and nonpsychotic disorders (non-PS group). The PS group consisted of 5 patients with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extreme insomnia, and suicidal behavior has been reported to health authorities. Clinicians should pay attention to these possible hazards when prescribing aripiprazole to this vulnerable group of patients. PMID:27504593

  12. Survey of psychiatric assessment rooms in UK emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jim; Palmer, Lucy; Cawdron, Rohanna

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method We aimed to estimate the proportion of UK emergency departments with a psychiatric assessment room and to determine whether such rooms met criteria for conducting high-risk assessments. Liaison psychiatry services were asked whether their hospital had such a room, whether it met the criteria and whether respondents judged it to be sufficiently safe and private. Results Of the 60 emergency departments included in the survey, 23% had a psychiatric assessment room that met all the safety criteria and was judged to be safe and private. Barriers to the establishment of an appropriate facility included it being a low priority for hospital management, a room being used for other purposes, and balancing safety requirements with the creation of a calming environment. Clinical implications Mental illness is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments. Despite national recommendations, this survey indicates that many departments lack a sufficiently safe and private assessment room, which compromises the safety and privacy of patient care. PMID:27087987

  13. Survey of psychiatric assessment rooms in UK emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Jim; Palmer, Lucy; Cawdron, Rohanna

    2016-04-01

    Aims and method We aimed to estimate the proportion of UK emergency departments with a psychiatric assessment room and to determine whether such rooms met criteria for conducting high-risk assessments. Liaison psychiatry services were asked whether their hospital had such a room, whether it met the criteria and whether respondents judged it to be sufficiently safe and private. Results Of the 60 emergency departments included in the survey, 23% had a psychiatric assessment room that met all the safety criteria and was judged to be safe and private. Barriers to the establishment of an appropriate facility included it being a low priority for hospital management, a room being used for other purposes, and balancing safety requirements with the creation of a calming environment. Clinical implications Mental illness is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments. Despite national recommendations, this survey indicates that many departments lack a sufficiently safe and private assessment room, which compromises the safety and privacy of patient care.

  14. Psychiatric Problems and Trauma Exposure in Non-detained Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. Method A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Results Delinquent adolescents were more likely than non-delinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and non-experimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Conclusions Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time. PMID:23236966

  15. Intelligence and Birth Order among Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Furnham, Adrian; Siefen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    A sample of around 2,500 adolescents in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in the region of Munster, Germany had their intelligence assessed. Family size (total number of siblings within a family) was significantly correlated with intelligence score categories (-0.08 and -0.19 for males and females). First borns and only children displayed…

  16. Bullying in adolescence: psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS).

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465

  17. Inpatient Opioid Withdrawal Management of Street Children and Adolescents Admitted to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Ward: A Preliminary Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed-Sepehr; Pishjoo, Masoud; Ghasemi, Sanaz; Hajebi, Ahmad; Noroozi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10 million children worldwide live or work on the street. International reports estimate the prevalence of substance use among street children to be between 25% - 90%, which is who were referredntal disorders and high-risk behaviors. Objectives The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of assisted withdrawal of opioid-dependent vulnerable children and adolescents who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospital, an academic hospital in Zahedan city. Methods Clinical chart abstractions were performed on a convenience sample of 40 serial opioid-dependent street children and adolescents (mean age: 11.14 ± 3.6 years) who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb treatment and research center from November 2014 to May 2015. The demographic data, drug use history, comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions, symptomatology of opioid withdrawal syndrome, pharmacotherapies and psychosocial services, length of hospital stay, and any adverse events were extracted from the patients’ files using a checklist developed by the authors. Results Twenty-four (60%) patients were male, and 16 (40%) were female. The main drug used by all patients was opioids. Heroin Kerack (which has a street name of crystal in southeast Iran) was the most common (75%) drug of use, followed by opium (10%) and opium residue (7.5%). None of the participants self-reported using injected drugs. The high rate of a lack of eligibility for guardianship was documented among parents (87.5%) mainly due to their use of illegal drugs. Musculoskeletal pain and diarrhea were the most common withdrawal symptoms of the patients upon admission. The mean length of stay was 10.8 (± 7.30) days, and no significant adverse events were reported during the symptomatic treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the safety and feasibility of inpatient

  18. [Psychiatric anamnesis, psychiatric findings and their relevance for legal questions in psychiatric assessment before the social court].

    PubMed

    Zeit, T; Wiester, W

    1995-03-01

    Psychiatric expertise in court implies specific requirements with regard to the formal aspects. On the one hand, they are determined by psychiatry as a branch of medical research and on the other by the fact that the expert testimony serves as a piece of evidence in court. Up to now psychiatrists have focused on the legal consequences of different kinds of diseases rather than on the formal aspects of expertise testimony. In this paper, we try to reconcile the specific requirements of psychiatric exploration with the requirements that have to be fulfilled in order to convince the court.

  19. [Effects of Ward Interventions on Repeated Critical Incidents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Care].

    PubMed

    Ulke, Christine; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ward Interventions on Repeated Critical Incidents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several ward interventions (transition to an open ward concept, individualized treatment plans, tiered crisis-management, staff training, quality control) on repeated critical incidents, non-restrictive and restrictive measures. The outcome variables were compared in two time periods, 2007 and 2011. The study included 74 critical incident reports of 51 child and adolescent inpatients that had at least one hospital stay and one critical incident in the selected time periods. Aggressive, self-harming, and absconding incidents were included. The quantitative results suggest that ward interventions can contribute to a reduction of repeated critical incidents and restrictive measures. The qualitative evaluation suggests a cultural change of crisis management.

  20. [Relationship between the courses of clinical Features of patients with schizophrenia in adolescents and admission to psychiatric clinic].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Isao; Miyauchi, Toshiro

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve diagnosis of schizophrenia with onset in adolescents at an early stage, we investigated in detail the clinical features of 74 patients with schizophrenia, (23 males) at adolescents psychiatric clinic. Many of the subjects had been suffering from the illness about 14 years old but had not undergone their first psychiatric examination until a few years later. A high percentage (more than 80%) of our subjects presented psychiatric symptoms such as delusional remembrance, delusional moods, delusions of persecution and hypobulia. Additionally, more than 60% of our subjects presented auditory hallucinations. In general, teenage patients with schizophrenia onset show vague symptoms such as anxiety, embarrassment and strange moods rather than obvious hallucinations. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify certain clinical features of this disorder in adolescents: many patients suffer delusional remembrance, delusional moods and delusions of persecution immediately after the onset of the illness. Gradually, problematic behaviors such as anorexia, self injury, offences against their families, voluntary vomiting, etc., develop, but patients do not always receive psychiatric examination at this stage. After socially obvious problems such as school refusal, withdrawal from social activities and lowering of school record develop over a period of time, patients may be urged to undergo psychiatric examination. Our research again underlines the difficulty of achieving diagnosis of schizophrenia at an early stage. The key to early diagnosis appears to be the accurate identification of psychiatric symptoms in the early stages of the illness at school, or at home if possible, before socially problematic behaviors arise.

  1. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cimino, Nina; Di Pietro, Elena; Pollutri, Gabriella; Neviani, Vittoria; Ferri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT), and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18) who had acute hospitalizations (n=140) in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83), from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient −2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic regression). The most frequent reasons for admission were aggressive behavior in males and suicide risk in females (P=0.002). The most frequent psychiatric diagnosis at SPDT discharge was “conduct disorder”, more frequent in males, followed by “adjustment disorder”, more frequent in females (P=0.001). In SPDT, the adolescent hospitalizations progressively increased fivefold at the end of the observation period

  2. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute. PMID:22124894

  3. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute.

  4. Development of schizotypal symptoms following psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fagel, Selene S A A; Swaab, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo M J; Van Rijn, Sophie; Pieterse, Jolijn K; Scheepers, Floor; Van Engeland, Herman

    2013-11-01

    It was examined how juvenile psychiatric disorders and adult schizotypal symptoms are associated. 731 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, with mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 4.0) were reassessed at the mean age of 27.9 years (SD = 5.7) for adult schizotypal symptoms using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema, Schizophr Bull 26(3):565-575, 2000). Differences between 13 juvenile DSM categories and normal controls (n = 80) on adult schizotypal total and factor scores were analyzed, using (M)ANCOVA. Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), deferred diagnosis, sexual and gender identity disorders and depressive disorders had higher SPQ total scores when compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). Higher levels of disorganized schizotypal symptoms were found for PDD, ADHD, and deferred diagnosis (p < 0.001). The same diagnostic groups showed higher level of negative schizotypal symptoms, which was likewise true for sexual and gender identity disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive disorders, and the category of 'Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention' (p < 0.001). No differences with normal controls were found for adult positive schizotypal symptoms (p < 0.110). The current findings are suggestive of the idea that psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence are a more general expression of a liability to schizophrenia spectrum pathology in future life. In addition, specific patterns of adult schizotypal symptomatology are associated with different types of juvenile psychiatric disorder.

  5. Association of family background with adolescent smoking and regular use of illicit substances among underage psychiatric in-patients.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent's family type was associated with regular smoking or the use of illicit substances (cannabis or hard drugs) among underage adolescent psychiatric in-patients. The sample consisted of 471 adolescents aged 12-17 years admitted to psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006 at Oulu University Hospital, Finland. The information on family factors and substance use was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime interview and the European modification of the Addiction Severity Index questionnaire. Compared to adolescent boys from two-parent families, those from child welfare placement were more likely to regularly use both cannabis (odds ratio [OR]=4.4; 95%confidence interval [CI]=1.4-13.7; P=.012) and hard drugs (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.7-42.1; P=.01).Among girls, no association was found between family type and the use of illicit substances. Two-parent or foster family units may protect adolescents from involvement with illicit substances. In clinical adolescent psychiatric practice more attention should be paid to family interventions and parental support. PMID:19062350

  6. Association of family background with adolescent smoking and regular use of illicit substances among underage psychiatric in-patients.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent's family type was associated with regular smoking or the use of illicit substances (cannabis or hard drugs) among underage adolescent psychiatric in-patients. The sample consisted of 471 adolescents aged 12-17 years admitted to psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006 at Oulu University Hospital, Finland. The information on family factors and substance use was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime interview and the European modification of the Addiction Severity Index questionnaire. Compared to adolescent boys from two-parent families, those from child welfare placement were more likely to regularly use both cannabis (odds ratio [OR]=4.4; 95%confidence interval [CI]=1.4-13.7; P=.012) and hard drugs (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.7-42.1; P=.01).Among girls, no association was found between family type and the use of illicit substances. Two-parent or foster family units may protect adolescents from involvement with illicit substances. In clinical adolescent psychiatric practice more attention should be paid to family interventions and parental support.

  7. Prelude to a School Shooting? Assessing Threatening Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbrot, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    The necessity of assessing threatening behaviors in childhood and adolescence through psychiatric diagnostic evaluation is presented. Threats are categorized according to the level of realism and clinicians need to explore and formulate the meaning of the student's threat behavior after reviewing the students' history.

  8. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  9. dcc orchestrates the development of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence and is altered in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Manitt, C; Eng, C; Pokinko, M; Ryan, R T; Torres-Berrío, A; Lopez, J P; Yogendran, S V; Daubaras, M J J; Grant, A; Schmidt, E R E; Tronche, F; Krimpenfort, P; Cooper, H M; Pasterkamp, R J; Kolb, B; Turecki, G; Wong, T P; Nestler, E J; Giros, B; Flores, C

    2013-12-17

    Adolescence is a period of heightened susceptibility to psychiatric disorders of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction and cognitive impairment. mPFC dopamine (DA) projections reach maturity only in early adulthood, when their control over cognition becomes fully functional. The mechanisms governing this protracted and unique development are unknown. Here we identify dcc as the first DA neuron gene to regulate mPFC connectivity during adolescence and dissect the mechanisms involved. Reduction or loss of dcc from DA neurons by Cre-lox recombination increased mPFC DA innervation. Underlying this was the presence of ectopic DA fibers that normally innervate non-cortical targets. Altered DA input changed the anatomy and electrophysiology of mPFC circuits, leading to enhanced cognitive flexibility. All phenotypes only emerged in adulthood. Using viral Cre, we demonstrated that dcc organizes mPFC wiring specifically during adolescence. Variations in DCC may determine differential predisposition to mPFC disorders in humans. Indeed, DCC expression is elevated in brains of antidepressant-free subjects who committed suicide.

  10. A Qualitative Analysis Exploring Explanatory Models of Aggression and Violence in a Small Cohort of Rural Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents, Their Parents, and Selected Hospital Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the etiology and cultural underpinnings of adolescent violence as collective case study analysis of three inter-related groups: psychiatrically hospitalized rural adolescents, their parent/guardian, and various hospital staff. Violence among adolescents is a serious societal issue that has had varying…

  11. Impact of war, religiosity and ideology on PTSD and psychiatric disorders in adolescents from Gaza Strip and South Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which differences in the types of war trauma, economic pressure, religiosity and ideology accounted for variation in PTSD and psychiatric disorders among adolescents from Gaza Strip and South Lebanon. Participants were 600 adolescents aged 12-16 years. They were selected from the public school system in the highly war exposed areas. Questionnaires were administered in an interview format with adolescents at school by two trained psychologists. Results indicated that the various types of trauma had differential effects on the psychological status of adolescents in both countries. Economic pressure was more predictive of PTSD and psychological distress in adolescents from Gaza. Differences in religiosity and ideology did not account for similar variation in stress response among adolescents from Gaza and South Lebanon. While higher levels of religiosity evidenced the greatest levels of depression and anxiety in adolescents from Gaza, religiosity had an attenuated effect on adolescents from South Lebanon. Ideology was negatively associated with depression and anxiety in Gaza strip adolescents, whereas it did not play a role for adolescents from South Lebanon. The clinical and research implications of these conclusions are discussed.

  12. Validation of the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25) in adolescent psychiatric inpatient samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Peter M; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wong, Jane L; Osman, Augustine; Norizuki, Tamami

    2012-01-01

    Resilience has been associated with a markedly decreased chance for risky behaviors following a trauma or other negative life event. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of a self-report measure of resilience, the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25; Osman et al., 2004 ), among psychiatric inpatient adolescents. In Study 1, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis to provide additional empirical support for the structure and invariance of the 3-factor model of the SRI-25 in youth samples, ages 14 to 17 years (N = 152 boys, 220 girls). Scale reliability analyses provided good evidence for internal consistency reliability of scores on the SRI-25 total and scales. In Study 2 (N = 30 boys, 40 girls), we presented data in support for the concurrent validity (i.e., known groups) of scores on the SRI-25. Additionally, we identified potential correlates for the SRI-25 total scale scores. PMID:22176266

  13. Assessment of Wakefulness and Brain Arousal Regulation in Psychiatric Research.

    PubMed

    Sander, Christian; Hensch, Tilman; Wittekind, Dirk Alexander; Böttger, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, much knowledge has been gained about sleep being a heterogeneous condition with several distinct sleep stages that represent fundamentally different physiological states. The same applies for the wake state which also comprises distinct global functional states (called vigilance stages). However, various terms and concepts have been introduced describing different aspects of wakefulness, and accordingly several methods of assessment exist, e.g. sleep laboratory assessments (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test), questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), behavioural tasks (Psychomotor Vigilance Test) or electroencephalography (EEG)-based assessments (Alpha Attenuation Test, Karolinska Drowsiness Test). Furthermore, several theoretical concepts about the regulation of sleep and wakefulness have been put forward, and physiological correlates have been identified. Most relevant for healthy functioning is the regulation of brain arousal and the adaption of wakefulness to the environmental and situational needs so that the optimal balance between energy conservation and responsiveness can be obtained. Since one approach to the assessment of brain arousal regulation is the classification of EEG vigilance stages, a computer-based algorithm (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig) has been introduced, allowing classification of EEG vigilance stages in EEG recordings under resting conditions. The time course of EEG vigilance stages in EEGs of 15-20 min duration allows estimation of the individual arousal regulation (hyperstable, adaptive, or unstable vigilance pattern). The vigilance model of affective disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder links a disturbed arousal regulation to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and accordingly helps to explain and possibly also predict treatment effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions. PMID:26901462

  14. Borderline personality disorder associates with violent criminality in women: A population based follow-up study of adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Arola, Riikka; Antila, Henna; Riipinen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Kantojärvi, Liisa

    2016-09-01

    Various psychiatric problems in adolescence and early adulthood have been shown to associate with criminal behaviour. In this study the association of personality disorders (PDs) with criminal behaviour was examined in adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 13-17) admitted to acute psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Crime data was obtained from the Finnish Legal Register Centre on September 2013. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence. The information on PDs in early adulthood was based on follow-up information on psychiatric treatments in either out- or inpatient settings until the end of 2012, and was extracted from the National Care Register for Health Care provided by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. A total of 22 (39%) of the 57 subjects with PD had committed a crime. In women, the likelihood for violent criminality was significantly increased in those with Borderline PD (OR 6.09, CI 1.24-29.84, p=0.009) and was also associated with conduct disorder (OR 4.26, CI 1.38-13.19, p=0.012), child welfare placement (OR 11.82, CI 3.61-38.76, p<0.001) and parent's substance use disorder (OR 7.74, CI 2.30-26.10, p=0.001). In men, no association was observed between PD and any kind of criminal behaviour. Significant predictors for violent criminality in males were conduct disorder (OR 4.05, CI 1.75-9.38, p=0.001), substance use disorder (OR 2.51, CI 1.22-5.17, p=0.012) and special services at school (OR 2.58, CI 1.16-5.76, p=0.021). Females with Borderline PD showed an increased risk for violent offending. This suggests Borderline PD as a potential explanatory factor for violent assaults by females and highlights the importance of recognizing the risk for violence in young women with a Borderline PD.

  15. Borderline personality disorder associates with violent criminality in women: A population based follow-up study of adolescent psychiatric inpatients in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Arola, Riikka; Antila, Henna; Riipinen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Kantojärvi, Liisa

    2016-09-01

    Various psychiatric problems in adolescence and early adulthood have been shown to associate with criminal behaviour. In this study the association of personality disorders (PDs) with criminal behaviour was examined in adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 13-17) admitted to acute psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Crime data was obtained from the Finnish Legal Register Centre on September 2013. The Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) was used to assess psychiatric diagnoses in adolescence. The information on PDs in early adulthood was based on follow-up information on psychiatric treatments in either out- or inpatient settings until the end of 2012, and was extracted from the National Care Register for Health Care provided by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. A total of 22 (39%) of the 57 subjects with PD had committed a crime. In women, the likelihood for violent criminality was significantly increased in those with Borderline PD (OR 6.09, CI 1.24-29.84, p=0.009) and was also associated with conduct disorder (OR 4.26, CI 1.38-13.19, p=0.012), child welfare placement (OR 11.82, CI 3.61-38.76, p<0.001) and parent's substance use disorder (OR 7.74, CI 2.30-26.10, p=0.001). In men, no association was observed between PD and any kind of criminal behaviour. Significant predictors for violent criminality in males were conduct disorder (OR 4.05, CI 1.75-9.38, p=0.001), substance use disorder (OR 2.51, CI 1.22-5.17, p=0.012) and special services at school (OR 2.58, CI 1.16-5.76, p=0.021). Females with Borderline PD showed an increased risk for violent offending. This suggests Borderline PD as a potential explanatory factor for violent assaults by females and highlights the importance of recognizing the risk for violence in young women with a Borderline PD. PMID:27399875

  16. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  18. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made.

  19. Psychiatric Issues in Palliative Care: Assessing Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Itoro; Mohammed, Zeid; Gash, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Issues surrounding capacity to consent to or refuse treatment are increasingly receiving clinical and legal attention. Through the use of 3 case vignettes that involve different aspects of mental health care in palliative care settings, mental capacity issues are discussed. The vignettes tackle capacity in a patient with newly developed mental illness consequent to physical illness, capacity in a patient with mental illness but without delirium and capacity in a patient with known impairment of the mind. These discussions give credence to best practice position where physicians act in the best interests of their patients at all times. It is important to emphasize that capacity decisions have to be made on a case by case basis, within the remit of legal protection. This is a fundamental requirement of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, England & Wales (MCA). The later is used as the legal basis for these discussions. The psychiatric liaison service is a useful resource to provide consultation, advice and or joint assessment to clinicians encountering complex dilemmas involving decision-making capacity. PMID:25278761

  20. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegel, Gina M.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Shapiro, Shauna L.; Schubert, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that mindfulness-based treatment interventions may be effective for a range of mental and physical health disorders in adult populations, but little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions for treating adolescent conditions. The present randomized clinical trial was designed to assess the effect of the…

  1. Psychiatric evidence in extenuation: assessment and testimony in homicide defendants.

    PubMed

    Zabow, T

    1989-01-01

    The role of psychiatric evaluation and testimony on 202 cases demonstrates the participation of mental health experts in the legal process. The majority of these cases fall outside the mental abnormal groupings of 'incompetent to stand trial' or 'criminal insane'. A finding of diminished responsibility on account of mental illness provides for a finding of extenuating circumstances on account of mental illness. The numerous factors and categories influencing the defendant's behaviour are specific to each, requiring presentation for the court's discretion as to significance of psychiatric factors in extenuation of sentence. The population studies as representative of psychiatric extenuation are a personal consecutive sample of court referrals for formal evaluation undertaken in a psychiatric hospital unit. Reasons for referral all include possible psychiatric disorder. One third of referrals were accused of killing a family member. Alcohol and drugs were contributory to the behaviour in 50 per cent of cases. The contributions of witchcraft and history of head injury to the sample are evident in subgroupings. The value of psychiatric contribution to the courts is discussed in relation to South African legal process and clinical experiences.

  2. Adolescent substance-use assessment: methodological issues in the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD).

    PubMed

    Chinet, Léonie; Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Holzer, Laurent; Halfon, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    During the past twenty years, various instruments have been developed for the assessment of substance use in adolescents, mainly in the United States. However, few of them have been adapted to, and validated in, French-speaking populations. Consequently, although increasing alcohol and drug use among teenagers has become a major concern, the various health and social programs developed in response to this specific problem have received little attention with regard to follow-up and outcome assessment. A standardized multidimensional assessment instrument adapted for adolescents is needed to assess the individual needs of adolescents and assign them to the most appropriate treatment setting, to provide a single measurement within and across health and social systems, and to conduct treatment outcome evaluations. Moreover, having an available instrument makes it possible to develop longitudinal and transcultural research studies. For this reason, a French version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) was developed and validated at the University Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. This article aims to discuss the methodological issues that we faced when using the ADAD instrument in a 4-year longitudinal study including adolescent substance users. Methodological aspects relating to the content and format of the instrument, the assessment administration and the statistical analyses are discussed.

  3. Determinants of mental illness stigma for adolescents discharged from psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tally

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the factors that increase the risk for enacted mental illness stigma (i.e. rejection, devaluation and exclusion) as perceived by the stigmatized person. This is particularly true for the population of adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness. The aim of this study was to address this question and examine select social and clinical factors that predict enacted stigma (self-reported) with research that follows eighty American adolescents for 6 months following a first psychiatric hospitalization. Drawing on social identity theory, and research on stigma-threatening environments, social group identification and social support, this study tested four hypotheses: affiliation or identification with higher status and lower status peers predicts more and less stigma respectively (H1); a greater and more supportive social network, and more perceived family support predict less stigma (H2); greater severity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicts more stigma (H3); and poorer school functioning predicts more stigma (H4). Results indicated that about 70% of adolescents reported experiencing enacted stigma (at 6 months); disrespect or devaluation was more common than outright social rejection. Using OLS regression analyses, the results provided partial support for H1, H3 and H4, while H2 was not supported. The baseline factors found to be most predictive of enacted stigma ratings at 6-months were: affiliating with more friends with mental health problems, identifying with the 'populars' peer group, higher internalizing symptom ratings, and self-reported disciplinary problems at school. These four factors remained significant when controlling for initial enacted stigma ratings, pointing to their importance in determining changes in social stigma experiences in the follow-up period. They also remained significant when controlling for perceived public stigma ratings at follow-up, indicating that the findings were not due to generalized

  4. [Assessing adolescents with school massacre threats].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Sailas, Eila; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    School massacres have increased pressure on health-care authorities for assessing risk for severe violence. In acute situations, threat analysis focuses at thought processes and actions of adolescents presenting threat of violence, in order to assess to which extent the adolescent has progressed from thoughts to actions. Because of great variability in aggressive behavior, separate interventions for individual, family and other developmental surroundings are often needed. Structured risk-assessment in special health care is aimed for conducting decision making towards risk reduction and adequate help for adolescents at risk. PMID:24069639

  5. Cognitive and Social Factors Associated with NSSI and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer; Frazier, Elisabeth A.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Burke, Taylor; Sloan, Emma; Spirito, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) frequently co-occur among youth, there is increasing evidence that both the risk factors and the phenomenology of the behaviors are distinct. This study examined how individuals who engage in NSSI only, individuals who attempt suicide only, and those who have histories of both NSSI and at least one suicide attempt may differ in terms of cognitions and perceived social support. Participants were 185 adolescents (78.1% female) between the ages of 13 and 18 recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility in the northeastern United States. One hundred forty-eight teens were identified with a history of self-injurious behavior and divided into three groups: NSSI only (n=45), SA only (n=24) or both NSSI and SA (NSSI+SA; n=79). Analyses showed that the NSSI+SA group exhibited more cognitive errors, negative self-statements, and negative views of self, world, and future, as well as less perceived familial support than either the NSSI or SA only groups. There were no differences between groups on perceived support from teachers or peers. No significant demographic or diagnostic differences were found between the NSSI and SA groups. Limitations and clinical implications of the current research are discussed. PMID:23588400

  6. Psychiatric impairment among adolescents engaging in different types of deliberate self-harm.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Colleen M; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Miller, Alec L; Turner, J Blake

    2008-04-01

    This retrospective chart review study of 227 participants examined the psychiatric profiles of outpatient adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (M = 15.08 years, SD = 1.72 years) engaging in different types of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behaviors. Participants were divided into four groups: no deliberate self-harm (NoDSH; n = 119), nonsuicidal self-injury only (NSSI only; n = 30), suicide attempt only (n = 38), and suicide attempt plus NSSI (n = 40). Those who attempted suicide were more likely to have major depressive disorder and/or posttraumatic stress disorder than those who engaged in NSSI only. Those who engaged in any type of DSH were more likely to have features of borderline personality disorder than those who did not engage in DSH. The suicidal ideation levels of those in the NSSI group were similar to those in the NoDSH group. Findings offer empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm behaviors. PMID:18470773

  7. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation.

