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Sample records for adolescent psychiatry cap

  1. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  2. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  3. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  4. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  5. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    The major goal of the 2-year child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program at the University of Maryland is to provide an integrated but flexible set of learning experiences, with areas of emphasis including child and adolescent development, early intervention and prevention of mental health problems, community child psychiatry, and research.…

  6. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  7. Directing child and adolescent psychiatry training for residents.

    PubMed

    Sexson, Sandra B

    2010-01-01

    Directing child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training for residents is a complex and challenging administrative task that encompasses the broad creativity of the orchestral conductor, the social and interpersonal effectiveness of the best politician, and the orientation to details of the finest accountant. This article examines these roles in detail, recognizing the leadership, administrative, and managerial achievements of the successful child and adolescent program director. Resources for optimizing the chances for success in each of these areas, and the common pitfalls to avoid, are identified and discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for CAP training directors to influence medical student education. Although challenging and sometimes frustrating, the role of the program director in CAP training is almost always exciting and rewarding.

  8. Mentoring Increases Connectedness and Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Two Programs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Michelle S.; Miller, Susan Milam; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert; Ehmann, Mary; Hudziak, James J.; Martin, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess changes in knowledge and feeling connected to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) after participation in a brief mentoring program held at two CAP conferences. Methods: Similar mentorship programs were implemented at two CAP conferences, one national (N=119 participants), one international (N=53). The…

  9. Political lobbying for child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Lobbying for child and adolescent psychiatry works best when association members team with staff to communicate with members of Congress. Communication comes in many forms, some more effective than others, but without it, no opportunities for policy changes are generated. Legislators want to know what their constituents are interested in, and child and adolescent psychiatrists serve themselves and their profession by knowing the legislative agenda, using the tools available for reaching out to legislators, and using every opportunity available to move the agenda.

  10. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  11. [Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Rabe, Silke C; Fegert, Jörg M; Krüger, Ulrich; Kölch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry To keep the use of coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry low or reduce them completely, there needs to be a specific knowledge of the starting point. The study provides an overview of the current situation using a systematic literature review of published studies from the European and the outer European regions between 2005 and 2015. In summary only twelve publications addressed the topic, differentiated in four studies from inner and eight studies from outer European countries. In the studies from Europe, girls in their late adolescence experienced coercive measures more often, whereas the outer European studies identified more boys in early school age. Regarding the diagnoses of the respective patients, no distinct trend could be identified, as coercive measures were applied with a range of different diagnoses. In the European studies, coercive measures were more often used with children and adolescents fitting in the ICD-10-category F9. Results point to a lack of empirical studies concerning coercive measures in the context of child and adolescent psychiatry. Besides, clinical practice between the countries varies tremendously, resulting in difficulties comparing the findings. One possibility to address these issues might be a central register for every kind of coercive measure, as it was introduced in Baden-Württemberg lately and is currently in development for North Rhine-Westphalia.

  12. Attitudes of early-career psychiatrists in Japan toward child and adolescent psychiatry and their career decision.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Masaru; Kato, Takahiro; Nakano, Wakako; Teo, Alan R; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Miyajima, Kaya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Nakamura, Jun; Saito, Toshikazu

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a national survey to understand the attitude of early-career psychiatrists toward child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP). The subjects were 348 early-career psychiatrists. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects and returned anonymously. A total of 234 subjects (67.2%) responded. Ten out of 115 psychiatrists (8.9%) in their first-third year of experience, and 18 of 119 psychiatrists (15.1%) in their fourth-10th year answered that they had interest in CAP. Psychiatry rotations with adequate CAP cases may be necessary to attract early-career psychiatrists to CAP.

  13. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  14. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  15. US Military Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs and Careers of Military Child Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weston, Christina G; Dougherty, Joseph G; Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Chow, Jennifer C

    2015-08-01

    Military child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) fellowship programs offer educational experiences universal to all civilian training programs in the USA. They also offer unique training opportunities not found in civilian CAP fellowships in order to prepare graduates to serve the needs of military families. Military-specific curricula and exposures prepare trainees to address various issues faced by military families, in contending with frequent military moves, parental deployments, and disrupted social ties. Curricula are also designed to provide the psychiatrist with a greater understanding of the rigors of military service. CAP training and subsequent assignments prepare military psychiatrists for diverse career paths in the military environment. CAP military careers often include duties in addition to treating patients. Administrative roles, academic teaching positions, as well as school consultation positions are all career options available to military CAP.

  16. [Inclusion - pediatric and adolescent psychiatry aspects].

    PubMed

    Warnke, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities became legally binding in Germany in March 2009. “Inclusion” is the major concept–all people with any kind of handicap must have the same rights to full and effective participation and inclusion in society. Preceding inclusion come adjustments in society with regard to ethical, legislative, administrative, conceptual, structural, economical, and thus also to healthcare-political frameworks, in order to make disabilities are as far as possible no longer a handicap in an individual’s everyday life. This review first outlines the present social status influencing the development of children, a child’s welfare, and especially the healthcare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and conditions indicating barriers to inclusion. It focuses on those articles of the UN convention which are relevant with regard to ethical attitude, epidemiology, healthcare framework, diagnostics, therapy, teaching, and research with respect to child and adolescent psychiatry. The analysis points to a significant backlog demand in child psychiatric healthcare, teaching, and research.

  17. Child Psychiatry: What Are We Teaching Medical Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…

  18. Challenges in international collaboration in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Hesham M; Belfer, Myron L

    2010-12-01

    International collaboration in child and adolescent psychiatry has historically been weak and fragmented. The field has also lagged in developing remedies for improving collaboration. This article identifies barriers to successful collaboration and examines problems in the areas of finance, professional development, knowledge dissemination, professional organisations, public policy and the political environment, priority setting, nomenclature, as well as ethical challenges. The article then identifies some promising initiatives and proposes solutions to improve international collaboration in child and adolescent mental health.

  19. Wilderness Adventure Therapy in Adolescent Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Simon; O'Donnell, Matthew

    The Brief Intervention Program (BIP) is a mental health day program in Melbourne (Australia) for adolescents with severe mental health problems who are at risk for suicide. The 10-week program serves closed groups of 6-8 adolescents aged 13-18 years and has 3 phases: engagement and orientation (week 1), treatment (weeks 2-9), and integration (week…

  20. Therapeutic drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Egberts, K M; Mehler-Wex, C; Gerlach, M

    2011-09-01

    Psychopharmacotherapy in children and adolescents is characterized by an increased susceptibility for adverse events and an increased risk of ineffective treatment due to specific age-dependent and developmental characteristics in comparison to adults. Dosing in paediatric psychiatric patients requires careful handling, since the dose recommendations for adults can not simply be extrapolated to minors because of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. In addition, psychopharmacotherapy in children and adolescents is hampered by lack of high quality evidence on efficacy and safety in many indications and subsequently a high degree of off-label use. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an established and useful tool in psychiatry to individualize and optimize the outcomes (efficacy/safety balance) of psychopharmacological drug treatment in the individual patient by dose adjustments based upon measured serum concentrations. In children and adolescents the administration of psychotropic drugs is a general indication for performing TDM. However, TDM studies specific in these age groups are necessary to identify age and indication specific therapeutic ranges of serum concentrations. Systematic collection of data on drug exposure, serum concentrations and clinical characteristics as well as outcomes can generate such practice-based evidence. A German-Swiss-Austrian competence network for TDM in child and adolescent psychiatry using a multi-centre internet-based data infrastructure was founded to document and collect demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents (further information: www.tdm-kjp.com).

  1. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Talking to Children About Violence As an association dedicated to helping children and ... with the children, families, and communities impacted by violence around the globe and here at home. In ...

  2. [Contribution of the 10th International Classification of Diseases to pediatric and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Vojtík, V

    1993-12-01

    The 10th revision of the classification of mental disorders and behavioural disorders is due to description of clinical symptoms and diagnostic criteria more accurate and enriches the activities of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry. Diagnostics, therapy and prevention profit not only from sections dealing with newly conceived disorders which begin in childhood and adolescence but also other sections where problems relating to children and adolescents are pointed out. The Czech translation inovates clinical pictures given in our textbook of Child psychiatry published in 1963 and thus replaces partly a hitherto not published modern Czech textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry.

  3. Academic Training in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship: A Curriculum Based on Leadership Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Russell, Robert K.; Vanessa, Venezia A.; Saito, Albert Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe how one child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program responded to emerging trends in clinical practice which increasingly demand that child and adolescent psychiatrists lead their colleagues through instruction and supervision. Methods: Data from surveys of recent graduates of child and adolescent training…

  4. [Adolescents with diabetes type 1 in adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Walter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity, family and biographical risk factors, and individual motivational aspects influence the therapeutic adherence and treatment motivation in Diabetes Type 1. The article provides basis diabetological knowledge for adolescent psychotherapists and describes practical out- and inpatient experiences and deliberations with especially problematic comorbid patients. In psychiatrically comorbid patients family conflicts and individual psychopathology is often reflected and manifested in selfharming diabetes management.

  5. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973

  6. Exposing Medical Students to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Case-Based Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…

  7. [Diagnostic structured interviews in child and adolescent's psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Renou, S; Hergueta, T; Flament, M; Mouren-Simeoni, M-C; Lecrubier, Y

    2004-01-01

    Structured diagnostic interviews, which evolved along the development of classification's systems, are now widely used in adult psychiatry, in the fields of clinical trials, epidemiological studies, academic research as well as, more recently, clinical practice. These instruments improved the reliability of the data collection and interrater reliability allowing greater homogenisation of the subjects taking part in clinical research, essential factor to ensure the reproducibility of the results. The diagnostic instruments, conversely to the clinical traditional diagnostic processes allow a systematic and exhaustive exploration of disorders, diagnostic criteria but also severity levels, and duration. The format of the data collection, including the order of exploration of the symptoms, is fixed. The formulation of the questions is tested to be univocal, in order to avoid confusions. In child and adolescent, researches in pharmacology and epidemiology increased a lot in the last decade and the standardisation of diagnostic procedures is becoming a key feature. This Article aims to make an assessment, a selection, and a description of the standardized instruments helping psychiatric diagnosis currently available in the field of child and adolescent's psychiatry. Medline and PsycINFO databases were exhaustively checked and the selection of the instruments was based on the review of four main criteria: i) compatibility with international diagnostic systems (DSM IV and/or ICD-10); ii) number of disorders explored; iii) peer reviewed Journals and iv) richness of psychometric data. After the analysis of the instruments described or mentioned in the literature, 2 structured interviews [the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) and the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS)] and 4 diagnostic semi-structured interviews [the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (Kiddie-SADS), the Diagnostic Interview for

  8. [Child and adolescent psychiatry in the Public Health department--a status survey].

    PubMed

    Stober, B

    1990-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is still a neglected discipline in Public Health, despite the fact that a high degree of effectiveness can be definitely achieved especially as regards prevention if physicians specialising in child and adolescent psychiatry are employed by Public Health services. Thus avoiding that children develop into psychiatrist-prone adults after taking up a career or profession. The child and adolescent psychiatrist in Public Health services is not only competent in respect of giving advice and mediating help in the areas of kindergarten and school problems, but is also a significant key person in health education. It is urgently recommended to recruit a sufficient number of child and adolescent psychiatrists for Public Health service or to train them within the framework of their activities as Public Health physicians. Prevention is better than cure--this is especially true for children and adolescents.

  9. [Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Burchard, Falk; Diebenbusch, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Crisis Intervention in a Health Care Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry In the past years the pressure in society and psychological problems in Germany have risen up. This can especially be verified by the great influx of utilization of child and adolescent psychiatric clinics through the admission of crisis. In this connection social disadvantaged female adolescents with a low socio-economic status, students of the secondary school, children in care and the ones whose parents have to manage their upbringing alone are preferentially affected. These developments require a fast adaptation of the supply system to the transformed demands, in particular in terms of outpatient treatment, as well as a closely and structured cooperation between the youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatric clinics in their function as systems of help. In the script statistical data and adaptive approaches of a supply department of child and adolescent psychiatry are presented.

  10. [Therapeutic drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry--practical recommendations].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Manfred; Rothenhöfer, Silke; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Fegert, Joerg M; Schulz, Eberhard; Wewetzer, Christoph; Warnke, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The therapy of children and adolescents with psychotropic drugs differs from that of adults. Due to the differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the drugs used that are dependent on a child's, respectively an adolescent's stage of development, the same dosages as recommended for adults cannot be used. Moreover, many of the drugs used have not been approved for use in children and adolescents. Thus the criteria which guarantee their efficacy and safety for use in adults do not apply for their use in children and adolescents. Therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a general indication for the administration of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents. TDM enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of a drug according to the characteristics of the individual patient. It is also a valid tool to increase the safety of therapy and optimise therapy with psychotropic drugs. However, standardized studies are also needed to find therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations for children and adolescents. Such studies will deliver new insights into the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behaviour of drugs used in child and adolescent psychiatry. The present contribution begins with a brief description of the strategy of TDM in psychiatry, followed by a discussion of the characteristics of pharmacotherapy in child and adolescent psychiatry and the reasons for the general indication of TDM in children and adolescents. Finally, recommendations are given for the routine performance of TDM. For a detailed treatment of TDM in psychiatry, the interested reader is referred to the AG-NP-TDM Expert Group Consensus Guidelines published earlier (Baumann et al., 2004).

  11. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  12. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  13. Promoting Scholarship during Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Hamoda, Hesham M.; DeMaso, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) drew attention to the critical national shortage of psychiatrist-researchers and the need for competency-based curricula to promote research training during psychiatry residency as one way to address this shortage at the institutional level. Here, the authors report on the adaptation,…

  14. [Structural quality in inpatient and daycare child and adolescent psychiatry- indicators for planning future staff ratios for the era following the Psychiatry Personnel Act].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jörg M; Becker, Katja

    2015-11-01

    The German Psychiatry Personnel Act, which went into effect in 1990, has led to a decrease in the number of child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient beds, to a decrease in the length of stay, and to an increase in inpatient psychotherapy. Today, this act is outdated~ for a number of reasons, such as changes in the morbidity of the population, the rising number of emergencies, and new professional standards such as documentation. In addition, new legal provisions and conventions (like the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) necessitate a complete reevaluation. Child and adolescent psychiatry needs a normative act to enable the necessary implementation. Many different rationales are available to support the debate.

  15. [The meaning of bibliotherapy and expressive writing in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Blechinger, Tobias; Klosinski, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Child- and adolescent psychiatry is a good field for the application of creative and playful therapies. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are two examples of them. The effectiveness of both, for different types of disorders, has been proved in many studies. Up until today it was unknown just how prevalent these therapies are within child and adolescent psychiatry in the german speaking countries. The following article summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 122 child and adolescence psychiatric clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland to gain more information about their use. The survey takes into account the frequency of application of bibliotherapy and expressive writing therapies depending on age and type of disorder, preferences amongst patient groups, as well as specific approaches. More than half of the surveyed child and adolescent psychiatries are using at least one of the two therapies. They are used on an irregular and non-systematic basis and rather symptom- than diagnosis-orientated. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are dynamic therapies which can be used in manifold ways. Reading and writing are two of the main pillars of our educational system and can be utilized within a therapeutic setting. Provided that the patient is not suffering from severe cognitive or mental limitations, the spoken and written word can leave deep imprints within the patient's, but also the therapist's, soul.

  16. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate.

  17. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  18. Managing Transition with Support: Experiences of Transition from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to General Adult Psychiatry Narrated by Young Adults and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults' and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. PMID:24829900

  19. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  1. [Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees Minor refugees put a challenge to the intercultural openness, including an abdication from diagnostic schemes. They need creativity, modification of treatment manuals and the therapist's ability to engage himself as a person. They need another notion of abstinence and the ability to cooperate with interpreters of language and culture. In cooperation with youth welfare institutions for unaccompanied minor refugees, principles that have been developed for institutional cooperation and individual crisis intervention plans have been modified: high threshold inpatient admission, multi-step-approach and reliability of cooperation.

  2. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice.

  3. Amantadine: a review of use in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hosenbocus, Sheik; Chahal, Raj

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Passer en revue, résumer et discuter la littérature publiée sur la pharmacologie et l’utilisation de l’amantadine en pédopsychiatrie. MÉTHODE: Une recherche de la littérature dans plusieurs bases de données (PubMed, Psychinfo, CINAHL, Medline, PsycARTICLES, Biomedical Reference Collection et Academis Search Complete) a été menée avec le mot clé « amantadine » avec des limites: langue anglaise, essais sur des humains, tous les enfants (de 0 à 18 ans). Des articles additionnels pertinents ont été relevés dans les bibliographies. Étant donné la quantité limitée d’information obtenue, la recherche s’est élargie et a inclus « tous les enfants et les adultes », et l’information pertinente a été saisie. RÉSULTATS: L’utilisation de l’amantadine pour traiter les troubles neuro-développementaux chez les enfants est due à son effet antagoniste au recepteur N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). L’effet de l’amantadine sur le système glutamatergique des neurotransmetteurs, jouer un rôle important dans de nombreux troubles psychiatriques. La majorité des études relevées étaient des études ouvertes et seulement deux étaient des études contrôlées d’enfants et d’adolescents. Un essai randomisé contrôlé rendait compte des effets bénéfiques du contrôle des symptômes d’irritabilité et d’hyperactivité chez les enfants souffrant d’un trouble autiste. Un autre essai randomisé contrôlé, une étude de comparaison directe avec le méthylphénidate, a constaté un effet statistiquement significatif sur le trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH). Deux autres études ouvertes constataient aussi des effets positifs sur le TDAH. Une étude pilote sur des enfants souffrant d’énurésie constatait une réduction significative de la fréquence de l’incontinence. Ouvertes pour la plupart, les études sur les adultes, relativement aux enfants et aux adolescents, rapportaient une

  4. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  5. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Shared Experiences of a Special-Interest Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Hanson, Mark D.; Coll, Xavier; Paul, Moli; Szatmari, Peter; Tan, Susan M. K.; Bell, Cathy K.; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) represents a major development and change in educational practice that continues to have a large impact across subjects and disciplines worldwide. It would seem that child and adolescent psychiatry, because of its inherently integrative, bio-psycho-social nature and emphasis on teamwork and…

  6. Triage of Patients in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic

    PubMed Central

    ARAS, Şahbal; VAROL TAŞ, Fatma; BAYKARA, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and describe the three-stage triage method used in a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic. Method The study investigated the new allocation process of 1482 children and adolescents who were assessed using this triage system for the duration of one year, in the year 2005. Data of 1423 children and adolescents who presented in 2003 regarding the waiting time for the first appointment and the rate of nonattendance at the first appointment were used for the comparison. In triage system, new patients presenting to the outpatient clinic in the morning four days a week were assessed by a three-stage procedure: An initial Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire screening and a structured interview administered by an intern was then followed by a clinical interview. Results Of the 1482 children and adolescents who presented to the outpatient clinic during the study period, 1291 were given further appointments. Among patients who presented in 2005, the 207 non-attendant patients were significantly more likely to have longer waiting times than the 1084 attendant patients. When compared to year 2003, it was found that there was a significant decrease in the median waiting time for the first appointment and the rate of nonattendance at the first appointment among patients who presented in 2005. Conclusion The triage procedure used in this study may constitute a model for developing countries with limited health care resources.

  7. Integrating Smartphone Technology at the Time of Discharge from a Child and Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatry Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Sukhera, Javeed; Taylor-Gates, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Objective As smartphone technology becomes an increasingly important part of youth mental health, there has been little to no examination of how to effectively integrate smartphone-based safety planning with inpatient care. Our study sought to examine whether or not we could effectively integrate smartphone-based safety planning into the discharge process on a child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit. Method Staff members completed a survey to determine the extent of smartphone ownership in a population of admitted child and adolescent inpatients. In addition to quantifying smartphone ownership, the survey also tracked whether youth would integrate their previously-established safety plan with a specific safety planning application on their smartphone (Be Safe) at the time of discharge. Results Sixty-six percent (50/76) of discharged youth owned a smartphone, which is consistent with prior reports of high smartphone ownership in adult psychiatric populations. A minority of youth (18%) downloaded the Be Safe app prior to discharge, with most (68%) suggesting they would download the app after discharge. Notably, all patients who downloaded the app prior to discharge were on their first admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Conclusion Child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients have a clear interest in smartphone-based safety planning. Our results suggest that integrating smartphone-related interventions earlier in an admission might improve access before discharge. This highlights the tension between restricting and incorporating smartphone access for child and adolescent inpatients and may inform future study in this area. PMID:28331503

  8. Memantine: A Review of Possible Uses in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Hosenbocus, Sheik; Chahal, Raj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To provide a review of published literature regarding the pharmacology of memantine and potential benefits for use in child and adolescent psychiatry. Method: A literature search of several databases (Medline, Psychinfo, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES) was conducted with the search terms: ‘memantine’ with limits: English language, Human trials, all child (aged 0–18 years). The search was later expanded to include ‘Adults’ and relevant articles were also selected from reference lists. Result: The search did not find any well-controlled studies in children and adolescents except for open label trials, as monotherapy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as an augmenting agent in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). No study was found in anxiety disorders (AD), the most common psychiatric disorder in children or in mood disorders, both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Studies in adults for those disorders with onset in childhood or adolescence, were also mostly open-label and as an add-on therapy. All the studies reported that memantine is a safe drug with minimal drug interactions and a very acceptable adverse effect profile comparable to placebo. Conclusion: Memantine has demonstrated beneficial effects in some childhood disorders but the evidence is too limited at present and does not provide enough support of its efficacy to advocate for its regular use in those conditions. Such use remains off-label until further validation of efficacy comes from blinded, randomized, placebo controlled studies. PMID:23667364

  9. Ethical issues associated with genetic counseling in the context of adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Jane; Virani, Alice; Austin, Jehannine C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic counseling is a well-established healthcare discipline that provides individuals and families with health information about disorders that have a genetic component in a supportive counseling encounter. It has recently been applied in the context of psychiatric disorders (like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression and anxiety) that typically appear sometime during later childhood through to early adulthood. Psychiatric genetic counseling is emerging as an important service that fills a growing need to reframe understandings of the causes of mental health disorders. In this review, we will define psychiatric genetic counseling, and address important ethical concerns (we will particularly give attention to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice) that must be considered in the context of its application in adolescent psychiatry, whilst integrating evidence regarding patient outcomes from the literature. We discuss the developing capacity and autonomy of adolescents as an essential and dynamic component of genetic counseling provision in this population and discuss how traditional viewpoints regarding beneficence and non-maleficence should be considered in the unique situation of adolescents with, or at risk for, psychiatric conditions. We argue that thoughtful and tailored counseling in this setting can be done in a manner that addresses the important health needs of this population while respecting the core principles of biomedical ethics, including the ethic of care. PMID:26937355

  10. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics.

  11. Focus on Aripiprazole: A Review of its use in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Greenaway, Masa’il; Elbe, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review published literature regarding aripiprazole in child and adolescent psychiatry. Method: A literature review was conducted using the MEDLine search term: ‘aripiprazole’ with limits: Human trials, English language, All Child (aged 0–18 years). Additional articles were identified from reference information and poster presentation data. Results: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic which was recently approved for use in Canada, but has been available for several years in the United States. Pharmacologically, aripiprazole is a partial agonist at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT2A receptors. Randomized controlled trial data is available showing efficacy for aripiprazole in the treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and behavioural problems associated with autism. Open-label evidence is also available for use of aripiprazole in other disorders such as tic disorders, aggression and disruptive behavior disorders. Unlike some other available atypical antipsychotics, there does not appear to be any effect on QTc interval on the electrocardiogram. Adverse effects including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), akathisia, sedation, headache, nausea were significant in clinical trials in children and adolescents. The possibility of aripiprazole causing tardive dyskinesia cannot be excluded. In this population, aripiprazole appears to have minimal impact on the metabolic profile compared to most other atypical antipsychotics, with minimal changes in weight or body mass index, no significant changes in glucose or lipid metabolism, and a decrease in serum prolactin. Conclusion: Aripiprazole may represent an important alternative for some children and adolescents who have experienced poor efficacy or significant metabolic adverse effects with their current antipsychotic treatment regimen. PMID:19718428

  12. A Fiscal Intermediary Based on Needs Assessment to Support a Managed Care Approach to Outpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Care at BAMC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-05

    OUTPATIENT CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY CARE AT BAMC 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) SMITH, THOMAS CLARK III 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114...construct a patient profile for child and adolescent 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION QIUNCLASSIFIED...1 9, 4 13311WP A FISCAL INTERMEDIARY BASED NEEDS ASSESSMENT TO SUPPORT A MANAGED CARE APPROACH TO OUTPATIENT CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CARE AT

  13. Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra; Farber, Naomi

    This digest reviews trends in adolescent sexual activity and discusses conceptual and programmatic approaches to pregnancy prevention. It discusses a pregnant adolescent's choices for resolving an unplanned pregnancy (i.e. abortion, adoption, keeping the baby, and marriage), and the challenges faced by teenage parents. The final section touches on…

  14. The mini-PAT as a multi-source feedback tool for trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry: assessing whether it is fit for purpose

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Gill; Pugsley, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the research supporting the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) for doctors and describes the mini-Peer Assessment Tool (mini-PAT), the MSF instrument currently used to assess trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry. The relevance of issues raised in the literature about MSF tools in general is examined in relation to trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry as well as the appropriateness of the mini-PAT for this group. Suggestions for change including modifications to existing MSF tools or the development of a specialty-specific MSF instrument are offered.

  15. From Poster Presentation to Publication: National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    MUTLU, Caner; KAYA MUTLU, Ebru; KILIÇOĞLU, Ali Güven; YORBIK, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to determine publication rate, time to publication, and study design of poster presentations accepted at the National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (NCCAP) and converted to publication and the degree of first author in a published article and journal index and 2) to investigate the relationship of these data with each other. Methods The poster presentations of four congresses organized between 2005 and 2008 were investigated separately. The presentations were screened by taking into account the title and the first and second author in English and Turkish languages via PubMed and Google Academic databases. Published studies, time between presentation and publishing date, study design, degree of first author, and journal index of these studies were recorded. Results Fifty-four (25.2%) of 214 poster presentations were published in international and national peer-reviewed journals. Of the published articles, 74.1% (n=40) were research type and 61.1% (n=33) were found in the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) peer-reviewed journals. The first author in 42.6% (n=23) of published articles were assistant professors. The average time between presentation and publishing date was 30.72±18.89 months. Statistical differences were not determined between publication rate and study design; between time to publication and study type/study design, degree of first author, and journal index; and between journal index and study design and degree of first author (p>0.05). It was found that research articles were published significantly more by teaching staff than experts and other researchers (p<0.05). Conclusion Compared with literature data, it was found that the time to publication was longer while the publication rate was similar for poster presentations in our congresses. Based on these results, it is important to create necessary conditions and encourage the researchers to

  16. Adolescent Psychiatry; Proceedings of a Conference (Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, June 20, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsie, S.J., Ed.