    PubMed

    Louwerse, A; Eussen, M L J M; Van der Ende, J; de Nijs, P F A; Van Gool, A R; Dekker, L P; Verheij, C; Verheij, F; Verhulst, F C; Greaves-Lord, K

    2015-12-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were administered in childhood (ages 6-12) and in adolescence (ages 12-20) to 72 individuals with a pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). ADOS calibrated severity scores showed a large stability (r = .51). Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence were not associated with ASD severity in adolescence. Mental health care use (87 %) and special education needs were high (71 %). Reevaluation of ASD severity and psychiatric comorbidity later in life seem useful when PDD-NOS is diagnosed in childhood. PMID:26395112

  8. Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Context Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be highly co-occurring, most research examines their associations with mental disorders one at a time. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests, though, that the associations of multiple CAs with mental disorders are non-additive, arguing for the importance of multivariate analysis of multiple CAs. No attempt has yet been made to carry out a similar kind of analysis among children or adolescents. Objective To examine the multivariate associations of 12 CAs with first onset of mental disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Design US national survey of adolescents (ages 13–17) assessing DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and CAs. The CAs include parental loss (death, divorce, other separations), maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, neglect), parental maladjustment (psychopathology, substance abuse, criminality, violence) and economic adversity. Setting Dual-frame household-school samples. Participants 6,483 adolescents-parent pairs. Main outcome measure Lifetime DSM-IV disorders assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results 58.3% of adolescents reported at least one CA, among whom 59.7% reported multiple CAs. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF) were more strongly associated than other CAs with disorder onsets. The best-fitting model included terms for type and number of CAs and distinguished between MFF and Other CAs. CAs predicted behavior disorders most strongly and fear disorders least strongly. The joint associations of multiple CAs were sub-additive. The population-attributable risk proportions for disorder classes ranged from 15.7% for fear disorders to 40.7% for behavior disorders. CAs were associated with 28.2% of all onsets. Conclusions CAs are common, highly co-occurring, and strongly associated with onset of mental disorders among US adolescents. The sub-additive multivariate associations of CAs with

  9. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  10. Trends, victims, and injuries in injurious patient assaults on adult, geriatric, and child/adolescent psychiatric units in US hospitals, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Staggs, Vincent S

    2015-04-01

    While rates of other nurse-sensitive adverse outcomes have declined in recent years, little is known about trends in rates of assault by psychiatric inpatients. The primary purpose of this study was to examine recent trends in injurious assault rates against patients and staff on adult, geriatric, and child/adolescent psychiatric units, using data from a nationwide sample of hospitals. A secondary aim was to assess the frequency with which patients and various types of hospital staff were reported as the most severely injured victim. National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® data from 2007 to 2013 were extracted. The sample comprised 345 hospitals (324 general, 5 pediatric, 16 psychiatric), 438 adult, 75 geriatric, and 105 child/adolescent units, each with assault rate data from at least three of the seven study years. All but four states in the United States were represented. Spearman's rank coefficients were used to test for time trends. In 16.3 million patient days, nearly three-quarters of the 14,877 injurious assaults by patients involved injury only to hospital staff, whereas one-fifth resulted in injury only to patients. A registered nurse was named most frequently as the most severely injured victim (32.1% of assaults), and nursing staff of all types accounted for 64.9% of the most severely injured. Assault rates did not change significantly over time. Unlike several other nursing-sensitive adverse outcomes that have been the focus of policymakers, assault rates have not declined in recent years and remain a problem in need of more focused attention.

  11. Association of socioeconomic status with psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ghoreshi, Behnaz; Djalalinia, Shirin; Tabatabaie, Omid Reza; Safiri, Saeid; Noroozi, Mehdi; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Ahadi, Zeinab; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, based on nationwide surveillance programme data, 2011–2012. Methods Overall, 14 880 students, aged 6–18 years, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces in Iran. SES was estimated based on a main summarised component, extracted from principle component analysis of family assets and parents' jobs and education. For statistical analysis, SES was classified as ‘low’, ‘middle’ and ‘high’. The WHO-Global School Based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS) questionnaire was used to assess psychiatric problems and violent behaviours. Results In total, 13 486 students (participation rate 90.6%) completed the study: 50.8% were boys and 75.6% were urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47±3.36 years. In the multivariate model, the ORs of depression, anxiety, feeling worthless, anger, insomnia, confusion and physical fights were lower in students with high SES compared with those with low SES (p<0.05) but physical fights was lower in the high SES group than in the low SES group (p<0.05). No significant relationship was documented between SES and other variables, including getting worried, history of bullying and being victimised. Conclusions Children and adolescents with low SES were at higher risk for psychiatric problems and violent behaviours. Mental health policies and public interventional strategies should be considered at the public level, notably for low SES families. PMID:27531729

  12. Which measure of adolescent psychiatric disorder—diagnosis, number of symptoms, or adaptive functioning—best predicts adverse young adult outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Vander, S; Weiss, N; McKnight, B; Beresford, S; Cohen, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To test the ability of psychiatric diagnosis, symptom count, and adaptive functioning in adolescence to predict failure to complete secondary school and criminal involvement in young adulthood. Design: Community-based cohort study. Setting: Two counties in upstate New York, USA Participants: 181 adolescents interviewed in 1983 and 1985–86 who were randomly selected in 1975 from a probability area sampling of representative families with 1–10 year old children Main results: Compared with adolescents without psychiatric disorders, adolescents with depressive, anxiety, disruptive, and substance abuse disorders were 2.86–9.21 times more likely to fail to complete secondary school. Compared with adolescents without disruptive disorders, adolescents with disruptive disorders were 4.04 (1.96–8.32) times more likely to get in trouble with police during young adulthood. The positive predictive value of each measure of adolescent psychiatric disorder for school non-completion was higher in the lowest SES stratum and for young adult criminal involvement was higher for boys. Combining knowledge of symptom counts, age, gender, and social class in a logistic regression model yielded 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity for predicting future school non-completion at the p ≥ 0.13 cut off. The optimal cut off value in a model incorporating knowledge of disruptive symptoms and demographic characteristics yielded 75% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting future criminal involvement. Conclusions: Screening children and adolescents for psychiatric disorders can identify those at high risk of adverse young adult outcomes. Future school and community adjustment can be predicted as easily and accurately on the basis of a simple count of psychiatric symptoms as by applying more complex diagnostic algorithms. Screening youth for psychiatric symptoms in neighbourhood, school, or primary care settings is a logical first step for early intervention to promote

  13. Adolescents and Adults with Autism with and without Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders: Differences in Maternal Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Kring, Sheilah R.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between the characteristics of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and maternal well-being. Two groups were compared: mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (n = 142) and mothers whose sons or daughters had a single diagnosis of ASD (n = 130). Individuals with co-morbid psychiatric disorders had higher levels of repetitive behaviors, asocial behavior, and unpredictability of behavior than their counterparts with ASD only. They also had poorer rated health as well as more frequent gastrointestinal problems and sleep problems. Mothers of sons and daughters with ASD and co-morbid psychiatric disorders reported higher levels of burden and a poorer quality parent-child relationship than mothers of sons and daughters with ASD only. Higher levels of asocial behavior, unpredictability of behavior, and poorer health in sons and daughters with ASD were predictive of greater burden in mothers and a poorer quality parent-child relationship. PMID:20556237

  14. Psychiatric workforce needs and recommendations for the community mental health system: A state needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Berry, Frank W.; Citron, Tod; Fitzgerald, Judy; Rapaport, Mark; Stephens, Bryan; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other states, Georgia is facing workforce challenges within its community mental health system. Georgia's Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities commissioned a needs assessment to examine the shortage of prescribing providers in the state's public mental health system. A unique partnership of key stakeholders developed and conducted the needs assessment. We examined the extent and impact of psychiatric workforce shortages, and opportunities for optimizing the psychiatric workforce and training the next generation of community psychiatrists. This column describes the partnership guiding this needs assessment process and summarizes the results and recommendations. PMID:25642608

  15. Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1994-01-01

    Satanism is a destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification to its practitioners. Unfortunately, some adolescents are seduced by these promises, often because they feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. This article explores the psychosocial needs of adolescents that are often met by participation in Satanic worship. Gratification of these needs, when met, may make leaving the cult a difficult and lengthy process. Included is a method for determining the adolescents' level of involvement and an assessment strategy for the therapeutic evaluation process. A brief overview of clinical intervention is also discussed.

  16. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview.

  17. The Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire: the assessment of perceptions of parental abdication of caregiving behavior.

    PubMed

    West, M; Rose, S; Spreng, S; Adam, K

    2000-12-01

    This article reports on the Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire (AUAQ), a brief questionnaire that assesses the caregiving experiences of unresolved adolescents (as recipients of caregiving). The AUAQ was developed and validated in a large normative sample (n = 691) and a sample of 133 adolescents in psychiatric treatment. It is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 3 scales with Likert-type responses ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Aloneness/Failed Protection Scale assesses the adolescent's perception of the care provided by the attachment figure. The Fear Scale taps the fear generated by the adolescent's appraisal of failed attachment figure care. The Anger/Dysregulation Scale assesses negative affective responses to the perceived lack of care from the attachment figure. All scales demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability and agreement between scores for adolescents (n = 91) from the normative sample who completed the AUAQ twice. Adolescents in the clinical sample also completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1984/1985/1996); the AUAQ demonstrated high convergent validity with the AAI. PMID:11117104

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  19. Psychiatric assessment of aggressive patients: a violent attack on a resident.

    PubMed

    Antonius, Daniel; Fuchs, Lara; Herbert, Farah; Kwon, Joe; Fried, Joanna L; Burton, Paul R S; Straka, Tara; Levin, Ze'ev; Caligor, Eve; Malaspina, Dolores

    2010-03-01

    Aggressive patients often target psychiatrists and psychiatric residents, yet most clinicians are insufficiently trained in violence risk assessment and management. Consequently, many clinicians are reluctant to diagnose and treat aggressive and assaultive features in psychiatric patients and instead focus attention on other axis I mental disorders with proven pharmacological treatment in the hope that this approach will reduce the aggressive behavior. Unclear or nonexistent reporting policies or feelings of self-blame may impede clinicians from reporting assaults, thus limiting our knowledge of the impact of, and best response to, aggression in psychiatric patients. The authors pre-sent the case of a young adult inpatient with a long history of antisocial and assaultive behavior who struck and injured a psychiatric resident. With this case in mind, the authors discuss the diagnostic complexities related to violent patients, the importance of assessing violence risk when initially evaluating a patient, and the relevance of risk assessment for treatment considerations and future management. This report illustrates common deficiencies in the prevention of violence on inpatient psychiatric units and in the reporting and response to an assault, and has implications for residency and clinician training.

  20. Attenuated psychotic and basic symptom characteristics in adolescents with ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis, other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Nella; Saba, Riccardo; Hauser, Marta; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Borenstein, Yehonatan; Sheridan, Eva M; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Girardi, Paolo; Gebhardt, Eva; Kane, John M; Auther, Andrea; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Correll, Christoph U

    2016-10-01

    While attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and basic symptoms (BS) are the main current predictors of psychosis in adults, studies in adolescents are scarce. Thus, we (1) described the prevalence and severity of positive, negative, disorganization, general, and basic symptoms in adolescent patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), with other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (PC) and with early-onset psychosis (EOP); and (2) investigated BS criteria in relation to UHR criteria. Sixty-nine 12-18-year-old adolescents (15.3 ± 1.7 years, female = 58.0 %, UHR = 22, PC = 27, EOP = 20) were assessed with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes (SIPS) and the schizophrenia proneness instrument-child and youth version (SPI-CY). Despite similar current and past 12-month global functioning, both UHR and EOP had significantly higher SIPS total and subscale scores compared to PC, with moderate-large effect sizes. Expectedly, UHR had significantly lower SIPS positive symptom scores than EOP, but similar SIPS negative, disorganized, and general symptom scores. Compared to PC, both EOP and UHR had more severe basic thought and perception disturbances, and significantly more often met cognitive disturbances criteria (EOP = 50.0 %, UHR = 40.9 %, PC = 14.8 %). Compared to UHR, both EOP and PC significantly less often met cognitive-perceptive BS criteria (EOP = 35.0 %, UHR = 68.2 %, PC = 25.9 %). BS were significantly more prevalent in both EOP and UHR than PC, and UHR were similar to EOP in symptom domains. Given the uncertain outcome of adolescents at clinical high-risk of psychosis, future research is needed to determine whether the combined assessment of early subjective disturbances with observable APS can improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction.

  1. Reliability and Validity of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc; Norris, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" (P-ChIPS) is a structured psychiatric interview designed to assess the presence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the reliability and validity of the P-ChIPS in 61 youngsters (6- to 17-years-old) with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Reliability…

  2. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE (ABILIFY) IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC 1 IN ROSKILDE, DENMARK.

    PubMed

    Diomšina, Beata; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Danilevičiütė, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to share the clinical experience of the treatment of aripiprazole (Abilify) in children and adolescents. The authors have done a cross-sectional study about Abilify's treatment in children and adolescents with severe conduct problems (high impulsivity, aggression, outward reaction, physical cross-border behavior), high restlessness with ADHD, psychotic and psychosis-like symptoms with autistic disorders, psychosis, and intensive tics with Tourette's syndrome. The authors studied and described patients at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic 1 in Roskilde, Denmark, who were treated with Abilify and were patients of the clinic in June 2013. The target group consisted of 33 patients, aged 9-18 years, which were in Abilify treatment during this time. Indications for the treatment and effectiveness of Abilify, Abilify's common doses used in children and adolescents, and the most common adverse effects of Abilify are presented. Abilify was found to be effective, well tolerated and safe for children and adolescents. The dose depends on the complexity of diagnosis (higher doses used in cases of complex diagnosis), on the age (higher doses used in older children, but only in the case of noncomplex diagnoses). Statistical analysis shows that in cases of complex diagnoses, dosage does not depend on age but depends on other factors. It also shows that the effect of treatment is better for those who did not gain weight.

  3. The Persistence and Stability of Psychiatric Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric problems are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the reasons are poorly understood. We use a longitudinal population-representative cohort to examine for the first time the persistence of psychiatric problems and to identify risk factors for their occurrence and stability. Methods: Eighty-one 16-year olds (75…

  4. The application of computer assisted technologies (CAT) in the rehabilitation of cognitive functions in psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita

    2016-01-01

    First applications of computer-assisted technologies (CAT) in the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, including child and adolescent psychiatric disorders date back to the 80's last century. Recent developments in computer technologies, wide access to the Internet and vast expansion of electronic devices resulted in dynamic increase in therapeutic software as well as supporting devices. The aim of computer assisted technologies is the improvement in the comfort and quality of life as well as the rehabilitation of impaired functions. The goal of the article is the presentation of most common computer-assisted technologies used in the therapy of children and adolescents with cognitive deficits as well as the literature review of their effectiveness including the challenges and limitations in regard to the implementation of such interventions. PMID:27556116

  5. Assessing Residential Segregation among Medicaid Recipients with Psychiatric Disability in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Caplan, Joel M.; Klugman, Dutch; Hadley, Trevor R.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of residential segregation among 15,246 people diagnosed with psychiatric disabilities and receiving Medicaid (MA) in Philadelphia, and an identically sized group of MA recipients serving as matched controls. Results indicate that overall levels of residential segregation among this group were modest at their most…

  6. The Use of Concept Mapping for Assessing Fidelity of Model Transfer: An Example from Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shern, David L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Concept mapping was used to assess the fidelity of an experimental program model for psychiatrically disabled street dwellers. Concept maps portrayed the program as conceptualized by its Boston University developers and program staff. Quantitative and descriptive analyses of the maps indicated good fidelity of model transfer. (SLD)

  7. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  8. [Maladaptative parenting and the association between parental and offspring psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Smailes, Elizabeth; Brook, Judith S

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the role of maladaptive parental behavior and the association between parent and offspring psychiatric disorders. Psychosocial and psychiatric interviews were carried out in a representative community sample of 593 biological parents and their offspring from two counties in the state of New York in 1975, 1983, 1985-86, and 1991-93. In 1975, the mean age of offspring was 6 years. Maladaptive parental behavior was assessed in 1975, 1983, and 1985-86. Parent and offspring psychiatric symptoms were assessed in 1983, 1985-86, and 1991-93. Maladaptive parental behavior substantially mediated a significant association between parental and offspring psychiatric symptoms. Parents with psychiatric disorders had higher levels of maladaptive behavior in the household than did parents without psychiatric disorders. Maladaptive parental behavior, in turn, was associated with increased offspring risk for psychiatric disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Most of the youths that experienced high levels of maladaptive parental behavior during childhood had psychiatric disorders during adolescence or early adulthood, independent of whether or not their parents had psychiatric disorders. In contrast, the offspring of parents with psychiatric disorders were not at increased risk for psychiatric disorders unless there was a history of maladaptive parental behavior. Maladaptive parental behavior is associated with increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders among the offspring of parents with and without psychiatric disorders. Maladaptive parental behavior appears to be an important mediator of the association between parental and offspring psychiatric symptoms. PMID:12407497

  9. The influences of chronic illness and ego development on self-esteem in diabetic and psychiatric adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A M; Hauser, S T; Powers, S; Noam, G

    1984-12-01

    Self-esteem as measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory [Coopersmith, S. (1967),The Antecedents of Self-Esteem, Freeman, San Francisco] and ego development as measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test [Loevinger, J., and Wessler, R. (1970),Measuring Ego Development, Vol. I, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco] were evaluated in three groups of early adolescents: diabetic patients, nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, and a nonpatient group of high-school students. We found that low levels of ego development were associated with low levels of global and domain-specific self-esteem in all three subject groups. Levels of self-esteem among diabetic patients were not significantly different from those of nonpatients. While psychiatric patients had significantly lower self-esteem levels than the other groups, this difference was accounted for by preconformists, i.e., those at the lowest stages of ego development. Psychiatric patients reaching higher ego levels showed self-esteem levels indistinguishable from those of the diabetics and nonpatients.

  10. Clinical Assessment of the Violent Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.

    School psychologists may be asked to assess potentially violent adolescents. Research on predicting violence has demonstrated that: (1) most studies show poor predictive ability; (2) clinicians tend to overpredict violence; (3) prediction is difficult because the base rate is low; and (4) the best single predictor is past violent behavior. New…

  11. Brief Report: Understanding Crisis Behaviors in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder--Iceberg Assessment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Kate H.; Barnes, Julia C.; Young, Nicholas D.; Gabriels, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for emotional dysregulation and behavior problems that can escalate to levels requiring psychiatric hospitalization. Evaluating the etiology of such behaviors can be challenging for health care providers, as individuals with ASD can have difficulty self-reporting concerns.…

  12. Assessing psychiatric rehabilitation service (PRS) outcomes in Israel: conceptual, professional and social issues.

    PubMed

    Roe, David; Gross, Raz; Kravetz, Shlomo; Baloush-Kleinman, Vered; Rudnick, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Since the implementation of the legislation in Israel concerning rehabilitation of people with psychiatric disabilities in the community in 2001, an increasing number of individuals, currently estimated at nearly 15,000, have been receiving the psychiatric rehabilitation "basket of services." A systematic investigation of the extent to which these services have had a positive impact on the intended outcome is required, to evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed psychiatric rehabilitation basket of services. This evaluation has become a priority item on the mental health agenda in Israel. This opinion paper, based on a conceptual analysis and selective review of the relevant literature, discusses concepts and principles that seem important for the development of strategies to constructively assess the outcome of psychiatric rehabilitation services (PRS) in Israel. More specifically, several fundamental issues related to outcome monitoring are reviewed, such as what outcome domains should be assessed, who should conduct the assessments and from whom should data be collected and with whom and how should it be shared. The complexity of these issues are reviewed and possible strategies to deal with them are discussed. PMID:19827693

  13. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  14. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  15. Impact of psychotic symptoms on cognitive functioning in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients with severe mood disorders.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James B; Weiss, Shira R; Segovich, Kristin T; Barbot, Baptiste

    2016-10-30

    Despite established differences in cognitive functioning of adults with mood disorder-related psychosis and those with non-affective psychotic disorders, there is limited evidence of the impact of psychotic symptoms on the cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with mood disorders. This study investigates IQ, working memory, and processing speed scores in 80 child and adolescent inpatients discharged from an intermediate care state psychiatric hospital, using a retrospective chart review. Associations between diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria (7 with Major Depression- MDD; 43 with Bipolar Disorders-BD, and 30 with Mood Disorders Not Otherwise Specified-NOS), presence of current psychotic features, and cognitive functioning (WISC-IV IQ, Coding, Symbol Search, and Digit Span) were investigated using Multivariate Analyses of Variance. No differences were found in cognitive functioning between patients with MDD and BD, or between those with severe Mood Disorders (MDD or BD) and those with NOS, when controlling for age, gender, and presence of psychotic features. However, patients with severe mood disorders and psychotic features showed lower IQs and greater working memory deficits than those without psychotic features or NOS. Results are discussed in terms of treatment planning for children and adolescents at risk for developing psychotic symptoms and severe mood disorders.

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents 24 Months After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Friedman, Keren; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Hanten, Gerri; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Dennis, Maureen; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the occurrence of novel psychiatric disorders (NPDs) in children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to preinjury variables, injury-related variables, and concurrent neurocognitive outcome. Eighty-seven children aged 5–14 years who had experienced mTBI were studied from consecutive hospital admissions with semistructured psychiatric interviews soon after injury (baseline). Fifty-four children were reassessed 24 months postinjury. Standardized instruments were used to evaluate injury severity, lesion characteristics, preinjury variables (lifetime psychiatric disorder, family psychiatric history, family function, socioeconomic status, psychosocial adversity, adaptive function, and academic function), and finally, postinjury neurocognitive and adaptive function. At 24 months postinjury, NPDs had occurred in 17 of 54 (31%) participants. NPD at 24 months was related to frontal white matter lesions and was associated with estimated preinjury reading, preinjury adaptive function, and concurrent deficits in reading, processing speed, and adaptive function. These findings extend earlier reports that the psychiatric morbidity after mTBI in children is more common than previously thought, and moreover, it is linked to preinjury individual variables and injury characteristics and is associated with postinjury adaptive and neurocognitive functioning. PMID:25923850

  17. Educational Programming at Alaska Psychiatric Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopasek, Dean E.

    The background, organization, and operation of the Alaska Psychiatric Institute (API), a residential program for behavior disordered and emotionally disturbed children and adolescents, are described. Components of the educational program at API, including academic and social assessment, individual education plans, and elementary and secondary…

  18. The Effectiveness of Client Feedback Measures with Adolescents in an Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mindy Chaky

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need for the measurement of therapeutic outcomes and the therapeutic alliance in inpatient mental health services with the adolescent population. This dissertation extends the literature on the use of client feedback measures with adolescents by investigating the use of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale…

  19. Social Connectedness and One-Year Trajectories among Suicidal Adolescents Following Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Liu, Zhuqing; King, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which posthospitalization "change" in connectedness with family, peers, and nonfamily adults predicted suicide attempts, severity of suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms across a 12-month follow-up period among inpatient suicidal adolescents. Participants were 338 inpatient suicidal adolescents, ages 13 to…

  20. Assessing an Adolescent's Capacity for Autonomous Decision-Making in Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Blum, Robert Wm; Benaroyo, Lazare; Zermatten, Jean; Baltag, Valentina

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide policy guidance on how to assess the capacity of minor adolescents for autonomous decision-making without a third party authorization, in the field of clinical care. In June 2014, a two-day meeting gathered 20 professionals from all continents, working in the field of adolescent medicine, neurosciences, developmental and clinical psychology, sociology, ethics, and law. Formal presentations and discussions were based on a literature search and the participants' experience. The assessment of adolescent decision-making capacity includes the following: (1) a review of the legal context consistent with the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child; (2) an empathetic relationship between the adolescent and the health care professional/team; (3) the respect of the adolescent's developmental stage and capacities; (4) the inclusion, if relevant, of relatives, peers, teachers, or social and mental health providers with the adolescent's consent; (5) the control of coercion and other social forces that influence decision-making; and (6) a deliberative stepwise appraisal of the adolescent's decision-making process. This stepwise approach, already used among adults with psychiatric disorders, includes understanding the different facets of the given situation, reasoning on the involved issues, appreciating the outcomes linked with the decision(s), and expressing a choice. Contextual and psychosocial factors play pivotal roles in the assessment of adolescents' decision-making capacity. The evaluation must be guided by a well-established procedure, and health professionals should be trained accordingly. These proposals are the first to have been developed by a multicultural, multidisciplinary expert panel. PMID:26281798

  1. Working with an interpreter in psychiatric assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1990-12-01

    Cross-cultural assessment and care frequently involve cross-language communication via a translator, interpreter, or bilingual worker. A resurgence of immigration, legalization of former illegal migrants, and refugee flight to the United States has increased the need for such special means of communication. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals should develop conceptual models, skills, and experience for conducting cross-language interviews. This article provides information, terminology, and models for one aspect of this special clinical task, i.e., working with translators.