    Discussed in a conference report on adolescent psychology are the varieties of behavioral problems and family dynamics by Richard Jenkins, biological growth during adolescence by J.R. Unwin, management of adolescents in a general hospital setting by Henry Kravitz, and educational problems in disturbed adolescents by S.J. Shamsie, Jean-L. Lapointe,…

  17. [Selection and destruction--treatment of "unworthy-to-live" children in the Third Reich and the role of child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Dahl, M

    2001-03-01

    During the period of National Socialism in Germany, many "asocial", mentally retarded or disabled minors were persecuted. Several measures had been discussed theoretically before, but the National Socialists put the theoretical proposals into practice. As a result children and adolescents were separated, sterilized or killed. In concentration camps so-called "depraved" minors were selected to get special education. The object of this effort was to adapt minors to the ideology of national socialism. After passing the law to sterilize patients with "hereditary diseases" in 1933 about 375.000 people were sterilized unvoluntarily. In 1939 sterilizations came to an end except for adolescents at "high risk of reproduction". During the second world war more than 160.000 adult psychiatric patients were murdered. In addition to that, also a large number of disabled and mentally retarded minors were killed. This campaign was called child "euthanasia". Physicians tried to determine children's "value of life" by economic criteria. Children with negative ratings (i.e. inability to work or insufficient mental maturing) were killed by fasting "cures" or by barbiturates. Beyond that children were also used as research subjects. Their death was an accepted consequence. Physicians were also very interested in brain research. Finally, the relation to German child and adolescent psychiatry will be analysed. In the special political and social context of the Third Reich the German child and adolescent psychiatry became more significant. As a result of this the German association of child and adolescent psychiatry and allied professions was founded 1940 in Vienna. On this conference, some speakers suggested to persecute "asocial" minors. This suggestion was realized consequently. Up to now, the role of the German child and adolescent psychiatry has not been thoroughly discussed.

  18. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations. PMID:24174891

  19. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: the He-who-must-not-be-named of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, Marie-Pier

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the possibility and pertinence of diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. The etiology and clinical manifestations of this disorder in adolescents are discussed, and its management is addressed in terms of psychotherapy, pharmacology, hospitalization issues, and family involvement considerations.

  20. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  1. Characteristics of Patients Visiting the Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic: A 26-Year Study from North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy; Sharan, Pratap; Grover, Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients, who presented to the child and adolescent psychiatric services of a tertiary care centre over a 26-year period (1980-2005). Methodology: Data were abstracted retrospectively from detailed work up files of all subjects assessed in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Clinic…

  2. Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia: developmental and cognitive outcome in three adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Marilena; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Giordano, Lucio; Ferraris, Alessandro; Germanò, Eva; Micheletti, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Bernardini, Laura; Loddo, Sara; Tortorella, Gaetano; Ormitti, Francesca; Gasparotti, Roberto; Rossi, Andrea; Valente, Enza Maria

    2011-06-08

    Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia (PTCD) is a recently described, rare disorder characterized by a peculiar cerebellar and brainstem malformation. Nineteen patients have been reported to date, of which only one in the adolescent age, and data on the clinical, cognitive and behavioural outcome of this syndrome are scarce. Here we describe three adolescent patients with PTCD. All presented bilateral deafness and multiple cranial neuropathies, variably associated with skeletal, cardiac and gastro-intestinal malformations. Feeding and swallowing difficulties, that are often causative of recurrent aspiration pneumonias and death in the first years of life, completely resolved with age in all three patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed borderline to moderate cognitive impairment, with delay in adaptive functioning, visual-spatial and language deficits. Two of three patients also showed mild behavioural problems, although their overall socialization abilities were well preserved. Cochlear implantation in two patients significantly improved their relational and learning abilities. Fibre tractography confirmed the abnormal bundle of transversely oriented fibres forming the typical pontine "tegmental cap" and absence of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, supporting the hypothesis that PTCD results from abnormal axonal guidance and/or migration.These data indicate that PTCD may have a favourable long-term outcome, with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition and partially preserved speech.

  3. Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia: developmental and cognitive outcome in three adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia (PTCD) is a recently described, rare disorder characterized by a peculiar cerebellar and brainstem malformation. Nineteen patients have been reported to date, of which only one in the adolescent age, and data on the clinical, cognitive and behavioural outcome of this syndrome are scarce. Here we describe three adolescent patients with PTCD. All presented bilateral deafness and multiple cranial neuropathies, variably associated with skeletal, cardiac and gastro-intestinal malformations. Feeding and swallowing difficulties, that are often causative of recurrent aspiration pneumonias and death in the first years of life, completely resolved with age in all three patients. Neuropsychological assessment showed borderline to moderate cognitive impairment, with delay in adaptive functioning, visual-spatial and language deficits. Two of three patients also showed mild behavioural problems, although their overall socialization abilities were well preserved. Cochlear implantation in two patients significantly improved their relational and learning abilities. Fibre tractography confirmed the abnormal bundle of transversely oriented fibres forming the typical pontine "tegmental cap" and absence of decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, supporting the hypothesis that PTCD results from abnormal axonal guidance and/or migration. These data indicate that PTCD may have a favourable long-term outcome, with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition and partially preserved speech. PMID:21651769

  4. What is new in adolescent psychiatry? Literature review and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    This article provides the adolescent medicine physician with a review of seminal psychiatric research published in 2011 and 2012 and its clinical relevance for day-to-day practice. The present review focuses on conditions commonly encountered by adolescent medicine physicians such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, bipolar disorder, tic disorders, and major depression. Additionally, there is a section that outlines specific clinical situations for which psychiatric consultation must be obtained, as well as helpful resources and suggestions to mitigate the unavailability of appointments in a mental health office.

  5. Treating Children and Adolescents in Residential and Inpatient Settings. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. Volume 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Robert D.; Campbell, Nancy R.

    This book examines the various components of hospital, residential, and outpatient treatments for children and adolescents with mental disorders. Options and settings for residential care are presented, including the principles and practical issues, such as providing continuing education, that underlie the decision making for placement of youth in…

  6. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  7. Adverse effects of psychological therapy: An exploratory study of practitioners' experiences from child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Johanson, Josefin; Nilsson, Elin; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The scientific knowledge about adverse effects of psychological therapies and how such effects should be detected is limited. It is possible that children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable and need specific support in order to express adverse effects. In this exploratory study, we used a qualitative approach to explore practitioners' experiences of this phenomenon. Fourteen practitioners providing psychological therapy within the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Four overarching categories brought up by the practitioners were identified: vagueness of the concept (reflecting that the concept was novel and hard to define), psychotherapist-client interaction (encompassing aspects of the interaction possibly related to adverse effects), consequences for the young person (including a range of emotional, behavioural and social consequences) and family effects (e.g. professional complications and decreased autonomy for the parent). Professional discussions on these issues could improve psychological therapy for children and adolescents. Based on our findings and previous research, we propose three basic aspects to consider when adverse effects are detected and managed in this context: typology (form, severity and duration), aetiology (hypothesis about the causes) and perspective (adverse effects seen from the points of view of different interested parties).

  8. [Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy in Germany-inventory and implications].

    PubMed

    Becker, Katja; Resch, Franz; Fegert, Jörg M; Häßler, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Einleitung: Wissen über kinder- und jugendpsychiatrische Störungen, deren Diagnostik und Therapie, Kenntnisse über Risiken devianter Entwicklungen, sowie das Erlernen von Fertigkeiten im adäquaten Umgang mit Kindern und Jugendlichen gehören in jede Medizinerausbildung. Die vorliegende Arbeit ist eine Bestandsaufnahme der Lehre im Fach Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie (KJP) an den medizinischen Fakultäten in Deutschland. Methodik: Es wurden alle Lehrstuhlinhaber für KJP befragt zur Einbindung in die Pflichtlehre, zu den Lehrangeboten für KJP vor Ort und zu Lehrangeboten für andere Fachbereiche. Ergebnisse: An 25 von 26 medizinischen Fakultäten mit Lehrstuhl für KJP ist das Fach KJP bereits in die Pflichtlehre für Mediziner integriert. Die Vorlesung wird entweder als eigenständige KJP-Vorlesung gehalten oder ist in die Vorlesung Psychiatrie, Pädiatrie und/oder Psychosomatik integriert. Die durchschnittlich 1.2 Semesterwochenstunden umfassende Hauptvorlesung (Range von 0.1 bis 2 SWS; entsprechend 2 bis 28 Unterrichtseinheiten KJP pro Semester) wird durch zahlreiche weitere Lehrangebote ergänzt, wie Praktika, vertiefende Veranstaltungen und Wahlpflichtfachangebote. Das KJP-Wahltertial des Praktischen Jahrs kann an allen Orten mit KJP-Lehrstuhl absolviert werden. Oft wird KJP-Lehre auch für andere Fachbereiche angeboten, am häufigsten für Studierende der Psychologie und der Pädagogik. Schlussfolgerung: Ein übergeordnetes Ziel sollte es sein, KJP aufgrund ihrer Bedeutung als Approbationsfach in der ärztlichen Ausbildungsordnung zu verankern und zukünftig an allen 35 Universitäten mit Fachbereich Medizin in Deutschland zu lehren.

  9. [Concept of budget-based remuneration system for the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    A new remuneration system is currently being developed for the hospital care of people with mental disorders. Last year, because of sharp criticism the option phase of the planned Flat-rate Charges in Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (Pauschalierende Entgelte Psychiatrie und Psychosomatik, PEPP) was extended by 2 years. During this time the Federal Ministry of Health wants to look for alternatives and possible starting points for the further development of care. Now, 16 scientific professional associations and organisations have presented a joint concept for a sustainable solution: the budget-based remuneration system. The system is suitable for ensuring that people with mental disorders are treated according to their particular needs and for promoting the appropriate further development of regional care in all treatment settings. It corresponds with the objectives as formulated in Section 17d of the Hospital Finance Act (Krankenhausfinanzierungsgesetz, KHG) and translates the PEPP system, which is currently being developed and focusses on average prices, into a performance-oriented, transparent budgetary system. The fundamental principle is the separation of the individual hospitals' budgeting on the basis of evidence-based, feature- and performance-related modules and billing in the form of advance payments from the agreed budget.

  10. Transformational Impact of Health Information Technology on the Clinical Practice of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Peters, Todd E

    2017-01-01

    Compared with other medical specialties, psychiatrists have been slower adopters of health information technology (IT) practices, such as electronic health records (EHRs). This delay in implementation could compromise patient safety and impede integration into accountable care organizations and multidisciplinary treatment settings. This article focuses on optimizing use of EHRs for clinical practice, leveraging health IT to improve quality of care, and focusing on the potential for future growth in health IT in child and adolescent psychiatric practice. Aligning with other medical fields and focusing on transparency of mental health treatment will help psychiatrists reach parity with other medical specialties.

  11. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians.

  12. [Inpatient and partial hospitalization facilities for child and adolescent psychiatry in the unified Germany, 1991].

    PubMed

    Specht, F; Anton, S

    1992-12-01

    First results of the project "Surveys regarding the structure of psychiatric institutions for children and adolescents in the Federal Republic of Germany" are described. On July 1, 1991 there were 111 in-patient institutions with a total capacity for 6363 children and youths. The contributing shares of each state (Bundesland) vary enormously. The number of accommodations per 100,000 residents is between 2.1 and 19. One reason for this discrepancy lies in the fact that the services of the institutions are called upon without regard to the state borders. More important though is the fact that in the new states the psychiatric institutions for children and youths also treat young patients who are psychologically or mentally handicapped with neuropsychiatric complications to a greater extent than comparable institutions in the old states.

  13. The Impact of Health Information Technology on the Doctor-Patient Relationship in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    As health information technology continues to expand and permeate medicine, there is increasing concern for the effect on the therapeutic relationship between patient and psychiatrist. This article explores this impact, seeking wisdom from adult psychiatry and more broadly from general medical disciplines to draw conclusions regarding how the child psychiatry encounter may be affected. Several proposed strategies to mitigate potential negative impacts of health information technology on the therapeutic relationship across practice settings are offered.

  14. Complementary Psychosocial Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Pet Assisted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias. PMID:24701004

  15. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  16. [Legal and practical issues on coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Kathleen; Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jorg M

    2006-01-01

    Although insight, positive attitude towards therapy and compliance are key to a successful treatment, in certain situations the use of coercive measures on mentally ill or disordered minors is the only way to prevent serious harm to the patient or others. The decision to use coercive measures, such as involuntary admission or detention, seclusion, mechanical or chemical restraint or involuntary treatment, is challenging for clinicians as they have to deal, not only with the patient and his or her parents who are in a disturbed emotional state, but also with some complex legal regulations. To protect the rights of patient and parents in these difficult situations and to prevent legal consequences for clinical personnel for unlawful acts, it is essential that staff be familiar with all concerned legal rules and procedures. Interdisciplinary co-operation between the involved professionals should be encouraged to ensure a standardised procedure according to legal specifications. A growing number of mental hospitals for children and adolescents have no special locked door units but open wards that can be locked when required. A placement of voluntarily and involuntarily committed patients in the same unit can cause problems if the freedom of voluntary patients is restraint due to the placement of an interned patient. Unlawful restraint must be avoided by a sufficient number of staff and clear proceeding guidelines.

  17. Complementary psychosocial interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry: pet assisted therapy.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias.

  18. [An inclusive misunderstanding--why noncategorization in special education for people with emotional and social behavior disorders complicates the cooperation with child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ahrbeck, Bernd; Fickler-Stang, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The welcomed coeducation of children and adolescents with and without disabilities is going into dangerous territory since it has become burdened with a number of illusionary expectations. The constraints applied by real-life and meaningful circumstances should be taken into account, especially for children with emotional and social behavior disorders. Practicable prevention and intervention measurements cannot be generated without profound knowledge about disorders among this heterogeneous group of people. Abandoning all previously relevant terminology («noncategorization»), demanded by some radical inclusion advocates, leads to a situation that is helplessly confronted with its duties but lacks the basic skills and the necessary support stemming from an interdisciplinary dialogue. The contact with child and adolescent psychiatry is threatened to the disadvantage of the profession.

  19. Digital psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world.

  20. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  1. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  2. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  3. The effect of a silicone swim cap on swimming performance in tropical conditions in pre-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hue, Olivier; Galy, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the silicone swim caps (SC) worn by young swimmers in a tropical climate negatively influence aerobic performance. Nine trained pre- adolescents [11.8 (± 0.8) years] swam randomized 800-m trials (water: 32.9°C, outdoors: shade, 29.2 ± 0.2 °C, 74 ± 0.3 % rh) with a SC or a nude head (NH). Performance times and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously. Rectal temperature (Trec) was measured before and after trials. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed. Stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) were measured every 50-m. The SC trial was significantly longer than NH (799 ± 16 and 781 ± 16 seconds, respectively). Mean delta Trec was significantly greater in SC (0.2 ± 0.1°C vs. -0.1 ± 0.1°C in SC vs. NH), mean SI was significantly different in SC versus NH (1.83 ± 0.07 vs 1.73 ± 0.06); but RPE and mean HR, SF and SL showed no change. We conclude that a silicone swim cap worn in tropical environment significantly decreased 800-m crawl performance without affecting HR or RPE. Silicone swim caps worn by young swimmers in a tropical environment may also have negative effects on training capacity. Key pointsSwimming in tropical climate represents a physiological stressSwimming with swim cap in warm water could induce thermal stressThermoregulation processes have to be used in order to make training in tropical climate safer.

  4. Computational Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  5. What Is Psychiatry?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  6. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M. W.; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  7. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Mörelius, Evalotte; Gustafsson, Per A.; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n = 33) and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP) (n = 14) using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person). Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health. PMID:23878734

  8. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues.

  9. Psychiatry Resident Training in Cultural Competence: An Educator's Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Johnson, Toni L; Shelton, Pheston G; Glass, Oliver

    2016-11-05

    Resident physicians training in psychiatry in the U.S. are required to master a body of knowledge related to cultural psychiatry; are expected to adopt attitudes that endorse the principles of cultural competence; and finally are expected to acquire specific cultural competence skills that facilitate working effectively with diverse patients. This article first provides an overview of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies related to cultural competence, as well as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's (AACAP) recommendations for the cultural competence training of child/adolescent fellows. Next, numerous print and electronic resources that can be used in cultural competence education in psychiatry are reviewed and discussed. Finally, we conclude by providing recommendations for psychiatry residency programs that we culled from model cultural competence curricula.

  10. [An integrative research model for child and adolescent psychiatry bringing together biological, psychological and social research approaches].

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut

    2006-11-01

    After some general remarks on the current situation of child and adolescent psychiatric research in Germany, a research concept is presented which in the course of 30 years of testing and further development has proven to be successful both in the inauguration of scientific projects, as well as in the qualification of trainees and co-workers. The nucleus of this concept is a research unit that is to a large extent independent of the daily health care routine. Some of the unit staff members are natural scientists holding permanent positions, complemented by a secondary labour force of young doctors and psychologists aspiring to a scientific career. This research unit provides supply for scientific projects and basic research, as well as for the development of new methods. The unit was endorsed by a Clinical Research Group funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) that proved of value as power supply for research (e.g. by raising substantial third-party funds) and as an instrument for the qualification of young scientists. The article describes some results of four research projects derived from this approach (schizophrenia research, dyslexia research, research on Asperger syndrome, quality assurance, and therapy evaluation research).

  11. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  12. Undergraduate Child Psychiatry Teaching in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Jenny K.; McCallum, Zoe; Bevan, Catherine; Vance, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The teaching of child psychiatry in Australian medical schools is under review: the content, the placement of the field within medical curricula, and the appropriate teaching and learning methods are all contested. The authors developed a 1-day program in the 9-week child and adolescent health course conducted in the final two semesters…

  13. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    PubMed

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive.

  14. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... check the cervical cap's position before sex. Squat, bear down, insert your finger into your vagina and ... two days. To remove the cervical cap, squat, bear down and rotate the cap. Relax your muscles ...

  15. Lobotomy in Norwegian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tranøy, Joar; Blomberg, Wenche

    2005-03-01

    Lobotomy is still a hidden chapter in the history of Norwegian psychiatry. The main reasons, which are discussed here, may have been the role of Ørnulv Ødegård at Gaustad Hospital in Oslo and the links between health authorities and the power élite in Norwegian psychiatry.

  16. Crime and Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Matcheswalla, Yusuf; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein. PMID:25838733

  17. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge.

  18. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  19. Reflections on military psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R J

    1978-07-01

    The need for psychiatrists in the military was recognized for the first time during World War I, which involved millions of men in unusually protracted warfare. The policy of treating psychiatric casualties close to the from and returning soldiers to their military units as quickly as possible proved of great significance in the U.S. war effort. During World War II, the Korean conflict, and the war in Viet Nam, military psychiatry made great contributions and learned many lessions, both at home and abroad. The lessions learned by military psychiatry have important applications for the rest of medicine, especially in the fields of stress, crisis therapy, and community psychiatry.

  20. [Breakup during twilight--the development of child and adolescent psychiatry during the time of forced sterilisation and child euthanasia in national socialism].

    PubMed

    Nedoschill, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of professional child psychiatry partly took place against a historically difficult background: the National Socialism. Physicians who shaped the profession scientifically were at the same time offenders in forced sterilisation and euthanasia. Substanciated understanding of the professional history implies a differenciated examination of relevant biographies. The careers of Werner Villinger and Hans Heinze are being outlined and related to the historical context. A distinct and satisfactory understanding has not taken place during postwar period in Germany. However, in the meantime there has grown an awareness and also a consternation about the incidents due to research and publications.

  1. AACAP 2005 Research Forum: Speeding the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice in Pediatric Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Szatmari, Peter; Bukstein, Oscar; Chrisman, Allan; Kondo, Douglas; Hamilton, John D.; Kremer, Charlotte M. E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: At the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a Research Forum entitled "Increasing Research Literacy Through the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Pediatric Psychiatry." Method: Forum participants focused on speeding the adoption…

  2. Annals of General Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos

    2005-02-01

    Our regular readers will notice that the title of our journal has changed from Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry (AGHP) to Annals of General Psychiatry (AGP) since January 1st, 2005. This was judged as necessary, in order to be able to serve better the aims of the journal. Our initial thoughts were that including the term 'General Hospital' in the journal's title would help us to launch a journal dedicated to the idea of Psychiatry as a medical specialty. But they were not justified; so, now the Annals of General Psychiatry (AGP) is born! It is still an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal covering the wider field of Psychiatry, Neurosciences and Psychological Medicine, and aims at publishing articles on all aspects of psychiatry. Primary research articles are the journal's priority, and both basic and clinical neuroscience contributions are encouraged. The AGP strongly supports and follows the principles of evidence-based medicine. AGP's articles are archived in PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's full-text repository of life science literature, and also in repositories at the University of Potsdam in Germany, at INIST in France and in e-Depot, the National Library of the Netherlands' digital archive of all electronic publications. We hope that the change in the journal's name will cure the confusion caused by its previous title and help to achieve the journal's aims and scope, that is to help the world-wide promotion of research and publishing in the mental health area.

  3. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  4. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Ullmann, Jeremy F.P.; Norton, William H.J.; Brennan, Caroline H.; Parker, Matthew O.; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling CNS disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in-vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern biological psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  5. [Psychiatry and humanitarianism].

    PubMed

    Heimann, H

    1976-01-01

    Opposing positions on mental disorder in current psychiatry, their origins and therapy are presented through a few extreme viewpoints. Considering the foundations of the 'medical model' of psychiatric disorder (Griesinger), it is evident that this model is not a closed system, but rather an open approach which still has validity today. The humanitarian roots of psychiatry prevented Griesinger from treating various positions in an absolute or ideological manner. Finally, the concept of 'illness' is discussed in relation to psychophysiological activation research. Pathology changes in each different situation and is therefore not a static phenomenon. Mental disturbance is not determined by absolute measures, but rather by a reduction in variability of reactions to the particular situation. This concept of illness can determine somato-, psycho-, and sociotherapeutic measures. Psychiatry can only remain based on humanitarian concepts as long as the sciences upon which it is founded are kept in appropriate relation to one another.

  6. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  7. Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, R. Gregg; Boyd, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute…

  8. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  9. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue.

  10. A combined analysis of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R): Different perfectionist profiles in adolescent high school students.

    PubMed

    Sironic, Amanda; Reeve, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences and similarities in the dimensional constructs of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 938 high school students completed the 3 perfectionism questionnaires, as well as the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Preliminary analyses revealed commonly observed factor structures for each perfectionism questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis of item responses from the questionnaires (combined) yielded a 4-factor solution (factors were labeled High Personal Standards, Concerns, Doubts and Discrepancy, Externally Motivated Perfectionism, and Organization and Order). A latent class analysis of individuals' mean ratings on each of the 4 factors yielded a 6-class solution. Three of the 6 classes represented perfectionist subgroups (labeled adaptive perfectionist, externally motivated maladaptive perfectionist, and mixed maladaptive perfectionist), and 3 represented nonperfectionist subgroups (labeled nonperfectionist A, nonperfectionist B, and order and organization nonperfectionist). Each of the 6 subgroups was meaningfully associated with the DASS. Findings showed that 3 out of 10 students were classified as maladaptive perfectionists, and maladaptive perfectionists were more prevalent than adaptive perfectionists. In sum, it is evident that combined ratings from the FMPS, CAPS, and APS-R offer a meaningful characterization of perfectionism.

  11. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient.

  12. Racism and Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alexander; Sillen, Samuel

    White racism has influenced theory and practice in psychiatry and allied fields. Psychiatrists have largely ignored the interactionist approach, as expounded by Sullivan and Rush, in analyzing Negroes within their respective societies. Rather, in the vein of Freudian preoccupation with unconscious motivation, abnormal behavior and what is…

  13. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  14. Epistemology of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2012-01-01

    In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry.

  15. Psychiatry residents' perception of public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve recruitment into public/community psychiatry fellowships, a survey was administered to understand psychiatry residents' perception of benefits and obstacles to fellowship training. Using standard statistical methods, the responses of those residents who indicated interest in public/community psychiatry training were compared to those who were not. Residents who were interested in public/community psychiatry fellowships were earlier in their training. These same residents gave higher endorsements to items related to quality, location and flexibility of training program, recommendation of colleagues, opportunities for health policy training and networking as compared to residents who were not interested in pursuing a public/community. Those results attained statistical significance while philosophical approaches including emphasis on recovery and tailoring specific training experiences approached significance. Psychiatric residents appear to start residency training with some interest in public/community psychiatry and this interest can be nurtured if public/community psychiatry is emphasized during training.

  16. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  17. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea.

  18. Psychiatry and music

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  19. Psychiatry and music.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.

  20. What Psychiatry Means To Us

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, J. K.; Goel, Dishanter

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other. PMID:22013340

  1. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles*

    PubMed Central

    Bagadia, Sanjay V.

    2015-01-01

    Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address. PMID:25838737

  2. [Literature and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Borgna, E

    1996-12-01

    Psychiatry is a borderline science that has relations on one hand with the methods of knowledge of natural sciences, on the other with those of the humanities. To investigate the bases of its studies, the psychiatric science often refers to literary and philosophical masterpieces. Therefore, the author analyses some examples of the classic fiction which presents psychopathologic issues. Particularly, the author examines some principal topics: anxiety, psychosomatic illness, depression, schizophrenia and delirium.

  3. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  4. [Psychiatry and neuroethics].

    PubMed

    Suárez Richards, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge have enter to psychiatry in a new era, however, new technology for viewing images, brain function, psychopharmacology, non-invasive methodology requires an ethical approach, framed in the bioethical environment. The field of neuroethics has evolved to address many of the specific concerns and what neuroenhancement and neuroimaging provide us, is necessary to extend the scope of ethical things to consider the clinical implications for the psychiatric work.

  5. Epilepsy, psychiatry, and neurology.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Trimble, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the psychiatry and neurology of epilepsy, especially in the last 100 years. Throughout most of its recorded history of 3 to 4 millennia epilepsy has been viewed as a supernatural or mental disorder. Although first suggested by Hippocrates in the 5th century B.C., the concept of epilepsy as a brain disorder only began to take root in the 17th and 18th centuries. The discipline of neurology emerged from "nervous disorders" or neuropsychiatry in the late 19th century, when vascular theories of epilepsy predominated. By the turn of the 19th century psychiatry and neurology were diverging and epilepsy remained to some extent in both disciplines. It was only in the middle of the 20th century with the development of electromagnetic theories of epilepsy that the concept of epilepsy per se as a neurological disorder was finally adopted in international classifications of disease. This was associated with a refined definition of the ictal, pre-, post-, and interictal psychological disorders of epilepsy, which have contributed to a renaissance of neuropsychiatry. At the beginning of the 21st century and the centenary of the ILAE psychiatry and neurology have been converging again, led in some respects by epilepsy, which has provided several useful models of mental illness and a bridge between the two disciplines.