  2. Working with an interpreter in psychiatric assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1990-12-01

    Cross-cultural assessment and care frequently involve cross-language communication via a translator, interpreter, or bilingual worker. A resurgence of immigration, legalization of former illegal migrants, and refugee flight to the United States has increased the need for such special means of communication. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals should develop conceptual models, skills, and experience for conducting cross-language interviews. This article provides information, terminology, and models for one aspect of this special clinical task, i.e., working with translators. PMID:2246648

  3. Screen Time on School Days and Risks for Psychiatric Symptoms and Self-Harm in Mainland Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingli; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU) exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm), in mainland Chinese adolescents. Methods: Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89) from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the following four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/day, >0 to ≤1 h/day, >1 to ≤2 h/day, and >2 h/day. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated. Results: More than 2 h per school day television watching was associated with higher risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73) and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19–2.21), of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95), of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs; OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39), and of oppositional defiant problems (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50) in girls, compared with no television exposure. Conversely, television exposure of no more than 1 h per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99) compared with no television exposure. High school day VG/CU time (>2 h) compared with no VG/CU were associated with higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86) and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs; OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38) in boys. And any school day VG/CU exposure was associated with higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems in boys and all psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs) in girls (ORs, 1.44–3.69), compared to no VG/CU exposure. Conclusion: For secondary school

  4. The middle-class family and middle-class adolescents in a state of disarray: a social-psychiatric analysis.

    PubMed

    Levine, E M

    1984-05-01

    Because mental health professionals tend to focus their attention on the complex of factors involved in the provision of psychotherapeutic and related services, they often do not give primary attention to the serious instabilities afflicting marriage and family among the middle class and are insufficiently aware of parents' deficiencies in rearing their children well. Moreover, they frequently underestimate the increasing prevalence of character defects and disorders and the acting-out problems they cause among middle-class adolescents and youths, who are widely involved in sexual activity, drug use, and theft and whose educational performance has sharply declined. Using a social-psychiatric perspective, this paper discusses the major sociocultural factors that greatly influence the problems straining and breaking up marriage and family among the middle class. It also examines the reasons for parental inadequacies that contribute heavily to their children's becoming impulse-dominated and involved in self-impairing and socially harmful problems.

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity, Violent Crime, and Suicide among Children and Adolescents Exposed to Parental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Holly C.; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Langstrom, Niklas; Brent, David A.; Runeson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective cohort study examined the risk for suicide, psychiatric hospitalization, and violent criminal convictions among offspring of parents who died from suicide, accidents, and other causes. Method: Population-based data from multiple Swedish national registers were linked from 1969 to 2004. Participants were 44,397…

  6. Study Skills and Critical Thinking Curriculum for Adolescents in a Psychiatric Treatment Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This report discusses the need to teach critical thinking and study skill strategies to improve the problem-solving ability, study habits, and knowledge of subject content to students in psychiatric treatment centers. The report asserts that this type of curriculum will assist students in comprehending new information and utilizing thinking skills…

  7. White Matter Hyperintensities and Their Associations with Suicidality in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Stefan; Noam, Gil G.; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kwon, Bae J.; Clark, Megan A.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Increasingly, researchers and clinicians are recognizing that there may be biological markers associated with increased risk of suicide. The objective of this study was to compare white matter hyperintensities in psychiatrically hospitalized children and youth with and without a history of suicide attempt while controlling for other…

  8. [About the heterogeneity in adolescents with gender identity disorder: differential importance of psychiatric comorbidity and considerations of individual psychodynamics].

    PubMed

    Korte, Alexander; Beier, Klaus M; Vukorepa, Julia; Mersmann, Maik; Albiez, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), gender dysphoria (GD) respectively, is considered a multifactorial disease whose etiology is subject to complex bio-psycho-social conditions, each with different weighting. As a result, therapists, who treat children and adolescents with GID/GD, have to deal with a very heterogeneous group with individually varying causes, differing psychopathology and varying disease progression. In addition to general psychiatric aspects of development, particularly psychiatric comorbidity, but also the different individual psychodynamics--i. e. the specific constellation of conflicts and possible ego deficits and structural deficits in the learning history of the person are of differential importance. In regard to the indication for gender reassignment measures this sometimes is relevant for the decision. The difficulties arising for decision making and the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of case reports as a basis for further optimization of the treatment recommendations are illustrated by two case reports. In the course of this, also the disadvantages and potential dangers of too early diagnostic definition and introduction of gender somato-medical and legal measures are shown exemplarily. PMID:25296512

  9. [About the heterogeneity in adolescents with gender identity disorder: differential importance of psychiatric comorbidity and considerations of individual psychodynamics].

    PubMed

    Korte, Alexander; Beier, Klaus M; Vukorepa, Julia; Mersmann, Maik; Albiez, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), gender dysphoria (GD) respectively, is considered a multifactorial disease whose etiology is subject to complex bio-psycho-social conditions, each with different weighting. As a result, therapists, who treat children and adolescents with GID/GD, have to deal with a very heterogeneous group with individually varying causes, differing psychopathology and varying disease progression. In addition to general psychiatric aspects of development, particularly psychiatric comorbidity, but also the different individual psychodynamics--i. e. the specific constellation of conflicts and possible ego deficits and structural deficits in the learning history of the person are of differential importance. In regard to the indication for gender reassignment measures this sometimes is relevant for the decision. The difficulties arising for decision making and the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of case reports as a basis for further optimization of the treatment recommendations are illustrated by two case reports. In the course of this, also the disadvantages and potential dangers of too early diagnostic definition and introduction of gender somato-medical and legal measures are shown exemplarily.

  10. Handover of patient information from the crisis assessment and treatment team to the inpatient psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Waters, Amanda; Sands, Natisha; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Henderson, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Handover, or the communication of patient information between clinicians, is a fundamental component of health care. Psychiatric settings are dynamic environments relying on timely and accurate communication to plan care and manage risk. Crisis assessment and treatment teams are the primary interface between community and mental health services in many Australian and international health services, facilitating access to assessment, treatment, and admission to hospital. No previous research has investigated the handover between crisis assessment and treatment teams and inpatient psychiatric units, despite the importance of handover to care planning. The aim of the present study was to identify the nature and types of information transferred during these handovers, and to explore how these guides initial care planning. An observational, exploratory study design was used. A 20-item handover observation tool was used to observe 19 occasions of handover. A prospective audit was undertaken on clinical documentation arising from the admission. Clinical information, including psychiatric history and mental state, were handed over consistently; however, information about consumer preferences was reported less consistently. The present study identified a lack of attention to consumer preferences at handover, despite the current focus on recovery-oriented models for mental health care, and the centrality of respecting consumer preferences within the recovery paradigm. PMID:25438620

  11. Commentary on "Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a brief review of child and adolescent obesity over the past ten years. The starting point for the review is the well-known fact that there has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity among children, adolescents, and adults in the United Sates (Ogden et al., 2002). The rise has occurred across all age and ethnic groups,…

  12. Practice parameter for cultural competence in child and adolescent psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Mian, Ayesha; Carlisle, Lee; Toppelberg, Claudio; Harris, Toi; Gogineni, Rama Rao; Webb, Sala; Smith, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    The United States faces a rapidly changing demographic and cultural landscape, with its population becoming increasingly multiracial and multicultural. In consequence, cultural and racial factors relating to mental illness and emotional disturbances deserve closer attention and consideration. This Practice Parameter outlines clinical applications of the principle of cultural competence that will enable child and adolescent mental health clinicians to better serve diverse children, adolescents, and their families.

  13. Education for Life: Assessment of the Role of a Recreational Programme in the Rehabilitation of Day Patients in a Psychiatric Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Robert

    1984-01-01

    With a working definition of rehabilitation, the author assesses the therapeutic recreation program at a psychiatric hospital to determine whether it enabled psychiatric day patients to overcome social disabilities and make a full return to community life. (SK)

  14. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  15. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  16. Rates of DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders Among Adolescents in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2009-01-01

    We present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area in the U.S. and the association of DSM-IV diagnoses to functional impairment and selected demographic correlates. We sampled 4,175 youths aged 11–17 years from households enrolled in large health maintenance organizations. Data were collected using questionnaires and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV). Impairment was measured using the Child Global Assessment Scale and diagnostic specific impairment in the DISC-IV. 17.1% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for one or more disorders in the past year; 11% when only DISC impairment was considered and 5.3% only using the CGAS. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety (6.9%), disruptive (6.5%), and substance use (5.3%) disorders. The most prevalent specific disorders were agoraphobia, conduct and marijuana abuse/dependence, then alcohol use and oppositional defiant disorder. Younger youths and females had lower odds for any disorder, as did youths from two parent homes. There was increased odds associated with lower family income. Females had greater odds of mood and anxiety disorders, males of disruptive and substance use disorders. There were greater odds of mood and disruptive disorders for older youths. Prevalences were highly comparable to recent studies using similar methods in diverse non-metropolitan populations. We found associations with age, gender, and to a lesser extent, socioeconomic status reported in previous studies. The inclusion of both diagnosis-specific impairment and global impairment reduced prevalence rates significantly. Our results suggest commonality of prevalences and associated factors in diverse study settings, including urban and rural areas. PMID:17107689

  17. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... Families Guide - Search No. 52; Updated November 2012 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate ...

  18. Preschoolers’ Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured diagnostic interview on preschool psychopathology. In bivariate analyses, temperamental dysphoria and low exuberance were associated with depression; fear, low exuberance, and low sociability were associated with anxiety disorders; and disinhibition and dysphoria were associated with oppositional defiant disorder. Although there were no bivariate associations between temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disinhibition emerged as a unique predictor in multivariate analyses. Findings indicate that the pattern of relations between temperament and psychopathology in older youth and adults is evident as early as age 3. PMID:21391025

  19. [The suicide assessment in the psychiatric emergencies: A semi-structured interview].

    PubMed

    Vandevoorde, Jérémie; Baudoin, Thierry; Chabert, Béatrice; Baudoin, Emmanuelle; Sanchez Valero, Ambre

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiological literature shows that the population going through general or psychiatric emergencies indicates a high suicide risk. Suicide is classified as an avoidable mortality by the WHO. Therefore, suicidal potential must be assessed at different stages of hospitalization: when the patient comes to the emergency, during hospitalization, after hospitalization in the context of prevention and regularly monitoring. The authors present a simple approach to the investigation of suicidal activity through a semi-structured clinical interview and propose a fast and convenient grid report, experienced at psychiatric emergencies. A real and concrete case illustrates the method whereas are reminded the suicide warning signs and indices of increase about risk of acting out at the hospital. PMID:26071030

  20. Challenging Times: A Study to Detect Irish Adolescents at Risk of Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Fionnuala; Mills, Carla; Daly, Irenee; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates in young Irish males have risen markedly in the past 10 years, and suicide is now the leading cause of death in young men in the 15-24-year-old age range. This is the first large-scale study in Ireland that set out to identify young people at risk of psychiatric disorders, including depressive disorders, and suicidal ideation. Seven…

  1. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Adolescents in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Demott, Melinda A. M; Heir, Trond

    2014-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of same age. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity at an early stage after arrival to the host country. We performed structured clinical interviews (CIDI) with 160 male UASC from different countries (Afghanistan, Somalia, Iran), after four months in Norway. Most of the participants had experienced life threatening events (82%), physical abuse (78%), or loss of a close relative (78%) in their former life. Altogether 41.9% of the participants fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a current psychiatric disorder. The most prevalent diagnosis was PTSD (30, 6%), followed by MDD (9, 4%), Agoraphobia (4, 4%) and GAD (3, 8%). Implications of this vulnerability call for more mental health resources in the early stages of the asylum process. Increased awareness of psychiatric morbidity in UASC may improve the prognosis, give more appropriate care, and ease the integration process on all levels of society. PMID:25006343

  2. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Primer for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Smith, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is an increasing problem in U. S. society. This article provides an overview of adolescent substance abuse, screening, and assessment strategies; contact information related to specific assessment instruments; and information regarding ethic important to consider during the assessment process. (Contains 16 references and…

  3. Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal…

  4. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  5. A National Snapshot of Substance Misuse among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Malta.

    PubMed

    Grech, Anton; Axiak, Sally

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on a patient record survey that was undertaken with the central aim of establishing reliable, baseline information to inform strategic planning and organisation of future CAMHS in Malta. The records of the total population of children and adolescents admitted into the psychatric hospital over a five year period were surveyed. Results showed that the characteristics and circumstances of children and adolescents with mental disorder and comorbid substance misuse in Malta are similar to those described in international studies. The survey emphasised the pressing need for further research into this sub group and also highlighted gaps in reliable data systems locally.

  6. Updates and Current Perspectives of Psychiatric Assessments after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Ana Luiza; Vicentini, Jessica Elias; Fregni, Felipe; Rodrigues, Priscila Aparecida; Botelho, Cibele; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; Paiva, Wellingson Silva

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders represent a major concern and cause of disabilities after the trauma, contributing to worse recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the lack of well-defined parameters to evaluate patient’s psychiatric disorders leads to a wide range of diagnoses and symptoms. The aim of this study was to perform a review of literature in order to gather data of the most common scales and inventories used to assess and diagnose depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after TBI. We conducted a literature search via MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science. We included reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis studies, and we used the following keywords: “traumatic brain injury OR TBI,” “depression OR depressive disorder,” “anxiety,” and “posttraumatic stress disorder OR PTSD.” From 610 titles, a total of 68 systematic reviews or meta-analysis were included in the section “Results” of this review: depression (n = 32), anxiety (n = 9), and PTSD (n = 27). Depression after TBI is a more established condition, with more homogeneous studies. Anxiety and PTSD disorders have been studied in a heterogeneous way, usually as comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Some scales and inventories designed for the general community may not be appropriate for patients with TBI. PMID:27378949

  7. Depressed Adolescents and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Are There Differences in the Presentation of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David Marc; Simons, Anne D.; Yovanoff, Paul; Silva, Susan G.; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica L.; March, John

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and correlates of comorbidity, as well as differences in manifest depressive profiles were investigated in a sample of depressed adolescents. A sub-sample of the youth were characterized as belonging to either a "Pure" depression group, an "Internalizing" group (depression and co-occurring internalizing disorders), or an "Externalizing"…

  8. Specificity of Putative Psychosocial Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lilly; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on…

  9. The Involuntary Treatment of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients--A Nation-Wide Survey from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellila, Heikki Toivo; Sourander, Andre; Valimaki, Maritta; Warne, Tony; Kaivosoja, Matti

    2008-01-01

    This national cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence rates, regional differences and factors associated with the involuntary inpatient treatment of adolescents in Finland on a chosen day in 2000. The proportion of inpatients with involuntary legal status was 29.5% (n=82) giving a prevalence rate of 2.5 per 10,000/12-17 years old…

  10. [Sadistic fetishism--deadly passion. Forensic psychiatric assessment of sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N; Blümcke, I; Bock, H; Bogerts, B; Born, C; Stübner, S

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews current developments in psychiatric assessment of sex offenders for criminal courts. These developments are characterized by constantly changing laws and increasing neurobiological findings about paraphilias. Psychiatrists must prepare their reports taking into account the tension between psychopathological, neurobiological, and normative aspects of their judgement. The complexity of such assessments can best be demonstrated by narratives. This narrative concerns a 47-year-old patient who killed eight women after strangling them and masturbating or having intercourse with the unconscious victims. He explained in detail six of these crimes and gave ample information about his history, sexual development, fantasies, and a number of other sexual crimes he had committed. From this information a plausible explanation of his development to sexual fetishism and from there to sadism could be derived. Brain MRI displayed gliotic scars in the frontal lobe and right hippocampus. Consequences of the various findings on psychiatric assessment of legal culpability are discussed in this paper, concluding that a differentiated approach to the assessment is possible only from a psychopathological point of view in which behaviour, clinical features, and motivations are analysed.

  11. [Sadistic fetishism--deadly passion. Forensic psychiatric assessment of sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N; Blümcke, I; Bock, H; Bogerts, B; Born, C; Stübner, S

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews current developments in psychiatric assessment of sex offenders for criminal courts. These developments are characterized by constantly changing laws and increasing neurobiological findings about paraphilias. Psychiatrists must prepare their reports taking into account the tension between psychopathological, neurobiological, and normative aspects of their judgement. The complexity of such assessments can best be demonstrated by narratives. This narrative concerns a 47-year-old patient who killed eight women after strangling them and masturbating or having intercourse with the unconscious victims. He explained in detail six of these crimes and gave ample information about his history, sexual development, fantasies, and a number of other sexual crimes he had committed. From this information a plausible explanation of his development to sexual fetishism and from there to sadism could be derived. Brain MRI displayed gliotic scars in the frontal lobe and right hippocampus. Consequences of the various findings on psychiatric assessment of legal culpability are discussed in this paper, concluding that a differentiated approach to the assessment is possible only from a psychopathological point of view in which behaviour, clinical features, and motivations are analysed. PMID:18806981

  12. Violence risk assessment in psychiatric patients in China: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Xiang, Yutao; Zhu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaoping; Fazel, Seena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review on violence risk assessment instruments used for psychiatric patients in China. Methods: A systematic search was conducted from 1980 until 2014 to identify studies that used psychometric tools or structured instruments to assess aggression and violence risk. Information from primary studies was extracted, including demographic characteristics of the samples used, study design characteristics, and reliability and validity estimates. Results: A total of 30 primary studies were identified that investigated aggression or violence; 6 reported on tools assessing aggression while an additional 24 studies reported on structured instruments designed to predict violence. Although measures of reliability were typically good, estimates of predictive validity were mostly in the range of poor to moderate, with only 1 study finding good validity. These estimates were typically lower than that found in previous work for Western samples. Conclusion: There is currently little evidence to support the use of current violence risk assessment instruments in psychiatric patients in China. Developing more accurate and scalable approaches are research priorities. PMID:25991764

  13. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  14. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial needs of outpatient deaf children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, Sarah A; Diaz, David R; Spring, Noah Z; Sheward, Jerry; Sculley, Charleen

    2014-02-01

    Deaf youth may be more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders but very little research data is available. The current study identified prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and examined the psychosocial needs and strengths of deaf youth aged 4-17 receiving specialized outpatient mental health services for the deaf. Compared to hearing peers, deaf youth had greater rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct, autism-spectrum and bipolar disorders and spent three times longer in treatment than their hearing peers. In the deaf subsample, moderate-severe risk was found in social functioning (33.3 %) and suicidal behavior (14 %). Deaf youth had moderate to severe impairment in social relationships (54.8 %), school functioning (42.9 %). Over one-third of deaf youth had impaired family relationships, living situation, communication, judgment and physical health. Deaf youth present with higher rates of certain clinical disorders and have deficits in multiple life domains that may impact functioning and create a longer treatment course. PMID:23504290

  15. Clinical assessment and management of psychiatric patients' violent and aggressive behaviors in general hospital.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Saladino, Joseph P

    2007-10-01

    Patients with co-morbid psychiatric disorders exhibiting violent and aggressive behaviors can be a challenge for nurses in medical-surgical units. They can deliver effective, safe care by assessing risk and building a rapport with the patient during the admission process; utilizing crisis prevention strategies, including appropriate medication administration, environmental, psychobiological, counseling, and health teaching interventions; and employing conflict resolution technique. Utilizing the nursing process, the nurse can provide effective therapeutic interventions to promote safety for both the patient and the nurse. PMID:18072668

  16. A Psychiatric Assessment-Treatment-Outcome Information System: Evaluation with Computer Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Hugh V.; Ellinwood, Everett H.

    1978-01-01

    The prediction of treatment outcome will require a clinically dedicated and comprehensive information system to gather a sizable data file on each individual, covering patient assessment, treatment and treatment outcome. The computer interview represents an information system capable of routinely gathering a large portion of this information. However, current methods of data analysis cannot adequately handle the information complexity associated with psychiatric treatment. Computer simulation is a method ideally suited to the investigation of complex subject matter and is proposed as a means to forecast the treatment outcome of actual patients under various conditions of treatment.

  17. Application of Level of Care Utilization System for Psychiatric and Addiction Services (LOCUS) to psychiatric practice in Japan: a preliminary assessment of validity and sensitivity to change.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Taku; Yagi, Fukashi; Yoshizumi, Akira

    2013-08-01

    We applied an American medical necessity scale, Level of Care Utilization System for Psychiatric and Addiction Services (LOCUS), to psychiatric practice in Japan. This is an exploratory analysis of empirical data of 272 patients. We examined the relationships between levels of care of LOCUS and clinical variables, contribution of care levels on admission decision, and changes in care levels over time. Inpatients showed significantly higher levels of care than outpatients. Levels of care showed significant strong inverse correlations to Global Assessment Scale (GAS) scores, and significant moderate correlations to admission types, care environment, and diagnostic subgroups in almost all groups. Levels of care contributed as much to the admission decision as GAS scores. Levels of care significantly decreased from the time of admission to discharge. Our preliminary evidence indicates that LOCUS is valid and sensitive to change, and applicable for clinical use in Japan.

  18. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention: Empowerment for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulette, Carol A.

    Adolescent suicide has tripled in the past two decades and is considered to be a leading cause of death among America's youths. This increase has prompted much research on the assessment and prevention of adolescent suicide. Suicidologists have agreed there are no scientifically proven methods to assess which individual might attempt suicide.…

  19. [Social participation and vocational integration as an objective of child and adolescent psychiatric rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Voll, Renate

    2009-09-01

    In order to avoid threatening social disintegration, it is important for children and adolescents with chronic mental disorders and also for physically disabled children to diagnose disturbances of social participation in an early stage and to commence rehabilitation measures. The need for rehabilitation, the ability to rehabilitate and the rehabilitation prognosis are important for identifying the individual rehabilitation goals. A multi-axial diagnosis according to the ICF with a determination of adaptability, a behavioural analysis, skills, activity and participation is required. For disabled children, there are only a few ICF check lists for diagnosing social participation. Because of this, the ICF check list CASP (Child & Adolescent Scale of Participation) for measuring social participation according to Bedell was translated, which is shown in the appendix. PMID:19739060

  20. Experiences of Domestic and School Violence Among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments. PMID:26487648

  1. Experiences of Domestic and School Violence Among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments.

  2. Physician leadership and quality improvement in the acute child and adolescent psychiatric care setting.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Erin; Butt, Shiraz; Sorter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Inpatient child and adolescent psychiatry leadership roles are often multifaceted, necessitating strong clinical knowledge and skills, organizational and leadership abilities, and in the academic setting the desire and skill in teaching and research. Early career psychiatrists who do possess these attributes may find themselves unprepared for such challenges as dealing with complex administrative and economic issues, accreditation, legal matters, and multitasking. This article offers a primer addressing these basic issues and in managing change through quality improvement processes.

  3. Assessment of adolescents' motivation for educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-06-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed.

  4. Psychiatric hospital treatment of children and adolescents in New South Wales, Australia: 12-year trends

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Titia; Sharpe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background It is preferable that children and adolescents requiring in-patient care for mental health problems are managed in age-appropriate facilities. To achieve this, nine specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in-patient units have been commissioned in New South Wales (NSW) since 2002. Aims To examine trends in child and adolescent in-patient admissions since the opening of these CAMHS units. Method Analysis of separation data for under 18-year-olds to CAMHS, adult mental health and paediatric units for the period 2002 to 2013 in NSW, comparing districts with and without specialist CAMHS units. Results Separations from CAMHS, adult and paediatric units rose with time, but there was no interaction between time and health district type (with/without CAMHS unit). Five of eight health districts experienced increased separations of under 18-year-olds from adult units in the year of opening a CAMHS unit. Separations from related paediatric units increased in three of seven health districts. Conclusions Opening CAMHS units may be followed by a temporary increase in separations of young people from adult units, but it does not influence the flow of patients to non-CAMHS facilities in the longer term. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703746

  5. A Prospective Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior Among Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)—with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury—predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. PMID:25263410

  6. The psychiatric inpatient physical health assessment sheet (PIPHAS): a useful tool to improve the speed, efficiency, and documentation of physical examination in new psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Pettipher, Alexander; Ovens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    There is increased morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from mental illness. This is believed to be multi-factorial. Poor access to healthcare, the stigma of mental illness, reduced clinic attendance, lifestyle factors, and side effects of medications are cited as possible contributing factors. It is therefore vital to perform a physical examination to identify previously undiagnosed conditions during the admission of a psychiatric inpatient. The Royal College of Psychiatrists recommends that all patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital should receive a full physical examination on admission, or within twenty-four hours of admission. A snapshot audit was carried out at Prospect Park Hospital in Reading, which highlighted that The Royal College of Psychiatrist's recommendation, along with Trust guidelines regarding physical examination were not being met, with only 78 out of 111 patients (70.3%) undergoing an examination during their admission. In addition to this, examinations were often poorly documented and not covering all examination domains. A psychiatric inpatient physical health assessment sheet (PIPHAS) was designed and introduced, providing a quick and standardised approach to the documentation of a physical examination. After the intervention was put into practice, its impact was assessed by performing a retrospective review of the admission clerking notes of the next 100 admissions to Prospect Park Hospital. Following the introduction of the PIPHAS form there was an increase in the number of patients undergoing physical examination on admission to hospital (75 out of 100 patients, 75%). There was also an increase in the thorough documentation of all examination domains (e.g. respiratory examination) for patients that had a completed PIPHAS form scanned within their medical records. This quality improvement project demonstrates that the PIPHAS form is a useful tool to improve the speed, efficiency, and documentation of a thorough physical

  7. Assessment of clinical psychiatric skills in final-year medical students: the use of videotape.

    PubMed

    Fenton, G W; O'Gorman, E C

    1984-09-01

    Sixty final-year medical students had their clinical performance in psychiatry assessed by the following three methods: a multiple choice questionnaire based on a series of short videotaped interviews with psychiatric patients; the examination of a traditional long 'case' with presentation of the history, mental state findings and formulation about diagnosis and management to a panel of three examiners; and a conventional oral examination about the principles and practice of psychiatry with a different trio of examiners. The total mark on the videotape session correlated significantly with the combined clinical and oral marks. There was also a significant positive correlation between the total video marks and the individual clinical marks, but none between the marks obtained during the video and oral components of the examination. However, the significant positive correlations between the video marks and those of the clinical examination were modest and only accounted for not more than 14% of the variance. Inspection of the distribution of correct answers to the videotape questions shows that students do best in identifying mental state symptoms and signs and in choosing the correct diagnosis. They do less well in the areas of aetiology and treatment. Indeed, optimal performance in the latter distinguishes those who do well in the clinical/oral examination from those whose performance is mediocre. The significance of these findings to the teaching and assessment of psychiatric skills in medical students is discussed. PMID:6472143

  8. Open-label treatment with risperidone of 26 psychiatrically-hospitalized children and adolescents with mixed diagnoses and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Buitelaar, J K

    2000-01-01

    Open-label risperidone was administered to 26 subjects (24 boys: 19 with borderline IQ and 5 with mild mental retardation), 10-18 years old, who were hospitalized for treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with aggressive behavior. Risperidone was given in daily doses ranging from 0.5 to 4 mg for periods of 2-12 months. Treatment response was monitored by means of the improvement scale of the CGI and the modified OAS. Extrapyramidal side effects were measured on the ESRS. Fourteen (54%) of 26 subjects had a marked reduction in aggression; 10 subjects had a moderate reduction; two subjects had mild changes; and none worsened. Two subjects had a marked weight gain in the first 8 weeks of treatment. In seven of the 22 children who continued taking risperidone after week 8, tiredness and sedation that necessitated dose reduction emerged between weeks 8 and 16. These results suggest that risperidone may be useful when treating severe aggressive behavior in children and adolescents. Weight gain and sedation can be troublesome side effects.

  9. "Coming ready or not" high fidelity human patient simulation in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing education: diffusion of Innovation.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Denise; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2011-10-01

    This paper is the first to address high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) as a technique to prepare pre-registration nursing students for practice in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing (CAPN). By examining the published literature in a systematic review, no evidence was located that discussed the application of this innovative mannequin-based educational technique for this population. Indeed, mental health nursing preparation generally had minimal literature addressing the adoption of HFHPS. Rogers' (2003) model of the "Diffusion of Innovation" was applied as a lens to explain this observation. His model fitted this observed pattern well and provided a range of explanatory paradigms. It was limited, however, in its predictive ability to suggest when and under what conditions HFHPS might be expected to be adopted by nursing preparation programmes for CAPN. At the conclusion to this examination, the absence of a conversation evident in the mental health or CAPN literature on the preparation of pre-registration nursing students using this educational technique is striking. The potential of this approach to be combined in new ways to better prepare nursing students for the challenges of practice in mental health or CAPN needs extensive examination.

  10. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  11. [Child psychiatric assessment and the debate regarding the abuse of abuse].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    1995-03-01

    The current discussion on false allegations in sexual abuse cases has led to a polarization in the views expressed about the credibility of children. Some authors even speak of a "child sexual accuse syndrome" or of a "sexual abuse allegation in divorce" (SAID) syndrome. A phenomenological analysis of the multiple reasons for misinterpretations is presented. Instead of stressing the importance only of false positives in child sexual abuse questions, an attempt is made to describe reasons for false negatives. Based on a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive child psychiatric experts in connection with court cases, there does not appear to be an increase in false accusations. Rather, only about one third of the cases even involved suspected sexual abuse. Sexual abuse allegations were much more frequent in girls than in boys. Of 20 abuse allegations we judge four to be false allegations. In only one of these cases, that of an adolescent girl who had been abused in childhood, was the false allegation intended.

  12. Clinical Assessment of Adolescents Involved in Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Satanism as destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification and that may seduce adolescents who feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. Explores psychosocial needs of adolescents that are met by participation in Satanic worship. Includes method for determining adolescents' level of involvement and assessment…

  13. [Forensic-psychologic-psychiatric assessment from the viewpoint of perpetrators--data from a survey].

    PubMed

    Littmann, E

    1988-11-01

    In this contribution, various aspects of the expert/culprit-relationship and of the communication behavior styles between the included persons within the scope of forensic-psychological-psychiatric expertise, are discussed. A survey is given on results gained with a questionnaire study (n = 93 culprits; Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Charité Berlin) of the most important expectations, of the social-relevant attitudes towards the assessment and physicians before the forensic investigation as well as of the experiences of own feelings, stress and of the culprit's reflections on the physician/proband relationship after the assessment. A good partnership relation between experts and culprits presupposes that the expert not only possesses a high profession but also the necessary interpersonal-social competence.

  14. Pharmacogenetics informed decision making in adolescent psychiatric treatment: a clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teri; Sharp, Susan; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2015-01-01

    Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms. Pharmacogenetics testing was performed and DNA results on this individual elucidated the potential pitfalls in medication use because of specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences specifically involving polymorphisms of genes in the cytochrome p450 enzyme system. Future studies and reports are needed to further illustrate and determine the type of individualized medicine approach required to treat individuals based on their specific gene patterns. Growing evidence supports this biological approach for standard of care in psychiatry. PMID:25710722

  15. Pharmacogenetics Informed Decision Making in Adolescent Psychiatric Treatment: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Teri; Sharp, Susan; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms. Pharmacogenetics testing was performed and DNA results on this individual elucidated the potential pitfalls in medication use because of specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences specifically involving polymorphisms of genes in the cytochrome p450 enzyme system. Future studies and reports are needed to further illustrate and determine the type of individualized medicine approach required to treat individuals based on their specific gene patterns. Growing evidence supports this biological approach for standard of care in psychiatry. PMID:25710722

  16. Developmental Assessment and Intervention with Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann

    Over the past 25 years, there has been a gradual recognition that counseling children and adolescents is much different than counseling adults. Because of this difference, numerous books, games, and articles have focused on what assessment and intervention strategies work with the child and adolescent population. However, many of these…

  17. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2008-01-01

    The different established screening methodologies and comprehensive assessment techniques used in evaluating adolescents suspected of or known to have substance abuse disorders are discussed. Recommendations and suggestions for establishing standards of training and professional efficiency are also highlighted to treat adolescents with substance…

  18. Assessment and Intervention with Adolescents Involved in Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Barbara R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides therapeutic guidelines to social workers working with adolescents involved in Satanism. Describes common goals of therapy and recommends family involvement. Concludes there is a further need for study concerning at-risk and assessment factors, and intervention alternatives since more adolescents are becoming involved in Satanic…

  19. The impact of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment adherence and duration among victimized children and adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scivoletto, Sandra; Silva, Thiago F.; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of substance abuse and mood disorders among victimized children and adolescents, few studies have investigated the association of these disorders with treatment adherence, represented by numbers of visits per month and treatment duration. We aimed to investigate the effects of substance abuse and mood disorders on treatment adherence and duration in a special program for victimized children in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 351 participants were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and classified into one of five groups: mood disorders alone; substance abuse disorders alone; mood and substance abuse disorders; other psychiatric disorders; no psychiatric disorders. The associations between diagnostic classification and adherence to treatment and the duration of program participation were tested with logistic regression and survival analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Children with mood disorders alone had the highest rate of adherence (79.5%); those with substance abuse disorders alone had the lowest (40%); and those with both disorders had an intermediate rate of adherence (50%). Those with other psychiatric disorders and no psychiatric disorders also had high rates of adherence (75.6% and 72.9%, respectively). Living with family significantly increased adherence for children with substance abuse disorders but decreased adherence for those with no psychiatric disorders. The diagnostic correlates of duration of participation were similar to those for adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Mood and substance abuse disorders were strong predictive factors for treatment adherence and duration, albeit in opposite directions. Living with family seems to have a positive effect on treatment adherence for patients with substance abuse disorders. More effective treatment is needed for victimized substance-abusing youth. PMID:22249474

  20. The Adolescent Behavior Checklist: normative data and sensitivity and specificity of a screening tool for diagnosable psychiatric disorders in adolescents with mental retardation and other development disabilities.

    PubMed

    Demb, H B; Brier, N; Huron, R; Tomor, E

    1994-01-01

    Individuals with mental retardation are almost twice as likely to demonstrate severe behavioral problems or symptoms of mental illness as are nonmentally retarded individuals. At present, however, the ability to diagnose a mental disorder in an individual with mental retardation is difficult, and instruments are needed to help facilitate this process. The Adolescent Behavior Checklist was developed with this purpose in mind. This self-report scale is used to assess the likelihood that an adolescent with mild mental retardation or borderline intelligence has a diagnosable mental illness. The 86-item yes/no self-report scale renders scores on eight subscales derived from DSM III-R. The checklist has been found to have good criterion and congruent validity and good test-retest reliability. Data regarding interrater reliability and the sensitivity and specificity of the scale are presented, as are implications for future research. PMID:8085031

  1. The comprehensive assessment of defense style: measuring defense mechanisms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laor, N; Wolmer, L; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study introduces the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS), a new method to assess descriptively the defensive behavior of children and adolescents. Parents of 124 children and adolescents referred to a mental health clinic, of 104 nontreated children, and of 15 children whose fathers were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder completed the CADS. Factor analysis of 28 defenses yielded one mature factor, one immature factor of defenses expressed in relations with the environment (other-oriented), and one of defenses expressed in relations with the self (self-oriented). The CADS significantly discriminated between patients and nonpatients. Psychiatric patients used more immature and fewer mature defenses than control subjects, and adolescents used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than children. Girls used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than boys. The reliability and validity data of the CADS are encouraging. The three defense factors may be implemented for diagnostic and clinical purposes as well as for screening for psychopathology risk in untreated populations.

  2. Adolescent Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    As with school age children, it is difficult to make conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments for adolescents because of the differences in instruments, research designs, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  3. Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bråbäck, Lennart; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Strömgren, Magnus; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Participants The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics. Results The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ∼21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m3. Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected. Conclusion There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others. PMID:27259522

  4. The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) Checklist: Reliability and Validity of French Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lack of psychometric measures of psychopathology especially in intellectual disabilities (ID) population was addressed by creation of the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD-10) in Moss et?al. This schedule is a structured interview designed for professionals in psychopathology. The…

  5. Adequacy of Antidepressant Treatment by Psychiatric Residents: The Antidepressant Treatment History Form as a Possible Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Kramer, Stephen I.; McCall, W. Vaughn

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Facility in psychopharmacology is a major goal of psychiatric residency. This study assesses the adequacy of pharmacotherapy provided to depressed patients in a resident clinic. Methods: Charts of all 285 patients seen in an outpatient triage clinic during 2000 were reviewed. One hundred twelve patients had diagnoses of major…

  6. Predictive validity of dynamic factors: assessing violence risk in forensic psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Catherine M; Desmarais, Sarah L; Nicholls, Tonia L; Hart, Stephen D; Brink, Johann

    2013-12-01

    There is general consensus that dynamic factors ought to be considered in the assessment of violence risk, but little direct evidence exists to demonstrate that within-individual fluctuations in putative dynamic factors are associated with changes in risk. We examined these issues in a sample of 30 male forensic psychiatric inpatients using a pseudoprospective design. Static and dynamic factors were coded on the basis of chart review using 2 structured measures of violence risk: Version 2 of the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20; C. D. Webster, K. S. Douglas, D. Eaves, & S. D. Hart, 1997, HCR-20: Assessing risk for violence, Version 2, Vancouver, BC, Canada: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University) and the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & S. L. Desmarais, 2009, Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability [START], Version 1.1, Coquitlam, BC, Canada: British Columbia Mental Health and Addiction Services). HCR-20 and START assessments were repeated every 3 months for a period of 1 year. Institutional violence in the 3 months following each assessment was coded using a modified version of the Overt Aggression Scale (S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. W. Williams, 1986, The Overt Aggression Scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression, The American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 143, pp. 35-39). Dynamic risk and strength factors showed predictive validity for institutional aggression. Results of event history analyses demonstrated that changes in dynamic risk factors significantly predicted institutional violence, even after controlling for static risk factors. This is one of the first studies to provide clear and direct support for the utility of dynamic factors in the assessment of violence risk. PMID:23815092

  7. Case Report: "Purely" Psychiatric Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in an Adolescent Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Evankovich, Karen; Lotze, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old Hispanic boy with a 6-month history of a psychotic disorder necessitating several hospitalizations who was incidentally found to have multiple sclerosis with no physical findings. Neuropsychological assessment has revealed impairments in word-finding, bilateral fine motor skills, and attention. Imaging and…

  8. Assessment of Global Psychiatric Categories: The PSI/PSI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Thomas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The 3 Higher Order (HO) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form and the 3 core clinical scales of the Psychological Screening Inventory/Psychological Screening Inventory-2 were developed to broadly represent the 3 traditional psychiatric categories of mental disorder: major psychiatric disorder ("psychotic"),…

  9. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics.

  10. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics. PMID:25152654

  11. All-data approach to assessing financial capability in people with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Christina M; Black, Anne C; McMahon, Thomas J; Rosenheck, Robert A; Ries, Richard; Ames, Donna; Rosen, Marc I

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based method to assess the ability of disabled persons to manage federal disability payments. This article describes the development of the Financial Incapability Structured Clinical Assessment done Longitudinally (FISCAL) measure of financial capability. The FISCAL was developed by an iterative process of literature review, pilot testing, and expert consultation. Independent assessors used the FISCAL to rate the financial capability of 118 participants (57% female, 58% Caucasian) who received Social Security disability payments, had recently been treated in acute care facilities for psychiatric disorders, and who did not have representative payees or conservators. Altogether, 48% of participants were determined financially incapable by the FISCAL, of whom 60% were incapable because of unmet basic needs, 91% were incapable because of spending that harmed them (e.g., on illicit drugs or alcohol), 56% were incapable because of both unmet needs and harmful spending, and 5% were incapable because of contextual factors. As expected, incapable individuals scored higher on a measure of money mismanagement (p < .001) compared with capable individuals. Interrater reliability for FISCAL capability determinations was very good (κ = .77) and interrater agreement was 89%. In this population, the FISCAL had construct validity; ratings demonstrated good reliability and correlated with a related measure. Potentially, the FISCAL can be used to validate other measures of capability and to help understand how people on limited incomes manage their funds. PMID:26146947

  12. Violence risk assessment and women: predictive accuracy of the HCR-20 in a civil psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mansilla, Alexandra; Rosenfeld, Barry; Cruise, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    Research to date has not adequately demonstrated whether the HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme (HCR-20; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997), a structured violence risk assessment measure with a robust literature supporting its validity in male samples, is a valid indicator of violence risk in women. This study utilized data from the MacArthur Study of Mental Disorder and Violence to retrospectively score an abbreviated version of HCR-20 in 827 civil psychiatric patients. HCR-20 scores and predictive accuracy of community violence were compared for men and women. Results suggested that the HCR-20 is slightly, but not significantly, better for evaluating future risk for violence in men than in women, although the magnitude of the gender differences was small and was largely limited to historical factors. The results do not indicate that the HCR-20 needs to be tailored for use in women or that it should not be used in women, but they do highlight that the HCR-20 should be used cautiously and with full awareness of its potential limitations in women.

  13. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  14. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has attempted to delineate the demographic and clinical characteristics of high-risk psychiatric patients and identify salient modifiable aspects of aggression prone environments. Recently, there has also been increased interest in the development and testing of structured schemes for the assessment of risk for aggression within inpatient psychiatric settings. Although some of these methods show acceptable predictive validity, their ability to inform day-to-day treatment and management decisions is limited. The current research was designed to identify existing and novel risk factors that would assist staff to identify and manage the risk for aggression in psychiatric inpatient populations. Results showed that assessments supported by structured risk measures were more accurate than unaided clinical judgements based only on nurses' clinical experience and knowledge of the patient alone. Seven test items emerged that were maximally effective at identifying acute psychiatric patients at risk for engaging in inpatient violence within 24 hours; these items have been combined in the development of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression. Empirical analyses and clinical experience support the efficacy of the instrument in assisting clinical staff in the identification and management of inpatient aggression.

  15. Juvenile Mental Health Courts for Adjudicated Youth: Role Implications for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, F. Antoinette; Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Webster, Joe L.; Soto, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    TOPIC Juvenile mental health courts for adjudicated youth. PURPOSE To describe the role of psychiatric nurses in reducing mental health disparities for adjudicated youth via juvenile mental health courts. SOURCES ISI Web of Knowledge; Sage Journals Online; HighWire; PubMed; Google Scholar and Wiley Online Library and websites for psychiatric nursing organizations. Years included: 2000–2010. CONCLUSIONS Juvenile mental health courts may provide a positive and effective alternative to incarceration for youth with mental health problems with psychiatric nurses playing a key role in program implementation. PMID:21501288

  16. A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  17. Assessment of pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys

    PubMed Central

    Paralikar, Swapnil J.; Kathrotia, Rajesh G.; Pathak, Narendra R.; Jani, Madhusudan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly escalating in India in all age groups. School-based data indicate a prevalence rate between 5.6% and 24% in children and adolescents. Adolescent obesity is associated with a greater long-term risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, studies investigating pulmonary functions in obese adolescents are few. The present study assesses pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys from a school in Baroda city, Gujarat. Aims: (i) To assess the dynamic lung functions in obese adolescent boys. (ii) To determine the predominant lung function impairment associated with obesity in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Dynamic lung functions were measured in 30 obese adolescent boys and an equal number of age-matched controls using MEDI:SPIRO software (Maestros Mediline Systems Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India). Results: Forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly decreased in the obese group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary functions in the study population correlated negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. The strongest negative correlation was between BMI and FEV1/FVC (P < 0.001) and between BMI, MVV, and Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF25–75%) (P < 0.001). Waist-to-hip ratio in the study population correlated negatively with MVV (P < 0.01), but not with FEV1/FVC. Conclusions: Lung function impairment, particularly decreased MVV and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, is associated with obesity in adolescence. In addition, pulmonary functions deteriorate with increasing obesity in adolescence and correlate negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study reveals another health hazard associated with obesity and highlights the need to aggressively reduce weight at a

  18. The OPTIONS model of sexual risk assessment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lusczakoski, Kathryn D; Rue, Lisa A

    2012-03-01

    Typically, clinical evaluations of adolescents' sexual risk is based on inquiring about past sexual activity, which is limited by not including an adolescent's cognitive decision making regarding their past sexual decisions. This study describes the novel OPTIONS framework for assessing adolescent sexual risk including three general categories of risk (e.g., primary, secondary, and tertiary risk), which is designed to overcome the limitation of action-based assessment of risk and improve practitioners' ability to assess the levels of sexual risk. A convenience sample of 201 older adolescents (18-19 years of age) completed an online version of the Relationship Options Survey (ROS), designed to measure the OPTIONS sexual risk assessment. Bivariate correlation among the subscales functioned in the hypothesized manner, with all correlations being statistically significant. Using the OPTIONS model, 22.4% participants were classified as high risk primary, 7.0% participants were classified as high risk secondary, and 27.4% participants were classified as high risk tertiary. The study provided preliminary evidence for OPTIONS model of sexual assessment, which provides a more tailored evaluation by including cognitive decisions regarding an adolescent's sexual actions.

  19. Hair Cortisol and Its Association With Psychological Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders: A Pilot Study in Adolescent Twins.

    PubMed

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu; McAloney, Kerrie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Frank, Josef; Hansell, Narelle K; Wright, Margaret J; McGrath, John J; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Martin, Nicholas G

    2016-10-01

    Measuring cortisol in hair is a promising method to assess long-term alterations of the biological stress response system, and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) may be altered in psychiatric disorders and in subjects suffering from chronic stress. However, the pattern of associations between HCC, chronic stress and mental health require clarification. Our exploratory study: (1) assessed the association between HCC and perceived stress, symptoms of depression and neuroticism, and the trait extraversion (as a control variable); and (2) made use of the twin design to estimate the genetic and environmental covariance between the variables of interest. Hair samples from 109 (74 female) subjects (age range 12-21 years, mean 15.1) including 8 monozygotic (MZ) and 21 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were analyzed. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale and/or the Daily Life and Stressors Scale, neuroticism, and extraversion with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory or the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. We found a modest positive association between HCC and the three risk factors - perceived stress, symptoms of depression, and neuroticism (r = 0.22-0.33) - but no correlation with extraversion (-0.06). A median split revealed that the associations between HCC and risk factors were stronger (0.47-0.60) in those subjects with HCC >11.36 pg/mg. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic effects underlying HCC are largely shared with those that influence perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. These results of our proof of principle study warrant replication in a bigger sample but raise the interesting question of the direction of causation between these variables. PMID:27374135

  20. [How do nurses in psychiatric institutions assess suicide risk? A survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Rabenschlag, Franziska; Hoffmann, Sven; Kozel, Bernd; Sprenger, Rosmarie

    2013-08-01

    In the interdisciplinary treatment process nurses play an important role, assessing suicide risk. To cope with this responsibility, the use of assessment instruments is recommended. Although a lot of instruments exist to assess the risk of suicide, nurses do not use them consistently. This cross-sectional study seeks to answer the following questions: How do nurses assess the suicidality of patients of psychiatric hospitals in the German speaking part of Switzerland? Do they use assessment instruments and if so, which ones? Ward nurses in every psychiatric hospital (n = 32) were asked about the state of the nursing practice in assessing the suicide risk by means of an electronic questionnaire. The following results emerged: Nurses use instruments to assess suicide risk on about half of the wards (n = 119, 50.63%). 13% of the mentioned instruments are research-based. Nurses mostly assess suicide endangerment in the case of a presumed danger, less often at admission and least often during the discharge process. As suicidality is assessed mostly when nurses assume a danger in this study, and due to the fact that suicides most frequently occur shortly prior to or during the discharge process, an expansion of or the introduction of the assessment is recommended before the discharge process. PMID:23876661

  1. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  2. Self-Control Assessments and Implications for Predicting Adolescent Offending.

    PubMed

    Fine, Adam; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Although low self-control is consistently related to adolescent offending, it is unknown whether self-report measures or laboratory behavior tasks yield better predictive utility, or if a combination yields incremental predictive power. This is particularly important because developmental theory indicates that self-control is related to adolescent offending and, consequently, risk assessments rely on self-control measures. The present study (a) examines relationships between self-reported self-control on the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory with Go/No-Go response inhibition, and (b) compares the predictive utility of both assessment strategies for short- and long-term adolescent reoffending. It uses longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study of male, first-time adolescent offenders ages 13-17 (N = 930; 46 % Hispanic/Latino, 37 % Black/African-American, 15 % non-Hispanic White, 2 % other race). The results of the study indicate that the measures are largely unrelated, and that the self-report measure is a better indicator of both short- and long-term reoffending. The laboratory task measure does not add value to what is already predicted by the self-report measure. Implications for assessing self-control during adolescence and consequences of assessment strategy are discussed. PMID:26792266

  3. Clinical validity of a dimensional assessment of self- and interpersonal functioning in adolescent inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Blanchard, Mark; Baity, Matthew R.; Defife, Jared A; Stein, Michelle B.; Siefert, Caleb J.; Sinclair, Samuel J.; Zodan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) is a clinical rating system assessing eight domains of self and interpersonal relational experience which can be applied to narrative response data (e.g., Thematic Apperception Test [TAT; Murray, 1943]; early memories narratives) or oral data (e.g., psychotherapy narratives, Relationship Anecdotal Paradigms). In the current study, seventy-two psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents consented and were rated by their individual and group therapist using the SCORS-G. Clinicians also rated therapy engagement, personality functioning, quality of peer relationships, school functioning, global assessment of functioning (GAF), history of eating disordered behavior and history of nonsuicidal self-injury. SCORS-G composite ratings achieved an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability and were associated with theoretically predicted variables (e.g., engagement in therapy; history of nonsuicidal self-injury). SCORS-G ratings also incrementally improved the prediction of therapy engagement and global functioning beyond what was accounted for by GAF scores. This study further demonstrates the clinical utility of the SCORS-G with adolescents. PMID:25010080

  4. Teaching evidence-based approaches to suicide risk assessment and prevention that enhance psychiatric training.

    PubMed

    Zisook, Sidney; Anzia, Joan; Atri, Ashutosh; Baroni, Argelinda; Clayton, Paula; Haller, Ellen; Lomax, James W; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Pato, Michele; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Prabhakar, Deepak; Sen, Srijan; Thrall, Grace; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2013-04-01

    This report describes one in a series of National Institute of Health (NIH) supported conferences aimed at enhancing the ability of leaders of psychiatry residency training to teach research literacy and produce both clinician-scholars and physician-scientists in their home programs. Most psychiatry training directors would not consider themselves research scholars or even well-schooled in evidence based practice. Yet they are the front line educators to prepare tomorrow's psychiatrists to keep up with, critically evaluate, and in some cases actually participate in the discovery of new and emerging psychiatric knowledge. This annual conference is meant to help psychiatry training directors become more enthusiastic, knowledgeable and pedagogically prepared to create research-friendly environments at their home institutions, so that more trainees will, in turn, become research literate, practice evidence-based psychiatry, and enter research fellowships and careers. The overall design of each year's meeting is a series of plenary sessions introducing participants to new information pertaining to the core theme of that year's meeting, integrated with highly interactive small group teaching sessions designed to consolidate knowledge and provide pragmatic teaching tools appropriate for residents at various levels of training. The theme of each meeting, selected to be a compelling and contemporary clinical problem, serves as a vehicle to capture training directors' attention while teaching relevant brain science, research literacy and effective pedagogy. This report describes the content and assessment of the 2011 annual pre-meeting, "Evidence-based Approaches to Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: Insights from the Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences for use in Psychiatry Residency Training." PMID:22995449

  5. Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

  6. Neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments following bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Aono, Michitaka; Iga, Jun-Ichi; Ueno, Shu-Ichi; Agawa, Masahito; Tsuda, Toshio; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    The physical benefits of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are well documented, but the mental benefits are uncertain, particularly in Japanese patients. This study evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological characteristics before and after STN-DBS surgery in Japanese PD patients. PD patients (n=13, age 67.0 ± 7.8 years) were evaluated pre-surgery (baseline) and at 1 and 6 months post-surgery by two trained psychiatrists. The motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. The neuropsychological and psychiatric tests performed were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The UPDRS motor score (p<0.001) and HAM-A score (p=0.004) showed significant improvement at 1 month post-surgery, but a significant decline was observed in the WCST total error (p=0.005) and the semantic VFT score (p<0.001). The phonetic VFT also showed a substantial decline (p=0.015) at 1 month post-surgery. At 6 months post-surgery, the improvement in the UPDRS motor score was maintained, and the scores on the neuropsychological and psychiatric tests had returned to baseline. Although bilateral STN-DBS did not appear to have long-term effects on neuropsychological and psychiatric outcomes, the microlesion effects associated with STN-DBS appear to increase the risk of transient cognitive and psychiatric complications. These complications should be monitored by careful observation of neurological and psychiatric symptoms.