  6. Neural networks in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Bullmore, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Over the past three decades numerous imaging studies have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases. These structural and functional brain changes are frequently found in multiple, discrete brain areas and may include frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices as well as subcortical brain areas. However, while the structural and functional brain changes in patients are found in anatomically separated areas, these are connected through (long distance) fibers, together forming networks. Thus, instead of representing separate (patho)-physiological entities, these local changes in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders may in fact represent different parts of the same 'elephant', i.e., the (altered) brain network. Recent developments in quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have revealed that the brain's structure and functions have features of complex networks. Here we briefly introduce several recent developments in neural network studies relevant for psychiatry, including from the 2013 special issue on Neural Networks in Psychiatry in European Neuropsychopharmacology. We conclude that new insights will be revealed from the neural network approaches to brain imaging in psychiatry that hold the potential to find causes for psychiatric disorders and (preventive) treatments in the future.

  7. Cusp Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A brightening at one or other of the tips—cusps—of the crescent phase of Venus, as seen from Earth. Cusp caps were first reported by the German amateur astronomer Baron Franz Paula von Gruithuisen in 1813, and have been recorded by telescopic observers ever since. They were named by analogy with the Earth's polar caps; early observers fancied they were seeing glimpses of a possibly Earth-like sur...

  8. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  9. [Forensic psychiatry. Its relations to clinical psychiatry and criminology].

    PubMed

    Kröber, H-L

    2005-11-01

    A basic task of psychiatry is to identify and treat mentally disordered persons at risk of committing crimes. Psychiatry has an important function in preserving social peace, law, and order. How the psychiatric world handles this duty has changed with time. There have been very important changes from asylums to mental hospitals and from voluntary or involuntary inpatient treatment to outpatient care; but clinical psychiatry cannot give up forensic psychiatry. As a result of developments, inpatient care in mental hospitals often concentrates on crisis management, risk assessment, and risk management. On the other hand, forensic psychiatry has made great efforts in recent decades with special therapies for mentally disturbed criminals and collaborated closely with criminologists in developing instruments for risk assessment and prognosis of repeat offenses.

  10. Financing Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Meyer, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the many financial challenges facing academic departments of psychiatry and the resulting opportunities that may arise. Method: The authors review the history of financial challenges, the current economic situation, and what may lie ahead for academic departments of psychiatry. Results: The current environment has…

  11. [Gerodontics and geriatric psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Richard, J

    1991-01-01

    Some of the important points in geriatric psychology and geriatric psychiatry (such as vocabulary and base line concepts, old myths in geriatrics, reference models, principle of action, therapeutic procedures, nasalgraphy, pluri, inter and transdisciplinarity) will be developed for the dentist practicing geriatric dentistry. Knowledge of these concepts should provide the basis for an effective association with the psychiatrist, in order to enhance better care for the elderly. Two types of approaches of the elderly, well known of the geriatric psychiatrist will be developed. The cognitive and motory approaches will be set as examples capable of helping the exchange between the two specialties.

  12. Meditation and Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of meditation and its therapeutic benefits. It then concludes with a summary of the issues pertinent to the adjunctive use of meditation in psychiatric care. PMID:19727302

  13. PSYCHIATRY-PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Doongaji, Dinshaw R.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of psychiatry during the last three decades as practised in a general teaching hospital is presented. Psychiatry as an academic subject has matured tremendously during this period. The empirical treatments of the 1950s and the 1960s which evoke nostalgic memories, have been replaced by modern methods of treatment. However, there is a need to exercise caution against the blind acceptance of new and sophisticated research findings in biological psychiatry. Inspite of the bright future facing psychiatry, the identity of psychiatry as a medical discipline must be preserved at all cost. Psychiatrists should also realise the dangers of gradual fractionation and impersonalisation which threatens the speciality, and makes all possible efforts to prevent this. PMID:21584054

  14. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... to view results Return to Home Page Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement Developed by Armstrong Enterprise Communication {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ## ...

  15. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted.

  16. The art of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    BLOCH, SIDNEY

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatrists would undoubtedly support the notion of promoting such qualities as empathy, sensitivity and caring in the pursuit of good clinical practice. However, cultivating what we may call the "art of psychiatry" is not straightforward, since the qualities that constitute it are elusive. I propose that the means by which we can accomplish the goal of relating empathically and compassionately to our patients and their families is by regarding the humanities and the sciences as of equal relevance and as complementary. The humanities, particularly literature, the visual arts, film and music, are most suited to promoting empathic skills when they are woven into the clinical scenario. Examples are provided to demonstrate how this may be achieved. Were we to succeed in highlighting the art of psychiatry in our educational programs, and as part of continuing professional development, I surmise that our patients and their families would be the beneficiaries. We cannot merely vow to act empathically and sensitively. Instead, we should embark on a lifelong journey through the wonderful world of literature, the visual arts, film and music. The experience will not only prove appealing and engaging, but it will also go far to enrich our personal and professional lives. PMID:16633530

  17. Position and role of forensic psychiatry in integrative psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Smalc, Vera Folnegović; Varda, Robert; Grosić, Petra Folnegović

    2008-09-01

    The integrative approach to psychiatry has gained more importance in recent years. Is it justified or not, does it improve theory or practice, those are only some of the questions to which we are looking for answers, but in this paper we shall underline the necessity of enrolling forensic psychiatry into integrative, modern psychiatry. The reason and the motive for that integration is the fact that nowadays the content and the activities of contemporary forensic psychiatrists are totally reduced to executing the tasks given by courts. It is therefore entirely right to say that current forensic psychiatry finds itself in the passive role of executing orders of the court. Our aim is to point out how important it is that forensic psychiatry becomes an interdisciplinary profession in interaction with psychiatry but also with other medical branches just as with judiciary, educational institutions, moral-ethical institutions and religious institutions in producing preventive programmes and by participating in individual decision making process likewise. Our primary goal is to present the status and the position of contemporary forensic psychiatry and to specify the necessary improvements and its place in integrative psychiatry. It should be better, more meaningful and more ethical, both for the individual and the society in total. We want forensic psychiatry to include a protective and therapeutic role for each individual forensic examinee, i.e. a person who has already been in forensic examination and for whom one evaluates mental competence because of a mental disorder. We also want it to get a far larger and more active general role in society in terms of preventing criminal acts among the mentally ill and in society in total.

  18. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  19. Apical cap

    SciTech Connect

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  20. Psychiatry and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Gold, Joel; Henderson, Schuyler W; Merlino, Joseph P; Norwood, Ann; Post, Jerrold M; Shanfield, Stephen; Weine, Stevan; Katz, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Terrorism has dominated the domestic and international landscape since 9/11. Like other fields, psychiatry was not well prepared. With the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attack approaching, it is timely to consider what can be done to prepare before the next event. Much has been learned to provide knowledge and resources. The roles of psychiatrists are challenged by what is known of the causes of, consequences of, and responses to terrorism. Reflecting on knowledge from before and since 9/11 introduces concepts, how individuals become terrorists, how to evaluate the psychiatric and behavioral effects of terrorism, and how to expand treatments, behavioral health interventions, public policy initiatives, and other responses for its victims. New research, clinical approaches, and policy perspectives inform strategies to reduce fear and cope with the aftermath. This article identifies the psychiatric training, skills and services, and ethical considerations necessary to prevent or reduce terrorism and its tragic consequences and to enhance resilience.

  1. [Car driving and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jonas, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Among the specialties involved in the order of 31 August 2010, psychiatry is in Chapter IV alongside addictive behavior and drug use may impair the ability of the driver. As well as for personal vehicles for professional vehicles the incompatibility of health with driving exists when clinical factors can interfere with the skills required of the driver. There would simply absolute incompatibility for psychoses in active phase. In the other phases of psychosis is at the discretion of specialist as for illiteracy or social maladjustment. The role of the authorized psychiatrist is therefore always subjective. This article also makes room for attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), not listed, but the subject of numerous articles in the English literature.

  2. Indian culture and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shiv; Jain, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    ‘Culture’ is an abstraction, reflecting the total way of life of a society. Culture uniquely influences mental health of people living in a given society. Similarity in thinking and understanding of mental health across the ancient cultures has been observed. Studies which relate to the demographic factors, cultural factors influencing presentation of illness, diagnosis of the illness-culture bound syndromes and influence of the cultural factors and the belief system on psychopathology, stigma and discrimination towards the patient have been reviewed. An attempt has been made to critically look at the research on culture and psychiatry in different areas. There is a need for culturally oriented modules of non-pharmacological management. PMID:21836701

  3. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  4. Cultural psychiatry: a general perspective.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D

    2013-01-01

    The current scene in the field of cultural psychiatry shows a vigorous growth, multifaceted conceptual and research developments and more relevant clinical presence. After a pertinent definition of the discipline, this chapter examines the contribution of cultural psychiatry to the etiopathogenesis of mental disorders, to the variations of clinical presentations in numerous entities, to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment and to the relatively unexplored rubric of preventive psychiatry. Advanced concepts of neurosciences and technology-based research can find a place in the realm of biocultural correlates. The role of culture in the definition of mental illness, the renewed notions of the old 'culture-bound syndromes', hope, cognition and culture in psychiatric treatments (including the so-called 'cultural therapies'), and resiliency are areas duly examined and discussed. Cultural psychiatry has re-emerged as a reliable body of knowledge aimed at a comprehensive assessment of human beings as patients.

  5. Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, A; Yu, G; Loewith, R; Lakusta, C; Young, D

    1996-06-01

    We previously identified human CAP, a homolog of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein. Previous studies suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of CAP have distinct functions. We have explored the interactions of human CAP with various proteins. First, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens, we have identified peptides from several proteins that interact with the C-terminal and/or the N-terminal domains of human CAP. These peptides include regions derived from CAP and BAT3, a protein with unknown function. We have further shown that MBP fusions with these peptides can associate in vitro with the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CAP fused to GST. Our observations indicate that CAP contains regions in both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains that are capable of interacting with each other or with themselves. Furthermore, we found that myc-epitope-tagged CAP coimmunoprecipitates with HA-epitope-tagged CAP from either yeast or mammalian cell extracts. Similar results demonstrate that human CAP can also interact with human CAP2. We also show that human CAP interacts with actin, both by the yeast two-hybrid test and by coimmunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged CAP from yeast or mammalian cell extracts. This interaction requires the C-terminal domain of CAP, but not the N-terminal domain. Thus CAP appears to be capable of interacting in vivo with other CAP molecules, CAP2, and actin. We also show that actin co-immunoprecipitates with HA-CAP2 from mammalian cell extracts.

  6. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Longitudinal research in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    1991-05-01

    An indispensable approach to the study of variations in individual development and of causal mechanisms and processes underlying the course of psychopathology is the longitudinal method. In this introductory review, the strengths and weaknesses of longitudinal research are discussed, and factors hampering progress in this field are outlined. The many advantages of this approach warrant continuing efforts to develop strategies that minimize its drawbacks.

  8. Psychiatry and movies.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions.

  9. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  10. [Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Mikito; Ishiguro, Shin; Watanabe, Takashi; Saeki, Yoshinori; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics has been developed so rapidly in these twenty years and the pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic research in psychiatry is also the case. Especially, the impact of genetic polymorphism (e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP)) on pharmacokinetics of psychotropics have been extensively studied, however, recently, most of the studies in this field have been moved to pharmacodynamic study, i.e., the studies on impact of genetics polymorphism on clinical response and adverse effects to pharmacotherapy with psychotropics. Development of pharmacogenetics/ pharmacogenomics in psychiatry may well lead to a future of individualized pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders.

  11. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  12. Evolutionary theory, psychiatry, and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2006-07-01

    Darwin's seminal publications in the nineteenth century laid the foundation for an evolutionary approach to psychology and psychiatry. Advances in 20th century evolutionary theory facilitated the development of evolutionary psychology and psychiatry as recognized areas of scientific investigation. In this century, advances in understanding the molecular basis of evolution, of the mind, and of psychopathology, offer the possibility of an integrated approach to understanding the proximal (psychobiological) and distal (evolutionary) mechanisms of interest to psychiatry and psychopharmacology. There is, for example, growing interest in the question of whether specific genetic variants mediate psychobiological processes that have evolutionary value in specific contexts, and of the implications of this for understanding the vulnerability to psychopathology and for considering the advantages and limitations of pharmacotherapy. The evolutionary value, and gene-environmental mediation, of early life programming is potentially a particularly rich area of investigation. Although evolutionary approaches to psychology and to medicine face important conceptual and methodological challenges, current work is increasingly sophisticated, and may prove to be an important foundational discipline for clinicians and researchers in psychiatry and psychopharmacology.

  13. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... participate in AAGP's annual meeting. I really enjoyed learning about geriatric psychiatry as well as meeting such a warm and caring group of doctors and students. I could see that a lot of work went into the scholars program and I am ...

  14. [New developments in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conus, Philippe; Herrera, Fabrice; Berney, Sylvie; Gailland, Bénédicte; Beretta, Véronique; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-13

    Three issues are discussed: i) While number of psychiatric beds has been reduced in most countries and although treatments proposed in psychiatric hospitals have evolved, they continue to be viewed as asylums implementing constraints. Considering this prevents their adequate use and leads to patients' stigmatisation, promotion of a better knowledge of contemporary hospital treatments is needed. 2) In addition, most psychiatric disorders emerging during adolescence and early adulthood, it is important to develop accessible care on university campuses. 3) While risk of weight gain and metabolic syndrome under neuroleptics or mood stabilisers is known, there is a need for the development of that are easy to identify. A 5% increase in weight during the first month of treatment indicates the risk for important later weight gain.

  15. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  16. [250 years of English psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Freeman, H

    1996-08-01

    The history of British psychiatry is considered from five main viewpoints: clinical practice, the institutional basis, the legislative basis, lay perspectives of-mental disorder, and European influences. Its philosophical basis can be traced back to the work of the seventeenth-century philosophers. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. In Scotland, both 'philosophy of mind' and new clinical methods flourished during its Enlightenment; the concept of 'neurosis' was developed by William Cullen. Around 1800, James Prichard's concept of 'moral insanity' became the foundation of modern work on personality disorder and psychopathy. The psychotic illness of King George III, beginning in 1788, led to greater public sympathy for the mentally ill. Attitudes since then have varied, with 'antipsychiatry' becoming very influential in the 1960s. By the mid-eighteenth century, specialised institutions for the mentally ill existed in a number of cities, there were also units attached to charitable general hospitals, but none of these continued after about 1830. The neglect of patients in private madhouses, prisons, and poorhouses led to increasing concern by Parliament, which resulted in the development of public asylums throughout the country. Severe legal restrictions on their activities were modified in 1930 and completely reformed in 1959. From the mid-nineteenth century, French and German influences became increasingly strong, but British universities played no active part in psychiatry until the 1950s. Psycho-analysis did not develop strongly in Britain, where the main contribution was through translation and biography, but some leading analysts came as refugees in the 1930s-as did other psychiatrists from central Europe. Another important influence was that of Adolf Meyer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, particularly through Sir Aubrey Lewis; physical treatment methods also came to Britain from Europe. In the second half of this century, the most important British

  17. Adolescent Sociopaths. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Eliot D.

    Presented is the final report of a research project on the programed training and placement of nonpsychotic disturbed adolescents. Eleven chapters cover topics which include the following: psychiatry and the sociopaths and psychopaths; boys dealt with in the project; development of the programed interaction diagnostic interview; disturbances to…

  18. Psychiatry movie club: A novel way to teach psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Gurvinder

    2011-07-01

    For decades, films across the world have entertained people and affected their attitudes regarding certain issues and conditions. Documentary films have been used by governments in different parts of the world to educate the general public and promote health and prevent the spread of disease as part of public health programs. Psychiatry as a branch of medicine like the rest of medicine continues to develop. With an increasing awareness among the general population and popularity of films showing various aspects of mental illnesses on the rise, educators and teachers are turning their attention to using films for education of medical students and psychiatric trainees. Although films may be stereotypical and prejudiced, they can be used successfully in teaching psychiatry trainees. In this paper, development of a movie club and its use are described and suggestions made to improve the use of films in this process.

  19. [Need to merge child and adult psychiatry into comprehensive developmental psychiatry--consideration from the perspective of forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    The need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a continuum was discussed based on forensic issues in criminal cases involving developmental disorder. Recently, a number of offenders (both juvenile and adult) are being diagnosed with developmental disorder every year, when the system of sending severe juvenile cases from juvenile court to the prosecution as well as the new juror system makes the role of psychiatric examination more important than ever. Because of the unique symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conventional forensic psychiatry does not seem applicable to cases of ASD when making a fair judgement on criminal liability. This indicates that there is a need for not only basic knowledge on child psychiatry for all psychiatrists, but also knowledge on the developmental link between child and adult psychiatry. Therefore, there is a need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a comprehensive field of developmental psychiatry.

  20. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry.

  1. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  2. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  3. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    PubMed

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-04-25

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  4. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework

    PubMed Central

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2006-01-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented. PMID:17139356

  5. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  6. Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry and Psychiatry as a Career: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The discipline of psychiatry, and psychiatry as a career option, have been negatively regarded by medical students for decades. There is a large amount of literature on attitudes of students and the factors that attract them to and detract from psychiatry. The aim of this article is to systematically review this literature from 1990 to…

  7. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  8. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... extremes, oily skin, problems with the immune system, stress, and other skin disorders — can make it more likely that a child will get cradle cap. Symptoms Cradle cap looks different on every baby. It can be grouped ...

  9. A survey of United States general psychiatry residency programs: program characteristics and relationship to the 1994 National Residency Matching Program results.

    PubMed

    Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Sheehan, K H; Stock, S L; Alberts, V A

    1997-01-01

    We developed a questionnaire regarding issues in psychiatric residency training and distributed it to the chief residents at all United States general psychiatry residency training programs. We hoped to examine psychiatry residency program characteristics and see if any particular characteristics had a significant relationship to improved success in the 1994 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) results. We found that those programs with six or more PGY-1 positions available in the NRMP, those programs with an associated child and adolescent psychiatry residency training program, and those programs offering a research elective had a higher PGY-1 match through the NRMP than programs without these features.

  10. Medical Decision-Making by Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mallakh, Rif; Zinner, Jill; Mackey, Amanda; Tamas, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chanley M.; Dalton, Jerad; Dhaliwal, Nitu; Luddington, Nicole; Numan, Farhad U.; Nunes, Ross; Taylor, Stephen; Ye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several conspiring factors have resulted in an increase in the level of medical burden in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry residents require increasing levels of medical sophistication. To assess the medical decision-making of psychiatry residents, the authors examined the outcome in subjects initially seen in the emergency psychiatric…

  11. Women and Teaching in Academic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshbein, Laura D.; Fitzgerald, Kate; Riba, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article explores past, present, and future issues for women and teaching in academic psychiatry. A small study of didactic teaching responsibilities along faculty groups in one academic psychiatry department helps to illustrate challenges and opportunities for women in psychiatric teaching settings. Background: Although women have…

  12. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  13. Putting "Rural" into Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William A.; Pomerantz, Andrew; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Evidence indicates disparities in the number of psychiatrists practicing in rural America compared to urban areas suggesting the need for a greater emphasis on rural psychiatry in residency training programs. The authors offer suggestions for integrating a rural focus in psychiatry residency training to foster greater competency and…

  14. Sleep Quality Among Psychiatry Residents

    PubMed Central

    das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco; Meireles Sales de Bruin, Veralice; Pinheiro Santana, José Abraão; Bastos Lima, Alexandre; De Francesco Daher, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical residency programs are traditionally known for long working hours, which can be associated with a poor quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness. However, few studies have focused on this theme. Our objective was to investigate sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and their relation with anxiety, social phobia, and depressive symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study involved 59 psychiatry residents. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to measure the quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness ([EDS] and ESS > 10), respectively. Results: Among the 59 psychiatry residents, 59.3% had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) and 28.8% had EDS. Poor sleep quality was associated with higher EDS (P = 0.03) and the year of residency program (P = 0.03). Only 20% of residents with poor sleep had consulted at least once for sleep problems; 54.2% had used medications for sleep; and 16.9% were using medications at the time of interview. Only 30% obtained medication during medical consultations. Poor sleep was associated with irregular sleep hours (P = 0.001) and long periods lying down without sleep (P = 0.03). Poor sleep quality was also associated with high scores of anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001) and social phobia symptoms (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Psychiatry residents frequently have poor sleep quality and EDS. Considering that sleep disorders can affect quality of life, predispose to metabolic syndrome, and be associated with worse performance at work, attention to this clinical problem is needed. PMID:27582452

  15. Some gestalt contributions to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Kathleen A

    2010-07-01

    Gestalt theory and methods support significant behavioral change and personal growth, yet they have not been widely incorporated into modern psychiatric practice. Challenges to employing Gestalt principles in psychiatric practice exist, such as focus on diagnosis to guide treatment planning, key elements of psychiatric training, primacy of medication management in psychiatric practice, and financial pressures. However, the concepts of the co-created relational field in the here and now, the paradoxical theory of change, the cycle of experience, and the use of experiment are Gestalt concepts and methods that can be effectively applied in the modern practice of clinical psychiatry and psychiatric education.

  16. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  17. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2010-06-01

    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce.

  18. A brief history of psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, B-Y; Chee, K-T

    2006-08-01

    The development of psychiatric services in Singapore during the last 150 years can be divided into four distinct, albeit overlapping, phases: (1) the origins of the Lunatic Asylum; (2) the interruption caused by the Japanese Occupation, and the post-war years; (3) the training of local psychiatrists and mental health professionals; and (4) the development of general hospital psychiatry and community mental health services. Early psychiatry in Singapore was essentially British psychiatry as an outpost but modified by local conditions. Modern psychiatry in Singapore has its roots in Singapore's colonial past and is strongly influenced by Western psychiatry. It has come a long way since its humble beginnings when the first mental hospital was established in 1841.

  19. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  20. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  1. The cervical cap.

    PubMed

    1988-10-07

    The US Food and Drug Administration has approved marketing of the Prentif cavity-rim cervical cap. This contraceptive device is being distributed in the US and Canada by Cervical Cap Ltd, Los Gatos, California. The Prentif cap is available in 4 sizes: 22, 25, 28, and 31 mm inside diameter, with a length of 1 1/4-1 1/2 inches. In a multicenter trial involving 522 diaphragm users and 581 cap users followed for 2 years, the cap was 82.6% effective and the diaphragm was 83.3% effective in preventing pregnancy. When pregnancies attributable to user failure were excluded, these rates were increased to 93.6% for the cap and 95.4% for the diaphragm. 4% of cap users compared with only 1.7% of diaphragm users in this study developed abnormal Pap smears after 3 months of use; in addition, a higher proportion of cap users became infected with Gardnerella vaginalis and Monilia. Theoretical hazards include toxic shock syndrome and endometriosis due to backflow of menstrual fluids. Cap users are advised to undergo a Pap test after 3 months of use and discontinue cap use if the results are abnormal. The cap should not be used during menstruation. Although the cap can be left in place for up to 48 hours, its position should be checked before and after each episode of intercourse. The cervical cap requires less spermicide than the diaphragm and is not as messy. In addition, it can be left in the vagina twice as long as the diaphragm, without additional spermicide. Since the cap is smaller than the diaphragm and does not cover the vaginal wall, some women find intercourse more pleasurable with this device.

  2. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  3. [Coercion in Psychiatry - a taboo?].

    PubMed

    Meise, Ullrich; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Stippler, Stippler; Wancata, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the discussion concerning coercive measures against mentally ill is as old as psychiatry itself. The dilemma of psychiatry lies in its double role - having both a therapeutic and a regulatory function. Violence against sick and disabled people conflicts with the ethical principles of helping professions. This, however, is where the danger lies: that the violent parts of psychiatric work - which in the opinion of experts cannot be entirely avoided - are repressed or seen as taboo and are therefore more difficult to control. Comparisons between EU countries of the nature, frequency and duration of coercive measures are difficult because of the heterogeneity of regulation and differences in established practice. Scientific examination of this issue seems to be insufficient. There are only a few studies on important issues such as how patients rate these measures. An open and thorough debate about the meaning and meaninglessness of coercion and violence in psychiatric treatment would be necessary to prevent "routine violence" or the excessive use of force against the mentally ill.

  4. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  5. [Future Psychiatry: a "Think Tank" for the Italian Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Future Psychiatry Project was founded with the goal to address the critical ratio of research/training / clinic. In
    a series of regular meetings, each devoted to a specific clinical topic, data and more advanced models for the clinical area in question
    will be analyzed in an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and the real possibility of extension of development and
    prospects of scientific advances to the clinic and therapy will be evaluated.The primary methodological objective of the Future
    Psychiatry meetings is the training method to overcome the common type of teacher/learner classroom teaching, albeit divided
    into the various possibilities offered by different types of educational meetings.The structure is informal, with features of intensive
    seminars and suggested modes for better interaction.The objective is the "Think Tank", a common space for study and exchange
    of knowledge, experiences, opinions and expectations, aimed at producing an integrated and shared dynamic result, that
    can provide a real reference point for participants and for all researchers and clinicians engaged in improving their level of updating
    and best clinical activity.The first Future Psychiatry meeting was held in Sermoneta (Latina) in the halls of the Castello Caetani
    on September 16th to 18th 2010.The chosen topic was "The Future of Depression: the development of knowledge, the evolution
    of therapies". The currently most advanced data of research were discussed and developed in their potential to reach a
    shared model taking into account the etiological complexity of Depression and to be a real reference to the possibility of application
    to real clinical experience.The main guidelines of the current research and major prospects for development of this in the
    field Depression have been outlined, also in relation to the ongoing evolution and the future outlook of the models and tools of
    therapy. Psychiatrists' clinical needs and

  6. [Future Psychiatry: a "think tank" for the Italian psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Future Psychiatry Project was founded with the goal to address the critical ratio of research/training/clinic. In a series of regular meetings, each devoted to a specific clinical topic, data and more advanced models for the clinical area in question will be analyzed in an integrated and multidisciplinary approach and the real possibility of extension of development and prospects of scientific advances to the clinic and therapy will be evaluated. The primary methodological objective of the Future Psychiatry meetings is the training method to overcome the common type of teacher/learner classroom teaching, albeit divided into the various possibilities offered by different types of educational meetings. The structure is informal, with features of intensive seminars and suggested modes for better interaction. The objective is the "think tank", a common space for study and exchange of knowledge, experiences, opinions and expectations, aimed at producing an integrated and shared dynamic result, that can provide a real reference point for participants and for all researchers and clinicians engaged in improving their level of updating and best clinical activity. The first Future Psychiatry meeting was held in Sermoneta (Latina) in the halls of the Castello Caetani on September 16th to 18th 2010. The chosen topic was "The Future of Depression: the development of knowledge, the evolution of therapies". The currently most advanced data of research were discussed and developed in their potential to reach a shared model taking into account the etiological complexity of Depression and to be a real reference to the possibility of application to real clinical experience. The main guidelines of the current research and major prospects for development of this in the field Depression have been outlined, also in relation to the ongoing evolution and the future outlook of the models and tools of therapy. Psychiatrists' clinical needs and expectations in front of the development of

  7. Why psychiatry needs psychedelics and psychedelics need psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Without researching psychedelic drugs for medical therapy, psychiatry is turning its back on a group of compounds that could have great potential. Without the validation of the medical profession, the psychedelic drugs, and those who take them off-license, remain archaic sentiments of the past, with the users maligned as recreational drug abusers and subject to continued negative opinion. These two disparate groups--psychiatrists and recreational psychedelic drug users--are united by their shared recognition of the healing potential of these compounds. A resolution of this conflict is essential for the future of psychiatric medicine and psychedelic culture alike. Progression will come from professionals working in the field adapting to fit a conservative paradigm. In this way, they can provide the public with important treatments and also raise the profile of expanded consciousness in mainstream society.

  8. The Use of Health Information Technology Within Collaborative and Integrated Models of Child Psychiatry Practice.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sara; Vanderlip, Erik; Sarvet, Barry

    2017-01-01

    There is a consistent need for more child and adolescent psychiatrists. Despite increased recruitment of child and adolescent psychiatry trainees, traditional models of care will likely not be able to meet the need of youth with mental illness. Integrated care models focusing on population-based, team-based, measurement-based, and evidenced-based care have been effective in addressing accessibility and quality of care. These integrated models have specific needs regarding health information technology (HIT). HIT has been used in a variety of different ways in several integrated care models. HIT can aid in implementation of these models but is not without its challenges.

  9. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  10. A look at cultural psychiatry in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    Cultural psychiatry, as a subspecialty of psychiatry and thus medicine, has grown steadily and extensively in the 20th century, especially during the second part of this century. In this article, we look at the origins of cultural psychiatry; at its history through the centuries; at its role in the clinical, educational, and research domains; at its significance in today's conceptualization of the fields of psychiatry and mental health; and at its future perspectives within the realms of both medicine and psychiatry.

  11. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism.

  12. Deinstitutionalizing the history of contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Eghigian, Greg

    2011-06-01

    While contemporary mental health services have been marked by the burgeoning of outpatient and preventive care, the historiography of psychiatry remains largely tied to the study of custodial and palliative treatment.The work in which contemporary psychiatry has been involved cannot be adequately understood as a singular, autonomous enterprise based in a residential facility. It has become a technoscience that operates in numerous settings and alongside multiple sciences, technologies and decision-makers. This paper explores what it might mean to 'deinstitutionalize' the history of contemporary psychiatry by examining the case of social therapy for sex offenders in West Germany.

  13. Core elements of a public psychiatry fellowship.

    PubMed

    Ranz, Jules M; Deakins, Susan M; LeMelle, Stephanie M; Rosenheck, Stephen D; Kellermann, Sara L

    2008-07-01

    As the oldest, largest, and best known program for training psychiatrists to become public-sector leaders, the Columbia University Public Psychiatry Fellowship (PPF) at New York State Psychiatric Institute has frequently been consulted by other departments of psychiatry planning public and community fellowship programs. PPF's faculty has developed seven core elements for such training programs. The fellowship's longevity and the career paths of its graduates suggest that these core elements represent a best-practices model for fellowship training in public-community psychiatry.

  14. Commentary: Is ethical forensic psychiatry an oxymoron?

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C

    2008-01-01

    The role of psychiatry in the legal arena is grossly misunderstood and even controversial. Some respected psychiatrists and members of the public have argued that the current state of the science of psychiatry is such that it has little to offer the legal system, and consequently, psychiatrists should be banned from the courts. Alan Stone's critique of forensic psychiatry 25 years ago is probably the most pointed. In this article, a summary of four different responses to Alan Stone's critique will be presented and analyzed.

  15. Training Psychiatry Addiction Fellows in Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly; Bryant, Katurah; Ikomi, Jolomi; LaPaglia, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has been studied as an adjunct for addictions treatment. Because many hospitals, outpatient clinics, and facilities are integrating acupuncture treatment, it is important that psychiatrists remain informed about this treatment. This manuscript describes the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol and its inclusion as part of the curriculum for psychiatry addictions fellows. Methods Psychiatry and psychology fellows completed the NADA training (N = 20) and reported on their satisfaction with the training. Results Overall, participants stated that they found the training beneficial and many were integrating acupuncture within their current practice. Conclusions Results support the acceptability of acupuncture training among psychiatry fellows in this program. PMID:26048457

  16. A personal journey into cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2011-04-01

    The two primary audiences for this article are psychiatrists interested in a cultural psychiatry career and academic as well as healthcare leaders who are in a position to support cultural psychiatry training. In addition to describing my own personal journey through cultural psychiatry, this report includes strategic recommendations for becoming a cultural psychiatrist as well as rationales for supporting a cadre of cultural psychiatrists in the coming decades. A World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored program for training clinicians in addictions is described. Finally, the account summarizes those clinical, research, educational, consultative, and leadership roles that cultural training influenced during my career.

  17. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends.

  18. Claymax landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1989-12-15

    A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

  19. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder. PMID:19874976

  20. [IMPACT OF AGING IN PSYCHIATRY].

    PubMed

    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease.

  1. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  2. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Tzeferakos, Georgios; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2014-04-12

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born.

  3. The evolution of community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dax, E C

    1992-06-01

    Community Psychiatry is sometimes regarded as a separate and even as a recent study. The history of its evolution in Australia shows it to have resulted from a logical progression since the earliest days of the psychiatric services. The demand for care completely outstripped the accommodation available so two separate but parallel methods of dealing with this problem were evolved. The first explored how the numbers in the overcrowded hospitals could be reduced, and the second, the ways in which admission could be avoided. Both methods resulted in the expansion of community services. Present day activities must be viewed in this light and community services recognised to be an indivisible portion of a professionally organised total mental health organisation.

  4. CULTURE, PSYCHIATRY AND NEW ZEALAND

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A.N.; Dobson, Teara Wharemate

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of the importance of cultural perspective in the psychiatric diagnosis and management plan. The working philosophy of mental health services in New Zealand is primarily monocultural and based on Western medical conceptualisation of diagnosis and treatment protocol. In view of the emphasis on bicultural health perspectives in recent years and in tune with the objectives of the Treaty of Waitangi's ethnocultural partnership, the provision of a culturally safe and sensitive mental health coverage of Maori and Pacific Islander clients has become an important health issue in the country. The present discussion of the ethnocultural influence on clinical psychiatry highlights some of the relevant issues from the transcultural perspective. PMID:21206600

  5. Impact of psychiatry training on attitude of medical students toward mental illness and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. Aims: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: Participants consisted of medical students of 1st and 2nd year who didn’t have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Statistical Analysis: Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. Results: A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1st year, 2nd year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Conclusions: Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry. PMID:25316938

  6. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  7. Delpech and the origins of occupational psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    O'Flynn, R R; Waldron, H A

    1990-01-01

    Auguste-Louis Delpech (1818-80) has been remembered principally as the author of the first detailed description of the serious consequences of exposure to carbon disulphide. A close reading of his work suggests that his reputation has been seriously undervalued. The subsequent development of occupational psychiatry, with its emphasis on the distinction between the organic and the functional, may be traced through publications on carbon disulphide. It is argued that a contemporary approach to occupational psychiatry is long overdue. PMID:2183876

  8. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  9. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of modern medical education in India on the one hand and the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of postgraduate psychiatric education on the other hand, all in the context of Indian psychiatry. The topic is covered under the headings standard of psychiatric education, the goals, competencies required, impact of psychiatric disorders, relation of medicine to psychiatry, and the directions for the future of postgraduate psychiatric training. PMID:21836724

  10. Mars ice caps.

    PubMed

    Leovy, C

    1966-12-02

    Minimum atmospheric temperatures required to prevent CO(2) condensatio in the Mars polar caps are higher than those obtained in a computer experiment to simulate the general circulation of the Mars atmosphere. This observation supports the view that the polar caps are predominantly solid CO(2). However, thin clouds of H(2)0 ice could substantially reduce the surface condensation rate.

  11. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  12. Attitudes of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: Effects of Training, Courses in Psychiatry, Psychiatric Experience and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Strebel, Bernd; Schilauske, Joerg; Jueptner, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry and psychotherapy were examined considering the extent of their education, previous psychiatry experience, the evaluation of the course, their career intentions and socio-demographic variables. Methods: Five hundred and eight medical students in their second, fifth, ninth and tenth…

  13. Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

  14. Psychiatry Clerkship Students' Preparation, Reflection, and Results on the NBME Psychiatry Subject Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Gregory W.; Fore-Arcand, Lisa; Levine, Ruth E.; Carlson, David L.; Spollen, John J.; Pelic, Christopher; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatry clerkship training involves many learning components, one of which is acquisition of scholarly knowledge. The authors investigate the reading materials and learning methods used by clinical clerks in their preparation for the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Exam (PSE). Methods: Clerkship students…

  15. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  16. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  17. Psychiatry as a career: A survey of factors affecting students’ interest in Psychiatry as a career

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Mubashir; Taj, Tahir; Ali, Arif; Badar, Nasira; Saeed, Farzan; Abbas, Muhammed; Muzaffar, Saad; Abid, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of medical students and graduates interested in choosing psychiatry as a career and the obstacles in choosing this field of medicine. Two private and two public medical institutes were surveyed from June 2007 to August 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to third, fourth and final year students and to medical graduates doing their internship in these four medical institutes. A total of 909 medical students and graduates participated in the study. Seventeen percent of participants responded positively regarding their interest in psychiatry as a career. Significantly higher proportion belonged to private medical institutes (14% vs. 24%, P-value =0.001). There was no significant difference in reporting interest for psychiatry in regard to age, sex, year in medical school and whether or not the participant had done a psychiatry ward rotation. However significantly higher proportion of participants (22%, n=43) were reporting their interest in the field of psychiatry who had done more than a month long psychiatry ward rotation as compared to those participants (14%, n=54) with less than a month or no psychiatry rotation (P-value=0.01). More students were reporting their interest in psychiatry with a family history of psychiatric illness as compared to without family history (24% vs 16%, P-value=0.03). In conclusion, students and graduates with more than a month long rotation in psychiatry, studying in private medical colleges and with a family history of psychiatric illness were more interested in choosing psychiatry as a career. PMID:19753292

  18. Neurology and psychiatry in Babylon.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H; Wilson, James V Kinnier

    2014-09-01

    We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry. They had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Some neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. stroke or facial palsy, had a physical basis requiring the attention of a physician or asû, using a plant and mineral based pharmacology; some disorders such as epilepsy, psychoses, depression and anxiety were regarded as supernatural due to evil demons or spirits, or the anger of personal gods, and thus required the intervention of the priest or ašipu; other disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour were regarded as a mystery. The Babylonians were the first to describe the clinical foundations of neurology and psychiatry. We discuss these accounts in relation to subsequent and more modern clinical descriptions.

  19. [Proteomics: biomarker research in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hünnerkopf, R; Grassl, J; Thome, J

    2007-10-01

    Over the last decade, genomics research in psychiatry and neuroscience has provided important insights into genes expressed under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Contrary to the great expectations regarding a clinical use of these datasets, genomics failed to improve markedly the diagnostic and therapeutic options in brain disorders. Due to alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications, one single gene determines a multitude of gene products. Therefore, in order to understand molecular processes in neuropsychiatric disorders, it is necessary to unravel signal transduction pathways and complex interaction networks on the level of proteins, not only DNA and mRNA. Proteomics utilises high-throughput mass spectrometric protein identification that can reveal protein expression levels, posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions. Proteomic tools have the power to identify quantitative and qualitative protein patterns in postmortem brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum, thus increasing the knowledge about etiology and pathomechanisms of brain diseases. Comparing protein profiles in healthy and disease states provides an opportunity to establish specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, proteomic studies of the effects of medication - in vitro and in vivo - might help to design specific pharmaceutical agents with fewer side effects. In this overview, we present the most widely used proteomic techniques and illustrate the potential and limitations of this field of research. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contributions of proteomics to the study of psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, schizophrenia and depression.

  20. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  1. Curved cap corrugated sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a structure for a strong, lightweight corrugated sheet. The sheet is planar or curved and includes a plurality of corrugation segments, each segment being comprised of a generally U-shaped corrugation with a part-cylindrical crown and cap strip, and straight side walls and with secondary corrugations oriented at right angles to said side walls. The cap strip is bonded to the crown and the longitudinal edge of said cap strip extends beyond edge at the intersection between said crown and said side walls. The high strength relative to weight of the structure makes it desirable for use in aircraft or spacecraft.

  2. CCiCap: Boeing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced today its plans to partner with The Boeing Company for the next phase of the agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). Called Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap), the initia...

  3. Task before Indian Psychiatry Today: Commentary

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary on the article, “The Task Before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR,” (Singh, 2014)[20], the author, while agreeing with most of the paper's findings, proposes a rather parallel judgment that intersects at the same paths ahead. There is a need for widespread and easily available essential mental health services in India. Health agenda must focus on spreading and scaling up psychiatric services. There is also a need to spread awareness of psychiatry and mental health and, as a psychiatrist, one must focus on making psychiatry available to a wider audience. Psychiatrists need to maintain a holistic view of psychiatric disorders while viewing them from both a neurobiological and psychosocial perspective. There is a need to revamp psychiatric training in departments with an increase in the thrust toward fostering translational research excellence in various spheres. Psychiatrists must continue to be trained in psychotherapy and practice it regularly. Psychiatric departments need to promote research excellence and focus on reducing brain drain. The practical applications of the tasks set out for psychiatry are more difficult than one can imagine, and a conscientious effort in that direction shall serve for its betterment. The future is bright and psychiatry must work toward making it brighter. PMID:28031626

  4. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation.

  5. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  6. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  7. Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Logan, Alan C; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Amminger, G Paul; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Freeman, Marlene P; Hibbeln, Joseph; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Mischoulon, David; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Nanri, Akiko; Nishi, Daisuke; Ramsey, Drew; Rucklidge, Julia J; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Scholey, Andrew; Su, Kuan-Pin; Jacka, Felice N

    2015-03-01

    Psychiatry is at an important juncture, with the current pharmacologically focused model having achieved modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health worldwide. Although the determinants of mental health are complex, the emerging and compelling evidence for nutrition as a crucial factor in the high prevalence and incidence of mental disorders suggests that diet is as important to psychiatry as it is to cardiology, endocrinology, and gastroenterology. Evidence is steadily growing for the relation between dietary quality (and potential nutritional deficiencies) and mental health, and for the select use of nutrient-based supplements to address deficiencies, or as monotherapies or augmentation therapies. We present a viewpoint from an international collaboration of academics (members of the International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research), in which we provide a context and overview of the current evidence in this emerging field of research, and discuss the future direction. We advocate recognition of diet and nutrition as central determinants of both physical and mental health.

  8. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  9. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  10. Teaching Psychiatry Residents to Teach: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…

  11. Training Clinicians in Cultural Psychiatry: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Guzder, Jaswant; Jarvis, G. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of clinicians in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of training in cultural psychiatry at McGill…

  12. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  13. [Awareness of the political abuse of psychiatry in relation to psychiatry and the law].

    PubMed

    Kalvach, Z

    1995-05-01

    The political abuse of psychiatry in the former USSR was enabled by: 1. a disproportionate pointing up of the medical criteria of mental disorder to the detriment of the social ones, above all by circumventing the sociological labelling process; 2. lack of control of involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation by the law; 3. an obsolete definition of psychiatry. The author suggests a definition of psychiatry taking into consideration both the above mentioned criteria and making the importance of the legal control of involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation more evident.

  14. [The relevance of ethology for psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Brüne, M

    1998-07-01

    Darwin's evolutionary theory was the starting point for ethology, associated with an impact on scientific psychiatry. Psychiatry and ethology have common scientific and methodological prerequisites: inductive and deductive methods and "gestalt theory" as a basis for observing and describing behaviour patterns with subsequent causal analysis. There have been early endeavours to anchor ethological thinking in psychiatry but this tendency did not prevail for the following reasons: on the one hand, the methodology of ethology was immature or not applicable to man, whereas on the other hand the dominating experiential phenomenological school of Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider stressed the privileged position of human thinking, perception, and feeling. These fundamental categories of human existence did not appear amenable to any causal ethological analysis. Psychiatry and evolutionary biology were linked in an atrocious manner during the Nazi regime, both being abused for propaganda purposes and genocide. More recently, there is a "reconciliation" of both disciplines. In psychiatric nosology, operational, behaviour-oriented diagnostic systems have been introduced; ethology has opened up for theories of learning; new subsections like human ethology and sociobiology have evolved. The seeming incompatibility of (behavioural) biological psychiatry and experiential phenomenological psychopathology may be overcome on the basis of Konrad Lorenz' evolutionary epistemology. The functional analysis of human feeling and behaviour in psychotic disorders on the basis of Jackson's theory of the evolution and dissolution of the nervous system may serve as an example. The significance of an "ethological psychiatry" for diagnostic and therapeutical processes of psychiatric disorders derive from prognostic possibilities and the analysis of non-verbal communication in therapist-patient-interactions, but have not yet been systematically investigated.

  15. Computational Psychiatry and the Challenge of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Krystal, John H; Murray, John D; Chekroud, Adam M; Corlett, Philip R; Yang, Genevieve; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-03-08

    Schizophrenia research is plagued by enormous challenges in integrating and analyzing large datasets and difficulties developing formal theories related to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of this disorder. Computational psychiatry provides a path to enhance analyses of these large and complex datasets and to promote the development and refinement of formal models for features of this disorder. This presentation introduces the reader to the notion of computational psychiatry and describes discovery-oriented and theory-driven applications to schizophrenia involving machine learning, reinforcement learning theory, and biophysically-informed neural circuit models.

  16. How Health Reform is Recasting Public Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Roderick; Thompson, Kenneth S; Braslow, Joel; Ragins, Mark; Parks, Joseph John; Vaccaro, Jerome V

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the fiscal, programmatic, clinical, and cultural forces of health care reform that are transforming the work of public psychiatrists. Areas of rapid change and issues of concern are discussed. A proposed health care reform agenda for public psychiatric leadership emphasizes (1) access to quality mental health care, (2) promotion of recovery practices in primary care, (3) promotion of public psychiatry values within general psychiatry, (4) engagement in national policy formulation and implementation, and (5) further development of psychiatric leadership focused on public and community mental health.

  17. [Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry: ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulf J; Bogerts, Bernhard; Voges, Jürgen; Galazky, Imke; Kohl, Sina; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kuhn, Jens; Steiner, Johann

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be an efficacious treatment for many neurological conditions and has thus been expanded to psychiatric diseases as well. Following an introduction on the history of DBS in psychiatry, this review summarizes commonly raised ethical concerns and questions on clinical trial design, selection of patients, informed consent and concerns about the possible impact of DBS on an individual's personality. Finally, it highlights the fact that critique on DBS in psychiatry is probably not selectively based on scientific concerns about potential risks; instead, the neurobiological origin of specific psychiatric disorders has been questioned.

  18. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  19. Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry as a Career Choice before and after an Undergraduate Psychiatry Internship in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amini, Homayoun; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Esmaeili, Sara; Kaviani, Hosein; Shoar, Saeed; Shabani, Amir; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Akhlaghi, Amir Abbas Keshavarz; Noroozi, Alireza; Mafi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess 1) the attitudes of medical students in the sixth and seventh years (known as interns in Iran) toward psychiatry as a career choice, and 2) the degree of attractiveness of psychiatry as a career choice, with regard to various defined aspects, before and after an undergraduate psychiatry internship (similar to…

  20. [Mind the gap: towards integrative perspectives of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In this century, marked advances in human genetics and brain imaging technology have finally allowed us to approach fundamental questions in psychiatry, even those in clinical psychiatry, by utilizing biological science. As of 2014, discussion on the advantages and limitations in operational diagnostic criteria, such as DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), in clinical psychiatry is becoming even more important. In contrast to most of the medical areas in which multi-disciplinal approaches are successful, factionalism augmented by mind-brain problem or mind-body problem has hampered the progress of psychiatry. Here I discuss the importance of building integrative perspectives of psychiatry.

  1. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  2. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation used in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bouché, Christophe; Marigaux, Sandrine; Pattedoie, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive treatment technique, using electromagnetism properties. It has been used for around twenty years in neurology (treatment of neuropathic pain, certain abnormal movements, Parkinson's disease), and in psychiatry (obsessive compulsive disorder, hallucinations, mood disorders, etc.). The presence and support of a nurse during the sessions is essential.

  3. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  4. Child Psychiatry: The Past Quarter Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon

    The developments in child psychiatry in the past 25 years have been encouraging but represent only a prelude to the significant work that must be done relatively soon to meet the needs of the contemporary child. Before 1940, the desirability of multidisciplinary study of the child had been well established, and child guidance clinics had appeared.…

  5. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  6. Annotated Psychodynamic Bibliography for Residents in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    CALIGOR, EVE

    1996-01-01

    The author provides an annotated bibliography to introduce psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis to residents in psychiatry. The emphasis of the selection is on relevance to practice. The entries are grouped by topic, levels of difficulty are noted, and readings are identified as being of either current or historic relevance. PMID:22700303

  7. [Shall psychiatry change its target? Reflections on the evolving role of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pinna, Federica; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; De Rosa, Corrado; Ferrari, Silvia; Pingani, Luca; Tarricone, Ilaria; Volpe, Umberto; Carrà, Giuseppe; Roncone, Rita; Catapano, Francesco; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will describe cultural, social and scientific changes occurred in psychiatry in the last years, identifying the new target for mental health professionals. Groups of young psychiatrists from the Italian Psychiatric Association, the European Psychiatric Association and the World Psychiatric Association have established an international network that launched a debate on the future role of psychiatry. In a rapidly changing world, there is the need to: 1) adapt training in psychiatry to the modern world; 2) identify the new target of mental health professionals; 3) enhance the image of psychiatry in the society; 4) overcome stigma towards people with mental disorders. In recent years, socio-cultural and scientific changes have had a significant impact on the psychiatrists' clinical practice. Mental health professionals should deal with these changes appropriately in order to overcome the current "crisis" of psychiatry, which should be considered as a developmental phase rather than a conceptual one. From time to time psychiatry is criticized both from inside and outside the profession. The current crisis was unavoidable due to the recent socio-cultural changes, but it should be considered an opportunity to adapt the profession to modern times.

  8. Assisting Undergraduate Physician Assistant Training in Psychiatry: The Role of Academic Psychiatry Departments.

    PubMed

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Ferguson, Britnay A

    2015-12-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) are medical professionals who practice medicine with the supervision of a physician through delegated autonomy. PA school accreditation standards provide limited guidance for training PAs in psychiatry. As a result, PA students may receive inconsistent and possibly inadequate exposure to psychiatry. Providing broad and in-depth exposure to the field of psychiatry is important to attract PA students to pursue careers in psychiatry and provide a possible solution to the shortage of psychiatrists nationwide. Additionally, this level of exposure will prepare PA students who pursue careers in other fields of medicine to recognize and address their patient's psychiatric symptoms in an appropriate manner. This training can be provided by an academic department of psychiatry invested in the education of PA students. We describe a training model implemented at our university that emphasizes psychiatrist involvement in the preclinical year of PA school and full integration of PA students into the medical student psychiatry clerkship during the clinical years. The benefits and challenges to implementing this model are discussed as well.

  9. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential.

  10. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  11. Ice caps on venus?

    PubMed

    Libby, W F

    1968-03-08

    The data on Venus obtained by Mariner V and Venera 4 are interpreted as evidence of giant polar ice caps holding the water that must have come out of the volcanoes with the observed carbon dioxide, on the assumption that Earth and Venus are of similar composition and volcanic history. The measurements by Venera 4 of the equatorial surface temperature indicate that the microwave readings were high, so that the polar ice caps may be allowed to exist in the face of the 10-centimeter readings of polar temperature. Life seems to be distinctly possible at the edges of the ice sheets.

  12. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  13. 4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CAP; SHOWS TRANSITIONAL FRAMING OF CAP ROOF WITH THREE PAIR OF RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; BRAKE WHEEL AND WINDSHAFT - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  14. 3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; ALSO SEEN ARE THE BRAKE WHEEL, WINDSHAFT AND TOP BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  15. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cap will have skin that is a little red or itchy, and some might even have hair loss, though the hair usually grows back after ... parts of the body the rash is causing hair loss or becomes itchy the affected skin becomes firm and red, starts to drain fluid, or feels warm, which ...

  16. Caps for Sale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Since first graders at Geneva School in Winter Park, Florida have a unit based on the book "Caps for Sale" by Esphyr Slobodkina, the author, an art teacher at the school, began a tradition of painting hats. In this article, the author describes how the students decorated their hats. (Contains 1 resource and 1 online resource.)

  17. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  18. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  19. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  20. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  1. Cultural psychiatry. Theoretical, clinical, and research issues.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, R; Kleinman, A

    1995-09-01

    As a discipline, cultural psychiatry has matured considerably in recent years and the ongoing quality of its theoretical, clinical, and research development holds great promise. The contemporary emphasis on culture as process permits a deeper analysis of the complexities of sociosomatics--the translation of meanings and social relations into bodily experience--and, thus, of the social course of illness. We also are learning a great deal more about cultural processes that affect therapy, including ethnopharmacologic and culturally valid family interventions that are directly relevant to patient care and mental health policy. And an important set of studies is examining the trauma experienced by refugees and immigrants. But at the same time many disquieting findings still point to the limited impact of cultural psychiatry on knowledge creation and clinical application in psychiatry. The failure of the cultural validation of DSM-IV is only the most dismaying. The persistent misdiagnosis of minority patients and the continued presence of racial bias in some treatment recommendations are also disheartening, as is the seeming contempt of many mainstream psychiatrists for culturally defined syndromes and folk healing systems. Widespread inattention to ethnic issues in medical ethics is another source of dismay. It is for these reasons that the culture of psychiatry itself becomes as important as the culture of patients as a topic for research and intervention. Most of the world still suffers from a terrible lack of basic mental health services, including life-saving medications and hospital beds. In the face of these limitations, and because of the increasing multicultural and pluralistic reality of contemporary life, the growing interpretive bridges linking indigenous systems of illness classification and healing to Western nosologies and therapeutic modalities become even more essential and the reluctance of mainstream clinicians to explore folk healing methods more

  2. The concept of 'delusion' in Spanish psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, J

    1996-03-01

    The history of the concept of delusion can be used to explore the general history of psychiatry in Spain and assess the contribution of her most distinguished practitioners. As this paper shows, the latter have not been as creative as their fellow artists or writers. Nonetheless, the ideas on delusions that some of them formulated deserve attention. The history of Spanish psychiatry (qua science) can be divided into four historical periods. (1) The native origins (up to the end of the eighteenth century). (2) The introduction of European psypchiatry (nineteenth century). (3) The period of consolidation (first third of the twentieth century). (4) From the Civil War (1936-39) to the present. These four periods provide a framework within which theories about delusion can be explored. Aspects of these four stages have been dealt with in earlier papers.

  3. [Contemporary aspects of psychiatry in Communist China].

    PubMed

    Stip, E

    1990-03-01

    Psychiatry in Communist China is at a delicate phase where it is drawn both to modern Western medicine and to the wealth of traditional medicine. This is conveyed through accounts of some present-day situations as seen by the author during stays in Peking and Shanghai. After the treatment provided in various hospitals for acute-care and chronic-care patients is described, we are introduced to the organization of mental health at the various levels of hospital and external structures. A general survey of the research being done in epidemiology, neurology and traditional medicine at the Peking Research Centre is also presented. The novel nosography reveals one particular entity: phasophrenia, described as a stereotyped and recurring acute psychotic episode that responds poorly to neuroleptic chemotherapy. Finally, the medico-legal aspects of psychiatry and the effects of the new birth-rate policy are briefly discussed.