  7. The potential consequences of informal interpreting practices for assessment of patients in a South African psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Sanja; Swartz, Leslie; Dowling, Tessa; Dlali, Mawande; Chiliza, Bonginkosi

    2014-04-01

    In South Africa health care practitioners are commonly professionals who speak only one, or at most two, of the languages spoken by their patients. This provides for language provision challenges, since many patients are not proficient in English or Afrikaans and ad hoc and haphazard arrangements are made for interpreting by untrained personnel. As part of a larger study (conducted in 2010) in a public psychiatric hospital, we report here on the potential consequences for diagnostic assessments of 13 psychiatric evaluations mediated by ad hoc interpreters who were employed as health care workers and household aides. The psychiatric evaluations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The first author checked for accuracy of transcription and translations, and the two members of the author team who are both senior African language academics rechecked transcription and translation. We used the typology developed by Vasquez and Javier (1991) to study interpreter errors (i.e. omissions, additions and substitutions). All errors were independently rated by a senior psychiatrist and a senior clinical psychologist to determine whether the errors were likely to have a bearing on clinical decisions concerning the patient and to rate whether errors deemed clinically significant contributed to making the patient appear more ill psychiatrically, or less ill. Of the 57 errors recorded, 46% were rated as likely to have an impact on the goal of the clinical session. Raters concurred that the clinically significant errors contributed towards potentially making the patient look more psychiatrically ill. Detailed analyses of evaluations demonstrate the complexity of informal interpreter positioning regarding issues of diagnosis and cultural factors in illness. Evaluations conducted where clinicians and interpreters are not trained in language and interpreting issues may create a distorted picture of the patients' mental health conditions.

  8. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sandeep Kumar; Singh, Paramjit; Gargi, Parshotam D.; Goyal, Samta; Garg, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of psychiatric illness in correctional settings is significantly elevated, with higher than community rates reported for most mental disorders. Aims: (1) To examine the socio-demographic profile of convicted prisoners. (2) To evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in convicted prisoners. Materials and Methods: 500 convicts were assessed for psychiatric morbidity with the help of (a) Socio-demographic proforma, (b) Pareek Udai and Trivedi G's socio-economic status scale (rural) (household schedule), (c) Kuppuswamy's economic status scale (urban) and (d) Present State Examination (PSE). Results: 23.8% of the convicted prisoners were suffering from psychiatric illness excluding substance abuse. 56.4% of the prisoners had history of substance abuse / dependence prior to incarceration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a substantial burden of psychiatric morbidity exists in the prison population of India and the burden of psychiatric illness in this vulnerable and marginalized population poses a serious challenge to psychiatrists. PMID:22135446

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents and Use for Youth with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines psychometric properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) in two clinical samples: one child sample (n = 110) and one adolescent sample (n = 178). The purpose of the study was to examine the distribution characteristics and internal consistency of RSCA scale, subscale, and index scores for youth who…

  10. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs.

  11. Assessing neurocognitive function in psychiatric disorders: A roadmap for enhancing consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmari, Susanne E.; Eich, Teal; Cebenoyan, Deniz; Smith, Edward E.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2014-01-01

    It has been challenging to identify core neurocognitive deficits that are consistent across multiple studies in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In turn, this leads to difficulty in translating findings from human studies into animal models to dissect pathophysiology. In this article, we use primary data from a working memory task in OCD patients to illustrate this issue. Working memory deficiencies have been proposed as an explanatory model for the evolution of checking compulsions in a subset of OCD patients. However, findings have been mixed due to variability in task design, examination of spatial vs. verbal working memory, and heterogeneity in patient populations. Two major questions therefore remain: first, do OCD patients have disturbances in working memory? Second, if there are working memory deficits in OCD, do they cause checking compulsions?. In order to investigate these questions, we tested 19 unmedicated OCD patients and 23 matched healthy controls using a verbal working memory task that has increased difficulty/task-load compared to classic digit-span tasks. OCD patients did not significantly differ in their performance on this task compared to healthy controls, regardless of the outcome measure used (i.e. reaction time or accuracy). Exploratory analyses suggest that a subset of patients with predominant doubt/checking symptoms may have decreased memory confidence despite normal performance on trials with the highest working memory load. These results suggest that other etiologic factors for checking compulsions should be considered. In addition, they serve as a touchstone for discussion, and therefore help us to generate a roadmap for increasing consensus in the assessment of neurocognitive function in psychiatric disorders. PMID:24994503

  12. Next-Generation Psychiatric Assessment: Using Smartphone Sensors to Monitor Behavior and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Scherer, Emily A.; Wang, Rui; Xie, Haiyi; Campbell, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    in loneliness were associated with sensor-derived kinesthetic activity (p<.01). Conclusions and implications for practice Smartphones can be harnessed as instruments for unobtrusive monitoring of several behavioral indicators of mental health. Creative leveraging of smartphone sensing will create novel opportunities for close-to-invisible psychiatric assessment at a scale and efficiency that far exceed what is currently feasible with existing assessment technologies. PMID:25844912

  13. Outcome assessment of the VADO approach in psychiatric rehabilitation: a partially randomised multicentric trial

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent studies on representative samples of psychiatric services have shown that low proportions of cases received effective rehabilitation interventions. The following are likely to be the most important causes: the scarcity of mental health workers trained in social and work skills strategies and the absence of a structured framework to formulate rehabilitation practices. The aim of this study was to assess if a specific structured planning and evaluation manual, called VADO (Valutazione delle Abilità e Definizione degli Obiettivi – in english: Skills Assessment and Definition of Goals), is more effective than routine interventions in reducing disability in patients with schizophrenia. Method Each of 10 mental health services were invited to recruit 10 patients with a schizophrenic disorder. Altogether 98 patients were recruited. Of these, 62 patients were randomly allocated to the intervention/experimental or a control group. The remaining group of 36 patients was not randomised and it was considered as a parallel effectiveness study. Assessment measures at the beginning of the study and at the one-year follow-up included the FPS scale of social functioning and the BPRS 4.0. Between group (VADO vs. Routine) and time effects were examined with ANOVA, Chi-square or Fisher exact. Clinical "improvement" was defined as an increase of at least ten points on the FPS or a decrease of at least 20% on BPRS scores. Results 31 of the 62 randomized patients received the experimental interventions, while 31 followed the routine ones. At follow-up, the experimental group showed statistically and clinically greater improvements in psychopathology and social functioning. Better outcomes of both social functioning and symptom severity were observed in non randomised patients (parallel effectiveness study). Conclusion The results suggest that setting personalised and measurable objectives, as recommended by the manual, can improve the outcome of rehabilitation of

  14. Clinical Features, Psychiatric Assessment, and Longitudinal Outcome of Suicide Attempters Admitted to a Tertiary Emergency Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alcinéia Donizeti; Sponholz, Alcion; Mantovani, Célia; Pazin-Filho, Antônio; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa; Botega, Neury José; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize admissions to an emergency hospital due to suicide attempts and verify outcomes in 2 years. Data were collected from medical records and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The sample consisted of 412 patients (58.7% women; mean age = 32.6 years old, SD = 14.3). Self-poisoning was the most frequent method (84.0%), and they were diagnosed mainly as depressive (40.3%) and borderline personality disorders (19.1%). Previous suicide attempts and current psychiatric treatment were reported by, respectively, 32.0% and 28.4%. Fifteen patients (3.6%, 9 males) died during hospitalization. At discharge, 79.3% were referred to community-based psychiatric services. Being male (OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.25-3.55), using violent methods (i.e., hanging, firearms, and knives) (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.02-3.75) and psychiatric treatment history (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.53-4.36) were predictors for psychiatric hospitalization. Of 258 patients followed for 2 years, 10 (3.9%) died (3 suicide), and 24 (9.3%) undertook new suicide attempts. Patients with a history of psychiatric treatment had higher risks of new suicide attempts (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.65). Suicide attempters admitted to emergency hospitals exhibit severe psychiatric disorders, and despite interventions, they continue to present high risks for suicide attempts and death. PMID:25961847

  15. Alternative methods of nutritional status assessment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jorga, Jagoda; Marinković, Jelena; Kentrić, Brana; Hetherington, Marion

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the validity of the silhouette rating scale and reported values of height and weight in assessing weight status in a group of adolescents. 245 adolescents, students of the Belgrade elementary school, aged 11-14 (12.33 +/- 0.50), were involved. Weight status was assessed by anthropometry, self-reported height and weight and by figure rating scale. From the results obtained significant differences emerged as a function of weight status. The majority of normal weight adolescents were accurate in reporting their body size. The percentage of under-reporters was significantly higher in the overweight/obese group than in the normal weight group (chi2 = 9.741, p = 0.003). The correlation between BMI, both measured and self-reported, and perceived body size was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001). Self-reported weight and height appears acceptable for estimating weight status in normal weight adolescents, but not in those who are overweight or obese. This study also demonstrated that adolescents can estimate with some accuracy their body size using figure ratings scales.

  16. [Treatment-refractory OCD from the viewpoint of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: impact of comorbid child and adolescent psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Kano, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    More than a half of patients with OCD are classified as early-onset. Early-onset OCD has been indicated to be associated with a greater OCD global severity and more frequently comorbid with tic disorders and other obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders, compared with late-onset OCD. Early-onset OCD patients with severe impairment caused by both OC symptoms and comorbid OC spectrum disorders may be identified as being refractory. Tic disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are child and adolescent psychiatric disorders included in OC spectrum disorders. OCD comorbid with chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome (TS) is specified as tic-related OCD. Tic-related OCD is characterized by the high prevalence of early-onset and sensory phenomena including "just right" feeling. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) such as head banging and body punching often occur in patients with TS. The patients' concern about SIB is likely to trigger them, suggesting that an impulse-control problem is a feature of TS. More than a half of patients with TS have OC symptoms. When OC symptoms in patients with TS were assessed with a dimensional approach, symmetry dimension symptoms were found most frequently over the lifetime. On the other hand, the severity of aggression dimension symptoms was the most stable during the course among all dimensions. Aggression dimension symptoms also exhibited a close relationship with impairment of global functioning and sensory phenomena. This tendency may be characteristic of tic-related OCD. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between OC symptoms and restricted, repetitive behaviors which are core symptoms of ASD. Recently, ego-dystonia and insight are considered non-essential to diagnose OCD, whereas high-functioning and/or atypical ASD is recognized as being more prevalent than previously estimated. In this situation, attention to comorbidity of OCD and ASD is increasing, and the prevalence of OCD in children and adolescents with

  17. Child and adolescent psychiatric nursing and the 'plastic man': reflections on the implementation of change drawing insights from Lewin's theory of planned change.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Denise; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2012-06-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatric nursing (CAPN) as a discipline has been remarkably slow in the uptake of high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) as an education tool. Assuming HFHPS has potential use, and the issue is one of change management, this paper speculates about how Lewin's paradigm for Planned Change might provide guidance to the specialty discipline of CAPN in development of strategies to promote adoption of HFHPS to education of pre-registration nurses. Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) was a seminal theorist of change, whose pioneering work has had significant impact across many disciplines. His theory of Planned Change has four components - field theory, group dynamics, action research and the three-step model of change. Each component is considered briefly and then combined within an example of application. PMID:22800392

  18. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common clinical problem in children and adolescents. Oppositionality and associated types of aggressive behavior are among the most common referral problems in child psychiatry. Grouped among the disruptive behavior disorders, ODD is frequently comorbid with other psychiatric conditions and often precedes…

  19. Assessing Friendship Motivation During Preadolescence and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Jacques F.; Schneider, Barry H.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial psychometric properties of the Friendship Motivation Scale for Children, a new scale designed to assess four dimensions of self-determination (i.e., intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation) in preadolescents and early adolescents' desire for friendships. The…

  20. Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Brett R.; Mayfield, Joan W.; Kuhn, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidelines for counselors interested in developing their own assessment procedure to evaluate child and adolescent sleep disturbance. Guidelines include reviewing the developmental and medical history, screening for parental psychopathology, obtaining a child behavior rating scale and sleep diary, and conducting a semistructured clinical…

  1. Texting to increase adolescent physical activity: Feasibility assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feasibility trials assess whether a behavior change program warrants a definite trial evaluation. This paper reports the feasibility of an intervention consisting of Self Determination Theory-informed text messages, pedometers, and goal prompts to increase adolescent physical activity. A 4-group ran...

  2. Assessing Aggressive Communication in Adolescents: Problems and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rancer, Andrew S.; Avtgis, Theodore A.; Kosberg, Roberta L.

    Recently, training efforts have been undertaken to reduce the negative outcomes associated with increased verbal aggressiveness and accentuate the positive outcomes associated with increased argumentativeness within adolescent populations. This paper presents both positive and negative aspects of assessing aggressive communication predispositions…

  3. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  4. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  5. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  6. Deviant Adolescent Subcultures: Assessment Strategies and Clinical Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents assessment strategies, preventive methods, and clinical interventions to assist clinicians working with teenagers involved with deviant subcultures: Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Considers role of alienation as contributing factor in adolescents' participation in these subcultures. Advises therapists…

  7. A Process Model for Assessing Adolescent Risk for Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoelb, Matt; Chiriboga, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    This comprehensive assessment process model includes primary, secondary, and situational risk factors and their combined implications and significance in determining an adolescent's level or risk for suicide. Empirical data and clinical intuition are integrated to form a working client model that guides the professional in continuously reassessing…

  8. Does Familiarity Breed Complacency? HIV Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Sexual Risk Behavior of Psychiatrically Referred Latino Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Cheryl; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Moreau, Donna

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the association between sexual risk behaviors of 110 psychiatrically referred Latino girls aged 13-18 and their HIV knowledge. Questionnaires completed by the girls indicated that girls engaging in higher levels of sexual activity had clearly acquired accurate knowledge concerning HIV transmission but had not integrated it into…

  9. The Heavy Burden of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Large Comparative Study of a Psychiatrically Referred Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Petty, Carter; Wozniak, Janet; Henin, Aude; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Kotarski, Meghan; Walls, Sarah; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to systematically examine patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in referred youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Consecutively referred children and adolescents to a pediatric psychopharmacology program were assessed with…

  10. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  11. Psychiatric and Medical Disorders in the after Math of the Uttarakhand Disaster: Assessment, Approach, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Channaveerachari, Naveen Kumar; Raj, Aneel; Joshi, Suvarna; Paramita, Prajna; Somanathan, Revathi; Chandran, Dhanya; Kasi, Sekar; Bangalore, N. Roopesh; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the descriptive data on the frequency of medical and psychiatric morbidity and also to discuss various pertinent issues relevant to the disaster management, the future challenges and psychosocial needs of the 2013 floods in Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Observation was undertaken by the disaster management team of National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in the worst affected four districts of Uttarakhand. Qualified psychiatrists diagnosed the patients using the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Data were collected by direct observation, interview of the survivors, group sessions, individual key-informant interview, individual session, and group interventions. Results: Patients with physical health problems formed the majority of treatment seekers (39.6%) in this report. Only about 2% had disaster induced psychiatric diagnoses. As was expected, minor mental disorders in the form of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders formed majority of the psychiatric morbidity. Substance use disorders appear to be very highly prevalent in the community; however, we were not able to assess the morbidity systematically. Conclusions: The mental health infrastructure and manpower is abysmally inadequate. There is an urgent need to implement the National Mental Health Program to increase the mental health infrastructure and services in the four major disaster-affected districts. PMID:25969596

  12. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  13. [Decision behavior and task orientation of adolescent psychiatric patients--on the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of a questionnaire for action control].

    PubMed

    Hobrücker, B; Kühl, R

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of a questionnaire on action control. The present study deals with the applicability of the "theory of action control" (Kuhl, 1983) to psychiatric disorders in adolescents. A questionnaire on action vs state orientation in planning situations (HOP scale; Kuhl, 1985) was given to adolescent inpatients. The sample was subdivided into an anorectic group and by extreme-group clustering, a group with severe conduct disorders and a clinical control group. The hypothesis of high scores on action orientation on the HOP scale was confirmed for the anorectic patients but not for those with conduct disorders. A factor analysis of the HOP scale items yielded a three-factor solution. For two of the three factors differences between the clinical groups were found: The anorectic patients showed a high level of action orientation in situations with intense task commitment, whereas the patients with conduct disorders were mainly action-oriented in situations with forced decisions. With some restrictions the findings can be interpreted as clinical validation of the questionnaire.

  14. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  15. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always. PMID:11993283

  16. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always.

  17. Therapeutic assessment with an adolescent: choosing connections over substances.

    PubMed

    Austin, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Lauren S; Tharinger, Deborah J

    2012-01-01

    This case study provides an in-depth example of a comprehensive therapeutic assessment with an adolescent (TA-A) and his parents. The TA-A addressed parental concerns about their son's drug experimentation as well as the adolescent's own private questions about his distinctiveness from others, all set against a backdrop of ongoing parental conflict and poor communication. The TA-A process and how it is specifically tailored to balance the needs of adolescents and their parents is discussed. Subsequently, each step of TA-A is illustrated through the case study. Research findings at the conclusion of the assessment and at follow-up indicated significant decreases in internalizing symptomology and school problems, increases in self-esteem and self-reliance, and improved family functioning as reported by the adolescent. At follow-up, the father spoke of developing a more assertive parenting approach and successful follow-through on recommendations. This case study provides a template for clinicians interested in conducting TA-A. PMID:22475356

  18. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale - Thai Version: Translation and Assessment of Psychometric Properties Among Psychiatric Outpatients in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wong-Anuchit, Choochart; Mills, Andrew C; Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle; Rujkorakarn, Darunee; Kerdpongbunchote, Chusri; Panyayong, Benjaporn

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the translation of the English Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale into Thai and assessment of its psychometric properties. After forward- and backward-translation, Thai experts completed the content validity index with item agreements of .86 to 1.00. Data were collected from 390 psychiatric clinic patients in central Thailand using systematic random sampling. Unweighted least squares factor analysis with Promax rotation identified five subscales. Cronbach's alpha for scale reliability was .88, and correlations for construct validity ranged from r=.55 to .69. These findings support the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the scale. PMID:27455917

  19. How neuroscience and behavioral genetics improve psychiatric assessment: report on a violent murder case.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Davide; Pellegrini, Silvia; Mariotti, Veronica; Cozza, Arianna; Mechelli, Andrea; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Pietrini, Pietro; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Despite the advances in the understanding of neural and genetic foundations of violence, the investigation of the biological bases of a mental disorder is rarely included in psychiatric evaluation of mental insanity. Here we report on a case in which cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics methods were applied to a psychiatric forensic evaluation conducted on a young woman, J.F., tried for a violent and impulsive murder. The defendant had a history of multidrug and alcohol abuse and non-forensic clinical evaluation concluded for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. We analyzed the defendant's brain structure in order to underlie possible brain structural abnormalities associated with pathological impulsivity. Voxel-based morphometry indexed a reduced gray matter volume in the left prefrontal cortex, in a region specifically associated with response inhibition. Furthermore, J.F.'s DNA was genotyped in order to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with various forms of violence and impulsive behavior. Five polymorphisms that are known to be associated with impulsivity, violence, and other severe psychiatric illnesses were identified in J.F.'s DNA. Taken together, these data provided evidence for the biological correlates of a mental disorder characterized by high impulsivity and aggressive tendencies. Our claim is that the use of neuroscience and behavioral genetics do not change the rationale underlying the determination of criminal liability, which must be based on a causal link between the mental disorder and the crime. Rather, their use is crucial in providing objective data on the biological bases of a defendant's mental disorder.

  20. A neurolaw perspective on psychiatric assessments of criminal responsibility: decision-making, mental disorder, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Meynen, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    In some criminal law cases, the defendant is assessed by a forensic psychiatrist or psychologist within the context of an insanity defense. In this article I argue that specific neuroscientific research can be helpful in improving the quality of such a forensic psychiatric evaluation. This will be clarified in two ways. Firstly, we shall adopt the approach of understanding these forensic assessments as evaluations of the influence of a mental disorder on a defendant's decision-making process. Secondly, I shall point to the fact that researchers in neuroscience have performed various studies over recent years on the influence of specific mental disorders on a patient's decision-making. I argue that such research, especially if modified to decision-making in criminal scenarios, could be very helpful to forensic psychiatric assessments. This kind of research aims to provide insights not merely into the presence of a mental disorder, but also into the actual impact of mental disorders on the decisions defendants have made in regard to their actions.

  1. [Factors influencing the course and duration of inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric treatment: between empiricism and clinical reality].

    PubMed

    Branik, Emil

    2003-09-01

    In the last two decades considerable changes influenced the scope of inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry. Proceeding from a literature review dilemmas between available research data and clinical practice will be pointed out. Proposals will be made to take into account the complex developmental processes, the individuality and the social context by psychic impaired children and adolescents requiring hospitalisation. This could improve the transfer of research findings into the clinical practice. It will be argued against a confusion of economical interests with research findings.

  2. The National Center on Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health Study of Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Native Hawaiian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Naleen N.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; McDermott, John F., Jr.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; McArdle, John J.; Bell, Cathy K.; Carlton, Barry S.; Miyamoto, Robin H.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Else, Iwalani R. N.; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Darmal, Arsalan; Yates, Alayne; Waldron, Jane A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence rates of disorders among a community-based sample of Hawaiian youths were determined and compared to previously published epidemiological studies. Method: Using a two-phase design, 7,317 adolescents were surveyed (60% participation rate), from which 619 were selected in a modified random sample during the 1992-1993 to…

  3. A One-Session Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk-Reduction Intervention in Adolescents with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurstone, Christian; Riggs, Paula D.; Klein, Constance; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore change in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among teens in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: From December 2002 to August 2004, 50 adolescents (13-19 years) with major depressive disorder, conduct disorder, and one or more non-nicotine SUD completed the Teen Health Survey (THS) at the…

  4. Commentary: Leveraging discovery science to advance child and adolescent psychiatric research--a commentary on Zhao and Castellanos 2016.

    PubMed

    Mennes, Maarten

    2016-03-01

    'Big Data' and 'Population Imaging' are becoming integral parts of inspiring research aimed at delineating the biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. The scientific strategies currently associated with big data and population imaging are typically embedded in so-called discovery science, thereby pointing to the hypothesis-generating rather than hypothesis-testing nature of discovery science. In this issue, Yihong Zhao and F. Xavier Castellanos provide a compelling overview of strategies for discovery science aimed at progressing our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, they focus on efforts in genetic and neuroimaging research, which, together with extended behavioural testing, form the main pillars of psychopathology research.

  5. [The psychiatric, psychological and addiction evaluation in bariatric surgery candidates: What should we assess, why and how?].

    PubMed

    Brunault, Paul; Gohier, Bénédicte; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Bourbao-Tournois, Céline; Frammery, Julie; Réveillère, Christian; Ballon, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is indicated in obese patients with a BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) or ≥ 35 kg/m(2) with serious comorbidities, in second intention in patients who failed to achieve significant weight loss after a well-managed medical, nutritional and psychotherapeutic treatment for 6 to 12 months, and in patients who are aware of the consequences of bariatric surgery and who agree with a long term medical and surgical follow-up. Such a treatment requires a preoperative multidisciplinary assessment and management, which includes a mandatory consultation with a psychiatrist or a psychologist that should be member of the multidisciplinary staff and participate in these staffs. Although one of this consultation's aim is to screen for the few patients who for which surgery is contra-indicated, in most cases, the main aim of this assessment is to screen for and manage psychiatric and psychopathologic disorders that could be temporary contra-indication, because these disorders could lead to poorer postoperative outcome when untreated. By explaining to the patient how these disorders could affect postoperative outcome and which benefits he could retrieve from their management, the patient will increase his motivation for change and he will be more likely to seek professional help for these disorders. In all cases, a systematic examination of the patient's personality and his/her ability to understand the postoperative instructions is essential before surgery because clinicians should check that the patient is able to be adherent to postoperative instructions. In addition to clinical interview, use of self-administered questionnaires before the consultation might help to determine which psychiatric or psychopathologic factors should be more closely screened during the consultation. Psychiatric disorders and addictions are highly prevalent in this population (e.g., mood and anxiety disorders, binge eating disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, addictions, personality

  6. [The psychiatric, psychological and addiction evaluation in bariatric surgery candidates: What should we assess, why and how?].