  4. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

  5. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  6. Transcultural psychiatry: from practice to theory.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Psychiatric patients of non-western origin leave treatment against the advice of their clinicians far more often than do their western counterparts. This article presents a theoretical framework for better understanding such clinical cases, developed from examples of psychiatric practice in different cultures. The theory is based on two meanings of the concept of culture, an elaboration of the universality-relativity dichotomy, and a view of the work of mental health care providers as involving three components: (1) building a trusting relationship with the patient; (2) making a diagnosis and treatment plan; and (3) carrying out treatment that is acceptable and meaningful to the patient. The article argues that all psychiatry is transcultural psychiatry, because a cultural gap always exists between the psychiatrist and the patient.

  7. Psychiatry and neurology: from dualism to integration.

    PubMed

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics. As it seems, even the effectiveness of psychotherapy, has recently been associated with changes in brain in functional and even structural markers. The authors indicate the value of the strive to join the still divided specialties, reflected worldwide in attempts of common education and clinical cooperation of physicians. It can be expected that subsequent years will bring further triumphs of neuropsychiatry - a field that combines psychiatry and neurology.

  8. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    PubMed

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  9. Overview of practice management in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Schreter, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    The manager of a psychiatric practice must create and direct a clinical delivery system, design and oversee the administrative services necessary to support the system, and guide the business operations that contribute to its success. Regardless of the size of the practice, the psychiatrist administrator must handle seven core administrative responsibilities and oversee individual functions and capabilities within each domain. These responsibilities include practice development, clinical services management, medical office operations, clinical management, information management, business management, and risk management. This article provides a roadmap for creating and sustaining successful clinical and administrative endeavors. It can also be used by existing practices as an audit instrument to provide a snapshot of current capabilities so that strengths as well as opportunities for continued growth can be identified.

  10. Child and adolescent sports psychiatry in the US.

    PubMed

    Conant-Norville, David O

    2016-12-01

    A positive youth sports experience is essential if an athlete is to develop a lifelong commitment to sport. Children enjoy play and adults can create opportunities for physical, emotional, and cognitive development through sport for all children. This article reviews the current state of youth sports in the US, highlighting some of the problems of the current model and efforts to transform and improve the youth sports experience in the US. The new model of youth sports emphasizes the importance of developing 'physical literacy' in all young athletes, increasing availability of recreational sports activities, providing quality coaching to all, improved sports safety, improved availability of sports venues for athletes at all levels, and at an affordable cost for all. The US Olympic Committee, following an innovative programme by USA Hockey, has developed and promoted the American Developmental Model to its component Sport National Governing Boards to improve the experience of young athletes. The sports-informed paediatric psychiatrist, knowledgeable about child and family development and aware of the local youth sports opportunities and challenges, is well prepared to advocate for a healthy and fun sport experience for every young athlete.

  11. Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Jerry M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    The third edition of this textbook continues its tradition of integrating clinical wisdom and scientific research to improve patient care and advocacy for children and families. Each of the 56 chapters presents a summary of a core topic, blending clinical experience with evidence-based practices in assessment and treatment. Divided into 10 parts,…

  12. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  13. Psychostimulants and psychiatrists: the Trent Adult Psychiatry Psychostimulant Survey.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    2000-03-01

    This study reports upon the results of a postal questionnaire survey of 107 adult psychiatrists which investigated their current use of psychostimulant pharmacotherapy and their attitudes towards the diagnostic status of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Of the 88 respondents, only a minority of 11 (12.5%) used psychostimulants in their usual practice, albeit very infrequently (one or two prescriptions per year on average). Methylphenidate hydrochloride ('Ritalin') was the prescribers' most popular agent and 'narcolepsy' was the most frequently cited clinical indication for psychostimulants. ADHD appeared to represent only a very small area of current clinical activity and a minority of clinicians expressed the view that it did not exist in adults. It is concluded that psychostimulant therapy is relatively undeveloped in British adult psychiatry and that the clinical speciality generally appears to be unprepared for the growing numbers of adolescents with ADHD who are currently managed by child psychiatrists and who may require ongoing psychiatric care, including psychostimulant therapy.

  14. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  15. Psychiatry and law: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Ravindra M

    2015-01-01

    It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007.

  16. [Ethics and solitary confinement in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The decision to treat a patient in solitary confinement in psychiatry does not follow any protocol and is not made on a case-by-case basis. Team deliberation opens discussion and enables the group as a whole to take responsibility for clarifying what is to be supported by the team and implemented by the carer during treatment. When presented with complex situations, uncertainty can be a force when it calls upon an ethical dilemma.

  17. Artiss Symposium 2014: Psychiatry and Pain Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ap- proach systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors in the complex interactions in understanding health, illness, and...view themselves and how they interact with others? Dr. Lande, our service chief for Psychiatry Continuity Service (PCS), and I were discussing this...The dis- charge planning is usually coordinated by social workers and case manage- ment staff. They typically know all the resources in the community

  18. Jung's Contribution to Clinical Psychiatry 1

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Murdo

    1935-01-01

    This attempt to correlate Jung's work with practical psychiatry is concerned mainly with his conception of clinical types. Jung went far away from the provinces of clinical medicine and psychiatry for his evidence, and the possible cause for this is discussed. He expands his view of introversion and extraversion, and so the suggestion is made that for practical purposes his early limitation of these terms should be maintained. The difficulties encountered in type description by comparison and contrast are emphasized. The value of his conception of basic functions is discussed and criticized. A review is made of the personalities he describes, and a simplification of his resulting classification suggested for practical purposes. The notion is put forward that Jung describes one type in psychological adaptation much better than any others, and it is hinted that his psycho-pathological description of this type in nerve disorder constitutes his main contribution to clinical psychiatry. A review of the treatable nerve disorders suggests that this disorder has received more adequate description from Jung than any other, and reveals a unique method of investigation and therapy. This does not apply to his other descriptions. Possibly some of the vagueness attributed to Jung is because he did not give this disorder an adequate diagnosis, and an explanation for this is offered. The correlation between the simplified classification and the classification of treatable nerve disorders is close, and it is suggested that this constitutes Jung's contribution to clinical psychiatry in general. The application of Jung's principles is of daily help to the practising psychiatrist. PMID:19990325

  19. GENERAL HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRY : COST OF ONE VISIT

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Gopala P.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of patients attending general hospital psychiatry out-patient (OP) showed that cost of one visit was Rs. 201/- Management's contribution of the total expenditure was 68% and patients' 32%. Salaries accounted for the maximum-48%. This was followea by loss of earnings- 17%. Drugs accounted for less than 10%. If MCI norms are followed, cost of a visit would increase by 61%, drug supply and number of patient's visits remaining the same. PMID:21407953

  20. Psychiatry and Law: Past, Present and Future*

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ravindra M.

    2015-01-01

    It is important that every citizen knows the law of the state. Psychiatry and law both deal with human behaviour. This paper attempts to highlight the interplay between these two by discussing about various legislations like The Family Courts Act 1984, Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985, Juvenile Justice Act 1986, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Persons with Disability Act 1995, The Maintenance and Welfare of Senior Citizens Act 2007. PMID:25838729

  1. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  2. North Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    North polar ice cap of Mars, as seen during mid summer in the northern hemisphere. The reddish areas consist of eolian dust, bright white areas consist of a mixture of water ice and dust, and the dark blue areas consist of sand dunes forming a huge 'collar' around the polar ice cap. (The colors have been enhanced with a decorrelation stretch to better show the color variability.) Shown here is an oblique view of the polar region, as seen with the Viking 1 spacecraft orbiting Mars over latitude 39 degrees north. The spiral bands consist of valleys which form by a combination of the Coriolis forces, wind erosion, and differential sublimation and condensation. In high-resolution images the polar caps are seen to consist of thick sequences of layered deposits, suggesting that cyclical climate changes have occurred on Mars. Cyclical climate changes are readily explained by quasi-periodic changes in the amount and distribution of solar heating resulting from perturbations in orbital and axial elements. Variations in the Earth's orbit have also been linked to the terrestrial climate changes during the ice ages.

  3. A frame of mind from psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Vintiadis, Elly

    2015-11-01

    A distinctive characteristic of psychiatry is that it is a discipline that deals with both the physical and the mental lives of individuals. Largely because of this characteristic, different models are used for different disorders, however, there is still a remnant tendency towards reductionist views in the field. In this paper I argue that the available empirical evidence from psychiatry gives us reasons to question biological reductionism and that, in its place, we should adopt a pluralistic explanatory model that is more suited to the needs of the discipline and to the needs of the patients it is meant to help. This will allow us to retain psychiatry as an autonomous science that can productively co-exist with neuroscience while also giving patients the kind of attention they need. I further argue that this same evidence supports a view of the mind that is anti-reductive and that allows that causation can be both bottom-up and top-down and that such a view is available in emergentism coupled with an interventionist model of causation.

  4. Computational Phenotyping in Psychiatry: A Worked Example

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology—structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process. Measured behavioral (or neuronal) responses are then used to infer the model parameters of a single subject or a group of subjects. Here, we provide an illustrative overview over this process, starting from the modeling of choice behavior in a specific task, simulating data, and then inverting that model to estimate group effects. Finally, we illustrate cross-validation to assess whether between-subject variables (e.g., diagnosis) can be recovered successfully. Our worked example uses a simple two-step maze task and a model of choice behavior based on (active) inference and Markov decision processes. The procedural steps and routines we illustrate are not restricted to a specific field of research or particular computational model but can, in principle, be applied in many domains of computational psychiatry. PMID:27517087

  5. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry.

  6. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new College special interest group

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Riadh; St John-Smith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary science remains an overlooked area in psychiatry and medicine. The newly established Royal College of Psychiatrists' Evolutionary Psychiatry Special Interest Group aims to reverse this trend by raising the profile of evolutionary thinking among College members and others further afield. Here we provide a brief outline of the importance of the evolutionary approach to both the theory and practice of psychiatry and for future research. PMID:27752339

  7. Is psychiatry scientific? A letter to a 21st century psychiatry resident.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2013-09-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge.

  8. Is Psychiatry Scientific? A Letter to a 21st Century Psychiatry Resident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. PMID:24302942

  9. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  10. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  11. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  12. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  13. The Foundations' Fund for Research in Psychiatry and the growth of research in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pines, M

    1983-01-01

    For over a quarter century, until it disbursed its remaining funds in 1981, the Foundations' Fund for Research in Psychiatry (FFRP) aided hundreds of researchers in fields related to mental health. The fund was established by a private donor, the late Charles B. G. Murphy. Much of the research it sponsored during its early years was psychoanalytically oriented. In the 1960s it shifted to a more biological and social orientation. Its influence was greatest during its first decade, when its research grants, fellowships, and support to departments of psychiatry helped to launch the modern era of psychiatric research. This review analyzes FFRP's activities and examines its achievements.

  14. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  15. Intelligence and Birth Order among Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Furnham, Adrian; Siefen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    A sample of around 2,500 adolescents in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in the region of Munster, Germany had their intelligence assessed. Family size (total number of siblings within a family) was significantly correlated with intelligence score categories (-0.08 and -0.19 for males and females). First borns and only children displayed…

  16. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  17. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    3 . Campaign periods for the 2010/2011 winter 3.1 Operation periods Ny-Ålesund 29 Nov - 13 Dec 2010 28 Dec - 10 Jan 2011 25 Jan - 8 Feb...dominated by a stable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B z < 0 and by an IMF B y > 0 situation. The aurora was characterized by a series of PMAFs...Svalbard Radar of two intense polar cap patch events on 6 February 2001. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was dominated by a large positive By

  18. Polar Cap Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  19. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines six important tasks for psychiatry today, which can be put in short as: Spread and scale up services;Talk;Science,Psychotherapy;Integrate; andResearch excellence. As an acronym, STSPIR. Spread and scale up services: Spreading mental health services to uncovered areas, and increasing facilities in covered areas:Mental disorders are leading cause of ill health but bottom of health agenda;Patients face widespread discrimination, human rights violations and lack of facilities;Need to stem the brain drain from developing countries;At any given point, 10% of the adult population report having some mental or behavioural disorder;In India, serious mental disorders affect nearly 80 million people, i.e. combined population of the northern top of India, including Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh;Combating imbalance between burden of demand and supply of efficient psychiatric services in all countries, especially in developing ones like India, is the first task before psychiatry today. If ever a greater role for activism were needed, this is the field;The need is to scale up effective and cost-effective treatments and preventive interventions for mental disorders.Talk: Speaking to a wider audience about positive contributions of psychiatry: Being aware of, understanding, and countering, the massive anti-psychiatry propaganda online and elsewhere;Giving a firm answer to anti-psychiatry even while understanding its transformation into mental health consumerism and opposition to reckless medicalisation;Defining normality and abnormality;Bringing about greater precision in diagnosis and care;Motivating those helped by psychiatry to speak up;Setting up informative websites and organising programmes to reduce stigma and spread mental health awareness;Setting up regular columns in psychiatry journals around the globe, called ‘Patients Speak’, or something similar, wherein those who have been helped get a chance to voice

  20. Shorter Psychiatry Clerkship Length Is Associated with Lower NBME Psychiatry Shelf Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, J. Michael; Alexander, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a recent medical school curriculum change at our institution 3 years ago; specifically: shortening the Psychiatry core clerkship from 4 to 3 weeks and adding an optional 6-week core/elective combination rotation in lieu of the 3-week core. The authors aimed to determine whether clerkship length was…

  1. Co-opting psychiatry: the alliance between academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The editorial presents the arguments that an alliance between academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry is harmful through a critical review of the academic literature and media coverage of activities of the pharmaceutical industry. The industry and the psychiatric profession both gain advantages from promoting biomedical models of psychiatric disturbance and pharmacological treatment. This confluence of interests has lead to the exaggeration of the efficacy of psychiatric drugs and neglect of their adverse effects and has distorted psychiatric knowledge and practice. Academic psychiatry has helped the industry to colonise more and more areas of modern life in order to expand the market for psychotropic drugs. Persuading people to understand their problems as biological deficiencies obscures the social origin and context of distress and prevents people from seeking social or political solutions. Psychiatry has the power to challenge the dominance of the pharmaceutical industry and should put its efforts into developing alternatives to routine drug treatment. Psychiatry needs to disengage from the industry if it wants to make genuine advances in understanding psychiatric disorder and help reverse the harmful social consequences of the widening med-icalisation of human experience.

  2. A Neurosciences-in-Psychiatry Curriculum Project for Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstone, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The author describes a 20-session, student-centered course relating contemporary neuroscience to psychiatry for second-year psychiatric residents. Methods: Twenty residents who took the course (2003-2007) completed pre- and postcourse surveys and were contacted for more remote follow-up regarding the course. Results: Survey results are…

  3. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method: The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their…

  4. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength.

  5. Cross-Cultural Issues in Forensic Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layde, Joseph B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began…

  6. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  7. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  8. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  9. An Investigation of Psychiatry Residents' Important Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jody

    2011-01-01

    This research study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of the third-year experiences of the psychiatry residents. A review of the literature identified themes and subthemes related to the third-year of psychiatry education. The study was conducted at a university health science center. Data were collected from five residents using participant…

  10. How Prepared Are Psychiatry Residents for Treating Nicotine Dependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and a leading cause of death and disability. The authors examined the extent to which psychiatry residents are prepared to treat nicotine dependence in clinical practice. Methods: Residents from five psychiatry residency programs in…

  11. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  12. Society for Women in Academic Psychiatry: A Peer Mentoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Bhangoo, Robinder; Garma, Sylvia; DuBe, Jane; Hales, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite an increasing presence of women in medicine, the percentage of women in academic psychiatry remains low. At the University of California, Davis, women represent two-thirds of psychiatry residents; however, the percentage of female faculty is one-third. This article presents a novel approach to the academic gender gap problem.…

  13. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  14. Developing the Careers of Clinician-Educators in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Aurora J.; Clardy, James A.; Cargile, Christopher S.; Thrush, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article describes initial efforts by the newly developed Clinician-Educator Section (CES) of the Association for Academic Psychiatry (AAP) to support the career advancement of academic faculty within psychiatry. The CES provided its first workshop at the 2005 AAP annual meeting, focusing on early career development and academic…

  15. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  16. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  17. A Developmental Model for Enhancing Research Training during Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Tew, James D., Jr.; Reynolds, Charles F., III; Pincus, Harold A.; Ryan, Neal; Nash, Kenneth; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a developmental model for enhancing residency research training for careers in academic psychiatry. Over the past 10 years, the University of Pittsburgh Department of Psychiatry has developed a research track (RT) for its residents. While the Department's plan has been to address the critical need of training…

  18. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  19. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  20. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  1. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  2. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Ban, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    In the second half of the 19th century new drugs introduced by the pharmaceutical industry helped lead to the establishment of academic departments in psychiatry. Causal treatment of cerebral pellagra by nicotinic acid and cerebral syphilis by penicillin in the first half of the 20th century led to major changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients. In the second half of the 20th century with the introduction of a rapidly growing number of psychotropic drugs, pharmacotherapy became the primary form of treatment in mental illness. Psychiatrists today perceive neuropharmacology as one of the basic sciences of psychiatry and psychopharmacology as the bridge between the mode of action and the clinical indications of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs focused attention on the differential responsiveness to the same drug within the same diagnostic category. Yet, instead of re-evaluating psychiatric nosology and conducting research in psychopathology, a statistical methodology was adopted for the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness in pharmacologically heterogeneous populations. Employment of consensus-based classifications and psychiatric rating scales in the clinical development of psychotropic drugs led to semi-finished products, which are prescribed indiscriminately. Replacement of single-center clinical trials by multi-center centrally coordinated clinical investigations led to the control of education in pharmacotherapy by the pharmaceutical industry. To separate education from marketing, the identification of the treatment-responsive forms of illness and the delineation of the therapeutic profile of psychotropic drugs are proposed with the employment of a new methodology, the "Composite Diagnostic Evaluation System." It is postulated that development of a pharmacologically valid psychiatric nosology with the employment of a "nosologic matrix" would provide the pharmaceutical industry with the necessary feedback to

  3. The evolution of sport psychiatry, circa 2009.

    PubMed

    Glick, Ira D; Kamm, Ronald; Morse, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the world of both amateur and professional sports has expanded greatly and become more complex. In part related to these changes - and relatively unknown to sports medicine practitioners - the field of sport psychiatry has steadily evolved and grown. This paper focuses on what these changes have been. A sport psychiatrist is a physician-psychiatrist who diagnoses and treats problems, symptoms and/or disorders associated with an athlete, with their family/significant others, with their team, or with their sport, including spectators/fans. The primary aims of the specialty are to (i) optimize health, (ii) improve athletic performance, and (iii) manage psychiatric symptoms or disorders. The training includes medical training to provide knowledge and skills unique to physicians; psychiatric training to provide knowledge and skills inherent in that field, and training and/or experience in sport psychiatry to provide knowledge and skills about psychiatric aspects of sports. The sport psychiatrist first makes an individual, family-systems and phenomenological diagnosis of the clinical situation. Based on this evaluation, he sets goals for not only the athlete, but also for significant others involved. He delivers treatment based on the psychiatric disorder or problem using a combination of medication, psychotherapy or self-help group interventions plus strategies targeted to specific sport performance issues. Evolution of the International Society of Sport Psychiatry as well as the field, including incorporation into school and professional team sports, is described along with a 'typical day' for a sport psychiatrist. Case examples, a training curriculum and core literature are included.

  4. Pharmacogenetics--genomics and personalized psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller, H J; Rujescu, D

    2010-06-01

    Pharmacogenetic influences on therapeutic response to e.g. antidepressant or neuroleptic treatment are poorly understood and the lack of efficacy in many of the patients together with side effects can both limit therapy and compliance. Thus the aim of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics is to provide predictive tools for the response to psychopharmacologic agents in the therapy of psychiatric disorders and in that ways to provide a real personalized psychiatry. The following review will summarize the current stage of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics and will critically discuss the possibilities of a personalized medicine.

  5. [Ethical issues in psychiatry under coercion].

    PubMed

    Gravier, Bruno; Eytan, Ariel

    2011-09-21

    Psychiatry is now subject to two apparently contradictory movements. On the one hand, the need to respect the autonomy and rights of patients is reinforced and coercive measures are strictly defined and limited. On the other hand, security concerns in our society leads to prosecution of psychiatric disorders, especially when accompanied by behavioral problems or criminal acts. In these situations of compulsory treatment or care provided in prisons, a number of dilemmas emerge. The place of the healthcare professional in treatments ordered by the Judge and problems related to administrative detention are discussed in more detail.

  6. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  7. Psychiatry Resident Graduate Comfort with General Medical Issues: Impact of an Integrated Psychiatry-Primary Medical Care Training Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobscha, Steven K.; Snyder, Kristen M.; Corson, Kathryn; Ganzini, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a psychiatry-primary medical care (PPMC) training track impacts comfort and behaviors related to addressing general medical issues after residency. Method: Thirty five psychiatry resident graduates completed mailed surveys; nine of them had completed the PPMC track. Results: Compared to non-PPMC participants, PPMC…

  8. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  9. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  10. Diagnosis and causal explanation in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Maung, Hane Htut

    2016-12-01

    In clinical medicine, a diagnosis can offer an explanation of a patient's symptoms by specifying the pathology that is causing them. Diagnoses in psychiatry are also sometimes presented in clinical texts as if they pick out pathological processes that cause sets of symptoms. However, current evidence suggests the possibility that many diagnostic categories in psychiatry are highly causally heterogeneous. For example, major depressive disorder may not be associated with a single type of underlying pathological process, but with a range of different causal pathways, each involving complex interactions of various biological, psychological, and social factors. This paper explores the implications of causal heterogeneity for whether psychiatric diagnoses can be said to serve causal explanatory roles in clinical practice. I argue that while they may fall short of picking out a specific cause of the patient's symptoms, they can nonetheless supply different sorts of clinically relevant causal information. In particular, I suggest that some psychiatric diagnoses provide negative information that rules out certain causes, some provide approximate or disjunctive information about the range of possible causal processes, and some provide causal information about the relations between the symptoms themselves.

  11. Placebo effects in psychiatry: mediators and moderators

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Katja; Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A strong placebo response in psychiatric disorders has been noted for the past 50 years and various attempts have been made to identify predictors of it, by use of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and laboratory studies. We reviewed 31 meta-analyses and systematic reviews of more than 500 randomised placebo-controlled trials across psychiatry (depression, schizophrenia, mania, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, psychosis, binge-eating disorder, and addiction) for factors identified to be associated with increased placebo response. Of 20 factors discussed, only three were often linked to high placebo responses: low baseline severity of symptoms, more recent trials, and unbalanced randomisation (more patients randomly assigned to drug than placebo). Randomised controlled trials in non-drug therapy have not added further predictors, and laboratory studies with psychological, brain, and genetic approaches have not been successful in identifying predictors of placebo responses. This comprehensive Review suggests that predictors of the placebo response are still to be discovered, the response probably has more than one mediator, and that different and distinct moderators are probably what cause the placebo response within psychiatry and beyond. PMID:25815249

  12. Columbia University's fellowship in public psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ranz, J; Rosenheck, S; Deakins, S

    1996-05-01

    In 1981 the fellowship in public psychiatry was established at New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons to provide subspecialty training for psychiatrists who plan careers in the public sector. Ten one-year postresidency fellowships are awarded annually. The fellowship consists of supervised work and didactic experiences focused on the clinical modalities most effective in public mental health services and the managerial skills that the psychiatrist must possess to make those services work well. Fellows work three days a week at collaborating public-sector agencies throughout the New York metropolitan area. The curriculum includes an academic seminar, which gives fellows an introductory overview of major topics in public psychiatry; an organizational practicum, which is an exercise in management principles and practices; an evaluation practicum, which addresses the theory and practice of program evaluation; and an applied seminar, organized as a cycle of clinical, administrative, fiscal, and evaluation presentations in which each fellow applies the concepts learned in the other seminars to his or her field placement work. Of the 75 fellows who have graduated from the program, only six have chosen to leave the public arena. Nearly all work full time in the public sector, where more than half hold management positions. More than three-fourths hold academic appointments at medical schools in the area in which they are working as public psychiatrists.

  13. Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR.

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, S

    1978-01-01

    This paper was given as a talk at the Venice Biennale on 9 December 1977. It was part of a symposium on "The Freedom of Science--Problems of Science of Scientists in Eastern Europe". Dr Bloch details some of the problems of psychiatry and its vulnerability to improper use and thus the dilemmas which must ensue in day to day practice. He looks at psychiatry in the USSR and the system within which Soviet psychiatrists must work. The Communist Party and career advancement for psychiatrists would appear to be closely related and it is suggested that, in all probability, the majority of psychiatrists are as perturbed at the misuse of their profession as their Western colleagues, but act compliantly out of fear. Severe punishments have been imposed on those psychiatrists who have dared to speak out against the régime and the system as operated. Dr Bloch concludes by urging Western psychiatrists to do all they can to help their Soviet colleagues to initiate a return to an independent and automous psychiatric profession. PMID:691016

  14. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Crafa, Daina

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobehavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery. PMID:25071499

  15. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  16. The cultural sensibility model: a process-oriented approach for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Niranjan S; Dogra, Nisha

    2010-10-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of the inclusion of culture within child and adolescent psychiatry. This history is a reflection of broader trends within medical education and psychiatry, more generally. The authors then present an approach for incorporating culture within the clinical setting termed the cultural sensibility model. In addition to outlining the model and its philosophical basis, they present brief case examples and a sample curriculum in support of this model.

  17. [Care structures for drug dependent children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Thoms, E; Oehme, M

    2003-12-01

    Children and adolescents abusing drugs present a special challenge for our health system. Special risks for the development of drug dependence are psychic diseases of parents, familial addiction or multiply burdened families. The treatment of drug-addicted children and adolescents in child and youth psychiatry requires a highly individualised therapy programme as well as a pedagogic and therapeutic setting corresponding to age. 745 patients were examined in a retrospective study between 1998 and 2001. The results are shown below. 68% of the patients had a relevant psychiatric second diagnosis, 39 Patients of the examined drug addicted children and adolescents were diagnosed with an additional psychotic disturbance. A study of children and youth psychiatry clinics in the fall of 2001 showed that sufficient clinical care for drug-addicted children and adolescents is still lacking.

  18. Development of Gasless Pyrotechnic Cap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    beam cathode ray oscillo- scope. The caps were ignited by removing the safety pin . This also triggered the oscilloscope. The change in pressure inside...sensitivity. STRIKER SAFETY PIN PERCUSSION CAP FIXED VOLUME / ;PRESSURE TRANSDUCER TO C.R.O. FIG. 8 - Device used to determine pressure time

  19. Practice Parameter for Telepsychiatry with Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Parameter for the usage of telepsychiatry to provide services to children and adolescents is developed using clinical consensus and existing scientific evidence. Telepsychiatry is the result of applying telemedicine, a mode of health care delivery that uses telecommunications, to psychiatry. The parameter's use for determining best practices in…

  20. Forensic psychiatry fellowship training: developmental stages as an educational framework.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A

    2005-01-01

    As an official subspecialty of psychiatry, forensic psychiatry residency training must meet the requirements established by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. Attendant to these requirements is the expectation that graduates demonstrate core competencies in general areas common to all medical training programs but delineated for each specialty. In forensic psychiatry, trainees must learn to move from the role of healer to objective evaluator on behalf of third parties, a task that differs from general medical care and treatment. Thus, it is important for educators to maintain awareness of the experience of trainees as they adapt to forensic psychiatry, while understanding core competency requirements. This article outlines stages of development of forensic psychiatry fellows as a model for characterizing learning objectives and for supervising trainees in forensic psychiatry fellowship programs. These stages of development include (1) transformation, (2) growth of confidence and adaptation, and (3) identification and realization. Training directors and trainees can utilize this theoretical framework as a basis on which to establish parameters for core competency attainment and supervisory and assessment methods for forensic psychiatry training.

  1. [The transfer of psychiatry-narratives, termini and cross-cultural psychiatry in Japan].

    PubMed

    Leitner, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on German and Japanese sources and shows how around 1900 European psychiatric concepts and practices embedded themselves into emerging scientific Japanese discourses. The article argues that now forgotten German-Japanese exchanges in the field of psychiatric pathology, together with the historical development of psychiatric care, were central mechanisms for the establishment of a distinctly psychiatric discourse in Japan priot to its broad institutionalization. Three discursive strategies were key: Japanese and German experts from a range of medical fields reinvented a body of traditions loosely related to actual pre-modern cultural practices; they engaged in comparative evaluations of psychiatric conditions; and, through the simple but effective transformation of specific concepts and termini at the margins of European psychiatry, these experts contributed to the transfer not only of a psychiatric discourse but also affected the power relations on a national and international scale as European psychiatry permeated into new territory, namely the Japanese landscape of emerging modern scientific disciplines.

  2. [Some reflections on evidence based psychiatry and its impact on contemporary psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Conti, Norberto A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the proposal of evidence based psychiatry (EBP) is presented together with a critical reflection about its paradigmatic perspective, taking into account Thomas S. Khun's epistemological lineaments. It is also shown how blurring of language in its approximation to the human behavioral disorders is EBP point of major inconsistency, as demonstrates a marked epistemological reductionism. Finally, consequences of its restrictive employment both to psychiatrists teaching and to the treatments they provide to their patients are also discussed.

  3. Psychiatry in the U.S. Army: Lessons for Community Psychiatry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    narcosynthesis and hypnosis may still be useful techniques in treating acute reactions in which amnesia is present and in treating some refractory PTSD...residency under Army auspices) also required instruction in combat psychiatry and was introduced to the techniques of hypnosis and barbiturate interviews. As...manifestations and prevalence of gain in illness, brief directive methods of psychotherapy, and the use of hypnosis and barbiturate interviews as

  4. From local to global – Contributions of Indian psychiatry to international psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, R. Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Indian psychiatrists have actively engaged with world psychiatry by contributing to understanding and care of persons with mental disorders based on the religious, cultural and social aspects of Indian life. The contributions are significant in the areas of outlining the scope of mental health, classification of mental disorders, understanding the course of mental disorders, psychotherapy, traditional methods of care, role of family in mental health care and care of the mentally ill in the community settings. PMID:21836699

  5. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 8 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected March 5, 2002 during the southern summer season. Layering in the South polar cap interior is readily visible and may indicate yearly ice/dust deposition.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.6, Longitude 156.8 East (203.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  6. A war over mental health professionalism: Scientology versus psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Stephen A.; Manca, Terra A.

    2012-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, founder L. Ron Hubbard began what has become Scientology's greatest battle. Scientology emerged from Dianetics, which Hubbard hoped would replace the psychiatric profession. In this article, we discuss how Scientology attempted to position itself as a rival profession to psychiatry and the consequences of those attempts. Scientology's battle with psychiatry gained some success from the social conditions during which it emerged, but it continues in a time that has seen increasing success with various psychiatric treatments. As such, Scientology's direct influence on the psychiatric profession may be difficult to measure, but its actions have coincided with substantial challenges to psychiatry. PMID:24348087

  7. [Interdisciplinarity and psychiatry: is it time not to know?].

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Mardônio Parente; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with interdisciplinarity as well as psychiatric and psychosocial care. Throughout the text, a historical account of the constitution and the crisis of scientific knowledge is presented and organized into disciplines. The theoretical difficulty of conceptualizing interdisciplinarity is analyzed and, in the concluding remarks, psychiatry and its relationship to psychosocial care is discussed. The argument is that, because of its history, psychiatry has singularities that differentiate it from other medical specialties and these singularities could initially cause psychiatry to go in the opposite direction in relation to interdisciplinarity. The conclusion is that because of their inherent characteristics psychosocial care services are privileged places for psychiatric training with interdisciplinary characteristics.

  8. A war over mental health professionalism: Scientology versus psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephen A; Manca, Terra A

    2014-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, founder L. Ron Hubbard began what has become Scientology's greatest battle. Scientology emerged from Dianetics, which Hubbard hoped would replace the psychiatric profession. In this article, we discuss how Scientology attempted to position itself as a rival profession to psychiatry and the consequences of those attempts. Scientology's battle with psychiatry gained some success from the social conditions during which it emerged, but it continues in a time that has seen increasing success with various psychiatric treatments. As such, Scientology's direct influence on the psychiatric profession may be difficult to measure, but its actions have coincided with substantial challenges to psychiatry.

  9. Mentoring new faculty in a department of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Fox, E C; Waldron, J A; Bohnert, P; Hishinuma, E S; Nordquist, C R

    1998-06-01

    A formalized mentoring program was developed in response to several problems experienced by new faculty in a department of psychiatry. Goals of the program were to facilitate socialization/orientation to academic psychiatry, facilitate and improve functioning of faculty, and increase retention of new faculty members. A 36-item questionnaire and a program evaluation form were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Significant differences were found for the overall mean of all pre- vs. postmeasures and the sum of the items related to facilitation of socialization/orientation to academic psychiatry. Mentors and mentees evaluated the program as worthwhile and would recommend it to other faculty members.

  10. Psychodynamic cultural psychiatry: a new approach to teaching residents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a course, Psychodynamic Cultural Psychiatry, taught to PGY-3 residents at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center that uses psychodynamic theory to help deepen cultural understanding. We (Sandra Park, the instructor for the course, and Elizabeth Auchincloss, the residency training director) developed the class in 2006 in an effort to raise cultural awareness in the residency curriculum. We believe that despite an inherent Western bias, psychodynamic theory can be an effective way to teach cultural psychiatry. Additionally, cultural understanding can enhance understanding of psychodynamic principles. In this article, we argue that our course in psychodynamic cultural psychiatry helps residents to integrate these two points of view.

  11. Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J W

    1989-06-01

    A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.

  12. Reasons for choosing to specialise in psychiatry: differences between core psychiatry trainees and consultant psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Denman, Melissa; Oyebode, Femi; Greening, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method This questionnaire study aimed to investigate the reasons for choosing to specialise in psychiatry in a sample of consultant psychiatrists and core trainee psychiatrists from within the West Midlands. Results Five reasons were significantly different between the core trainees and consultant psychiatrists. ‘Emphasis on the patient as a whole’ was identified as the most important reason for choosing to specialise for both core trainees and consultants. Six additional reasons were shared within the top ten ‘very important’ reasons, although their actual ranking varies. Clinical implications Some of the reasons for choosing to specialise in psychiatry were shown to significantly differ between core trainees and consultants. Numerous key driving factors have remained important over time for both groups, whereas other reasons have been replaced with a shift of importance towards lifestyle and humanitarian factors for core trainees. Consequently, it may be advisable not to use the reasons that consultants gave for choosing psychiatry when thinking about how to attract today's prospective psychiatrists. PMID:26958354

  13. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America.

  14. Refilin holds the cap.

    PubMed

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Baudier, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT.

  15. Refilin holds the cap

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Olivia; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    The Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are a novel family of short-lived actin regulatory proteins that are expressed during changes in cellular phenotype such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The Refilins promote to the formation of actin- and myosin-rich perinuclear bundles that are characteristic of cellular phenotypic switches. In epithelial cells, RefilinB is up-regulated in response to TGF-β stimulation and function in organization of apical perinuclear actin fibers during early stage of the EMT process1. In fibroblasts, RefilinB stabilizes perinuclear parallel actin bundles which resemble actin cap 2. Refilins bind and modulate the function of Filamin A (FLNA). Upon binding to Refilins, FLNA is capable of assembling actin filaments into parallel bundles, possibly by undergoing conformational changes at the C-terminal. Perinuclear actin structures determine nuclear shape, cell morphology, cell adhesion and possibly cell proliferation and gene regulation. Identifying the role of Refilins in organizing perinuclear actin networks provides additional insight in the process of intracellular mechanotransduction that regulate changes in cellular phenotype such as those observed during EMT. PMID:22446558

  16. Case reports: Publication standards in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Annette; Martinez, Richard; Candilis, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists who publish case reports are required to seek informed consent from their subjects on the basis of the ethics-related obligation to maintain patient confidentiality. Academic journals have developed editorial standards to fulfill this obligation. Forensic evaluations do not create a doctor-patient relationship in the traditional sense, and information obtained through a forensic evaluation may also be found in the public domain. This public exposure is particularly likely, given the development of open access publishing standards, online journals, and increasing professional involvement in social media. This article outlines the ethics of informed consent in published case reports for general and forensic psychiatry and offers recommendations for forensic case study publishing. The authors suggest changes in the current requirements stated in The Journal for publication of case reports.

  17. [Community psychiatry. Evaluation and research perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hochmann, J

    1986-01-01

    The author deals with 3 possible types of epidemiological studies in community mental health services: studies on the efficiency measuring the difference between the objectives of each team and the results; studies on the distribution between the teams and within each team, institutionalised models and implicit defensive modalities elaborated by the staff against the fear of the insane; studies on the populations considered at risk by psychoanalytical theories en vogue (depressive mothers, relationship anomalies). These studies would have the advantage to limit the "etiopathogenic pretentions" in psychiatry and avoid the "realistic slide" of imaginary constructions (myths or fiction of origin) which the community health service psychiatrist needs to work with but which has only an uncertain relationship with historical truth.

  18. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  19. Outlines of a concept of industrial psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Mindus, Erland

    1955-01-01

    The author sees the task of industrial psychiatry as one of preventing emotional maladjustment and the more serious mental disorders in the industrial population, and of treating early cases of emotional disorders. He classifies the preventive functions as: giving “emotional” first-aid, holding psychiatric consultations, and training in mental health. The function of the psychiatrist is to concentrate on patients who are too difficult to be handled by the industrial medical officer, his nurse, or the psychologist, and to train management and medical staff to collaborate in preventive mental health activity. Some of the techniques used by the psychiatrist are described, and the important problem of how to handle confidential material is discussed. The author points out that the selection of medical staff for such work is extremely important, and that choosing the right type of psychiatrist is of primary importance for the whole organization. PMID:13276810

  20. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed.

  1. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  2. The future of psychiatry: brain devices.

    PubMed

    Costa E Silva, Jorge Alberto; Steffen, Ricardo Ewbank

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in deep brain stimulators and brain-machine interfaces have greatly expanded the possibilities of neuroprosthetics and neuromodulation. Together with advances in neuroengineering, nanotechnology, molecular biology and material sciences, it is now possible to address fundamental questions in neuroscience in new, more powerful ways. It is now possible to apply these new technologies in ways that range from augmenting and restoring function to neuromodulation modalities that treat neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent developments in neuromodulation methods offer significant advantages and potential clinical benefits for a variety of disorders. Here we describe the current state of the art in neuromodulation methods, and some advances in brain-machine interfaces, describing the advantages and limitations of the clinical applications of each method. The future applications of these new methods and how they will shape the future of psychiatry and medicine, along with safety and ethical implications, are also discussed.

  3. Cultural psychiatry in Tel Aviv: how relevant!

    PubMed

    Rohlof, Hans; Ulman, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The First Mediterranean Conference on Cultural Psychiatry took place in Tel Aviv, Israel. This conference was a great success. With about 200 participants, mostly from Israel but with also 46 participants coming from 13 other countries: Mediterranean countries, Europe, North America and Australia. It contained three intensive days of plenary lectures and symposia, and a very impressive film, "Waltz with Bashir". The proceedings included 88 lectures, and there were 8 posters, which meant that nearly half of the attending persons were giving a lecture, as is always the case in real scientific conferences. Four parallel programs were running at the same time, which made it very difficult to choose which to attend. Inevitably, this report reflects only a part of the conference.

  4. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones.

  5. Biological clocks and the practice of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks enable living species to acquire some independence in relation to time. They improve the efficiency of biological systems, by allowing them to anticipate future constraints on major physyological systems and cell energy metabolism. The temporal organization of a giwen biological function can be impaired in its coordination with astronomical time or with other biological function. There are also external conditions that influence biological clocks. This temporal organization is complex, and it is possible that a series of psychiatric disorders and syndromes involve primary or secondary changes in biological clocks: seasonal and other mood disorders, premenstrual syndromes, social jet lag, free-running rhythms, and several sleep disorders are among them. In this review, we describe the main concepts relevant to chronobiology and explore the relevance of knowledge about biological clocks to the clinical practice of psychiatry PMID:17969862

  6. [Development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Srdjan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Ilanković, Nikola; Dunjić, Dusan; Lakić, Aneta; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Nenadović, Milutin; Randjelović, Dragisa; Milovanović, Dimitrije

    2013-01-01

    The development of legislation in the field of mental health in our region is linked with the emergence and development of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in Serbia.The principle that the mentally ill who committed a criminal offense need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital instead of a prison was introduced at the same time as in the most developed European countries. The founders of the Serbian forensic psychiatry, Dr. Jovan Danić, Dr.Vojislav Subotić Jr. and Dr. Dusan Subotić, were all trained at the first Serbian Psychiatric Hospital ("Home for the Unsound of Mind") that was founded in 1861 in the part of Belgrade called Guberevac. Their successors were psychiatric enthusiasts Prof. Dr.Vladimir F.Vujić and Prof. Dr. Laza Stanojević. A formal establishment of the School of Medicine of Belgrade, with acquirement of new experience and positive shifts within this field, based on the general act of the University in 1932, led to the formation of the Council of the School of Medicine, which, as a collective body passed expert opinions. Thus, the first Forensic Medicine Committee of the School of Medicine was formed and started its activities in 1931 when Forensic Medicine Committee Regulations were accepted. After the World War II prominent educators in the field of mental health, and who particularly contributed to further development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia were Prof. Dr. Uros Jekić, Prof Dr. Dusan Jevtić, Dr. Stevan Jovanović, Prof. Dr. Borislav Kapamadzija, Prof. Dr. Maksim Sternić, Prof. Dr. Josif Vesel and Prof. Dr. Dimitrije Milovanović.

  7. JCPP--The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry: a history from the inside.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael; Hersov, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    As the JCPP marks its 50th year of publication, this paper revisits the founding philosophy and traces the journey from the first issue through to the present. The history of the JCPP reflects the many changes that have come about in the fields of developmental psychology and child and adolescent psychiatry and the changes introduced both to meet the needs and shape the practices of clinicians and researchers. It documents the achievements of the Journal and the contributions made by many in enabling its success. As the JCPP moves forward it will enjoy the benefits of the major technological and other advances being made in research, in the evolving and expanding knowledge base, and in the modes of publication, as well as needing to manage the associated challenges that will inevitably impact on its future.

  8. Editorial cognition, neurology, psychiatry: golden triangle or bermuda triangle?

    PubMed

    Baddeley, A D

    1996-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry occupies the comparatively neglected research region that lies between neurology, psychiatry, and cognitive psychology. Reasons for this neglect are discussed, together with arguments as to why it may be timely to focus on this intellectual no man's land.

  9. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  10. Psychiatry and the general hospital in an age of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    LIPSITT, DON R

    2003-01-01

    General hospitals have had an illustrious role in the evolution of psychiatry. They have provided a rich soil for the growth of inpatient psychiatric units, consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, med-psych units, outpatient psychiatric clinics, emergency services and a whole spectrum of resources for the communities in which they dwell. In some respects, whether attached to universities or not, they have functioned as small colleges for the education and training of scores of health professionals. In the setting of the general hospital, psychiatry has had opportunities to become remedicalized and integrated into the mainstream of medicine. However, recent trends in health care run the risk of jeopardizing these accomplishments. Managed care has had a profound impact on the way psychiatry is practiced, taught, and reimbursed. Concerns about cost-containment have raised questions about whether the general hospital will remain the best and most economical setting for psychiatric services. If the primacy of the patient is lost, psychiatry's role in the general hospital will be uncertain. The need to safeguard psychiatry's achievements must be a worldwide endeavor. PMID:16946901

  11. [Half a century of personally experienced history of psychiatry].

    PubMed

    von Zerssen, Detlev

    2007-01-01

    This report consists of the author's personal experience in German psychiatry during the second half of the last century. The focus is on scientific development in the area of biological psychiatry, a branch of psychiatry dominated, during the second quarter of the 20th century, by Kretschmer's constitutional conceptions. These, however, could not be substantiated by the author's and his co-worker's extensive research using biometrical and statistical methods still rather unusual for German psychiatry at that time. In particular, the extent as well as kind of correlation between physique and personality and the differences in physical shape between patients with either schizophrenic or affective psychoses were invalidated. The latter could largely be explained by the age dependence of physique and type of psychosis. In the psychopharmacological phase of psychiatric development following that of constitutional biology, the focus of research moved to pharmacology and, in connection with it, to neurochemistry and neuroendocrinology. In this context, objectifying and quantifying techniques, also in the area of psychopathology, became more and more important for biological research in psychiatry. This is exemplified by selected investigations of ours at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich. Methodologically, this prepared the ground for the neurobiological phase of development induced by progress in neuroimaging and molecular genetics which marked the transition into the 21st century.

  12. Key features of a unique community psychiatry fellowship: the emory university fellowship in community psychiatry/public health.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Raymond J; Compton, Michael T

    2010-08-01

    The Emory University Fellowship in Community Psychiatry/Public Health is a unique training opportunity whose mission is to train future leaders in the arena of community psychiatry. To complement the recent description of the Public Psychiatry Fellowship of New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University Medical Center, this report describes the key features of Emory's fellowship-its academic curriculum, practicum experiences, site visits and other opportunities for collaboration, and ongoing mentoring and career development. Congruencies between these four key features and the seven core elements of Columbia's fellowship are highlighted, as are several important differences. Such descriptions of innovative training programs in community and public psychiatry are essential in promoting excellence in education, which will translate into vital enhancements in programs, policy, and community-based approaches to mental health services.

  13. Comparison of human CAP and CAP2, homologs of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, G; Swiston, J; Young, D

    1994-06-01

    We previously reported the identification of human CAP, a protein that is related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe adenylyl cyclase-associated CAP proteins. The two yeast CAP proteins have similar functions: the N-terminal domains are required for the normal function of adenylyl cyclase, while loss of the C-terminal domains result in morphological and nutritional defects that are unrelated to the cAMP pathways. We have amplified and cloned cDNAs from a human glioblastoma library that encode a second CAP-related protein, CAP2. The human CAP and CAP2 proteins are 64% identical. Expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. cerevisiae cap- strains suppresses phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP, but does not restore hyper-activation of adenylyl cyclase by RAS2val19. Similarly, expression of either human CAP or CAP2 in S. pombe cap- strains suppresses the morphological and temperature-sensitive phenotypes associated with deletion of the C-terminal domain of CAP in this yeast. In addition, expression of human CAP, but not CAP2, suppresses the propensity to sporulate due to deletion of the N-terminal domain of CAP in S. pombe. This latter observation suggests that human CAP restores normal adenylyl cyclase activity in S. pombe cap- cells. Thus, functional properties of both N-terminal and C-terminal domains are conserved between the human and S. pombe CAP proteins.

  14. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  15. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a

  16. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize WinnerPsychiatry Limited: Hyperactivity and the Evolution of American Psychiatry, 1957–1980

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hyperactivity is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder in north America. Most physicians believe that the disorder is a neurological dysfunction which is best treated with stimulants, such as ritalin. Accounts of the history of hyperactivity written by physicians, psychologists and even historians suggest that the disorder was always conceived as such. This paper argues that, on the contrary, the notion that hyperactivity was a neurological condition only emerged after vigorous debate during the 1960s between three competing fields within American psychiatry: specifically psychoanalysis, social psychiatry and biological psychiatry. Biological psychiatry won the debate, not because its approach to hyperactivity was more scientifically valid, but rather because its explanations and methods fit the prevailing social context more readily than that of its rivals. American psychiatry's refusal to draw pluralistic conclusions about hyperactivity undermined the development of a deeper understanding of the disorder. The history of hyperactivity provides an ideal lens through which to view the evolution of psychiatry from a field dominated by Freudian psychoanalysis to one rooted in the neurosciences.

  17. Psychiatry and the military: an update.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Benedek, David; Malone, Ricky; Carr-Malone, Rosemary

    2006-09-01

    The United States has historically been concerned about the successful adjustment of its military members returning from war. These concerns are based on the recognition that war-zone exposures may have considerable negative emotional or behavior consequences. As the global war on terror continues, the United States military medical system will be required to address issues at the interface of psychiatry and the law. Despite clinical advances within the theater of war and at tertiary facilities in the United States, some military members will develop chronic and disabling mental illness as a result of traumatic exposure and exacerbated by the demands of the austere and dangerous operational environment. The extent to which violent and aggressive behavior in the aftermath of deployment can be attributed to combat experience remains an area of debate and ongoing investigation. However, experience suggests that a very small subgroup of the hundreds of thousands of war veterans deployed in conjunction with the current conflict in Iraq has already been involved in violent crimes. For this group, military forensic psychiatrists will be called on to make determinations of competency and criminal responsibility and to inform the courts about the potential contributions of war-related distress or disorder to criminal behavior. Though the overwhelming majority of war veterans will not be involved in criminal proceedings, a minority will develop career-ending (and in rare instances, life-ending) disabilities as a result of mental illness. For those who are no longer fit for duty, the military Physical Disability Evaluation System must make determinations of the extent to which future military performance and future civilian social and occupational function have been compromised. For a small yet highly visible minority of returning veterans, questions about the cause, precipitants, and manner of death will necessitate psychological autopsies. This article highlighted recent

  18. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man’s Experience of Being Diagnosed with “Pediatric Bipolar Disorder”

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American’s story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where social and economic factors have contributed to the rise of a dominant biomedical paradigm—or “biologism”. This focus on the “bio” to the relative exclusion of the “psychosocial” in both diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences as this young man’s story attests. The author explores aspects of his tale to analyze how the pediatric bipolar disorder “epidemic” arose and became emblematic of a dominant biologism. This narrative points to the need, depending on the service and country, to return to or retain/improve a balanced biopsychosocial perspective in child and adolescent mental health. Child psychiatry needs to advocate for health systems that support deeper listening to our patients. Then we can explore with them the full range of contextual factors that contribute to symptoms of individual and family distress. PMID:26237377

  19. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  20. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2012-10-13

    The ultimate goal of studies of cold cap behavior in glass melters is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Regrettably, mathematical models, which are ideal tools for assessing the responses of melters to process parameters, have not paid adequate attention to the cold cap. In this study, we consider a cold cap resting on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady heat flux while temperature, velocity, and extent of conversion are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate. A one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model simulates this process by solving the differential equations for mass and energy balances with appropriate boundary conditions and constitutive relationships for material properties. The sensitivity analyses on the effects of incoming heat fluxes to the cold cap through its lower and upper boundaries show that the cold cap thickness increases as the heat flux from above increases, and decreases as the total heat flux increases. We also discuss the effects of foam, originating from batch reactions and from redox reactions in molten glass and argue that models must represent the foam layer to achieve a reliable prediction of the melting rate as a function of feed properties and melter conditions.

  1. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  2. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice.

  3. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background.

  4. The DSM-5 and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S

    2013-05-01

    In his first Law and Psychiatry column for the Journal of Psychiatric Practice, the author discusses potential forensic consequences of the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While the transition to DSM-5 may prove challenging for both patients and clinicians, the scrutiny and adversarial process associated with forensic psychiatric practice will entail a unique set of challenges. The philosophy of innovation behind the DSM-5, and the attendant changes, could lead to some unintended consequences, particularly in medicolegal settings. This column highlights some of the major changes in DSM-5 and explores points of particular concern for forensic psychiatric practice, such as the move toward a non-multiaxial diagnostic system and dimensional severity ratings being superimposed on certain categorical diagnoses. The innovative changes featured in DSM-5, and the controversies surrounding some of them, could yield an environment of increased cynicism in courts of law, with renewed skepticism regarding mental health diagnoses and the forensic psychiatrists who testify about them. Fortunately, the best method for forensic psychiatric practice in this environment of change is to continue to adhere to a meticulous and transparent medicolegal process, with recognition that changes in the diagnostic manual will seldom alter essential medicolegal conclusions. Forensic psychiatrists may enhance their credibility and the strength of the opinions they offer by proactively illustrating how nuances in diagnosis do not change legally defined constructs such as insanity or incompetence.

  5. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice.

  6. Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gurvich, Caroline; Maller, Jerome J; Lithgow, Brian; Haghgooie, Saman; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2013-11-06

    The vestibular system has traditionally been thought of as a balance apparatus; however, accumulating research suggests an association between vestibular function and psychiatric and cognitive symptoms, even when balance is measurably unaffected. There are several brain regions that are implicated in both vestibular pathways and psychiatric disorders. The present review examines the anatomical associations between the vestibular system and various psychiatric disorders. Despite the lack of direct evidence for vestibular pathology in the key psychiatric disorders selected for this review, there is a substantial body of literature implicating the vestibular system in each of the selected psychiatric disorders. The second part of this review provides complimentary evidence showing the link between vestibular dysfunction and vestibular stimulation upon cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. In summary, emerging research suggests the vestibular system can be considered a potential window for exploring brain function beyond that of maintenance of balance, and into areas of cognitive, affective and psychiatric symptomology. Given the paucity of biological and diagnostic markers in psychiatry, novel avenues to explore brain function in psychiatric disorders are of particular interest and warrant further exploration.

  7. Deep pharma: psychiatry, anthropology, and pharmaceutical detox.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychiatric medication, or psychotropics, are increasingly prescribed for people of all ages by both psychiatry and primary care doctors for a multitude of mental health and/or behavioral disorders, creating a sharp rise in polypharmacy (i.e., multiple medications). This paper explores the clinical reality of modern psychotropy at the level of the prescribing doctor and clinical exchanges with patients. Part I, Geographies of High Prescribing, documents the types of factors (pharmaceutical-promotional, historical, cultural, etc.) that can shape specific psychotropic landscapes. Ethnographic attention is focused on high prescribing in Japan in the 1990s and more recently in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in the US. These examples help to identify factors that have converged over time to produce specific kinds of branded psychotropic profiles in specific locales. Part II, Pharmaceutical Detox, explores a new kind of clinical work being carried out by pharmaceutically conscious doctors, which reduces the number of medications being prescribed to patients while re-diagnosing their mental illnesses. A high-prescribing psychiatrist in southeast Wisconsin is highlighted to illustrate a kind of med-checking taking place at the level of individual patients. These various examples and cases call for a renewed emphasis by anthropology to critically examine the "total efficacies" of modern pharmaceuticals and to continue to disaggregate mental illness categories in the Boasian tradition. This type of detox will require a holistic approach, incorporating emergent fields such as neuroanthropology and other kinds of creative collaborations.