    PubMed

    Brunault, Paul; Gohier, Bénédicte; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Bourbao-Tournois, Céline; Frammery, Julie; Réveillère, Christian; Ballon, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is indicated in obese patients with a BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) or ≥ 35 kg/m(2) with serious comorbidities, in second intention in patients who failed to achieve significant weight loss after a well-managed medical, nutritional and psychotherapeutic treatment for 6 to 12 months, and in patients who are aware of the consequences of bariatric surgery and who agree with a long term medical and surgical follow-up. Such a treatment requires a preoperative multidisciplinary assessment and management, which includes a mandatory consultation with a psychiatrist or a psychologist that should be member of the multidisciplinary staff and participate in these staffs. Although one of this consultation's aim is to screen for the few patients who for which surgery is contra-indicated, in most cases, the main aim of this assessment is to screen for and manage psychiatric and psychopathologic disorders that could be temporary contra-indication, because these disorders could lead to poorer postoperative outcome when untreated. By explaining to the patient how these disorders could affect postoperative outcome and which benefits he could retrieve from their management, the patient will increase his motivation for change and he will be more likely to seek professional help for these disorders. In all cases, a systematic examination of the patient's personality and his/her ability to understand the postoperative instructions is essential before surgery because clinicians should check that the patient is able to be adherent to postoperative instructions. In addition to clinical interview, use of self-administered questionnaires before the consultation might help to determine which psychiatric or psychopathologic factors should be more closely screened during the consultation. Psychiatric disorders and addictions are highly prevalent in this population (e.g., mood and anxiety disorders, binge eating disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, addictions, personality

  7. Brief Report: Improving the Validity of Assessments of Adolescents' Feelings of Privacy Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years,…

  8. How Neuroscience and Behavioral Genetics Improve Psychiatric Assessment: Report on a Violent Murder Case

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Pellegrini, Silvia; Mariotti, Veronica; Cozza, Arianna; Mechelli, Andrea; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Pietrini, Pietro; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Despite the advances in the understanding of neural and genetic foundations of violence, the investigation of the biological bases of a mental disorder is rarely included in psychiatric evaluation of mental insanity. Here we report on a case in which cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics methods were applied to a psychiatric forensic evaluation conducted on a young woman, J.F., tried for a violent and impulsive murder. The defendant had a history of multidrug and alcohol abuse and non-forensic clinical evaluation concluded for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. We analyzed the defendant's brain structure in order to underlie possible brain structural abnormalities associated with pathological impulsivity. Voxel-based morphometry indexed a reduced gray matter volume in the left prefrontal cortex, in a region specifically associated with response inhibition. Furthermore, J.F.'s DNA was genotyped in order to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with various forms of violence and impulsive behavior. Five polymorphisms that are known to be associated with impulsivity, violence, and other severe psychiatric illnesses were identified in J.F.'s DNA. Taken together, these data provided evidence for the biological correlates of a mental disorder characterized by high impulsivity and aggressive tendencies. Our claim is that the use of neuroscience and behavioral genetics do not change the rationale underlying the determination of criminal liability, which must be based on a causal link between the mental disorder and the crime. Rather, their use is crucial in providing objective data on the biological bases of a defendant's mental disorder. PMID:21031162

  9. Sociocultural factors in the psychiatric assessment of black patients: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1983-08-01

    Accurately diagnosing psychiatric disorders in black patients has been a controversial subject. Criticism has been made that blacks are more likely to receive a diagnosis of psychosis, eg, paranoid schizophrenia. With proper use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III), the author anticipates greater diagnostic accuracy with blacks. The multiaxial perspectives of DSM III, particularly axis IV, help resolve some critical aspects of diagnostic difficulties. This case illustrates the diagnostic errors frequently made when variables of culture, ethnicity, and psychosocial factors are minimized.

  10. The Next Big Thing in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Interventions to Prevent and Intervene Early in Psychiatric Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Erica Z; Tully, Laura M; Niendam, Tara A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2015-09-01

    The last two decades have marked tremendous progress in our ability to prevent and intervene early in psychiatric illnesses. The interventions described in this article range from established, empirically-supported treatments to creative interventions early in their development and deployment. Some of these interventions are low-technology programs delivered in social settings (such as schools), and some rely on sophisticated emerging technologies such as neuroimaging. This article reviews 4 preventative interventions: 1) The use of structural brain imaging to identify children at risk for familial depression who are most likely to benefit from preventative cognitive behavioral therapy 2) The Good Behavior Game, a school based program that, when implemented in 1st grade classrooms, cut the incidence of substance use disorders in students in half when those students were 19 years old, 3) The SPARX video game, which has the potential to be an accessible, appealing, and cost-effective treatment for the thousands of teens affected by mild to moderate depressive disorders, and 4) Intensive psychosocial treatments which can reduce the progression of from the ultra high risk state to the first episode psychosis by 50% over 12 months. All of these interventions have tremendous potential to reduce the suffering and disability caused by psychiatric illness to both children and adults.

  11. The Next Big Thing in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Interventions to Prevent and Intervene Early in Psychiatric Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Erica Z; Tully, Laura M; Niendam, Tara A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2015-09-01

    The last two decades have marked tremendous progress in our ability to prevent and intervene early in psychiatric illnesses. The interventions described in this article range from established, empirically-supported treatments to creative interventions early in their development and deployment. Some of these interventions are low-technology programs delivered in social settings (such as schools), and some rely on sophisticated emerging technologies such as neuroimaging. This article reviews 4 preventative interventions: 1) The use of structural brain imaging to identify children at risk for familial depression who are most likely to benefit from preventative cognitive behavioral therapy 2) The Good Behavior Game, a school based program that, when implemented in 1st grade classrooms, cut the incidence of substance use disorders in students in half when those students were 19 years old, 3) The SPARX video game, which has the potential to be an accessible, appealing, and cost-effective treatment for the thousands of teens affected by mild to moderate depressive disorders, and 4) Intensive psychosocial treatments which can reduce the progression of from the ultra high risk state to the first episode psychosis by 50% over 12 months. All of these interventions have tremendous potential to reduce the suffering and disability caused by psychiatric illness to both children and adults. PMID:26300034

  12. Psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric power and psychiatric abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric abuse, such as we usually associate with practices in the former Soviet Union, is related not to the misuse of psychiatric diagnoses, but to the political power intrinsic to the social role of the psychiatrist in totalitarian and democratic societies alike. Some reflections are offered on the modern, therapeutic state's proclivity to treat adults as patients rather than citizens, disjoin rights from responsibilities, and thus corrupt the language of political-philosophical discourse. PMID:7996558

  13. Parent-youth agreement on symptoms and diagnosis: assessment with a diagnostic interview in an adolescent inpatient clinical population.

    PubMed

    Lauth, Bertrand; Arnkelsson, Guðmundur B; Magnússon, Páll; Skarphéðinsson, Guðmundur Á; Ferrari, Pierre; Pétursson, Hannes

    2010-12-01

    Diagnostic information on adolescents may be elicited from both youths and their parents, especially for depressive and suicidal symptomatology. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between parent and adolescent reports of major psychiatric disorders, at the diagnostic and at the symptom level, in a severely affected inpatient clinical population. 64 parent-adolescent pairs were interviewed separately with the semi-structured diagnostic interview Kiddie-SADS-PL. Symptomatology was also assessed with 11 self-report and parent-report scales, all translated, adapted and in most cases validated in Iceland. A total of 25 subscales were included to assess emotional dimensions such as depression or anxiety and cognitive dimensions such as attention deficit or self-concept. Good agreement was found for social phobia and fair agreement for generalized anxiety disorder. Although parent-youth agreement was poor in most cases at the symptoms level, significant correlations indicated consistency for most severity scores, except those related to depressive symptomatology, attention deficit, separation anxiety or conduct disorder. The low agreement between reports of suicidal ideation is in line with results from previous studies and suggests that parents might under- or over-estimate this symptomatology. The combination of data obtained with diagnostic interviews and rating-scales confirmed results from prior empirical work, giving greater weight to parents' reports of observable behavior and to adolescents' reports of subjective experiences, especially depressive symptomatology. Our findings suggest that both parent and child informants are necessary to obtain adequate assessments in adolescents. Further research should explore the correspondence between discrepant diagnoses and external criteria such as parental psychopathology or parent-child relationships and attachment. Psychoanalysis could benefit from cognitive neuroscience and use cognitive

  14. Parent-youth agreement on symptoms and diagnosis: assessment with a diagnostic interview in an adolescent inpatient clinical population.

    PubMed

    Lauth, Bertrand; Arnkelsson, Guðmundur B; Magnússon, Páll; Skarphéðinsson, Guðmundur Á; Ferrari, Pierre; Pétursson, Hannes

    2010-12-01

    Diagnostic information on adolescents may be elicited from both youths and their parents, especially for depressive and suicidal symptomatology. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between parent and adolescent reports of major psychiatric disorders, at the diagnostic and at the symptom level, in a severely affected inpatient clinical population. 64 parent-adolescent pairs were interviewed separately with the semi-structured diagnostic interview Kiddie-SADS-PL. Symptomatology was also assessed with 11 self-report and parent-report scales, all translated, adapted and in most cases validated in Iceland. A total of 25 subscales were included to assess emotional dimensions such as depression or anxiety and cognitive dimensions such as attention deficit or self-concept. Good agreement was found for social phobia and fair agreement for generalized anxiety disorder. Although parent-youth agreement was poor in most cases at the symptoms level, significant correlations indicated consistency for most severity scores, except those related to depressive symptomatology, attention deficit, separation anxiety or conduct disorder. The low agreement between reports of suicidal ideation is in line with results from previous studies and suggests that parents might under- or over-estimate this symptomatology. The combination of data obtained with diagnostic interviews and rating-scales confirmed results from prior empirical work, giving greater weight to parents' reports of observable behavior and to adolescents' reports of subjective experiences, especially depressive symptomatology. Our findings suggest that both parent and child informants are necessary to obtain adequate assessments in adolescents. Further research should explore the correspondence between discrepant diagnoses and external criteria such as parental psychopathology or parent-child relationships and attachment. Psychoanalysis could benefit from cognitive neuroscience and use cognitive

  15. Multivariate Assessment of Adolescent Physical Maturation as a Source of Change in Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Sebby, Rickard A.

    This study investigates changing family relationships during adolescence using a dialectical view of the family. Fifty-one families responded to an assessment battery that measured affective relations between parents and their adolescent children. Measures included the Transition into Adolescence Survey; the Interactive Behavior Questionnaire; the…

  16. Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Adolescents Using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Gratz, Kim L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the utility of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in assessing adolescents' emotion regulation. Adolescents (11-17 years; N = 870) completed the DERS and measures of externalizing and internalizing problems. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a similar factor structure in the adolescent sample of the…

  17. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  18. Adolescent Perpetrator Treatment Programs: Assessment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Joan M.

    The value of early identification of sexually aberrant behaviors and intervention with sexually deviant minors is obvious from a community safety perspective. Early intervention also appears to have value from the offender's perspective. A research review revealed several common themes with implications for both assessment and treatment. Most…

  19. Merging Dietary Assessment with the Adolescent Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Schap, TusaRebecca E; Zhu, Fengqing M; Delp, Edward J; Boushey, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera, (e.g., Apple iPhone, Google Nexus One, Apple iPod Touch). Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis, i.e., segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiologic or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarizes the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  20. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  1. Assessment of Adolescent Career Interests and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieshok, Thomas S.

    A broader perspective of vocational assessment based largely on Super's formulations of the career development process, calling for greater attention to role salience and career maturity is described. The most promising development in career planning in recent years, the application of information processing theory to career decision making, is…

  2. Identity status and attachment in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Cuhadaroğlu Çetin, Füsun; Akdemir, Devrim; Tüzün, Zeynep; Cak, Tuna; Senses Dinç, Gülser; Taşğın Çöp, Esra; Evinç, Gülin

    2013-01-01

    Identity and attachment are two concepts of different theories that might be related and that are developmentally very important in adolescence. The aim of this study was to explore the sense of identity, attachment styles and their relation in a group of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty-four adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were reevaluated at the age of 13-16 years. The comparison group consisted of age- and gender-matched adolescents without a psychiatric disorder. The Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF) and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) were used to examine the sense of identity and attachment styles of adolescents, respectively. Compared to adolescents without a psychiatric disorder, adolescents with ADHD, independent of the presence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder, had a similar identity formation process; however, adolescents with ADHD and a comorbid psychiatric disorder experienced more preoccupied attachment styles. Comorbid psychiatric disorders seem to be related to the insecure attachment patterns in adolescents with ADHD.

  3. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as evidence for the role of early sleep problems as a risk factor for the development of psychopathology. Based on these cumulative data, possible mechanisms and implications of early sleep disruption are considered. Finally, assessment recommendations for mental health clinicians working with children and adolescents are provided toward reducing the risk of and improving treatments for sleep disorders and psychopathology in children and adolescents. PMID:19960111

  4. Assessing and Treating Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities: A 20-Year Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Matson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods of assessing and treating aggression in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities were reviewed. While a number of measures have been developed to assess aggression in the general population, there are relatively few assessment methods for use with children and adolescents with developmental disabilities. In all, 54…

  5. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  6. Dimensional assessment of self- and interpersonal functioning in adolescents: implications for DSM-5's general definition of personality disorder.

    PubMed

    DeFife, Jared A; Goldberg, Melissa; Westen, Drew

    2015-04-01

    Central to the proposed DSM-5 general definition of personality disorder (PD) are features of self- and interpersonal functioning. The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) is a coding system that assesses eight dimensions of self- and relational experience that can be applied to narrative data or used by clinically experienced observers to quantify observations of patients in ongoing psychotherapy. This study aims to evaluate the relationship of SCORS-G dimensions to personality pathology in adolescents and their incremental validity for predicting multiple domains of adaptive functioning. A total of 294 randomly sampled doctoral-level clinical psychologists and psychiatrists described an adolescent patient in their care based on all available data. Individual SCORS-G variables demonstrated medium-to-large effect size differences for PD versus non-PD identified adolescents (d = .49-1.05). A summary SCORS-Composite rating was significantly related to composite measurements of global adaptive functioning (r = .66), school functioning (r = .47), externalizing behavior (r = -.49), and prior psychiatric history (r = -.31). The SCORS-Composite significantly predicted variance in domains of adaptive functioning above and beyond age and DSM-IV PD diagnosis (ΔR(2)s = .07-.32). As applied to adolescents, the SCORS-G offers a framework for a clinically meaningful and empirically sound dimensional assessment of self- and other representations and interpersonal functioning capacities. Our findings support the inclusion of self- and interpersonal capacities in the DSM-5 general definition of personality disorder as an improvement to existing PD diagnosis for capturing varied domains of adaptive functioning and psychopathology.

  7. Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Poje, Albert B; Penick, Elizabeth C; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33-58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40-58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p < 0.05). Elevated inflammatory mediators in alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27043532

  8. Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Poje, Albert B.; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33–58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40–58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p < 0.05). Elevated inflammatory mediators in alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27043532

  9. Family Accommodation of Child and Adolescent Anxiety: Mechanisms, Assessment, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Kaila R.; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    TOPIC Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concern for youth. Unfortunately, a substantial number of children and adolescents do not respond positively to current evidence-based interventions and/or relapse. As pediatric anxiety disorders are fundamentally a systemic phenomenon, focusing on the ways in which parents become involved in their children’s anxiety symptoms may be a promising alternative approach to treatment. PURPOSE To inform psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) about the phenomenology, associated neurobiology, and assessment of family accommodation (FA) as well as clinical interventions targeting FA. FA refers to ways that parents adapt their own behaviors to reduce their children’s anxiety-related distress. SOURCES USED A literature search was performed using Psyc-INFO and PubMed. CONCLUSIONS Current findings indicate a high prevalence of FA associated with pediatric anxiety disorders. FA has a potentially deleterious impact on course of illness and treatment response and is associated with greater caregiver burden. Potential neurobiological underpinnings of FA include dysregulation of parent cortico-limbic circuitry and the oxytocinergic system. PMHNPs are in a unique position to identify families engaged in problematic FA, educate their clientele, provide psychotherapy services with the goal of reducing FA, and consult with multidisciplinary team members. PMID:26238937

  10. [Tacit metarepresentation and affective sense of personal identity. An approach to understanding severe psychiatric disorders of adolescence and young adulthood].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The results of present-day research in the field of "Dissociation Paradigm", regarding the capacity of the human mind to perceive, learn, and store information that in appearance passes as unnoticed, support the constructivist hypothesis of the active, selective and constructive condition of consciousness, in addition to the existence of a tacit dimension of knowledge that operates in functional relationship with the former. Unconscious mental states are intrinsically intentional. This is to say that they imply a semantic or cognitive connotation that is capable of affecting phenomenical experience and therefore behavior. In addition, the precocious existence of a tacit metarepresentational system in normally developed children has been proven, which is essential for guaranteeing the deployment of the process of functional coevolution between affectivity and consciousness, by which the experience of personal identity is acquired. These discoveries allow the inference of a "tacit affective metarepresentational recurrence", the organizational foundation on which a unified, sustainable, and continuous sense of the experience of personal identity is structured, and also allow us to hypothesize a "tacit metarepresentational mourning", a specific type of grief which is the chief foundation of the majority of psychopathological disorders. This concept may represent a potential explanation of the severe mental disorders of adolescence and young adulthood. The hypothesis of the present work is that, in the ambiguous context of Postmodern Culture, the prolongation of the adolescent period, facilitated by the welfare state, hinders the dealing with the aforementioned mourning, leading to an increment of depressive states and suicidal behavior among young people.

  11. Assessment and management of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A

    2011-11-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.

  12. Careful assessment the key to diagnosing adolescent heel pain.

    PubMed

    Davison, Martin J; David-West, S Kenneth; Duncan, Roderick

    2016-05-01

    The most common cause of adolescent heel pain is calcaneal apophysitis also known as Sever's disease. The condition may occur in adolescent athletes, particularly those involved in running or jumping activities, during the pubertal growth spurt. The mean age of presentation in Sever's disease is ten, (range 7-15). It presents with posterior heel pain that is worse with activity and relieved by rest in most cases. Sever's disease, Osgood Schlatter's disease (tibial tuberosity) and Sinding-Larsen Johansson syndrome (distal patella) are all overuse syndromes brought about by repetitive submaximal loading and microtrauma. They are, however, entirely self-limiting and resolve at skeletal maturity or earlier. Careful assessment is required to differentiate them from other rare pathologies. Achilles tendinitis is rare under the age of 14. As in Sever's disease, it may occur in jumping athletes, those who suddenly increase their sporting activities and in individuals with relative gastrosoleus tightness. It may also occur in those with inflammatory arthropathies and merit rheumatological investigation if there are other suggestive signs or symptoms. Benign and malignant tumours of the adolescent calcaneus are extremely rare In a unilateral case, atypical features such as night pain or absence of a precipitating activity should raise the index of suspicion. There may be localised swelling and bony expansion. PMID:27382917

  13. Influence of drugs of abuse and alcohol upon patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards: physician's assessment compared to blood drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mordal, Jon; Medhus, Sigrid; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-06-01

    In acute psychiatric services, rapid and accurate detection of psychoactive substance intake may be required for appropriate diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) drug influence as assessed by physicians and (b) blood drug concentrations among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. We also explored the possible effects of age, sex, and psychotic symptoms on physician's assessment of drug influence. In a cross-sectional study, the sample comprised 271 consecutive admissions from 2 acute psychiatric wards. At admission, the physician on call performed an overall judgment of drug influence. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Blood samples were screened for a wide range of psychoactive substances, and quantitative results were used to calculate blood drug concentration scores. Patients were judged as being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol in 28% of the 271 admissions. Psychoactive substances were detected in 56% of the blood samples. Altogether, 15 different substances were found; up to 8 substances were found in samples from 1 patient. Markedly elevated blood drug concentration scores were estimated for 15% of the patients. Physician's assessment was positively related to the blood drug concentration scores (r = 0.52; P < 0.001), to symptoms of excitement, and to the detection of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines. The study demonstrates the major impact of alcohol and drugs in acute psychiatric settings and illustrates the challenging nature of the initial clinical assessment.

  14. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  15. [Assess spirituality with adolescent outpatients: taboo or necessity?].

    PubMed

    De Germond-Burquier, Véronique; Narring, Françoise; Entremont, Cécile; Basset, Lytta

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality affects adolescents' as well as adults' daily life. It is usually considered to be a protective factor in physical and psychological health outcomes, but might also be a cause of suffering. In the perspective of an holistic approach, health professional should assess this subject with tact and sensitivity. Until there is a suitable instrument adapted to this age group and European culture, the exploration of spirituality and religious practices can be evaluated while taking the clinical history. Nevertheless, resistance which is common in health professionals, could be overcome by appropriate training.

  16. [Assess spirituality with adolescent outpatients: taboo or necessity?].

    PubMed

    De Germond-Burquier, Véronique; Narring, Françoise; Entremont, Cécile; Basset, Lytta

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality affects adolescents' as well as adults' daily life. It is usually considered to be a protective factor in physical and psychological health outcomes, but might also be a cause of suffering. In the perspective of an holistic approach, health professional should assess this subject with tact and sensitivity. Until there is a suitable instrument adapted to this age group and European culture, the exploration of spirituality and religious practices can be evaluated while taking the clinical history. Nevertheless, resistance which is common in health professionals, could be overcome by appropriate training. PMID:27451512

  17. Longitudinal assessment of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions as predictors of adolescent ego development and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P; Hauser, S T; Bell, K L; O'Connor, T G

    1994-02-01

    This study examined links between processes of establishing autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions and adolescents' psychosocial development. Adolescents in 2-parent families and their parents were observed in a revealed-differences interaction task when adolescents were 14, and adolescents' ego development and self-esteem were assessed at both 14 and 16. Developmental indices were strongly related to autonomy and relatedness displayed by both parents and adolescents. Significant variance was explained even after accounting for the number and quality of speeches of each family member as rated by a different, well-validated family coding system. Increases in adolescents' ego development and self-esteem over time were predicted by fathers' behaviors challenging adolescents' autonomy and relatedness, but only when these occurred in the context of fathers' overall display of autonomous-relatedness with the adolescent. The importance of the mutually negotiated process of adolescents' exploration from the secure base of parental relationships is discussed.

  18. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The mean age…

  19. Trauma experience in children and adolescents: an assessment of the effects of trauma type and role of interpersonal proximity.

    PubMed

    Price, Maggi; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Kim, Sunyoung; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The psychiatric sequelae associated with childhood experience(s) of trauma is complex and distinguishable from that of adult trauma exposure. Categories of impairment associated with experiences of early trauma include internalizing and externalizing emotional and behavioral problems, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and dissociation. The present study assessed the relationship between the type of trauma experience (i.e., non-interpersonal or interpersonal) and the manifestation of a wide range of psychiatric symptomatology using prospective longitudinal data from a community sample of ethnically diverse children and adolescents (N=1676; ages 4-18). The study also examined the relationship between different types of trauma experiences (e.g., direct, vicarious, interpersonal) and levels of various symptom domains (e.g., anxiety, posttraumatic stress, conduct problems). A number of factors relevant to the relationship between early trauma experience and subsequent impairment including temperament, socioeconomic status, sex, and age were included in the analyses. Results indicated that interpersonal traumas involving significant interpersonal proximity were associated with externalizing problems (i.e., oppositional defiant and conduct problems). Direct trauma experiences and emotionality were positively associated with almost all symptom domains. Implications for the relationship between trauma and developmental psychopathology are discussed.

  20. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services among Colombian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pinto, Tatiana A; Blanco-Gómez, Argénida; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Seventy percent of adolescent morbidity and mortality is related to six risky behaviors. The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services is a screening questionnaire consisting of 21 questions but there is not a validated Spanish-language version. The obj ective of this study was to validate the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services in two Colombian cities: Bucaramanga and Medellin. The questionnaire was administered to 270 randomly selected adolescent students aged between 11 and 19 years old. Its internal consistency measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.7207. The factor analysis showed that two factors accounted for 84.5% of variance, but factor loading indicates that only one of these is valid in Colombia: substance use (tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, and psychoactive substances). PMID:27606643

  1. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services among Colombian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pinto, Tatiana A; Blanco-Gómez, Argénida; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Seventy percent of adolescent morbidity and mortality is related to six risky behaviors. The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services is a screening questionnaire consisting of 21 questions but there is not a validated Spanish-language version. The obj ective of this study was to validate the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services in two Colombian cities: Bucaramanga and Medellin. The questionnaire was administered to 270 randomly selected adolescent students aged between 11 and 19 years old. Its internal consistency measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.7207. The factor analysis showed that two factors accounted for 84.5% of variance, but factor loading indicates that only one of these is valid in Colombia: substance use (tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, and psychoactive substances).

  2. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children

    PubMed Central

    Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/ or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8–10 years). In adolescence (15–17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of non-handicapped preterm children (N = 218) hospitalised in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit because of serious neonatal complications. The findings in the preterm group were compared with two control groups (N = 20 and N = 20) matched for age and sex ratio. The association between psychiatric disorders on the one hand and group status (preterm versus control), MND, IQ and family adversity on the other was explored. At both ages the preterm children exhibited more psychiatric disorders and MND than controls. The very preterm and/or very low birth weight children contributed to the differential psychopathological findings between the preterm and control groups. Besides preterm birth, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders was positively associated with MND and negatively associated with VIQ and family adversity. In the preterm group there was a shift from school age into adolescence into a predominance of anxious and depressive disorders. No significant changes with age were found with respect to the prevalence of MND and psychiatric disorders. Thus, very preterm and/or very low birth weight children are at increased risk of persistent psychiatric disorders, especially anxious and depressive disorders. In preterm children the development of psychopathology seems to be mediated by MND, decreased verbal abilities and family adversity. PMID:17896123

  3. Elements of Successful School Reentry after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization is an intensive intervention designed to stabilize adolescents who are experiencing an acute mental health crisis. Reintegrating to school after discharge from psychiatric hospitalization can be overwhelming for many adolescents (E. V. Clemens, L. E. Welfare, & A. M. Williams, 2010). The authors used a consensual…

  4. A Comparative Study of Adolescent Risk Assessment Instruments: Predictive and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Fred; McKinnon, Lauren; Chattha, H. K.; Meyers, Joanna R.

    2008-01-01

    Promising new adolescent risk assessment tools are being incorporated into clinical practice but currently possess limited evidence of predictive validity regarding their individual and/or combined use in risk assessments. The current study compares three structured adolescent risk instruments, Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory…

  5. Dietary assessment in children and adolescents: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Artiach Escauriaza, Belén; Artiach Escauriaza, Javier; Polanco Allúe, Isabel

    2015-02-26

    The assessment of dietary intake in children and adolescents is of great interest for different purposes. The characteristics of each developmental stage and associated cognitive abilities are two factors that influence the ability of children to provide valid and reliable information on food consumption. The ability to remember, limitations of vocabulary or the ability to identify different foods are some of the relevant aspects. In addition, often parents or caregivers provide surrogate information and their degree of knowledge depends on the time they spend with the child and on whether they share meals. As children grow they become more independent and increasingly spend more time away from their parents. Children also have limitations to recognize food models and photographs and associate them with different amounts of food consumed. On the other hand, often children and adolescents perceive long interviews or self-administered questionnaires they as long and boring. The use of new technologies is contributing to the development of new tools adapting dietary assessment the methods to the cognitive abilities of children, introducing gaming environments and narrative structures that attract their interest and improve the quality of information they report..

  6. Identification and assessment of problematic interpersonal situations for urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Farrell, A D; Ampy, L A; Meyer, A L

    1998-10-01

    Identified and developed a scale to assess problematic interpersonal situations among urban adolescents. In Study 1, problematic situations were identified by focus groups of 6th graders (N = 43). Their relevance was verified in Study 2 by assessing their reported frequency and difficulty in a sample of 6th graders (N = 457) that included mostly African American youth from low-income families. Scales representing 3 dimensions, peer provocation, perceived injustice, and environmental stressors were verified by confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 3, the internal consistency and structure of these scales were cross-validated in a sample of 7th graders (N = 459). All 3 scales were correlated with self-reported violent behavior, drug use, and anxiety and uniquely accounted for 11% to 19% of the variance. These findings have implications for identifying youth at risk for emotional and behavioral problems and for designing more relevant interventions. PMID:9789189

  7. Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Himes, John H; Jacobson, Dawn; Nicklas, Theresa A; Guilday, Patricia; Styne, Dennis

    2007-12-01

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of overweight and obesity. The BMI is incomplete, however, without consideration of the complex behavioral factors that influence obesity. Because of limited time and resources, clinicians need to have quick, evidence-based interventions that can help patients and their families recognize the importance of reducing overweight and obesity and take action. In an era of fast food, computers, and DVDs, it is not easy to persuade patients to modify their diets and to become more physically active. Because research concerning effective assessment of childhood obesity contains many gaps, this report is intended to provide a comprehensive approach to assessment and to present the evidence available to support key aspects of assessment. The discussion and recommendations are based on >300 studies published since 1995, which examined an array of assessment tools. With this information, clinicians should find themselves better equipped to face the challenges of assessing childhood overweight and obesity accurately.

  8. [Patient admission to a child and adolescent psychiatric polyclinic. Referral, patient information, preparation, concepts, expectations and fears of children, adolescents and their parents].

    PubMed

    Stösser, D; Klosinski, G

    1995-03-01

    This study investigates 77 families i.e. their children, aged 7-17, and their parents, who attended the out-patient clinic of the child psychiatric department for the first time. It was intended to examine and outline the subjective situation on entering the clinic. A structured verbal interview was conducted with the children before the start of the actual examination procedure, while a written questionnaire was submitted to the parents. Among the questioned items were modes of referral, references, sources of information, knowledge and preparedness, ideas, expectations and apprehensions about the institution and its treatments. The answer that were obtained reflected a lack of self-determination on the part of the children and the strength of influence exerted by the parents along with other relevant authorities. The children were often taken to the clinic without any active consent on their part. When asked about hopes of improvement they did not often confirm. Similarly fears about the impending examination were at first denied by most children but subsequently conceded, when concrete suggestions were made. Strikingly the better informed and prepared, children were able to admit to their fears more often. The results of the parental questionnaire illustrate an extensive lack of information about the institution that the families were actually attending. It may be concluded that the parents had also been little assertive when preparing their children for the examination. When asked about their expectations the parents primarily quoted "help" and "advice". Scepticism about the examination came only at the bottom of the list.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7784354

  9. Defining the Boundaries of Early Adolescence: A User's Guide to Assessing Pubertal Status and Pubertal Timing in Research with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Woodward, Hermi Rojahn; Biro, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses pragmatic issues regarding the assessment of puberty in research on adolescent health and development. Because pubertal processes have a major effect on physical, psychological, and social development, we posit that the assessment of pubertal status is at least as important as the specification of age for characterizing…

  10. The assessment of risk management systems for patients on Warrants of the Lieutenant Governor in Ontario psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McKerrow, W

    1989-01-01

    An assessment of risk management systems for patients on Warrants of the Lieutenant Governor in the provincial psychiatric hospitals was conducted. The assessment revealed that, to date, with some exceptions, the system has coped reasonably well. However, with a present count of over 400, and the ever increasing number of patients on warrants, there is a pressing need to improve the overall coordination of the system. The numbers, types and location of beds required to serve the system must be reviewed. Staff needs and training must be addressed. Increased numbers of coordinated research studies and improved information systems are required. System-wide policies and procedures for releasing information to policy, employers and home operators are necessary. As well, there must be a consistent approach in dealing with potential abuse of alcohol and non-prescribed drugs. Systems for authorizing and documenting patient privileges can be improved in some hospitals. A set of guidelines for interpreting terms and conditions of warrants is necessary. Lastly, information for staff treating patients on warrants should be developed and distributed.

  11. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    PubMed

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  12. Psychopharmacology in adolescent medicine.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael A; Williams, Thomas P

    2006-02-01

    Psychopharmacology is a challenge for health care providers treating adolescents. A detailed and accurate assessment, including developmental issues relevant to adolescence in general and to the individual adolescent, guides clinicians in formulating thoughtful and effective treatment plans to meet the needs of each patient. Parents play an important role in providing family history regarding psychiatric diagnoses and the response to various drugs, in making decisions to initiate medication and to change a medication regimen, and in monitoring an adolescent's adherence to a prescribed regimen. The role of parents is especially important for younger patients. Following the biopsychosocial model, rarely should psychopharmacologic agents be used as the sole means to treat a psychiatric condition in adolescents. Pharmacologic agents described in this article are tools that have their effect in the biological domain of central neurotransmitters, but psychosocial interventions addressing the emotional and behavioral issues that are the indications for such medication are generally also required. The development of newer medications holds promise for more effective treatment of target symptoms with minimal side effects. PMID:16473299

  13. [Assessment and management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Martinerie, L; Le Heuzey, M-F; Delorme, R; Carel, J-C; Bargiacchi, A

    2016-06-01

    Gender dysphoria, originally called gender identity disorder, is characterized by the dissociation between one's expressed gender and the gender of rearing as assigned at birth, which generates significant clinical distress and social, academic, and other important forms of isolation. This state is also known as transgender or transsexualism and is recognized as a medical disease. Adults with gender dysphoria can benefit from psychological, medical, and surgical care. However, gender dysphoria rarely occurs in adulthood but rather emerges in childhood or adolescence, generating deep social and academic difficulties, especially at puberty. For the last 10years, the management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents has developed in several countries, specifically in Europe, but remains under-recognized in France. Since 2013, several pediatric psychiatry and endocrinology departments have initiated a multidisciplinary evaluation and management approach for these patients. This article reviews the clinical criteria helping diagnose gender dysphoria and presents the different steps in the assessment and management of these patients in accordance with international guidelines. PMID:27117996

  14. Mental Disorders among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of 25 Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazel, Seena; Doll, Helen; Langstrom, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a meta-analysis of all existing surveys on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities in order to assess the prevalence of mental disorders. Findings indicate adolescents in detention are 10 times more likely to suffer from psychosis than the general adolescent…

  15. MMPI Profiles of Men Referred for a Pretrial Psychiatric Assessment as a Function of Offense Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinsey, Vernon L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Gathered MMPI and demographic data on six groups, each of 25 men who required psychological pretrial assessment. The groups differed according to offense type. The remand's age on admission and whether he had been in corrections before the current offense were the best discriminators among the groups. (Author)

  16. Comparison of assessment and management of suicidal risk for acute psychiatric assessment between two state sponsored hospitals in England and Italy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranbir; Verdolini, Norma; Agius, Mark; Moretti, Patrizia; Quartesan, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The risk of suicide is one of the most important risk factors looked into for acute psychiatric assessments that influences the management plan. The prevalence of suicide is on a rise across European countries; as a consequence, the different countries have created specific guidelines and policies in order to prevent suicides in the acute settings. These guidelines are based on both different cultural aspects as well as the different organization of the mental health system in the different countries. This paper wants to present the comparison between the guidelines of two European countries, England and Italy, in order to evaluate the systems, understand differences and common contact points. The different European countries could learn one from the other and a European shared point of view may be a way forward to create better understanding and preventing the risk of suicide across the population. PMID:26417782

  17. Psychiatric pharmacogenomics in pediatric psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christopher A; Croarkin, Paul E; Swintak, Cosima; Koplin, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an overview of where psychiatric pharmacogenomic testing stands as an emerging clinical tool in modern psychotropic prescribing practice, specifically in the pediatric population. This practical discussion is organized around the state of psychiatric pharmacogenomics research when choosing psychopharmacologic interventions in the most commonly encountered mental illnesses in youth. As with the rest of the topics on psychopharmacology for children and adolescents in this publication, a clinical vignette is presented, this one highlighting a clinical case of a 16 year old genotyped during hospitalization for recalcitrant depression.

  18. Psychometric properties of the forensic inpatient quality of life questionnaire: quality of life assessment for long-term forensic psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Vorstenbosch, Ellen C.W.; Bouman, Yvonne H.A.; Braun, Peter C.; Bulten, Erik B.H.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial group of forensic psychiatric patients require (life)long forensic psychiatric care. Instead of aiming at re-entry into society, treatment in long-term forensic psychiatric care (LFPC) is principally aimed at medical and psychiatric care and optimising quality of life (QoL). To assess QoL in LFPC, the influence of both the mental disorder and the restrictive context should be considered. Therefore, a new instrument was developed: the Forensic inpatient QoL questionnaire (FQL). The FQL is based on the results of concept-mapping with patients and staff within LFPC. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the FQL. One hundred and sixty-three FQLs, filled out by 98 male long-term forensic psychiatric patients, were included for testing reliability and content validity. For testing construct validity, 53 patients additionally completed the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Brief version and 50 of them the Affect Balance Scale. Outcomes indicate that the FQL has good psychometric properties. Fifteen of the 16 FQL domains showed adequate to good reliability (Cronbach's α range .69–.91) and 9 domains met the criteria for homogeneity. Content validity was demonstrated by exploratory factor analysis, which revealed a three-factor structure: social well-being, physical well-being and leave. Construct validity was supported by 59% correctly hypothesised inter- and intrascale Pearson's correlation coefficients. Good psychometric properties and its clinical-based development make the FQL a valid and useful instrument for QoL assessment in LFPC. The FQL could therefore contribute to evidence-based and more advanced treatment programmes in LFPC. PMID:25750786

  19. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  20. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago.

  1. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  2. Practitioner Review: Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders--Assessment and Treatment Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Krystal, John H.; Kaufman, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods: A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state…

  3. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  4. Toward Guidelines for Evidence-Based Assessment of Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Daniel N.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    We aim to provide a starting point toward the development of an evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. We begin by discussing issues relevant to the diagnosis and classification of child and adolescent depression. Next, we review the prevalence, selected clinical correlates, course, and treatment of juvenile…

  5. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  6. Identifying and Assessing Self-Images in Drawings by Delinquent Adolescents (in 2 Parts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley; Ellison, JoAnne

    1995-01-01

    Examines assumption that art therapists can objectively identify self-images in drawings by troubled adolescents without talking to these youth. Findings suggest that discussion, though preferable, is not required for identifying self-images. Analysis of adolescents' drawings indicates that structured art assessment can be useful in evaluating…

  7. Assessing Causality and Persistence in Associations between Family Dinners and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents who share meals with their parents score better on a range of well-being indicators. Using 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N = 17,977), the authors assessed the causal nature of these associations and the extent to which they persist into adulthood. They examined links between family dinners and…

  8. The Relationship of Time Orientation with Perceived Academic Performance and Preparation for Assessment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to operationalise a model of time orientation and investigate the variability of its factors based on preparation for assessment and perceived academic performance. Responses from 113 male adolescents (mean age = 16.46 years) and 115 female adolescents (mean age = 16.42 years) to items operationalising an expanded…

  9. Eating Disorders of the Adolescent: Current Issues in Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Bajorek, Ellen

    1991-01-01

    Literature on the prevalence, symptomatology, and etiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents is reviewed. The school psychologist is in an essential position to help the adolescent and family. Assessment, consultation, and intervention strategies are discussed for the school psychologist, and psychological and pharmacological…

  10. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  11. [Leaving the scene of an accident--a special offense in forensic psychiatric assessment?].

    PubMed

    Barbey, I

    1992-07-01

    A retrospective study on a hit-and-run group of drivers is reported. In comparison with a control group the study did not reveal special characteristics of these offenders. Mechanisms responsible for a driver leaving the place of a traffic accident are discussed. With reference to driver's escape psychogenic reactions and alcoholic intoxication often are observed, while (post-traumatic) twilight states and brief reactive psychosis are extremely rare events. Intensity of psychological disturbance during the offence may be assessed by criteria for evaluating responsibility of offenders with crimes of passion.

  12. Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations. PMID:10885165

  13. Psychiatric assessment after every six years of the TBS order in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Drost, Marijke

    2006-01-01

    Protecting the public from dangerous mentally ill offenders is an important issue in may countries. The UK, Scotland and Germany for example are looking for new ways to deal with this issue and some have looked at the Dutch system of first sending the offender to prison for a number of years and then for treatment to a secure clinical facility. Dutch law uses the term TBS: detention at the government's pleasure. Legal rights of the patient under the TBS-order are protected by regular evaluations to help the court determine if the patient still poses a danger to society. These evaluations take place every two years, at the end of each extension period. Every six years an extra assessment by independent experts is obligatory. In this same period other types of assessment occur too, such as for transferral to a long-stay unit. A complicated succession of experts may visit the patient, asking the same questions and using the same files, distracting his or her attention and motivation from the treatment process. This system is threatened by the qualitative and quantitative scarcity of properly qualified experts. Measures have been taken to counteract these difficulties, but will they suffice?

  14. [Comprehensive Assessment of Psychiatric Residents: An Addition to the Program Admission Process].

    PubMed

    Luis, E Jaramillo G; Elena, Martín C

    2012-01-01

    The training of medical specialists is a long and complex process. Its purpose is to guarantee the society that they are the right professionals to meet the health needs of the population. The first step to ensure this objective is the admission process. In psychiatry this process, monitoring resident students and the criteria for each one are different in each country. Admission in Colombia is a heterogeneous process, not standardized, which varies greatly from one university to another, even between private and public universities. At the National University of Colombia, the admissions process is handled by the Admissions Office and includes: a written test for which you must obtain a minimum score, a resume rating and an interview. The Teaching Committee and the Department of Psychiatry considered the admission procedure in general to be good, but in need of refinement. Due to the experience of some teachers and given the current rules, a "comprehensive assessment" for master and doctoral students was required and in 1996 it was decided that this method of assessment for admission to a specialization in Psychiatry would serve to complement the admission process. The article describes the experience of the process and its outcomes, strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Psychiatric manifestations in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraidakis, M J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare and severe, but treatable, inborn disorder of bile acid biosynthesis and sterol storage with autosomal recessive inheritance and variable clinical presentation. CTX treatment consists of chenodeoxycholic acid and must be started as early as possible to prevent permanent disability. Psychiatric manifestations are rare and non-specific, and often lead to significant diagnostic and treatment delay. Therefore, better recognition of the gamut of psychiatric manifestations in CTX can diminish the risk of misdiagnosis and irreversible neurological deterioration. We hereby describe the psychiatric features in CTX. A complete review of all published cases of CTX in the medical literature was undertaken and the case reports with psychiatric presentation were collected and analyzed. We also describe the psychiatric features in relation to the neurological semeiology in six patients with CTX diagnosed at the La Salpêtrière Hospital. We conclude that psychiatric manifestations in CTX follow a bimodal/bitemporal pattern, appearing early in the disease course in the form of a behavioral/personality disorder associated with learning difficulties or mental retardation, or manifesting in advanced disease in the setting of dementia as rich neuropsychiatric syndromes, such as frontal, orbitofrontal or frontotemporal syndromes of cortico-subcortical dementia encompassing behavioral/personality disturbance, affective/mood disorders or psychotic disorders. Behavioral/personality disturbance in childhood or adolescence, especially when accompanied by learning difficulties, should therefore lead to further investigation to exclude CTX, as early diagnosis and treatment is critical for prognosis. PMID:24002088

  16. Help wanted. A quality needs assessment creates a position for a psychiatric clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Efinger, J

    1995-10-01

    1. A survey needs assessment demonstrated that nurses in hospital practice need and want a PCNS for support with conflict resolution, difficult personnel and families, stress reduction, education, death and dying, and support groups. 2. Nurses (69%) who were considering leaving their positions wanted a PCNS to talk with them about their decisions. They felt a PCNS could provide insights they had overlooked. Nurses felt that they needed a PCNS on site or on call to be there for them to improve their practice. 3. Creating a position for a PCNS to be a consultant and liaison for nurses is a cost effective way to increase retention of excellent nurses, improve quality of care, job satisfaction, increased productivity, and reduced costs. PMID:8847670

  17. Risk, suffering and competing narratives in the psychiatric assessment of an Iraqi refugee.

    PubMed

    Savy, Pauline; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2008-03-01

    This paper highlights the problem of "place" for an Iraqi refugee who, for years, had been tortured and imprisoned in his home country. Specifically, the paper presents a case study of a clinical encounter with this refugee, who had come to the attention of an Australian Crisis Assessment and Treatment Team. Drawing from narrative theory, the paper describes the chaotic nature of the encounter to show how the diverse motives, claims and actions of those present expose the struggle involved in the emplotment of an emerging narrative. The case study is constructed and analysed to illustrate the interpretive machinery of "clinical reasoning" and, in particular, the tension and play between "paradigmatic thinking" and "narrative thinking." More generally, this analysis follows the work of social scientists who seek to expand methodologies for writing about human suffering. PMID:18066652

  18. “Too Young to be Worried!” Psychiatric Assessment and Follow-up of Young People After Severe Physical Assault in an Inner City Hospital of South London

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S; Datta, SS; Sheridan, PB; Lax-Pericall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal violence amongst youth is on the rise world-wide and London is no exception. The resulting injuries can be very serious and even result in death. This is a difficult to engage subgroup of patients and there is likely to be significant unmet social and mental health needs. Aim: The current paper discusses the results of immediate psychiatric and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as assessed by a pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). CAMHS in Kings College Hospital, London in one calendar year and also the help seeking behavior of the young people following the assault. Subjects and Methods: The Department of Pediatric Liaison Psychiatry is based within the Kings College Hospital and has a multidisciplinary team comprising of nurses, consultant child and adolescent psychiatrists and social workers who reviewed all patients who were referred to them following an episode of assault. All young people who were referred to the department of pediatric liaison psychiatry based within Kings College Hospital over one calendar year were included in the analysis. Results: 83% (29/35) of the victims were male and 83% (29/35) were from minority ethnic backgrounds. Although 70% (25/35) of the young people included in this study had significant safe guarding concerns, only 17% (6/35) turned up for their follow-up appointments with child mental health teams. Conclusions: Innovative models of service delivery are required to cater to the unique needs of this group of extremely vulnerable young people. PMID:24669337

  19. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children. PMID:21789735

  20. Broader Indications for Psychiatric Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A liaison approach to psychiatric consultation increases the patient population who can benefit from psychiatric assessment during hospitalization for medical or surgical conditions. It also broadens the scope of the psychiatric investigation of the individual patient. The meaning of the illness to the patient, and the patient's present methods of adapting to his or her illness are important considerations. Unconscious concerns, which interfere with the patient's compliance to medical treatment, may be sufficiently clarified and resolved so that medical progress is expedited. Psychiatric consultation can be used to prevent an untoward psychological reaction to illness, if this is foreseen. This preventive consultation, which is often possible only because of the family physician's awareness of the psychological vulnerability of some of her or his patients, can result in reduced medical and psychiatric morbidity. PMID:21263836

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in primary care.

    PubMed

    al-Haddad, M K; al-Garf, A; al-Jowder, S; al-Zurba, F I

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of hidden psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD). A total of 149 Bahraini patients aged > or = 16 years were selected randomly from those attending primary health care centres for problems other than psychiatric illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity using GHQ was 45.1% (cut-off > or = 5) and 27.1% (cut-off > or = 9). Using the HAD scale, the prevalence was 44.4% (cut-off > or = 8) and 23.6% (cut-off > or = 11). Psychiatric morbidity was more common in women aged 50-55 years, in divorcees or widows and in lesser educated patients. Either instrument could be used to diagnose psychiatric illness.

  2. Summary of the Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Gregory; Rockney, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Enuresis is a symptom that is frequently encountered in child psychiatric evaluations. Careful assessment is required to identify specific urologic, developmental, psychosocial, and sleep-related etiologies. For most children with enuresis, however, a specific etiology cannot be determined. Treatment then involves supportive approaches,…

  3. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Gregory; Rockney, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Enuresis is a symptom that is frequently encountered in child psychiatric evaluations. Careful assessment is required to identify specific urologic, developmental, psychosocial, and sleep-related etiologies. For most children with enuresis, however, a specific etiology cannot be determined. Treatment then involves supportive approaches,…

  4. Identity development in adolescents with mental problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), “Identity” is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. Results In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. Conclusion Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems. PMID:23899433

  5. Assessment of Major and Daily Stressful Events During Adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted four studies to develop Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (APES), measure of major and daily stressful events during adolescence. Describes test construction, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of APES. Summarizes subsequent research showing APES to be significantly related to behavior problems and psychological…

  6. After the Assessment: Introducing Adolescents to Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Keating, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the practical aspects involved in adapting cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) to an adolescent population in Australia. Some effective ways to use CBT with adolescents include preparing them for CBT by providing a thorough cognitive-behavioural formulation, describing the cognitive-behavioural approach…

  7. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  8. Clinical Issues in the Assessment of Adolescent Defendants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.

    There are many practical difficulties in conducting forensic evaluations of adolescents charged with serious crimes. This paper addresses some of the reasons why adolescent forensic evaluations are problematic and suggests four strategies for establishing and maintaining rapport, based on a practitioner's experience in evaluating adolescents…

  9. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method: Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic…

  10. Training in Psychiatric Genomics during Residency: A New Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Joel G.; Goebert, Deborah; Matsu, Courtenay; Mrazek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors ascertained the amount of training in psychiatric genomics that is provided in North American psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A sample of 217 chief residents in psychiatric residency programs in the United States and Canada were identified by e-mail and surveyed to assess their training in psychiatric genetics and…

  11. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB) are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II) and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD). SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range) of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141). Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission and frequent SB repetition

  12. [The dimensional-categorical hybrid model of personality disorders in DSM-5 from an adolescent psychiatric perspective - criticism and critical outlook].

    PubMed

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Schmeck, Klaus; Krischer, Maya

    2014-07-01

    By applying the dimensional-categorical hybrid model, Chapter III of the DSM-5 proposes a central innovation in the classification of personality disorders, the aim being a reduction of comorbidity and improvement of the construct as well as the discremental validity and stability of the diagnosis. The well-known categorical classification of personality disorders in Chapter II, however, remains valid. Based on the hybrid model the essential aspects of a personality disorders are as follows: the dimensional assessment of levels of personality functioning regarding disturbances in self (identity and self-direction) and interpersonal (empathy and intimacy) aspects on the one hand, and the existence of pathological personality traits on the other. Beside five higher-order traits, 25 specific trait facets are described. Moreover, a reduction in the number of personality disorder types is proposed, reflecting six instead of ten categories which are empirically best validated. The abandoned age limitation for the assessment of a personality disorder in Chapter III can be regarded as a clear statement with respect to the possibility and necessity of diagnosing and treating personality pathology in adolescence. By presenting an additional dimensional approach with a detailed description of personality functioning as well as specific pathological personality traits, the new hybrid model seems to principally be a useful approach for clinical purposes as well as research questions.