  8. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  9. Adolescent Images of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…

  10. Patchy particles using colloidal caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Christine; Pine, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a method for making patchy particles functionalized with single stranded sticky end DNA only on their patches. This is done by adding ``spherical cap'' particles as patches to spherical colloids using the depletion interaction. The caps are then functionalized with single stranded DNA using copper-free click chemistry. Due to being attached only by depletion, the patches diffuse on the surface of the particle. The patchy particles can then interact with each other in a specific, directional way through the mobile, DNA functionalized patches.

  11. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  12. Forensic psychiatry in India: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, S.; Ilango, Siva; Prabha, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic psychiatry is still in an infant stage in India and other developing countries. Law is the sanctioning discipline, and Psychiatry is the therapeutic discipline. Due to various reasons, Forensic Psychiatry is reared as Cinderella in our country; “which is much neglected, ignored, misinterpreted, and misunderstood. Legislation forms an integral component in the implementation of Mental Health Care; there is a dynamic relationship between the concept of mental illness, treatment of the mentally ill, and the law. Mental Health legislation is essential in protecting the rights and dignity of persons with Mental Disorders and for implementing effectively the mental health services. “Effective mental health legislation can provide a legal frame work to integrate mental health services in the community as to overcome stigma, discrimination, and exclusion of mentally ill persons. Legislations can also create enforceable standards for high quality medical care and improve access to care and protect civil, political, social, and economic rights of the mentally ill individual, including right to access to education, employment, housing, and social security.” PMID:28216766

  13. What is psychiatry? Co-producing complexity in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    What is psychiatry? Such a question is increasingly important to engage with in light of the development of new diagnostic frameworks that have wide-ranging and international clinical and societal implications. I suggest in this reflective essay that ‘psychiatry' is not a singular entity that enjoins consistent forms of critique along familiar axes; rather, it is a heterogeneous assemblage of interacting material and symbolic elements (some of which endure, and some of which are subject to innovation). In underscoring the diversity of psychiatry, I seek to move towards further sociological purchase on what remains a contested and influential set of discourses and practices. This approach foregrounds the relationships between scientific knowledge, biomedical institutions, social action and subjective experience; these articulations co-produce both psychiatry and each other. One corollary of this emphasis on multiplicity and incoherence within psychiatric theory, research and practice, is that critiques which elide this complexity are rendered problematic. Engagements with psychiatry are, I argue, best furthered by recognising its multifaceted nature. PMID:23226975

  14. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers.

  15. [Irrationality in psychiatry. I. Irrationality in analytical psychology].

    PubMed

    Vacek, J

    1991-02-01

    In the author's opinion the contemporary western world is experiencing an offensive of irrationality which affects also psychiatry. When psychiatry got rid of irrational illusions of preceding centuries, analytical psychology contributed to the introduction of irrationality into psychiatry. In the first part of his paper he maintains that Freud's share was not substantial in this respect and that in particular Jung contributed towards the development of irrational trends in psychiatry by this concept of collective unconscious. In the second part of his paper the author deals with so-called transpersonal, psychology, in particular the contribution made by the Czech psychiatrist Grof who, based on his experiments with LSD, created the theory of three levels of experience from unconscious (psychodynamic, perinatal, and transpersonal). His interpretation is a relapse of neoplatonism and represents antirational agnostic spiritualism with utopic antipsychiatric elements. In the third part of his paper the author deals with Capro's ideology of the New Age Movement to the establishment of which Ghof contributed in an important way. The New Age ideology is an irrational conglomeration of anti-civilization trends which negate modern thinking. The chances of manking are fallaciously seen in alienation from science and an approach to mysticism and irrational Asian traditions. Contemporary popularity of irrational trends, incl. transpersonal psychology, is a reaction of the overationalized society. Consequential enforcement of transpersonal psychology would imply a negation of the entire arsenal of thinking in psychiatry as a medial discipline.

  16. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil.

  17. Psychoradiology: The Frontier of Neuroimaging in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lui, Su; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-11-01

    Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes. As a result, a new field of radiology, termed psychoradiology, seems primed to play a major clinical role in guiding diagnostic and treatment planning decisions in patients with psychiatric disorders. This article will present the state of the art in this area, as well as perspectives regarding preparations in the field of radiology for its evolution. Furthermore, this article will (a) give an overview of the imaging and analysis methods for psychoradiology; (b) review the most robust and important radiologic findings and their potential clinical value from studies of major psychiatric disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia; and (c) describe the main challenges and future directions in this field. An ongoing and iterative process of developing biologically based nomenclatures with which to delineate psychiatric disorders and translational research to predict and track response to different therapeutic drugs is laying the foundation for a shift in diagnostic practice in psychiatry from a psychologic symptom-based approach to an imaging-based approach over the next generation. This shift will require considerable innovations for the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of brain images, all of which will undoubtedly require the active involvement of radiologists. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this

  18. The Importance of Statistics in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Penrose, L. S.

    1947-01-01

    The paper gives an outline, with examples, of various statistical methods which may be of special use in psychiatry. (1) Actuarial data.—The simple accumulation of accurate figures on the ages of patients, their diagnoses and length of stay in hospital or under treatment for mental illness is of great value in understanding the scope of psychiatric problems. The age and sex incidences which correspond to different disease groups are very characteristic. Such material has value in the estimation of the results of therapeutic experiments but special methods have to be devised, as there is no exact prototype in standard vital statistics or in work on therapeutic trials. (2) Biometric techniques.—Knowledge of ordinary statistical practice guards against elementary errors and aids in establishing significance or otherwise of metrical deviations from the normal found in mentally ill subjects. Also the range of variations may be much more marked in abnormal than in normal groups. Furthermore, abnormal reactions in themselves may be characterized by either too much or too little variety, i.e. by scatter or by stereotypy. Discrimination between normal and abnormal reaction can be based on a single quantitative measurement, on difference in variance or on a compound measurement, i.e. pattern or profile. The discriminative approach has advantages over other methods because in this approach the initial factors are concrete and based on known classes such as males and females, children and adults, special clinical types, &c. (3) Genetical analysis.—Actuarial data can be useful in genetic studies by leading to estimation of population frequency of genes and consanguinity rates. Moreover, combined clinical and genetical observations can reveal the existence of new clinical entities. PMID:18919283

  19. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs

  20. Cultural psychiatry in the French-speaking world.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    For the last five centuries, France's international influence has been constant. This has been particularly evident in the areas of general culture, history and science. In psychiatry, the role of Pinel during the French Revolution, and the discovery of the first psychotropic agent, chlorpromazine, by Delay and Deniker are two outstanding historical facts. This chapter examines the contributions of French social scientists in the understanding of the sequelae of colonial exploitation, racism and political oppression. The establishment of a multi-ethnic society in France and Francophile regions of the world has led to the gradual creation of a cultural psychiatry rich in terminological influences, clinical understanding, training programs and research. Closer connections between French psychiatric thought and Anglophile psychiatry is likely to produce beneficial effects.

  1. Psychiatry residency education in Canada: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Saperson, Karen

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada, and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination, and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. METHOD The author compiled findings and reports on residency education in Canada from current and historical sources. RESULTS Residency training in psychiatry in Canada has undergone significant change in the past 5 years, moving from an "apprenticeship" model to a competency-based curriculum with explicit expectations for the acquisition of key, defined competencies. CONCLUSION Continuous evaluation of teaching methodologies, increasing use of innovative and creative medical education techniques, flexible curricula, and increasingly rigorous standards of accreditation are some of the factors likely to continue to shape the future.

  2. Link prediction boosted psychiatry disorder classification for functional connectivity network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiwei; Mei, Xue; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Jiashuang

    2017-02-01

    Functional connectivity network (FCN) is an effective tool in psychiatry disorders classification, and represents cross-correlation of the regional blood oxygenation level dependent signal. However, FCN is often incomplete for suffering from missing and spurious edges. To accurate classify psychiatry disorders and health control with the incomplete FCN, we first `repair' the FCN with link prediction, and then exact the clustering coefficients as features to build a weak classifier for every FCN. Finally, we apply a boosting algorithm to combine these weak classifiers for improving classification accuracy. Our method tested by three datasets of psychiatry disorder, including Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The experimental results show our method not only significantly improves the classification accuracy, but also efficiently reconstructs the incomplete FCN.

  3. A new ethics of psychiatry: neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Erick H

    2009-09-01

    Neuroethics is a new subset of bioethics that addresses ethical issues pertaining to the brain, primarily in the fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and neuroradiology. Research in brain science is progressing at a phenomenal rate and, as a result, the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology raises ethical questions of a practical and philosophical nature. While neuroethics is developing as a distinct field of study, one area that should be addressed in greater depth is the relevance and potential impact of neurotechnology in psychiatry. New knowledge in the mind-brain conundrum and increasingly sophisticated techniques for imaging and intervening in human cognition, emotion, and behavior pose ethical issues at the intersection of technology and psychiatry. This article presents a broad survey of the new directions in neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology and considers the implications of technological advances for the practice of psychiatry in the new millennium. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2009;15:391-401).

  4. The teaching of the biological basis of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Baptista, T

    1995-05-01

    1. What is usually taught as biological psychiatry in psychiatric residency training is mainly psychopharmacology, but biology has a lot more to offer to psychiatry educators. 2. The main thesis of this article is that an introductory course on the applications to psychiatry based on the theory of the evolution of the species by natural selection and mutation, along with a comprehensive theory of mind, may contribute to: (i) helping young physicians to integrate the diverse and extensive knowledge acquired during the residency training; (ii) aid in keeping the psychiatrist within the medical approach to mental illnesses while promoting the specific features of the specialty, and (iii) perhaps developing a general theoretical framework that allows psychiatrists to maintain a prominent role in the mental health staff. 3. The author describes how he has conducted such training in Venezuela. It is expected that the author's ideas will serve as a forum for discussion of this pivotal subject.

  5. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  6. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders.

  7. Changing Medical Students’ Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajita

    2015-01-01

    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors’ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to others. Some feel that psychiatry is unscientific, imprecise and treatment is not effective. Traditional teaching methods are directed more towards imparting knowledge than changing the attitudes of students. Newer teaching and assessment techniques should be used to bring about attitudinal changes and develop interest among medical students. Case based and problem based learning, small group teaching, simulated patients, using movies, multidisciplinary seminars, integrated teaching, attitude questionnaires, objective structured clinical examinations etc., could be introduced in the curriculum to achieve this objective. PMID:25838738

  8. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  9. What Do Psychiatric Residents Think of Addiction Psychiatry as a Career?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John A., Jr.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Levinson, Marjorie; Craig, Thomas; Eld, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to better understand the recent decline in the number of applicants to addiction psychiatry training. Methods: The Corresponding Committee on Training and Education in Addiction Psychiatry of APA's Council on Addiction Psychiatry sent out a 14-question anonymous e-mail survey to all postgraduate-year 2 (PGY-2)…

  10. Incorporating Active Learning into a Psychiatry Clerkship: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary; Arfken, Cynthia; Bridge, Patrick; Balon, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medical students' satisfaction with the psychiatry clerkship, sense of preparedness for an institutional Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), expressed likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a specialty, and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) psychiatry shelf-examination scores were compared after a curriculum based on…

  11. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  12. Evaluating Psychiatry Residents as Physician-Managers: Development of an Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie D.; Zaretsky, Ari; Stovel, Laura; Hodges, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: With the emergence of physician-manager (PM) curricula in medical education, more effective assessment tools are needed to evaluate psychiatry trainees in this role. The aim of this study was to determine psychiatry residents', program directors', and PM educators' perceptions about PM role-assessment. Methods: Psychiatry residents at…

  13. Current Issues in Undergraduate Psychiatry Education: The Findings of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogra, Nisha; Edwards, Ruth; Karim, Khalid; Cavendish, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Recruitment into psychiatry is correlated with the quality of undergraduate medical school teaching programmes and with a commitment of major resources to teaching students. There is an extensive literature related to attitudes towards psychiatry but less on the learning and teaching of psychiatry. Aims: To identify the current issues…

  14. A Survey of the Interactions between Psychiatry Residency Programs and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…

  15. Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

  16. The importance of neuropsychopharmacology in the development of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Sandor

    2014-09-01

    The author establishes that Psychiatry has been in a difficult situation especially in Hungary since closing down the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology. He reviews the most important factors which hold up the development of Psychiatry. He settles that the development of Psychiatry is inconceivable without a person's holistic approach which assumes the biological, mental, cultural-social and spiritual approach. Disturbances of perception have particular roles in the formation of psychopathological symptoms which are based on the operation of the nervous system. This fact emphasises the importance of the nervous system and the neuropsychopharmacology which we have known since the beginning of history although it is hardly half a century old. He pays the attention to the psychoactive medicine that was well-known in the ancient civilization. He reviews some of them which were actually the first neuropsychopharmacological pharmaceuticals. He emphasises the dichotomy of the psychopathological symptoms which are partly objective, partly subjective but based on the operation of the nervous system by all means. His statements not only establish a new kind of approach of both the person and the Psychiatry but enables the development of Psychiatry, the creation of a new sort of diagnostic system, eliminating the variance among the experts dealing with people, the neurologists, the psychiatrists, the psychologists, the sociologists, the philosophers and the theologians, ensuring the biological (neurological), psychological, cultural and spiritual perpetuity. The biological, genetic, psychic, cultural-social and spiritual approach, the application of nanomedicine that enable not only recognising the organic neurological bases of the psychiatric disorders that are all crucial for the future researchers but also essential in the development of the neuropsychopharmacology based on the function of the nervous system.

  17. Introduction: histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Philo, Chris; Andrews, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on 'Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland', situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge's claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between 'overviews' - work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems - and more detailed studies of particular 'individuals and institutions'. There remains much still to do, but the present special issue signals what is currently being achieved, not least by a new generation of scholars in and on Scotland.

  18. Cultural psychiatry and epidemiology: researching the means, methods and meanings.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2011-04-01

    This article describes my developing interest in cultural psychiatry. This is both a challenging and yet a privileged opportunity to reflect on my research and clinical work over the last 25 years. I describe cultural and interpersonal influences on my thinking and interests, and the development of my research career moving from health services research of specialist services, to primary care research to public mental health research. Specifically, social and cultural influences on risks and responses to mental illness are discussed, as are pathways to care, the recognition of mental illness, and public health and cultural psychiatry research.

  19. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry.

  20. L Ron Hubbard's science fiction quest against psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Layfayette Ronald Hubbard (1911-1986) was a colourful and prolific American writer of science fiction in the 1930s and 1940s. During the time between his two decades of productivity and his return to science fiction in 1980, Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology. In addition to its controversial status as a religion and its troubling pattern of intimidation and litigation directed towards its foes, Scientology is well known as an organised opponent to psychiatry. This paper looks at Hubbard's science fiction work to help understand the evolution of Scientology's antipsychiatry stance, as well as the alternative to psychiatry offered by Hubbard.

  1. Kandinsky-Clerambault's Syndrome: concept of use for Western psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Vladimir; Kaptsan, Alexander; Witztum, Eliezer

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to describe Kandinsky-Clerambault's Syndrome, which has important cultural-historical value in the history of psychiatry, and to illustrate the syndrome by means of a case report. Although its component symptoms are known among Western psychiatrists, the syndrome's specific name is generally unknown. The authors suggest that detailed clinical descriptions of some specific conditions may contribute to a more detailed knowledge of psychopathology, a more colorful and memorable view of conditions, with an increased awareness of the historical and cultural origins of psychiatry.

  2. [Autonomy, care and justice: ethical aspects of the psychiatric treatment of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Höger, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    What is the right and good action in dealing with young patients in child and adolescent psychiatry? To answer this question, we have to consider professional standards, legal rules, and ethical reflections. With reference to the latter, four bioethical principles were proposed by Beauchamp and Childress to identify and to deal with ethical problems and conflicts. On the basis of this scheme we reflect on the legal aspects and discuss the following topics: (1) self-determination of adolescents concerning their own psychiatric treatment, (2) conflicts between autonomy and care, which occur relatively often, whenever restrictions to personal liberty are indicated, and (3) admission of adolescents in adult psychiatric wards. The bioethical principles facilitate a reliable decision-making process in individual cases. The standards of right and good action have to be implemented in the field of distributive justice. We find evidence that prioritization decisions for inpatient admission are already established in German child and adolescent psychiatry.

  3. The AGNP-TDM expert group consensus guidelines: therapeutic drug monitoring in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Baumann, P; Hiemke, C; Ulrich, S; Eckermann, G; Gaertner, I; Gerlach, M; Kuss, H-J; Laux, G; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Rao, M L; Riederer, P; Zernig, G

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy. It enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. In psychiatry, TDM is an established procedure for lithium, some antidepressants and antipsychotics. In spite of its obvious advantages, however, the use of TDM in everyday clinical practice is far from optimal. The interdisciplinary TDM group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) has therefore worked out consensus guidelines to assist psychiatrists and laboratories involved in psychotropic drug analysis to optimise the use of TDM of psychotropic drugs. Five research-based levels of recommendation were defined with regard to routine monitoring of plasma concentrations for dose titration of 65 psychoactive drugs: (1) strongly recommended, (2) recommended, (3) useful, (4) probably useful and (5) not recommended. A second approach defined indications to use TDM, e. g. control of compliance, lack of clinical response or adverse effects at recommended doses, drug interactions, pharmacovigilance programs, presence of a genetic particularity concerning the drug metabolism, children, adolescents and elderly patients. Indications for TDM are relevant for all drugs either with or without validated therapeutic ranges. When studies on therapeutic ranges are lacking, target ranges should be plasma concentrations that are normally observed at therapeutic doses of the drug. Therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations that are considered to be optimal for treatment are proposed for those drugs, for which the evaluation of the literature demonstrated strong evidence. Moreover, situations are defined when pharmacogenetic (phenotyping or genotyping) tests are informative in addition to TDM. Finally, practical instructions are given how to use TDM. They consider preparation of TDM, analytical procedures, reporting and interpretation of results

  4. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  5. Mammalian CARMIL Inhibits Actin Filament Capping by Capping Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Changsong; Pring, Martin; Wear, Martin A.; Huang, Minzhou; Cooper, John A.; Svitkina, Tatyana M.; Zigmond, Sally H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Actin polymerization in cells occurs via filament elongation at the barbed end. Proteins that cap the barbed end terminate this elongation. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is an abundant and ubiquitous protein that caps the barbed end. We find that the mouse homolog of the adaptor protein CARMIL (mCARMIL) binds CP with high affinity and decreases its affinity for the barbed end. Addition of mCARMIL to cell extracts increases the rate and extent of Arp2/3 or spectrin-actin seed-induced polymerization. In cells, GFP-mCARMIL concentrates in lamellipodia and increases the fraction of cells with large lamellipodia. Decreasing mCARMIL levels by siRNA transfection lowers theF-actin level and slows cell migration through a mechanism that includes decreased lamellipodia protrusion. This phenotype is reversed by full-length mCARMIL but not mCARMIL lacking the domain that binds CP. Thus, mCARMIL is a key regulator of CP and has profound effects on cell behavior. PMID:16054028

  6. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix...

  12. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  13. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. The annual funding cap on federal universal service support for schools and libraries shall be $2.25 billion per... into subsequent funding years for use in the schools and libraries support mechanism in accordance...

  14. Early psychiatry at Yale: Milton C. Winternitz and the founding of the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Yale's current department of psychiatry was created by Dean Milton C. Winternitz in the 1920s as part of a broader effort to combine mental and physical components of medical care. This effort, which spurred the founding of Yale's institute of Human Relations, was the basis of Winternitz' interest in mental health. Although the institute soon closed because of interdisciplinary squabbling, this brief chapter in Yale's history illustrates the progressive thinking of the Dean and the pre-War place of psychiatry in medicine. PMID:7645310

  15. State of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry in India: Current status and vision for future

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees. PMID:22135437

  16. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice. PMID:20167069

  17. Social, Family and Psychological Predictors of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviour among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, B. D.; Furnham, A. F.; Siefen, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorders in the clinical population was found to be around 1.2 percent for a clinical sample record--stretching over a 2.5-year period--of around 2500 adolescents in a German child and adolescent psychiatry clinic. Over a 3-month period (time-frame) a sample of 350 new entries to the clinic…

  18. A Profile on Emergency Department Utilization in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Guodong; Pearl, Amanda M.; Kong, Lan; Leslie, Douglas L.; Murray, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increase in utilization of the Emergency Department (ED) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which may reflect a deficit of services (Green et al., "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" 40(3):325-332, 2001; Gurney et al., "Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent…

  19. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common clinical problem in children and adolescents. Oppositionality and associated types of aggressive behavior are among the most common referral problems in child psychiatry. Grouped among the disruptive behavior disorders, ODD is frequently comorbid with other psychiatric conditions and often precedes…

  20. In Search of HPA Axis Dysregulation in Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerry, John D.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adults with major depressive disorder is among the most consistent and robust biological findings in psychiatry. Given the importance of the adolescent transition to the development and recurrence of depressive phenomena over the lifespan, it is important to have an integrative…

  1. The new philosophy of psychiatry: its (recent) past, present and future: a review of the Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.

  2. Intellectual Disabilities and Child Psychiatry: Looking to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    We begin this article by examining the role of intellectual disabilities within child psychiatry, highlighting the relatively steady role of disabilities and the recent movement to examine behavior in specific genetic syndromes. We next propose five questions for future work. Questions relate to (1) specifying the nature of gene-brain-behavior…

  3. Toward an osteopathic psychiatry: the biocognitive model of mind.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Niall

    2010-12-01

    Osteopathic medicine represents a valid tradition in Western medicine, but there are concerns about whether it is a viable tradition: will it end up a "poorer cousin" of the allopathic tradition or will it eventually simply be absorbed by the dominant model? This is particularly the case in psychiatry, where osteopathic medicine has never established a firm presence. Currently, the dominant ethos in psychiatry is reductive biologism, which tries to eliminate the notion of mind as a causative factor in behavior. The author's case is that this has failed to give rise to a human-centered psychiatry. His own model of mental disorder, the biocognitive model, is based on a molecular resolution of the mind-body problem (ie, the ancient question of how the immaterial mind and the material body interact). It is manifestly dualist (ie, it accords causative primacy to mind). This is firmly in the osteopathic medical tradition and is offered as a means of developing a distinctive model of psychiatry and hence a holistic general medicine.

  4. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella, Ed.; Thomas, Alexander, Ed.

    Selected studies of infant development concern biological rhythms, pattern preferences, sucking, and Negro-white comparisons. Sex, age, state, eye to eye contact, and human symbiosis are considered in mother-infant interaction. Included in pediatrics are child development and the relationship between pediatrics and psychiatry. Environmental…

  5. Emergency Psychiatry and the Family: The Decision to Admit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Awareness of interpersonal forces upon mental health clinicians is crucial to allow mature balancing of the many factors involved in the decision-making process. An integration of family and systems thinking into the practice of emergency psychiatry can enhance comfort and effectiveness in many difficult crisis situations. (Author/BL)

  6. The Ninth Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Aitchison, Katherine J; Malhotra, Anil K

    2011-04-01

    The Ninth Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting was held in New York City on 23-24 April 2010 with a series of panel presentations, as well as a debate on the commercialization of genetic testing and a poster reception. The following is a brief report of the meeting presentations.

  7. Pharmacogenetics in psychiatry: translating research into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, A K; Zhang, J-P; Lencz, T

    2012-07-01

    Pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic (PGx) approaches to psychopharmacology aim to identify clinically meaningful predictors of drug efficacy and/or side-effect burden. To date, however, PGx studies in psychiatry have not yielded compelling results, and clinical utilization of PGx testing in psychiatry is extremely limited. In this review, the authors provide a brief overview on the status of PGx studies in psychiatry, review the commercialization process for PGx tests and then discuss methodological considerations that may enhance the potential for clinically applicable PGx tests in psychiatry. The authors focus on design considerations that include increased ascertainment of subjects in the earliest phases of illness, discuss the advantages of drug-induced adverse events as phenotypes for examination and emphasize the importance of maximizing adherence to treatment in pharmacogenetic studies. Finally, the authors discuss unique aspects of pharmacogenetic studies that may distinguish them from studies of other complex traits. Taken together, these data provide insights into the design and methodological considerations that may enhance the potential for clinical utility of PGx studies.

  8. The 12th Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Aitchison, Katherine J; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    The 12th Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting was held in Hollywood, Florida, from 31 May to 1 June 2013, in conjunction with the NCDEU meeting. It included a series of oral presentations as well as a poster session. This report summarizes the presentations at the conference.

  9. Medical Students' Perceptions of Psychiatry as a Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Janis L.; Alspector, Sharon L.; Harding, Kelli J.; Wright, Leslie L.; Graham, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study describes medical students' perceptions of the field of psychiatry and identifies the impact of those perceptions on their career choices in order to explore the questions: Are we as a field doing all that we can to enhance the educational experience of all medical students, regardless of their career preferences? What are…

  10. Mental health and psychiatry in the Middle East: historical development.

    PubMed

    Mohit, A

    2001-05-01

    A brief account is given of attitudes towards mental health and the development of psychiatry in the Middle East from an historical perspective. The Middle East is considered as a cultural entity and the influence of the beliefs and practices of ancient times on the collective mind of the people of the Region is discussed.

  11. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  12. Multifaceted Inpatient Psychiatry Approach to Reducing Readmissions: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Timothy P.; Rohrer, James E.; Rioux, Pierre A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Access to psychiatric services, particularly inpatient psychiatric care, is limited and lacks comprehensiveness in rural areas. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact on readmission rates of a multifaceted inpatient psychiatry approach (MIPA) offered in a rural hospital. Methods: Readmissions within 30 days of…

  13. Utilization of Psychiatry in a Primary Care Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, Andrew E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The pattern of use of psychiatry over a 12-month period in a university-based primary care center is reported. Interest in pursuing careers in family practice and amount of time spent in the center were related to seeking consultation. Differences in use by nurse practitioners, social workers, and patients are cited. ( Author/LBH)

  14. Student Experiences with Competency Domains during a Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donald A.; Nierenberg, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors reviewed medical student encounters during 3 years of a required psychiatry clerkship that were recorded on a web-based system of six broad competency domains (similar to ACGME-recommended domains). These were used to determine diagnoses of patients seen, clinical skills practiced, and experiences in interpersonal and…

  15. Psychiatry as an Internal Medicine Subspecialty: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemo, John P. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    To lessen the traditional mind-body dichotomy in medicine, the West Virginia University School of Medicine has integrated psychiatry into the Department of Internal Medicine and the university hospital's psychiatric ward has been transformed into the Conjoint Medicine Service. Patients with a variety of emotional and medical problems are admitted.…

  16. Hispanic Mental Health Research: A Case for Cultural Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrega, Horacio, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Critically examines contemporary Hispanic mental health research. Develops idea that "establishment psychiatry" dominates methods, research, reimbursement, and treatment. Suggests need to broaden paradigms with culturally sensitive insight and contemporary psychiatric theory. Analyzes issues using frameworks of mental health research,…

  17. Practice of Dialectical Behavior Therapy after Psychiatry Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, John T.; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The University of Washington (UW) psychiatry residency program attempted to determine how participation in a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) training program influenced the practice of its graduates. Methods: A survey was completed by 30 graduates who participated in elective DBT training. This survey obtained information about their…

  18. Review of "Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    "Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry" (J. Ruesch and G. Bateson) is a work that outlines in a more conversational than pedantic way a theory of human communication. The main thrust is to unite two types of organized information: (1) an understanding of the cultural matrix within which the psychiatrist operates; and (2) the nature of…

  19. A brief history of placebos and clinical trials in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Edward

    2011-04-01

    The history of placebos in psychiatry can be understood only in the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo treatments are as old as medicine itself, and are particularly effective in dealing with psychosomatic symptoms. In psychiatry, placebos have mainly been featured in clinical drug trials. The earliest controlled trial in psychiatry (not involving drugs) occurred in 1922, followed by the first crossover studies during the 1930s. Meanwhile the concept of randomization was developed during the interwar years by British statistician Ronald A Fisher, and introduced in 3 trials of tuberculosis drugs between 1947 and 1951. These classic studies established the RCT as the gold standard in pharmaceutical trials, and its status was cemented during the mid-1950s. Nevertheless, while the placebo became established as a standard measure of drug action, placebo treatments became stigmatized as unethical. This is unfortunate, as they constitute one of the most powerful therapies in psychiatry. In recent years, moreover, the dogma of the placebo-controlled trial as the only acceptable data for drug licensing is also being increasingly discredited. This backlash has had 2 sources: one is the recognition that the US Food and Drug Administration has been too lax in permitting trials controlled with placebos alone, rather than also using an active agent as a test of comparative efficacy. In addition, there is evidence that in the hands of the pharmaceutical industry, the scientific integrity of RCTs themselves has been degraded into a marketing device. The once-powerful placebo is thus threatened with extinction.

  20. A Novel Approach to Medicine Training for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onate, John; Hales, Robert; McCarron, Robert; Han, Jaesu; Pitman, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A unique rotation was developed to address limited outpatient internal medicine training in psychiatric residency by the University of California, Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, which provides medical care to patients with mental illness. Methods: The number of patients seen by the service and the number of…

  1. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  2. Physician Impairment: Is It Relevant to Academic Psychiatry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the relevance of physician impairment to the discipline of academic psychiatry. Method: The author reviews the scientific literature, the proceedings of previous International Conferences on Physician Health, and held discussions with experts in the physician health movement, department chairs, program directors,…

  3. Trends in cultural psychiatry in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry in the United Kingdom exhibits unique characteristics closely related to its history as a colonial power, its relationship with Commonwealth countries and the changing socio-demographic characteristics of its diverse population throughout the centuries. It is not surprising, therefore, that the emergence of this discipline was centred around issues of race and religion. After a brief historical review of the development of cultural psychiatry and the mention of pioneering intellectual and academic figures, as well as the evolvement of the field in organizations such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists, this chapter examines the need of a critical cultural psychiatry, more than a narrative social science distanced from the realities of clinical practice. In such context, issues such as policies and experience with efforts to delivering race equality, and address inequities in a renewed public health approach seem to confer British cultural psychiatry with a defined socially active role aimed at the pragmatic management, understanding and improvement of diverse and alternative systems of care and care practices.

  4. The American Psychiatric Association and the history of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-09-01

    The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.

  5. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  6. Use of Standardized Patients during a Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Aurora J.; Arnold, Lesley M.; Welge, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Standardized patients are used in teaching medical students and evaluating their clinical skills during the psychiatric clerkship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of a Psychiatry Clinical Standardized Patient Examination (PCX) during the third-year clerkship improved students' performances on the…

  7. The computational psychiatry of reward: broken brains or misguided minds?

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, M.; Story, G. W.; Dolan, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Research into the biological basis of emotional and motivational disorders is in danger of riding roughshod over a patient-centered psychiatry and falling into the dualist errors of the past, i.e., by treating mind and brain as conceptually distinct. We argue that a psychiatry informed by computational neuroscience, computational psychiatry, can obviate this danger. Through a focus on the reasoning processes by which humans attempt to maximize reward (and minimize punishment), and how such reasoning is expressed neurally, computational psychiatry can render obsolete the polarity between biological and psychosocial conceptions of illness. Here, the term ‘psychological’ comes to refer to information processing performed by biological agents, seen in light of underlying goals. We reflect on the implications of this perspective for a definition of mental disorder, including what is entailed in asserting that a particular disorder is ‘biological’ or ‘psychological’ in origin. We propose that a computational approach assists in understanding the topography of mental disorder, while cautioning that the point at which eccentric reasoning constitutes disorder often remains a matter of cultural judgment. PMID:26483713

  8. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  9. Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approach to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.

  10. Longitudinal Analysis of Female Authorship of Psychiatry Articles in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    ERDEN AKİ, Özlem; ÖZÇELİK EROĞLU, Elçin; USLU, Ece

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The number of women with careers in medicine and with academic positions at medical schools has increased substantially since the 1980s; however, women remain underrepresented in medical academia, which may be because of the fewer research publications authored by women. This study aimed to determine the gender distribution among Turkish authors of psychiatry articles published in international scientific journals during a 30-year period. Methods The ISI Web of Science database was searched for all psychiatry publications between 1980 and 2009 using the search term Turkey. All articles were classified according to publication period (1980–1989, 1990–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009), gender of the first and last authors, first author title, total number of authors, and type of article. Results In all, 1961 articles meet the study criteria. The first author of 36.5% of the articles and 34.9% of last authors were women. The percentage of female first and last authors did not differ according to publication period (p=0.57). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to examine gender and authorship of psychiatric research in Turkey. In total, 33% of academic positions in Turkish university psychiatry departments were occupied by women, which is comparable to the percentage of female first authors of psychiatric research papers from Turkey. It could be concluded that women academics in psychiatry departments from state universities are as reproductive as their male counterparts, but there is still a “gender gap” in psychiatry field in our country.

  11. Residency Training in Emergency Psychiatry: A Model Curriculum Developed by the Education Committee of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasch, Jennifer; Glick, Rachel Lipson; Cobb, Thomas G.; Richmond, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Describe training goals, objectives and requirements in emergency psychiatry to assist residency programs in developing comprehensive training programs to ensure psychiatric residents acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to competently assess and manage patients with psychiatric emergencies. Methods: The American Association for…

  12. Psychiatry in the Deep South: A Pilot Study of Integrated Training for Psychiatry Residents and Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. Methods: From 2005 to 2008,…

  13. Empirical evidence on the use and effectiveness of telepsychiatry via videoconferencing: implications for forensic and correctional psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Diana J; Bloch, Richard M; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Yildirim, Yilmaz; Talley, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of literature now suggests that use of telepsychiatry to provide mental health services has the potential to solve the workforce shortage problem that directly affects access to care, especially in remote and underserved areas. Live interactive two-way audio-video communication-videoconferencing-is the modality most applicable to psychiatry and has become synonymous with telepsychiatry involving patient care, distance education, and administration. This article reviews empirical evidence on the use and effectiveness of videoconferencing in providing diagnostic and treatment services in mental health settings that serve child, adolescent, and adult populations. Descriptive reports, case studies, research articles, and randomized controlled trials related to clinical outcomes were identified and reviewed independently by two authors. Articles related to cost-effectiveness, technological issues, or legal or ethical aspects of telepsychiatry were excluded. The review of the evidence broadly covers mental health service provision in all settings, including forensic settings. Given the sparse literature on telepsychiatry in forensic settings, we discuss implications for mental health care across settings and populations and comment on future directions and potential uses in forensic or correctional psychiatry.

  14. [Clinical Implications of Changes in Child Psychiatry in the DSM-5. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Changes].

    PubMed

    Botero-Franco, Diana; Palacio-Ortíz, Juan David; Arroyave-Sierra, Pilar; Piñeros-Ortíz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems (ICD) integrate the diagnostic criteria commonly used in psychiatric practice, but the DSM-IV-TR was insufficient for current clinical work. The DSM-5 was first made public in May at the Congress of the American Psychiatric Association, and it includes changes to some aspects of Child Psychiatry, as many of the conditions that were at the beginning in chapter of infancy, childhood and adolescence disorders have been transferred to other chapters and there are new diagnostic criteria or new terms are added. It is therefore important to provide it to Psychiatrists who attend children in order to assess the changes they will be facing in the nomenclature and classification in pursuit of a better classification of the childhood psychopathology.

  15. Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

    2011-08-30

    Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses.

  16. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  17. [Case-control studies in psychiatry: causality, design and warnings].

    PubMed

    Silva Ayçaguer, L C

    2004-01-01

    This present paper is mainly methodological and has been written with the aim of helping researchers in psychiatry to produce results with higher quality and help readers to have adequate assessment values of others. Brief reflection is made on the most important conditions that must be fulfilled to prove a causality hypothesis, regardless of the investigation design used. However, the main purpose of the text is to examine and illustrate how these conditions work under a case-control study environment. Besides outlining the basic aspects concerning design and analysis, areas extremely illustrated with examples of case and controls in psychiatry found in the literature, a number of suggestions to avoid pitfalls that can invalidate research efforts developed using case-control methodology is offered.

  18. Introduction: histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Philo, Chris; Andrews, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on ‘Histories of asylums, insanity and psychiatry in Scotland’, situating the papers that follow in an outline historiography of work in this field. Using Allan Beveridge’s claims in 1993 about the relative lack of research on the history of psychiatry in Scotland, the paper reviews a range of contributions that have emerged since then, loosely distinguishing between ‘overviews’ – work addressing longer-term trends and broader periods and systems – and more detailed studies of particular ‘individuals and institutions’. There remains much still to do, but the present special issue signals what is currently being achieved, not least by a new generation of scholars in and on Scotland. PMID:27956649

  19. [What can we expect from clinical trials in psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Marsot, A; Boucherie, Q; Kheloufi, F; Riff, C; Braunstein, D; Dupouey, J; Guilhaumou, R; Zendjidjian, X; Bonin-Guillaume, S; Fakra, E; Guye, M; Jirsa, V; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Micallef, J; Blin, O

    2016-12-01

    Clinical trials in psychiatry allow to build the regulatory dossiers for market authorization but also to document the mechanism of action of new drugs, to build pharmacodynamics models, evaluate the treatment effects, propose prognosis, efficacy or tolerability biomarkers and altogether to assess the impact of drugs for patient, caregiver and society. However, clinical trials have shown some limitations. Number of recent dossiers failed to convince the regulators. The clinical and biological heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the compounds, the lack of translatable biomarkers possibly explain these difficulties. Several breakthrough options are now available: quantitative system pharmacology analysis of drug effects variability, pharmacometry and pharmacoepidemiology, Big Data analysis, brain modelling. In addition to more classical approaches, these opportunities lead to a paradigm change for clinical trials in psychiatry.

  20. [Pharmacogenetics in psychiatry: how far are we from clinical application?].

    PubMed

    Daray, Federico Manuel; Maffia, Paulo César; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro; Errasti, Andrea Emilse

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics studies how genetic variation influences the response of patients to drugs. This discipline has a greater impact in those medical specialties that treat complex diseases in which the therapeutic response is insufficient and/or have high costs such as psychiatry. This is a narrative review in which we analyze the main results of pharmacogenetic studies performed with the most relevant groups of psychoactive drugs and discusses missing for incorporating these advances into our daily practice. We conclude that despite the remarkable progress in the field of Pharmacogenetics in the last 10 years, studies in psychiatry have been inconclusive and the clinical use of pharmacogenetic testing is still limited. However, there are some encouraging elements about the applicability of these tools for the improvement of psychiatric treatments.

  1. Computational psychiatry as a bridge from neuroscience to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Huys, Quentin J M; Maia, Tiago V; Frank, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of computation with multiple types of data in an effort to improve understanding, prediction and treatment of mental illness. Computational psychiatry, broadly defined, encompasses two complementary approaches: data driven and theory driven. Data-driven approaches apply machine-learning methods to high-dimensional data to improve classification of disease, predict treatment outcomes or improve treatment selection. These approaches are generally agnostic as to the underlying mechanisms. Theory-driven approaches, in contrast, use models that instantiate prior knowledge of, or explicit hypotheses about, such mechanisms, possibly at multiple levels of analysis and abstraction. We review recent advances in both approaches, with an emphasis on clinical applications, and highlight the utility of combining them.

  2. [Use of artificial neural networks in clinical psychology and psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Starzomska, Małgorzata

    2003-01-01

    Artificial neural networks make a highly specialised tools in data transformation. The human brain has become an inspiration for the makers of artificial neural networks. Although even though artificial neural networks are more frequently used in areas like financial analysis, marketing studies or economical modelling, their application in psychology and medicine has given a lot of promising and fascinating discoveries. It is worth that artificial neurol networks are successfully used in the diagnosis and etiopathogenesis description of various psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders, compulsions, depression or schizophrenia. To sum up, artificial neural networks offer a very promising option of research methodology for modern clinical psychology and psychiatry. The aim of this article is only an illustration of the applications of artificial neural networks in clinical psychology and psychiatry.

  3. The current dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry: a problematic misunderstanding.

    PubMed

    Abettan, Camille

    2015-11-01

    A revival of the dialogue between phenomenology and psychiatry currently takes place in the best international journals of psychiatry. In this article, we analyse this revival and the role given to phenomenology in this context. Although this dialogue seems at first sight interesting, we show that it is problematic. It leads indeed to use phenomenology in a special way, transforming it into a discipline dealing with empirical facts, so that what is called "phenomenology" has finally nothing to do with phenomenology. This so-called phenomenology tallies however with what we have always called semiology. We try to explain the reasons why phenomenology is misused in that way. In our view, this transformation of phenomenology into an empirical and objectifying discipline is explained by the role attributed to phenomenology by contemporary authors, which is to solve the problems raised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

  4. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical trials in psychiatry: therapeutical use].

    PubMed

    Delgado Baquero, Y; Crespo Hervás, D; Cisneros, S; López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    2002-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation is the noninvasive application of localized pulsed magnetic field to the surface of the skull, to cause a depolarization of neurons in the underlying cerebral cortex (Daryl E., Bohning PH.D.). Based on Reciprocal Induction (Faraday, 1831), and the Ampere Maxwell Law, according to which electric energy is associated with magnetic energy and vice versa, transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used during the last fifteen years in the diagnosis of Central Nervous System dysfunctions, its safeness and good tolerance having been proven. Since 1876, when Dàrsonval discovered that the use of a similar apparatus caused vertigo, phosphenes and fainting, thousands of transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have been carried out in the fields of Neurology and Psychiatry. The present is a review of clinical studies carried out in Psychiatry, specifically related to Mood Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Post traumatic-Stress Syndrome.

  5. Handling clinical comorbidity in randomized clinical trials in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ruth; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Gould, Christine E; Froehlich, Wendy; Kraemer, Helena C

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to a) outline the importance of including patients with clinical comorbidities in Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) of psychiatric treatments; and b) to propose a specific approach for best handling, analyzing and interpreting the data on clinical comorbidities in terms of their impact on treatment outcomes. To do this we first define and describe clinical comorbidity and differentiate it from other forms of comorbidity. We then describe the methodological and analytical problems associated with excluding patients with clinically comorbid conditions from RCTs, including the impact on the outcomes of RCTs in psychiatry and the impact on evidence-based clinical decision-making. We then address the challenges inherent to including patients with clinical comorbidities in RCTs. Finally, we propose a methodological and analytic approach to deal with these issues in RCTs which aims to significantly improve the information yielded from RCTs in psychiatry, and thus improve clinical decision-making.

  6. The biopsychosocial paradigm and the future of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Freedman, A M

    1995-01-01

    Although hazardous, prediction is necessary for sensible programming for the future of psychiatry. Because of the multitude of variables essential for comprehending normal and abnormal behavior, a complex, all-encompassing model takes on increasing importance. Dualism and reductionism have had a chilling effect on progress in developing psychiatric models. The biopsychosocial model as elaborated by Dr. George Engel would appear to be a major step in moving toward an adequate workable model. Dr. Engel rejects the biomedical or Newtonian model in favor of the biopsychosocial model, basing his conception in part on developments in the past century, particularly the contributions of Einstein, Heisenberg, and Planck. The implications and relevance of these advances, including the work of Niels Bohr, are presented. Other ideas such as Chaos Theory and the work of Roger Penrose are also discussed, together with the new thinking that arises from them. This work reinforces notions of holism, leading to a more humanitarian psychiatry and medicine.

  7. A Call to Restructure Psychiatry General and Subspecialty Training.

    PubMed

    Kirwin, Paul; Conroy, Michelle; Lyketsos, Constantine; Greenwald, Blaine; Forester, Brent; deVries, Christine; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike; Wiechers, Ilse; Zdanys, Kristina; Steffens, David; Reynolds, Charles F

    2016-02-01

    Dire shortages of psychiatrists with special expertise in geriatrics, substance abuse, forensics, and psychosomatics create barriers to care for populations with complex mental disorders and pose a significant public health concern. To address these disparities in access to care, we propose streamlining graduate medical education to increase efficiency and enhance cost-effectiveness while simultaneously increasing the number of psychiatric subspecialists in these key areas. We propose that trainees interested in subspecialties complete their general training in 3 years, while meeting ACGME required milestones, and then utilize their 4th year to complete subspecialty fellowship training. Eligible trainees would then qualify for psychiatry subspecialty certification and general psychiatry ABPN certification at the end of 4 years.

  8. Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955-1970.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians-or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.

  9. Unpromising configurations: towards local historical geographies of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Philo, Chris; Pickstone, John

    2009-09-01

    This paper introduces a theme section comprising of three other papers, written from cross-disciplinary perspectives, exploring what might be termed 'local historical geographies of psychiatry', and in particular demonstrating how pioneering innovations in the treatment of mental health problems sometimes emerge from the most 'unpromising' of spaces and places. The introductory paper contextualises the studies that follow, laying out claims regarding the need to take seriously the thoroughly situated character of the knowledge and practices that are taken to comprise the 'stuff' of science, technology and medicine, and more specifically drawing out what such claims mean for an emerging 'spatial turn' in historical research on psychiatry and other mental health subjects. We focus on innovations which emerged where least expected, in 'backwaters' or even 'deprived' locations and institutions, thereby qualifying more conventional accounts of change in the field that prioritise centres of learning as the key sites from which developments arise and diffuse.

  10. Political and economic transformations in Ukraine: The view from psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Yankovskyy, Shelly

    2016-10-01

    This article examines contemporary Ukrainian psychiatry through the voices of patients, practitioners, and advocates, focusing on shifting objects of knowledge, interventions, and institutional transitions. Currently, we are witnessing the reconfiguration of psychiatry on a global scale through neoliberal rhetoric combined with the call for global mental health. The goal of the movement for global mental health is to scale up psychiatric treatments through greater access to psychiatric drugs, justified through the framing of distress as an illness. Neoliberal rhetoric suggests that cutting social service expenditure through the privatization and decentralization of the health care system will stimulate economic growth and, in the long term, combat poverty. This paper traces how these dynamics are playing out in Ukraine, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a psychiatric hospital in south-central Ukraine from 2008-2010, while working with a non-governmental organization.

  11. Is there anyone in there? Psychiatric nursing meets biological psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P J

    1997-09-01

    Mental health nursing operates without a clear idea of the nature of both mind and mental. Increasingly, this lack of a defensible theoretical position has led to an increasing dependence on the concept of mind now current in biological psychiatry. But the materialist monism of biological psychiatry is itself open to doubt, particularly concerning its dependence on a priori assumptions about the nature of the relationship between mind and brain. The reductionism and objectivism inherent in this approach necessarily ignores that aspect of mind most germane to nursing, the first-person nature of the mental. An alternative is briefly sketched which stresses the mediation of behaviour by the brain, rather than viewing behaviour as causally related to brain processes. Adoption of this approach conserves nursing's focus on the subjective experience as being paramount. Nursing education should, therefore, be wary of incorporating the biological approach without a critical analysis of its suppositions and of the conception of human nature which it supports.

  12. [Psychiatry as cultural science: considerations following Max Weber].

    PubMed

    Bormuth, M

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatry can be seen as a natural and cultural science. According to this the postulate of freedom is its strong value judgment. Since the times of enlightenment it has been described metaphorically by the myth of the expulsion from Paradise. Following Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey, Karl Jaspers has introduced this perspective into psychiatry. His strict dichotomy between explaining and understanding has later been critically revised by Werner Janzarik and Hans Heimann. Their concepts of structure dynamic, of pathography and of anthropology are closer to Max Weber who connected natural and cultural sciences in a much stronger way. Especially the pathographic example of Nietzsche allows to demonstrate the differences between Jaspers and the later psychopathologists of the Heidelberg and Tübingen schools.

  13. Ethics and forensic psychiatry: translating principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Alan Stone expressed his skepticism that forensic psychiatry could be practiced ethically. His remarks have proven a useful goad to the field, focusing attention on the importance of an ethics framework for forensic practice. But Stone remains dubious that any system of ethics--including the "Standard Position" on which he focuses his critique--could be of much value in practice. In contrast, I suggest that Stone's pessimism is not well founded. Immanent in forensic practice itself is a reasonable set of ethics principles, based on truth-telling and respect for persons. Psychiatrists can offer reliable and valid testimony, while resisting seduction into an advocacy role. Indeed, with new structured approaches to assessment, the potential utility of forensic testimony is probably greater than ever. Though problematic behavior still exists, forensic psychiatry offers the factual background and interpretive context to allow legal decision-makers to make better choices than they otherwise would.

  14. A TPM3 mutation causing cap myopathy.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Andre Maues; Franques, Jerome; Fernandez, Carla; Monnier, Nicole; Lunardi, Joel; Pellissier, Jean-François; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pouget, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Cap disease is a rare congenital myopathy associated with skeletal malformations and respiratory involvement. Abnormally arranged myofibrils taking the appearance of a "cap" are the morphological hallmark of this entity. We report a case of cap disease concerning a 42-year-old man, without any family history and presenting a p.Arg168His mutation on the TPM3 gene. His first biopsy at 7years had only shown selective type I hypotrophy. Mutations of TPM3 gene have been found in nemaline myopathy, congenital fiber type disproportion, but never before in cap disease.

  15. Between phenomenological and community psychiatry: the Comprehending Anthropology of Jürg Zutt.

    PubMed

    Schönknecht, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Phenomenological and existential philosophical approaches to mental illness have had great influence on psychiatric research and theory in European psychiatry (Berrios, 1992: 309). Among them, the work of Jürg Zutt (1893-1980), Professor of Psychiatry at University Hospital Frankfurt 1950-63, closely relates to the anthropological psychiatry of Ludwig Binswanger, Victor von Gebsattel and Erwin Straus. Since both anthropological psychiatry and social psychiatry are based on a person-centred approach, it was hypothesized that common roots are to be detected in what is called humanistic psychology. The main finding of the present paper is that there is a strong relationship between Zutt's concept of Comprehending Anthropology and the biopsychosocial model on which social psychiatry is based. However, it cannot be concluded from the existing evidence that the reform of psychiatric services necessarily resulted from the anthropological approach.

  16. ["I do the right thing only against payment": A critique of pay for performance in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Maio, G

    2015-11-01

    This paper takes a critical look at pay for performance (P4P) as a model for introducing new incentives in psychiatry. This model is to be seen as a tool of commercialism, and such a restructuring of psychiatry represents a wide-reaching political maneuver which actively introduces economical parameters into the field and will have a great impact on psychiatry. P4P starts with the false premise that medicine has to be structured like industry. This premise is false because psychiatry has to do with relationships to patients, and not with the production of a product. Therefore, it is essential to reflect critically upon the premises and consequences of P4P for psychiatry. Only this critical reflection can help psychiatry to keep its identity as a humane service for suffering people.

  17. Psychiatric epidemiology and international mental health as a career in cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Psychiatric epidemiology is one of the many paths to a career in cultural psychiatry. Psychiatric epidemiology has made numerous substantive contributions to cultural psychiatry. Areas in which psychiatric epidemiologists have contributed to cultural psychiatry include the undertaking of cross-national comparisons, studying the mental health of populations of importance to cultural psychiatry, studying risk factors that are of cultural importance such as immigration and social class, studying trauma, examining the role of stigma in cultural settings, and investigating cultural influences on mental health service delivery. This article highlights examples from the author's own research examining cross-national comparisons, trauma, and mental health service delivery. Research is vital to enable the field of cultural psychiatry to be a vibrant, evidence-based discipline within psychiatry.

  18. Segmenting and accessing the market in consultation-liaison psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wise, T N

    1987-09-01

    Although the importance of consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry is increasingly recognized, obstacles to acceptance of the specialty persist in many service delivery settings. These can be countered by identifying specific consumers of C-L services and demonstrating that products of the specialty will meet consumers' needs. Once access to the market is gained, it is important to monitor potential sources of competition in the interest of ensuring continued high quality patient care.

  19. The case against evidence-based principles in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert; Fink, Max

    2006-01-01

    There is an organized movement by governmental, academic and commercial interests to make evidence-based practice the standard of care in the United States. There is little proof that this model can be adapted to psychiatry. We examine the diagnostic system, the validity of the data from clinical trials and how these are applied to clinical practice. The discipline of psychiatry relies on imprecise and unstable diagnostic criteria. It divides psychiatric disorders into discrete categories based on discussion and consultations among designated experts in the field. The diagnostic system is based on consensus and not experimental evidence. In fact, psychiatric disorders are not discrete. High co-morbidities between disorders and the propensity of one condition to change into another makes the present diagnostic system extremely questionable. Outcomes of clinical trials are defined by fractional reductions in the number and severity of symptoms measured by rating scales and not remission of illness. The data obtained from clinical trials are flawed in design, execution and the selective reporting of outcomes. There is substantial evidence to indicate that both investigators and patients can distinguish between active treatment and placebo in double blind studies. In addition, negative outcomes are frequently not reported. Such evidence impacts not only on the specific study, used as evidence, but invalidates the value of meta analyses. Financial considerations lead to the inclusion of inappropriate subjects into studies and favor newer, patented treatments. When the conclusions derived from evidence-based psychiatry are applied to clinical practice they have little to offer and often produce poor treatment outcomes. In fact, when the data used to support the principles of evidence-based psychiatry are examined, they are unsound. The system itself is best considered an untested hypothesis. The diagnostic system, the manner in which data are gathered, and financial

  20. Community Psychiatry in the Canadian Air Division, Europe

    PubMed Central

    MacVicar, A. S.

    1966-01-01

    A community psychiatry program was developed for R.C.A.F. personnel and members of their families in the Air Division in Europe. The community consisted of about 20,000 people, divided into four separate units in France and Germany. Officers of the personnel branch, the chaplain branch and the medical branch were organized into “caretaker” groups. The methods of integrating the groups and enhancing their effectiveness are described. PMID:5969347