  13. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in terms of a neurobehavioral system that underlies incentive motivated behavior. Adolescence may be a time of elevated activity within this system. This review provides a summary of changes within cortical and subcortical dopaminergic systems that may account for changes in cognition and affect that characterize adolescent behavior. Because there is a dearth of information regarding neurochemical changes in human adolescents, models for assessing links between neurochemical activity and behavior in human adolescents will be described using molecular genetic techniques. Furthermore, we will suggest how these techniques can be combined with other methods such as pharmacology to measure the impact of dopamine activity on behavior and how this relation changes through the lifespan. PMID:19944514

  14. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  15. Psychological assessment of adolescents and adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Martos Perez, J; Fortea Sevilla, M S

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a small follow-up study on 17 autistic adolescents and young adults who are also intellectually retarded. The aim is to examine how far scores on the Psychoeducational Profile (PEP) predicts scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile (AAPEP) 5 years later. One subscale eye-hand coordination significantly predicts the scores on three subscales of the AAPEP: Vocational Skills, Independent Functioning, and Vocational Behavior. Imitation predicts Interpersonal Behavior. Fine Motor predicts Leisure Skills and Cognitive Performance predicts Functional Communication. Results are interpreted in terms of the implications for educational intervention programs with autistic adolescents and adults.

  16. Deviant adolescent subcultures: assessment strategies and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1992-01-01

    Alienation is a contributing factor in adolescents' participation in Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of their needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliation, including a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Emphasizing prevention may minimize deviant subculture involvement, but some adolescents require clinical intervention, ranging from a few outpatient sessions to lengthy inpatient hospitalization. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents' involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in the approach to treatment.

  17. Psychiatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Santina; Dschida, Dorothy; Talen, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are acute disturbances in thought, behavior, mood, or social relationship that require immediate intervention as defined by the patient, family, or social unit to save the patient and/or others from imminent danger. Ensuring the safety of the patient, surrounding persons, and the medical team is the first step of evaluation. Treatment focuses on stabilization of the patient, then on specific symptoms and ultimately the cause of symptoms. There are important legal considerations, particularly regarding involuntary admissions. It is important to debrief with the patient, surrounding family, and the health care team to ensure a continued therapeutic alliance and the emotional health of all involved. PMID:27262012

  18. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing. PMID:8710297

  19. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing.

  20. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in forensic psychiatric outpatients in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Using a sample of 154 Dutch forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18-62 years, this study investigated whether risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mainly identified in nonforensic research, forensic psychiatric factors, and potential comorbid mental disorders were associated with PTSD. Data on demographics, victimization during childhood or adolescence, and forensic psychiatric factors were derived from electronic medical records. Mental disorders were assessed using structured psychiatric interviews and consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. The PTSD rate was 75% in the sample. Whereas the PTSD group was significantly more likely to be older, female, not Dutch, and to have a history of victimization, previously perpetrated family violence, and lower psychosocial and occupational functioning than the non-PTSD group, the latter group had significantly higher rates of psychiatric history, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), antisocial personality disorder, drug abuse, and previous repeated nonfamily violence perpetration. Effect sizes ranged from Nagelkerke R(2) = .04 for psychosocial and occupational functioning to Nagelkerke R(2) = .70 for ADHD. This study demonstrated differences between those with and without PTSD in demographic, victim, forensic, and psychological characteristics. Future studies should examine the complexity between early victimization, delinquency patterns, and psychopathology regarding the prediction of PTSD among forensic psychiatric outpatients.

  1. Commentary: Making the brain matter in assessing and treating adolescent substance use--a commentary on Conrod and Nikolaou (2016).

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Matthew W; Lejuez, Carl W

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to psychiatric problems due to a range of factors, including advances in social and cognitive abilities, increased levels of autonomy in decision-making and behavioral governance, and greater exposure to opportunities for risk-taking behavior. Adding to these psychological and social challenges, adolescence also is marked by robust maturational changes affecting both the microcircuitry and connectivity between widely distributed brain systems. These changes alter the communication among parallel, distributed brain networks, have implications for one's vulnerability to engage in risk behavior and make the brain particularly susceptible to external perturbations, such as exposure to neurotoxic substances. PMID:26889899

  2. Development and validation of an instrument to assess future orientation and resilience in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Di Maggio, Ilaria; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at providing the development and initial validation of the Design My Future (DMF), which may be administered in career counseling and research activities to assess adolescents' future orientation and resilience. Two studies with two independent samples of Italian adolescents were conducted to examine psychometric requisites of DMF. Specifically, in the first study, after developing items and examined the content validity, the factorial structure, reliability and discriminant validity of the DMF were tested. In the second study, the measurement invariance across gender, conducing a sequence of nested CFA models, was evaluated. Results showed good psychometric support for the instrument with Italian adolescents. PMID:27348551

  3. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Lin, Julia Y; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Alegria, Margarita

    2012-12-01

    We examine differential validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups.

  4. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lin, Julia Y.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Alegria, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    We examine differential validity of DSM-IV diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups. PMID:23148026

  5. Using the SCID-D to assess dissociative identity disorder in adolescents: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, M; Steinberg, A

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the diagnostic assessment of dissociative identity disorder in three adolescents using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D; Steinberg, 1993b), a semistructured instrument for the diagnosis and assessment of dissociative symptoms and disorders. Although the SCID-D has received good-to-excellent ratings for reliability and validity in the adult population, these three cases are the first reports of the results of its administration to younger patients. Comparison of the three adolescent SCID-D interviews with findings in adults indicates that the profiles of the five dissociative symptoms measured by the SCID-D are virtually identical in adolescents and adults. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research regarding dissociative symptomatology in adolescents and outcome studies.

  6. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  7. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory.

  8. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  9. Trends in Psychopathology across the Adolescent Years: What Changes When Children become Adolescents, and When Adolescents become Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders between childhood and adolescence, and adolescence and adulthood. Methods: We reviewed papers reporting prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders separately for childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional papers published in…

  10. Preliminary Evidence Suggesting Caution in the Use of Psychiatric Self-Report Measures with Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…

  11. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  12. A worldwide assessment of the frequency of suicide, suicide attempts, or psychiatric hospitalization after predictive testing for Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Almqvist, E W; Bloch, M; Brinkman, R; Craufurd, D; Hayden, M R

    1999-01-01

    Prior to the implementation of predictive-testing programs for Huntington disease (HD), significant concern was raised concerning the likelihood of catastrophic events (CEs), particularly in those persons receiving an increased-risk result. We have investigated the frequency of CEs-that is, suicide, suicide attempt, and psychiatric hospitalization-after an HD predictive-testing result, through questionnaires sent to predictive-testing centers worldwide. A total of 44 persons (0.97%) in a cohort of 4,527 test participants had a CE: 5 successful suicides, 21 suicide attempts, and 18 hospitalizations for psychiatric reasons. All persons committing suicide had signs of HD, whereas 11 (52.4%) of 21 persons attempting suicide and 8 (44.4%) of 18 who had a psychiatric hospitalization were symptomatic. A total of 11 (84.6%) of 13 asymptomatic persons who experienced a CE during the first year after HD predictive testing received an increased-risk result. Factors associated with an increased risk of a CE included (a) a psychiatric history

  13. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child and Adolescent Disorders: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Hunsley, John

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to evidence-based assessment (EBA) in the development of a scientifically supported clinical child and adolescent psychology. This increased attention is especially important in light of (a) the omission of assessment considerations in recent efforts to…

  14. Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Generally recognized as the standard work in its field, "Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents" provides a comprehensive foundation and guide for conducting conceptually sound, culturally responsive, and ecologically oriented assessments of student social and emotional behavior. It is aimed at graduate…

  15. Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

  16. A Review of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test: An Advancement in Cognitive Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Flanagan, Rosemary

    1994-01-01

    Reviews Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), a new assessment of cognitive function for technical qualities such as reliability, validity, and standardization characters. Concludes that KAIT represents advancements in cognitive assessment but cannot be regarded as superior to existing intelligence measures until data is available…

  17. Accountability and psychiatric disorders: how do forensic psychiatric professionals think?

    PubMed

    Höglund, Pontus; Levander, Sten; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Radovic, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Swedish penal law does not exculpate on the grounds of diminished accountability; persons judged to suffer from severe mental disorder are sentenced to forensic psychiatric care instead of prison. Re-introduction of accountability as a condition for legal responsibility has been advocated, not least by forensic psychiatric professionals. To investigate how professionals in forensic psychiatry would assess degree of accountability based on psychiatric diagnoses and case vignettes, 30 psychiatrists, 30 psychologists, 45 nurses, and 45 ward attendants from five forensic psychiatric clinics were interviewed. They were asked (i) to judge to which degree (on a dimensional scale from 1 to 5) each of 12 psychiatric diagnoses might affect accountability, (ii) to assess accountability from five case vignettes, and (iii) to list further factors they regarded as relevant for their assessment of accountability. All informants accepted to provide a dimensional assessment of accountability on this basis and consistently found most types of mental disorders to reduce accountability, especially psychotic disorders and dementia. Other factors thought to be relevant were substance abuse, social network, personality traits, social stress, and level of education.

  18. Assessment and treatment of hip pain in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    Hip pain in the adolescent athlete is a common source of functional impairment and can limit athletic performance. In the past, many intra- and extra-articular hip abnormalities went unrecognized and were left untreated because of insufficient diagnostic imaging and limited surgical options. However, over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous expansion research, and the understanding of the etiology of hip pain among such athletes has grown. Improvements in imaging modalities and technical innovations have led to greater diagnostic insights and creative new treatment strategies. This article explores the etiology and treatment of hip pain in the adolescent athlete. PMID:25439016

  19. Considering Comorbidity in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Natalia; Muela-Martinez, Jose-Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder, with elevated comorbidity rates with other mental health disorders and may cause severe negative consequences. In adolescence, there is a lack of research on how comorbid disorders to social anxiety tends to form particular associations. With a large sample of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, data have revealed that certain disorders are more frequent and tend to dwell on concrete aggregates. Thus, it may be particularly useful and efficient for mental health providers, pediatricians and school counselors to screen for generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobia when assessing SAD in youth. Overall, findings stress the presence of comorbidity being the rule rather than the exception in adolescents with social anxiety disorder, and the need for further examination of its impact on assessment and differential diagnosis on this psychiatric disorder.

  20. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  1. ASSESSING CAUSALITY AND PERSISTENCE IN ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FAMILY DINNERS AND ADOLESCENT WELL-BEING

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who share meals with their parents score better on a range of well-being indicators. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N = 17,977), we assessed the causal nature of these associations and the extent to which they persist into adulthood. We examined links between family dinners and adolescent mental health, substance use, and delinquency at wave 1, accounting for detailed measures of the family environment to test whether family meals simply proxy for other family processes. As a more stringent test of causality, we estimated fixed effects models from waves 1 and 2, and we used wave 3 to explore persistence in the influence of family dinners. Associations between family dinners and adolescent well-being remained significant, net of controls, and some held up to stricter tests of causality. Beyond indirect benefits via earlier well-being, however, family dinners associations did not persist into adulthood. PMID:23794750

  2. Nutritional assessment of pregnant adolescents: comparison of two popular classification systems.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Janaina de Fátima Ávila; Vasconcelos, Guilherme Miranda; Torloni, Maria Regina; Fisberg, Mauro; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Guazzelli, Cristina Aparecida Falbo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of concordance between two popular classification systems [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2000 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-2009] used to categorise the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 327 pregnant adolescents (10-19 years) booking for antenatal care at a single public maternity in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified into one of four categories, by both systems according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index and age. The CDC-2000 system classified significantly fewer pregnant adolescents as underweight (3.7% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.0001) and significantly more adolescents as normal-weight (86.8% vs. 75.6%, P = 0.0003) than the IOM-2009 system. The distribution of the adolescents in the two systems differed significantly. The global rate of discordance was 13.5%. The overall concordance between the two systems was marginally good (K = 0.63), being moderate for younger (<16 years) adolescents (K = 0.52). Approximately one in every seven pregnant adolescent would be classified in a non-corresponding category if the IOM-2009 classification was used instead of the CDC-2000 classification. The IOM-2009 nutritional classification, which does not take into account age and gender, tends to overestimate the proportion of underweight adolescents, especially in the younger-age group. The use of this classification system can lead to recommendations of higher gestational weight gain in a substantial proportion of pregnant adolescents, which could predispose to post-partum weight retention and future obesity.

  3. Longitudinal assessment of left ventricular structure and function in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Haluka, Karen; Coverdale, Nicole S; Klentrou, Panagiota; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. It has also been shown that adolescents with probable DCD (p-DCD) have elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) compared to typically developing (TD) controls, which in turn may heighten their risk of developing elevated left ventricle mass (LVM) or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The purpose of this study was to assess left ventricular structure and function longitudinally in adolescents with and without p-DCD. This three year study included 86 adolescents with significant motor impairment (33) and TD controls (53). Adolescents were 12 years old at the beginning of the study. The Movement ABC test (M-ABC-2) was used to classify children as p-DCD. Cardiac dimensions were measured using ultrasound echocardiography. Body mass, fat mass (FM) and body mass index (BMI) were significantly elevated in the p-DCD group in all three years. Peak aerobic fitness normalized to fat-free mass (peak VO(2FFM)) was significantly elevated in the TD controls in each year. Heart rate was also increased in the p-DCD group in years one and three. A repeated measures ANCOVA with time-varying covariates was performed for CO and LVM on p-DCD while controlling for peak VO(2) and FFM. CO and LVM were significantly elevated in the p-DCD which remained constant over time. FM completely mediated the association between p-DCD and CO in adolescents. For LVM, both FM and CO accounted for elevated LVM in adolescents with p-DCD. In conclusion, elevated FM in adolescents with p-DCD contributes to a higher CO and LVM over time compared to TD controls. If this persists throughout adolescents and into adulthood, these adolescents may be at risk of developing LVH.

  4. Assessment of identity and quality of life in diabetic and renal transplant adolescents in comparison to healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Tziona; Achille, Marie; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Clermont, Marie-José; Geoffroy, Louis; Legault, Laurent; Phan, Véronique; Bell, Lorraine E

    2013-09-01

    Identity development represents a central task of adolescence. Identity achievement is characterized by a coherent sense of who one is following a period of exploration and can help navigate the challenges of adulthood. This study examined identity within a quality of life (QOL) context in 85 adolescents with a renal transplant or with Type 1 diabetes in comparison to 90 healthy controls. Results revealed significant differences in ideological identity, with patients showing higher levels of diffusion and controls showing higher levels of foreclosure. No differences with respect to interpersonal identity, QOL, perceived control over the QOL domains, and perceived opportunities for growth and development were found. Future research should assess identity and QOL over a longer period of time to determine whether differences between chronically ill and healthy young adults can be detected. PMID:23645186

  5. Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Schizophrenia and Other Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Validity, Reliability, and Item Content of 10 Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay P.; Serper, Mark; Reinharth, Jonathan; Fazel, Seena

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To undertake a systematic review on structured violence risk assessment tools in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic search was conducted from 1990 to 2011 to identify violence risk assessment tools and studies examining their predictive validity. Item content of the identified instruments was analyzed, and areas under the curve (AUC) from the studies were extracted. In addition, an 11-item checklist was developed to assess the utility and psychometric properties of these tools. Results: Ten risk assessment tools designed to predict community violence in psychiatric patients were identified, but only 2 studies reporting predictive validity estimates in patients with schizophrenia were found (median AUC = 0.69; interquartile range = 0.60–0.77). When inclusion criteria was broadened to include studies measuring accuracy for any diagnostic group, mixed evidence of predictive validity was found, with median AUCs ranging from 0.62 to 0.85 depending on the population. Item content included mostly clinical, sociodemographic, and criminal history factors. As only 1 tool included a neurobiological item, a structured review of brain-based and cognitive risk factors for violence was included, and 3 clusters (neurocognitive ability, neurocognitive awareness, and attitudinal cognition) were identified. Conclusions: While a number of violence risk assessment tools exist that can be used to predict the likelihood of community violence in psychiatric patients, there is currently little direct evidence for their utility in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, there is large variation in item content between instruments, and further research is necessary to determine whether the inclusion of alternative factors could improve risk assessment. PMID:21860036

  6. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  7. Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…

  8. Adolescent Pubertal Status and Affective Family Relationships: A Multivariate Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Sebby, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one families responded to questionnaires on affective relations between parents and their adolescent children. On the basis of the pubertal status of their children, families were classified into prepubertal, transpubertal, or postpubertal groups. Results showed that differences in family relationships were due to the transformation of…

  9. Psychological Assessment of Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Juan; del Sol Fortea Sevilla, Maria

    1993-01-01

    This study compared scores of 17 children with autism and mental retardation on the Psychoeducational Profile with scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile 5 years later. Eye-hand coordination predicted scores in vocational skills, independent functioning, and vocational behavior; imitation predicted interpersonal behavior;…

  10. Assessing Peer Victimization across Adolescence: Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2013-01-01

    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general…

  11. Multidimensional and Hierarchical Assessment of Adolescents' Motivation in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giota, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the different types of academic, social, and future goals pursued by adolescents in school, and whether goals can be hierarchically organized. A multiple goals perspective on goal preferences was adopted. The study was based on 10,000…

  12. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reported Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…

  13. Adolescent and Parent Assessments of Diabetes Mellitus Management at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Bohn, Rachel; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Mellin, Alison; Patterson, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This study explored opinions, concerns, and recommendations regarding care of Type 1 diabetes in schools. Thirty adolescent females and their parents participated in semi- structured, individual interviews that were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and qualitatively analyzed. Responses emerged in three categories: (1) knowledge/training of school…

  14. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  15. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span. Exposure to traumatic events and interpersonal trauma in childhood is associated with a wide range of psychosocial, developmental, and medical impairments in children, adolescents and adults, with emotional dysregulation being a core feature that may help to account for this heightened risk. In order to understand how the developmental effects of childhood maltreatment contribute to emotional dysregulation and psychiatric sequelae, we review emotional regulation and its developmental neurobiology, and examine the research evidence of associations between childhood traumatization, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric co-morbidities in children, adolescents and adults. PMID:24704784

  16. But he knew it was wrong: evaluating adolescent culpability.

    PubMed

    Ash, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatric evaluators of adolescent defendants are often asked to address open-ended questions that affect what court an adolescent will be tried in and what sentence he might receive. Such questions often involve the extent to which the adolescent should be considered less culpable than an adult who has committed a similar offense. Assessing partial or diminished culpability in an adolescent is difficult because the concept of partial culpability is complex, assessment methods are inexact, and the implications for legal disposition are often not clear. This article suggests 10 factors a forensic evaluator may wish to consider in reaching opinions about an adolescent's culpability: appreciation of wrongfulness, ability to conform to law, developmental course of aggression and impulsivity, psychosocial immaturity (including time sense, susceptibility to peer pressure, risk-taking, and ability to empathize), environmental circumstances, peer group norms, out-of-character action, incomplete personality development, mental illness, and reactive attitudes toward the offense.

  17. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  18. Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnosis among Youths in Treatment and Aftercare for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Josephine M.; Kaminer, Yifrah; Burke, Rebecca; Burleson, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among a sample of 50 adolescents in cognitive-behaviorally-based treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUD). Methods: A standardized psychiatric interview was administered at baseline and 12 month later to obtain current comorbid psychiatric disorders. Chi…

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the triad of impairments experienced by children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they often present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders. To date, very few studies have examined gender differences in regards to psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with an ASD. Thus, the current…

  20. Limitations in the assessment of DSM-IV cannabis tolerance as an indicator of dependence in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S; Winters, Ken C; Cornelius, Jack R; Langenbucher, James W

    2004-05-01

    The usefulness of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) tolerance criterion as an indicator of dependence has been debated. The authors of this study evaluated the performance of DSM's cannabis tolerance criterion, operationally defined as a percentage increase in quantity needed to get high, in distinguishing adolescents with and without cannabis dependence. Two samples of adolescent cannabis users (ages 12-19) provided data (ns = 417 and 380). Tolerance, defined as a percentage increase (median increase = 300% and 175%, respectively, in the samples), had only moderate overall sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing those with and without cannabis dependence. Results suggest limitations of the DSM-IV and change-based operational definition of tolerance in adolescents. PMID:15122958

  1. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder in Suicidal Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Shirley; Gagnon, Kerry; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adolescents has been controversial. Thus, few studies have examined BPD in suicidal adolescents, even though it is strongly associated with suicidal behaviors in adults. This study examines differences between suicidal adolescents with (n=47) and without (n=72) BPD on history and characteristics of suicidal behavior, Axis I comorbidity, affect regulation, and aggression. Assessments were completed with both adolescents and parents, and consensus ratings based on best available data were analyzed. BPD participants were more likely to have a past history of suicide attempts and to have been admitted due to a suicide attempt (vs. suicidal ideation). There were no significant differences in self-injurious behaviors or degree of suicidal ideation. BPD participants also had more psychiatric comorbidity and higher aggression scores, but no significant differences in affective dysregulation compared to suicidal adolescents without BPD. Diagnostic stability over 6 months was modest. Our results demonstrate that compared to other acutely suicidal adolescents, the clinical profile of BPD participants is unique and suggests an increased risk for suicidal behaviors. This extends upon other studies which support the construct validity of BPD during adolescence and suggests that BPD should be considered in suicide risk assessment for adolescents. PMID:24343935

  3. Assessing peer victimization across adolescence: measurement invariance and developmental change.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Lisa H; Beron, Kurt J; Underwood, Marion K

    2013-03-01

    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general victimization factor) or a 3-factor model (separately examining verbal, physical, and social victimization). The 2-factor model best represented the data, and we found support for longitudinal invariance of this model across 7th through 10th grades for both boys and girls. Such findings of temporal invariance are important for further longitudinal comparisons, and we suggest future directions for using the Revised Adolescent Social Experience Questionnaire to examine stability and change in victimization as well as evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programs.

  4. Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wehry, Anna M.; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M.; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are efficacious in the treatment of these conditions in youth and that combination of CBT + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy. PMID:25980507

  5. Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wehry, Anna M; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M; Connolly, Sucheta D; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social, and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity, and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of these conditions in youth and suggest that the combination of psychotherapy + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy.

  6. Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Family Functioning and Parental Bonding among Psychiatric Outpatient Adolescent Offspring of Croatian Male Veterans with Partial PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…

  7. Psychometric Analysis of the Life Perspectives Inventory and Implications for Assessing Characteristics of Adolescent Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.; Bultsma, Shawn A.

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Life Perspectives Inventory (LPI-English language version), a new instrument designed to assess characteristics associated with nonreligious spirituality in high school-age adolescents, were examined in two phases. Phase 1 demonstrated the survey's factorial validity and internal consistency and the…

  8. Assessing the Transition Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults Who Are Deaf through Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Research, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes a programmatic line of research to develop and standardize a test battery of transition skills (employment and independent living skills) for adolescents and young adults (ages 14 to 25) who are deaf. The newsletter first discusses the importance of assessment data to the transition process for persons who are deaf.…

  9. Evaluating AIDS-Related Social Skills in Anglo and Latino Adolescents: Focus on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Kelley, Norma J.; Sipan, Carol L.; Burkham, Susan M.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assessment of AIDS-related social skills (measured by role play) in Anglo and Latino Adolescents (N=383) and explores ethnic and gender differences on these skills. Results indicate that anxiety and nonverbal behavior are generalized response classes that transcend specific social skills, suggesting the importance of measuring…

  10. Introducing an Instrument to Assess Time Orientation and Time Relation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Finan, Laura J.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on two studies that examine new instruments that assess time orientation and time relation in adolescents. These concepts refer to how individuals think about the past, the present, and the future, with time orientation defined as the emphasis one gives toward each time period and time relation defined as the degree one perceives that…

  11. Providing Assistance to the Victims of Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Nurses' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…

  12. The Child Suicide Risk Assessment: A Screening Measure of Suicide Risk in Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Andersen, Jamie J.; Ringle, Jay L.; Jorgensen, Dan D.

    2004-01-01

    This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha =…

  13. Assessment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although assessment presents unique challenges. Many symptoms of anxiety appear to overlap with common presentations of autism. Furthermore, deficits in language and cognitive functioning make it difficult for such…

  14. Assessment and Treatment of Stereotypic Vocalizations in a Taiwanese Adolescent with Autism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ping; Mirenda, Pat; Wang, Hwa-Pey; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes the processes of functional analysis and modality assessment that were utilized to design a communication intervention for an adolescent with autism who engaged in loud and disruptive vocalizations for most of the school day. The functional analysis suggested that the vocalizations served both tangible and escape…

  15. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the literature on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. The parameter focuses primarily on bipolar 1 disorder because that is the type most often studied in juveniles. The presentation of bipolar disorder in youth, especially children, is often considered atypical compared…

  16. The Validity of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Joseph B.; Weiner, Dana A.; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) is a functional assessment used in approximately 27 states to evaluate youth service outcomes. The CANS purports to measure both the youth's risk and protective factors, but its validity is largely un-researched. This study compares ratings of 304 delinquent youth on the CANS and ratings on a…

  17. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  18. Why It Won't Happen to Me: How Older Adolescents Make Personal Risk Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; Chirico, JoAnn

    This study sought to document optimistic bias among older adolescents in the context of numerous hazards. It was among the first studies to triangulate quantitative and qualitative measures to investigate how individuals make personal risk assessments within the optimistic bias literature. Results from a small-scale survey and follow-up interviews…

  19. Assessing Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Subskills Identification and Task Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a validation study of a new test for assessing low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension skills--the SALT-reading--we analyzed two issues relevant to the field of reading test development. Using the test results of 200 seventh graders, we examined the possibility of identifying reading comprehension subskills and the effects…

  20. Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Spoken Language Production in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Andriacchi, Karen; Nockerts, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial discusses the importance of language sample analysis and how Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software can be used to simplify the process and effectively assess the spoken language production of adolescents. Method: Over the past 30 years, thousands of language samples have been collected from typical…